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practitioner brief

Building Collaboration between


schools and parents of english language
learners: transcending barriers,
creating opportunities

Culturally Responsive Educational Systems: Education for All


The mission
of the National
Center for
Culturally Responsive
Educational Systems
(nccrest) is to support
state and local
school systems
to assure a
quality, culturally
responsive education
for all students.

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Building collaboration between
schools and parents of english language
learners:Transcending barriers,
creating Opportunities
Robin Waterman, Ed.D.
Beth Harr y, Ph.D.
Univer sit y of Miami

©2008NCCREST

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In recent years, sweeping migratory flows have Other research in the field suggests a completely
dramatically altered the demographic, linguistic, different view, however, and this brief is grounded
and cultural landscape of the United States in that perspective: Parents of ELLs place a very high
(Súarez-Orozco & Súarez-Orozco, 2001). value on education and are involved in their
This growth in immigration is most striking and children’s education in important ways, such as
influential in the domain of education (Moll & Ruiz, ensuring the completion of homework, actively
2002). As schools incorporate large numbers of participating in parent-teacher conferences, and
immigrant children, many who are English Language attending school-based parent meetings (Delgado-
Learners (ELLs), parent involvement could provide Gaitan, 1990; Goldenberg, 2004). They also support
a significant source of support for students and their children’s education in culturally-specific ways
for teachers. Research and practice have both that are often invisible to school staff, such as
demonstrated that parent involvement is central reinforcing the importance of good behavior, hard
to academic achievement: Schools that support work, and respecting one’s teachers (Valdés, 1996).
meaningful parent involvement have higher levels
of student achievement, improved school attendance, Yet, some of the parents of ELLs are also limited in
higher graduation rates, larger enrollment in their ability to support their children’s education
post-secondary education and students with positive as fully as they are capable of and desire (López,
attitudes about school (e.g., August & Hakuta, 1997; 2001). In many school contexts, school staff are also
Henderson & Berla, 1994). Parent involvement can limited in their ability to welcome and include
also help students be more engaged with school parents while working toward the shared goal of
and motivated to work hard (López, 2001). Yet, supporting ELL academic success (McCaleb, 1997).
many schools that struggle with low academic Barriers pertaining to language, school staffs’ lack of
achievement, including schools with high numbers familiarity with culturally and linguistically diverse
of ELLs, report minimal parental involvement families, and parents’ unfamiliarity with U.S. schools
(Fuller & Olsen, 1998; Valdés, 1996). can all impede effective parent-school collaboration.
For parents of children with disabilities or those
What explains minimal parent involvement and being considered for special education referral, the
parent-school collaboration in schools that most additional school structures and processes bring
need the support parents could provide? additional challenges. If school staff and immigrant
According to some, this lack of parent involvement parents could better understand and be equipped to
is attributable to deficits in the parents: these parents address these barriers, then parents of ELLs, students,
don’t value education and they have limited and school staff could experience increased
education and English skills necessary for collaboration and support (Waterman, 2006c).
meaningful participation (Valencia & Black, 2002; Therefore, the primary goal of this brief is to discuss
Villenas, 2001). these barriers and offer concrete suggestions to guide
school staff to transcend them.

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Transcending barriers: involved benefit further when these partnerships
include opportunities for reflection and dialogue
Analysis of research and practice illuminates several about topics of common interest (McCaleb, 1997).
factors that contribute to the paradoxical views of ELL
parents and their involvement in their children’s
schools and education. Each of these factors pertains to 1.2
having the means and opportunity for viable parent- Language Barriers and access to
school collaboration, in relation to: school-initiated effective opportunities
efforts to build partnerships with parents; language;
comprehensible information about U.S. schools and Language often functions as one of the most
culturally and linguistically diverse families; special significant barriers to ELL parent-school
concerns related to special education referral and collaboration (Crawford, 1991; Trueba, 2002). This
placement; immigrant isolation; legal status. dynamic involves both parents and school staff, with
many parents feeling hindered by a lack of English
skills and many school staff being limited by an
1.1 inability to speak with the parents
Having access to the means and of their ELLs (Ruiz-de-Velasco & Fix, 2000).
Opportunity for Parent-School This language barrier often prevents or limits both
Collaboration oral and written communication (Delgado-Gaitan,
1990). This, in turn, has a significant effect on
School-initiated efforts to establish collaborative communication, understanding, and relationship-
partnerships between parents of ELLs are related building between parents and school staff
to each of the factors influencing parent-school (Ruiz-de-Velasco & Fix, 2000).
collaboration — encompassing each of the other
factors discussed. When schools bring skill and It is also important to consider that the vast
commitment to these efforts, these efforts can be majority of parents of ELLs are very interested in
a powerful vehicle for supporting ELL school learning English. Enrollment in adult English as
engagement and success (Delgado-Gaitan, 2001). Second Language (ESL) classes is rapidly increasing,
These partnerships can take many forms, formal yet the demand for classes far exceeds the services
and informal, such as parent-teacher decision- available (Suárez-Orozco & Suárez-Orozco, 2001).
making organizations (i.e., PTA, PTO) and parent The quality of available adult ESL classes is also a
advisory committees, as well as individual meetings factor because many of these classes are not
with teachers or principals that involve a mutual adequately supported with funding or technical
exchange of information. Schools and teachers assistance. In many cases where adult ESL classes
must make efforts to build these partnerships, are offered in public schools, for example, the
however, as they will not emerge naturally. All instructors receive little training or guidance, yet

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they are held responsible for all aspects of the ESL values of culturally and linguistically diverse
class, such as registering and testing students as well families such as those of their ELLs. In many
as generating meaningful instructional materials ways, this lack of knowledge and experience
and lessons (Waterman, 2006a). impedes schools’ ability to generate meaningful
communication and collaboration with the parents
English language abilities are not the only factor of ELLs. This lack of knowledge hinders schools’
influencing communication, however. The translated effectiveness when approaching such things as
documents that schools send to parents can also homework, school-wide parent meetings, parent-
hinder effective communication. In some cases, teacher conferences and soliciting parental
school district translators believe that their attendance at school activities.
translations must be written in very formal
language in order to be of sufficient “quality.” Similarly, many parents of ELLs lack some information
Yet this often results in word choices and and understanding necessary to support parent-school
grammatical structures that are unfamiliar or collaboration. Some parents do not understand the
misleading. In other cases, staff with limited various methods used to teach English as a second
translation skills are responsible for translating language, for example, especially those that
documents sent to parents, which again can result incorporate native language instruction. When
in insufficient or misleading communication. students at the secondary level are offered the
Ultimately, school staff may believe that they have opportunity to select from an array of courses,
transcended the language barrier through sending many parents are unfamiliar with the content of
parents translated documents when this is not the case. the courses offered and how to best guide their
children’s choices (Ruiz-de-Velasco & Fix, 2000).
Many parents also have limited experience with
1.3 the U.S. report card and are unable to understand
Lack of access to comprehensible the information about their child’s academic
information about u.s. school progress it is intended to communicate (Delgado-
systems and culturally and Gaitan, 1991). Parents of ELLs are also often not
linguistically diverse families aware of many other aspects of school systems in
the U.S., including such things as the roles and
The fact that many parents of ELLs and many responsibilities of non-instructional staff, the
school staff have had little or no prior exposure to meaning and impact of special education placement,
each other’s experiences, systems, and cultures is what extra-curricular programs and resources are
significant when considering how much meaningful available, and how to access these resources (Valdés, 1998).
parent-school collaboration exists in any school Simply receiving information, however, does not
setting. Many school staff have little or no necessarily help parents overcome the obstacle
understanding of the life experiences and cultural created by unfamiliarity with U.S. schools. As with

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the language barrier, this information must be 1.4
conveyed to parents in a way that is comprehensible Special Education and
and within the context of respectful, culturally disability issues
responsive relationships. Written communication
needs to reflect a manner of speaking that is The framing of special education under the
familiar to parents who have had limited experience Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990)
with formal education (Waterman, 2006c). And in reflects concepts, structures and processes that are
many cases, written communication, alone, is often unfamiliar to parents from non-English
insufficient. Phone calls and personal contact speaking and immigrant backgrounds. Service
through individual and group meetings is often providers schooled in the U.S. system, however, may
the most effective form of communication between not realize how culturally embedded their own
schools and the parents of ELLs (Waterman, 2006b). practices are and how foreign they seem to
culturally and linguistically diverse parents
Another ramification of this lack of familiarity with U.S. (Kalyanpur, Harry, & Skrtic, 2000).
schools and diverse families is a misunderstanding about
how parents are expected to be “involved” in schools and Research on culturally and linguistically diverse
“supporting” their children’s education. Because of families’ interpretations of the concept of disability
differences in cultural practices, many parents of ELLs indicate that, for many, mild cognitive or behavioral
are not aware of many of these expectations (López, differences are likely to be interpreted as simply a
2001). Yet, in order for parents to have the opportunity part of the natural range of human variation. Thus,
to be involved in these ways, they and other family parents often respond to the assignment of labels
members must have prior knowledge of these such as Learning Disability, Mild Mental
expectations and an opportunity to consider their Retardation, or Emotional Disturbance with
importance (Valdés, 1996). Equally important, school disbelief and confusion (Harry, 1992; Kalyanpur &
staff should not exclusively operate out of existing Harry, 1999). Such parental responses may be seen
assumptions. They should offer opportunities to solicit as “denial” by professionals, rather than as an
parental input when determining what would be opportunity for dialogue regarding differential
meaningful parental involvement. School staff should cultural meanings of these terms. In the case of
also receive professional development aimed at more clear-cut, biologically evident developmental
better understanding the skills and capacities parents differences, culturally and linguistically diverse
bring and how to effectively and respectfully parents may agree with school personnel regarding
collaborate with parents toward common goals the significance of the condition but not regarding its
(Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; McCaleb, 1997; Waterman, cause. Several studies have documented the
2006c). likelihood of spiritual rather than physical or
scientific interpretations of these conditions as well as
the ensuing miscommunication between parents of

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CLD and service providers (Fadiman, 1997; McHatton and social/cultural events help parents of ELLs
& Correa, 2005; Skinner, Bailey, & Correa, 1999). create social networks, facilitating their ability to
Miscommunication can also occur because of circulate knowledge about many aspects of U.S.
differential cultural assumptions about appropriate society and schools (Suárez-Orozco & Suárez-
parental roles, in particular, an attitude of deference Orozco, 2001; Waterman, 2006a). These social
which may mask parents’ true concerns about their networks, in turn, often function to cultivate trust
children’s needs (Cho, Singer, & Brenner, 2003; and an exchange of information and resources,
Lai & Ishiyama, 2004;Lynch & Hanson, 2004). which helps build long-term relationship and
Issues related to transition planning have also been facilitate school and community involvement
a source of misunderstanding and disagreement (Moll, Amanti, Neff, Gonzales, 1992; González,
between service providers who hold traditional et. al., 1993).
U.S. values of independence and individuality and
parents whose cultural models of adulthood assume
greater interdependence between adult children 1.6
with disabilities and their families (Rueda, Monzo, Undocumented legal status
Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, 2005). Overall, all of
these issues require much cultural awareness on A large number of the parents of ELLs have not been
the part of professionals and the need to clarify able to obtain legal residency in the U.S., in spite of
the decision-making process for CLD parents tremendous effort and interest, and this can negatively
(Klingner & Harry, 2006). influence their involvement in schools (Suárez-Orozco
& Suárez-Orozco, 2001). In some cases, parents will
not fill out forms that ask for a social security number,
1.5 such as the application for free or reduced-price lunch
Immigrant isolation (Waterman, 2006c). In other cases, parents will not
volunteer at a school if the principal requires them to
Many parents of ELLs experience tremendous provide fingerprints to the local police office. It is
isolation from other parents in their communities important, therefore, that school staff be aware of this
and this reinforces the barriers caused by ineffective factor and determine appropriate ways to help all
home-school communication and insufficient parents feel welcome and safe in public schools.
information about schools (Delgado-Gaitan, 2001). Undocumented legal status can also influence
Conversely, when schools create opportunities for parental support of high school graduation and
immigrant parents to come together and build efforts to apply to college. This can occur when
relationships, this constitutes a significant source of parents learn about the difficulty their children will
support for parent-school collaboration (Shirley, face when attempting to advance within the U.S.
2002). Opportunities for parent-to-parent contact, education system without a social security number.
such as adult ESL classes, parent advisory boards In a recent nation-wide study, 97 percent of the

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children of immigrants expressed the belief that
education was critical to their future in the U.S. For 2.1
these children, a high school diploma and a college School principals Provide explicit
degree is key to obtaining a meaningful and well- support for parent InVOLVEMENT
paid job. Like their parents, they hope to have more WORK (McCaleb, 1997; Shirley, 2002; Waterman, 2003 )
options than manual labor or service-level
employment. Yet, the current reality in most U.S. The school principal plays an extremely pivotal role in
states is that ELLs who have been unable to obtain promoting viable parent–school collaboration. Therefore,
legal status cannot receive any form of financial aid it is important that the principal demonstrate support for
for college or qualify for in-state tuition (Súarez- parent-school collaboration through policy, staff decisions,
Orozco & Súarez Orozco, 2001). For this reason, and behaviors such as:
many ELLs and their parents become discouraged • hiring specific personnel, such as a parent liaison and
once they reach high school, especially if no one front office staff who are capable of communicating with
intervenes and provides information about resources and building relationships with the parents of ELLs;
available to fund college tuition. • choosing staff capable of welcoming and
building relationship with all parents of ELLs,
even if they are only capable of speaking the
Key Element 2: native language of the majority of these parents;
Recommendations for Policy and • attending school-sponsored parent meetings in
practice order to hear and respond to parent questions or
concerns;
Considering each of these factors influencing meaningful • clearly communicating to teachers and other
ELL parent-school collaboration, a number of policy school staff that they value parents, parent
recommendations for schools and districts emerge. These involvement programs and events, and parent-
recommendations are intended to guide school staff to school partnership efforts; and
better transcend existing barriers as well as support • giving attention to the work of parent-school
compliance with one or more of the legally mandated collaboration at staff meetings, allocating school
requirements established by No Child Left Behind resources toward parent-school collaboration,
(NCLB, Title I, Part A, subpart 1, section 1118; NCLB, making efforts to speak with parents, and being
Title III; Public law 107-110, section 3302). Schools present at some parent-school collaboration
may need to gradually introduce new programs or activities.
policies, so this information is presented in an order that
reflects the skills and resources necessary for successful
implementation, beginning with those that require
relatively basic skills and resources on to those that
require a more complex and developed set.

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2.2 2.3
Initiate effective communication Offer open-ended meetings
with parents involving teachers and parents
(Epstein, 2001; Waterman, 2006c) (Delgado-Gaitan, 2001; Valdés, 1996; Waterman, 2006c)

Communication between the home and the school Many parents of ELLs do not speak English fluently
is vital to increasing and sustaining parent-school and may feel uncomfortable or hesitant about
collaboration. It is essential, however, that this approaching school staff and discussing questions or
communication be in the native language of the concerns. Many of these parents are also unfamiliar
parents and in a way that is clear and comprehensible. with aspects of U.S. school systems. Similarly, many
If not, even well-intended attempts to communicate school employees are not familiar with the
with parents can create a barrier between parents experiences of the parents of ELLs, which can
and schools. Whenever possible, several parents of result in a lack of awareness of the knowledge these
ELLs should be asked to read a written translation parents bring or the questions that they may have.
and provide feedback before it is sent out. Schools
should also use phone calls as a means to For these reasons, it can be extremely valuable for
communicate with parents as often as resources school staff to offer an initial, open-ended meeting for
allow, as written correspondence is not always parents and select school staff as a way to guide future
sufficient. parent involvement efforts. This meeting should not be
constrained by pre-set agendas; while it can be guided
While all forms of communication between parents by points of information that have been determined to
of ELLs and schools are important, information be of value to parents, it is essential that the primary
from teachers about the progress of students, sent focus be on facilitating opportunities for parents to ask
home on a regular basis, is particularly helpful any questions or raise any concerns regarding their
toward promoting parental support of academic children’s education. The school principal should be
work. Offering parents a clear and simple way to present, as should some teachers who work with
follow-up with teachers, with questions or ELLs. When all parents speak a single second
comments, is also very important. Yet, school staff language, a bilingual staff person should facilitate
should not assume that e-mails or internet notices a dialogue between parents and school staff. In
will be accessible or familiar to parents of ELLs. In school settings where multiple language groups are
many cases, bilingual parent liaisons and bilingual represented, translators could be used in conjunction
front desk secretaries can be extremely valuable in with a single, skilled facilitator. This facilitator
answering parents’ questions and helping them should focus on creating new opportunities for parents
understand how best to communicate with teachers and school staff alike to gain insights and understanding
or principals about specific questions or concerns. that will support student achievement and parent-
school collaboration.

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Possible topics for Meetings
2.4 for Parents:
Offer skill-based workshops and 1. Information about selecting books and reading
informational meetings: with children at home.
(Diaz-Soto, 1997; McCaleb, 1997; Shirley, 1997, 2002) 2. Information about how math is taught in U.S.
schools.
Similar to the open-ended parent meetings, 3. Information about what is expected of parents
informational meetings could help provide parents pertaining to the completion of homework.
with information about unfamiliar aspects of U.S. 4. Information about how to interpret and respond
schools and/or provide staff with information about to the report card.
the experiences of ELLs and their families. These 5. Information about community resources (such as
opportunities could be especially helpful for parents medical and dental clinics and sources of
whose children are going through the special education emergency food and clothing). This should also
referral process and who may be confused as to the include information about how to access these
intent and possible outcomes of the process. The resources, including filling out necessary forms for
skill-based workshops could focus on the kinds of skills reduced fees or free services.
that parents have expressed an interest in learning, such 6. Information about the role of special school staff
as supporting literacy development at home or helping members and the services they could provide,
with math homework. In all cases, these meetings and such as the counselor and the nurse.
workshops should be a reflection of parental needs and 7. Information about what decision-making
interests, as determined in relation with parents and committees exist at the school and what is
school staff who work with parents. Equally important, involved for those who participate.
these workshops should function to provide school
staff with an opportunity to better understand what Information to incorporate into
approaches to “parent involvement” may or may not be Staff Development Sessions:
meaningful or comprehensible, as well as how to 1. What parents are already doing to support literacy
modify existing assumptions and approaches. development and what more they might need to know.
2. Information about how foreign-born parents were
An initial, open-ended meeting is an ideal way to taught math (aimed at helping school staff better
determine what skill-based workshops or informational support the completion of this homework).
meetings might be most meaningful to parents and 3. Information from parents for teachers about how to
school staff. The following topics for informational make homework better function as it is intended —
meetings and skill-based workshops have frequently as a way to practice skills already learned during
emerged from initial parent meetings: the school day.
4. Information from parents about how the report card
could be modified in order to increase teacher-parent
communication and collaboration.

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5. Information for school staff about how parents 2.5
perceive special staff and special programs and Approach school-site decision
what parents have experienced as barriers to making bodies differently:
accessing these resources as well as what has (Delgado-Gaitan, 1990, 2001; Noguera, 2001;
facilitated access. Waterman, 2006c)
6. Information for school staff about how existing
school-wide decision making committees are, Most schools would like their school-site decision-
or are not, welcoming and engaging to parents, making bodies to include a diverse representation
and information about how to build on existing of parents. Yet many schools struggle to achieve this
strengths and modify programs to mitigate goal, in spite of good intentions and the devotion
their limitations. of resources toward this goal. The following
recommendations are offered as suggestions that
Informational parent or staff meetings can also be a could help schools in this area:
way for school districts to fulfill their responsibility • Designate a staff person to specifically focus on
for providing information to the parents of ELLs involving the parents of ELLs—as well as other
(NCLB, Title III; Public law 107-110, section 3302). parents who are under-represented on their
Through a parent meeting, for example, schools school-site decision making organization.
could inform parents about the instructional • Designate a staff person to arrange and conduct
methods used to teach English as a second language, pre-referral meetings with parents of children
how children’s skills and needs are assessed and what experiencing learning or behavioral difficulties,
options parents have for selecting a particular and to ensure that official IEP and other special
instructional method. Schools are responsible for being education conferences are conducted with
honest and ethical with parents, even if that means adequate, personalized information to the parents
they need to acknowledge their limitations. However, ahead of time as well as with appropriate clarity,
parent meetings could also offer an opportunity for respect, and translation services where needed.
dialogue about how parents and school staff could • Assess what topics and meeting format would be
work together to address any limitations the schools most welcoming and engaging for these parents.
may face. Many parents of ELLs would be receptive to • Engage parents in an open-ended agenda that
an invitation to this kind of collaboration. includes such things as discussion of instructional
approaches and school resources, as opposed to a
focus on fundraising activities or special holiday
events.
• Survey parents in order to determine if childcare
or transportation support is necessary. Work with
parents to offer this support in a meaningful way,
drawing on parental leadership and collaboration.

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2.6
Assign staff time specifically In order for this position to effectively support
to the work of parent-school parent-school collaboration, it is also essential that
collaboration: principals and other supervising staff allow the
(Rioux & Berla, 1993; Ruiz-de-Velasco & Fix, 2000) liaisons to remain primarily focused on work with
parents. Particularly in schools newly experiencing
The role of a parent liaison is vital to supporting a large influx of ELLs, liaisons are too often
viable parent-school collaboration. In schools requested to be responsible for translations and
throughout the country, parents of ELLs most often interpretations, which ultimately leave them with
report that it was the outreach of a bilingual staff insufficient time to implement effective parent
person, or someone designated to serve in the role involvement work.
of parent liaison, that first inspired or guided their
involvement in their children’s schools. Schools
could consider filling this role with a full-time 2.7
parent liaison, a part-time liaison, a Teacher on Offer parents an English as a
Special Assignment (designated to focus on parent- Second language class or a Family
school collaboration) or a staff person with specific Literacy program
hours devoted to parent-school collaboration. (Rioux & Berla, 1993; St. Pierre, Seartz, Gamse, Murray,
Deck & Nickel, 1995; Waterman, 2006a)
When selecting the person who will serve as parent
liaison, it is most important that she/he can speak Offering parents English as a Second Language
the native language of the majority of the ELLs. (ESL) classes or a family literacy program, in the
Equally important, these staff members should school building, can play an important role in
either be from the community of the parents or promoting increased parent-school collaboration. In
should demonstrate an ability to build relationships schools that serve high numbers of ELLs, adult ESL
and understanding between the parents and the classes could facilitate increased parental presence
school. In order to be most effective, liaisons should in the school and increased relationship with
also be capable of implementing and developing teachers and school staff. These classes could also
school-wide parent involvement programs, rather facilitate increased parent-teacher collaboration by
than only having skills and experience related to supporting such things as parental ability to: (a)
contact with individual parents. They should also ensure the completion of homework, (b) better
receive on-going training to support their ability to understand the written communication between the
work with parents of diverse backgrounds, connect school and the home, and (c) better understand
parents to local resources, and guide both parents how to support literacy development. These classes
and school staff to work corroboratively toward the could also promote parent-school collaboration
educational success of English language learners. by supporting such things as school staffs’

13
understanding of the motivation and capacities of the school staff who will work with them. A staff
the parents of ELLs, the ways that language and some person should be assigned to provide on-going
communication efforts hinder relationships and support--- for the program, the parents and the
understanding, and what instructional approaches are school staff. If this kind of organization and
most engaging and effective with ELLs. Family infrastructure does not exist, efforts to involve
literacy programs are also an excellent way to increase parents as volunteers could fail and cause further
parental involvement and parent-school collaboration. problems between parents and school staff. Parents
These programs, by definition, include components and teachers could become frustrated and parents
directed at helping parents feel more welcome in could doubt their capacity or value.
the school, and increasing their capacity to develop
their children’s education in the home. Both ESL
classes and family literacy programs also inspire 2.9
children’s motivation and school engagement as Create and support parent
children are influenced by seeing their parents in leadership development:
their school, modeling a value of academic learning. (Delgado-Gaitan, 2001; Shirley, 1997, 2002)

School-based efforts to cultivate parent leadership can


2.8 generate a strong base of support for high quality
Create and support a school-based parent-school collaboration, in a variety of ways. Such
parent volunteer program: efforts could yield ELL parent representation on
(Epstein, 2001; Waterman, 2006c) committees intended to develop “parent involvement”
approaches or produce recommendations for improving
Creating and effectively supporting a school-based the instruction of ELLs. These efforts could also serve
parent volunteer program is a valuable way to as a way to generate broad-based parent outreach, as
increase meaningful parent-teacher partnerships. parent leaders are often a school’s most valuable
This is a serious commitment, however, as should resource for recruiting other parents. Parent leadership
be reflected in specific ways that principals allocate classes and workshops can also help develop
staff resources. As an initial step, teachers and other parents’ awareness of their value and power, thus
school staff should work with the principal to creating opportunities for parents to better recognize
determine some of the ways that parents (who may the skills and experiences they bring to their support
not speak English fluently) could best be utilized. of their own children’s education, as well as all that
Consideration should also be given to providing they bring to support teachers, other parents, and all
parents opportunities to volunteer at various times children in the school community. These processes can
and in various capacities. And before parent be of particular importance to families of children with
volunteers begin any work, schools need to offer a disabilities, who benefit greatly from peer networks
well-organized training for parent volunteers and that offer information and support.

14
2.10 meeting time. For example, the first part of a
Create and support a district-level meeting might feature families discussing their own
Parent-School Advisory Council: contexts as well as resources that they’ve used and
(Delgado-Gaitan, 2001; Waterman, 2003) how they found them. The second half of the
meeting could be devoted to providing information
Building on the work previously discussed, creating or training related to supporting meaningful
a district-level Parent-School Advisory Council could parent-school collaboration, such as ideas about
strengthen the work of parent-school collaboration in how to improve school staff’s understanding of the
significant ways. This program could allow school parents; necessary components of workshops offered
staff and parents of ELLs an opportunity to share to parents in schools; suggestions about how to best
ideas and experiences as well as build their enlist the support of the principal; and information
knowledge and skill-base. This kind of Advisory about a community resource relevant to family
Council could increase parent motivation to be needs or developing existing strengths.
involved in their children’s schools, particularly as
a leader of parent-school collaboration efforts. It After each meeting, it is recommended that the
could also increase school staff’s understanding of school-based staff person arrange for a meeting with
parents, how to best build relationships with the building principal in order for all involved to
parents, and generate added insights about providing share what was learned and discuss possible
effective instruction to ELLs. application at the building level.

In order to be successful, however, these efforts


require administrative level support, at the level of Conclusions
individual schools as well as the district level.
Most importantly, district level staff would Parents of ELLs represent a vital source of support
need to authorize a staff person at each school – for increased student engagement and achievement;
those who are involved with ELLs and/or their they bring skills, values and knowledge that would
parents – to participate on this Advisory benefit both students and teachers. Most
Committee. This staff person should also commit to importantly, they bring profound commitment and
inviting parent representatives to attend the motivation: The majority of the parents of ELLs
meeting. have come to the United States in order that they
and their children will have a “better life.” And
There are many ways to structure these meetings. many of these families quickly come to believe that
Key to their success is providing multiple ways for supporting their children’s educational attainment
building relationships, discussing current challenges, is central to turning this dream into a reality.
exploring potential resources, and reviewing
agreements and commitments made during the

15
At the outset, however, it is important to
understand that ELL parent–school collaboration
cannot be approached in the same ways that parent
involvement has traditionally been understood and
implemented in schools. The experiences, strengths
and needs of this population are different, as are the
vehicles for inviting school engagement and
relationships with school staff.

Ultimately, the possibilities are promising and


compelling. If schools devote time and resources
toward developing new ways of understanding and
approaching parent-school collaboration, they will
generate a strong and cohesive source of support for
increased ELL school engagement and success, as
well as increased satisfaction for parents and school staff.

16
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19
Additional Resources 3. National Center for Parent Involvement in
I. General Parent-School Collaboration/ “Parent Education (NCPIE) www.ncpie.org
Involvement” Resources: Breaking Down
Barriers, Creating Space: A guidebook for 4. Strengthening Parent Involvement: A Toolkit
increasing collaboration between schools and This toolkit is a comprehensive document
the parents of English Language Learners. By designed to help schools and districts comply
Robin A. Waterman, EdD. Published by the with the regulations for Parent Involvement
Colorado Department of Education. as prescribed in NCLB. It provides
information about NCLB, parent involvement
This resource contains an analysis of research, a research, ideas re: how to implement Title
discussion of No Child Left Behind (as it pertains I Parent Involvement requirements, and
to Parent Involvement laws and obligations), and a discussion of the parent involvement
a detailed discussion of parent-school collaboration planning process and a substantial listing of
strategies that have proven successful in Colorado available resources.
public schools. There is also a detailed appendix www.cde.state.co.us/cdeunified/download/
with a listing of publications and organizations pi_toolkit.pdf
that offer support for the work discussed in the
guidebook. II. Parent Involvement Materials specifically for
Latino Families:
This document can be downloaded for free on
the Colorado Department of Education website: 1. Bilingual (Spanish/English) Materials for
http://www.cde.state.co.us/FedPrograms/nclb/ Parents: www.morenoed.com
downloads/pi_ELLGdbk.pdf a. Parents, Teach your children to learn before
they go to school
1. School, Family and Community Partnerships: b. Preventive discipline and positive rewards
Your Handbook for Action. Corwin Press: for all children
California. By Epstein, J., Coates, L., Salinas, c. Parents, your school and home involvement
K, Sanders, M., Simon, B. (1997). can help your children learn
d. Teaching ideas for parents to use with their
2. FINE Network teenagers
Harvard Graduate School of Education e. Help your children become strong readers
3 Garden Street and effective learners
Cambridge, MA 02138 f. Questions and answers about college
(617) 495-9108 And more than 30 more!!!
hfrp@gse.harvard.edu
www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/contact.htm

20
2. Colorín Colorado: www.colorincolorado.org related to integrating family literacy and
This is a bilingual (Spanish/English) website parent involvement into ESL instruction. Also
providing information, activities and advice includes guidance re setting goals and student
for Spanish-speaking parents and educators assessment. This Toolkit can be downloaded for
of English language learners. free from the following website:
www.famlit.org/Publications/Practioners-
III. Instructional Materials for School-based ESL Toolkit-ELL.cfm
classes for parents

1. FLASH: Families Learning at School and


Home: A series of adult ESL instructional
materials, including four levels of adult ESL/
literacy lesson plans and corresponding
student handouts. There is also a School-
based Life Skills Assessment System for
the adult ESL student, which includes a
placement test and a scoring sheet for each
level of the ESL Curriculum.
www.fiu.edu/~flash

2. Parenting for Academic Success:


This is an adult ESL curriculum
consisting of 12 units that can be
implemented comprehensively or as separate
learning experiences for parents.
For more information or to order these
materials: www.delta-systems.com

Information also available at: The National


Center for Family Literacy website
(www.famlit.org)

3. Practitioners Toolkit: Working with Adult


English Language Learners
A comprehensive guide for adult ESL
teachers that includes ESL lesson plans

21
notes

22
The U. S . Department of Educ ation ’ s Office of S pec ial Educ ation Prog r ams funds the National
Center for Cu ltur ally R espons ive Educ ational Systems ( NCCR ES t ) to provide technic al
a ss i stance and profess ional de velopment to close the achie vement g ap between students
from cu ltur ally and ling u i stic ally diverse backg ro unds and their peers , and reduce
inappropr iate referr al s to spec ial educ ation . The project targ ets improvements in cu ltur ally
respons ive pr actices , e ar ly intervention , liter ac y, and pos itive behavior al supports .

23
practitioner brief

National Center for Culturally


Responsive Educational Systems
arizona state university
po box 872011
tempe, arizona 85287-2011

Phone: 480.965.0391
Fax: 480.727.7012

Email: nccrest@ASU.edu
Web: www.nccrest.org

Funded by the U. S. Department of Education


Office of Special Education Programs
Award No. H326e020003
Project Officer: grace zamora durán

Culturally Responsive Educational Systems: Education for All