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CHEMICAL FORMULAS

After your calculation, the obtained empirical formula for zinc chloride: ZnCl2

Its chemical reaction: Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

After your calculation, the obtained empirical formula for copper sulfide: Cu2S

16Cu + 2S8 8 Cu2S

1. Can you determine the molecular formula of a substance from its present composition? NO
2. Given that zinc chloride has a formula weight of 136.28 amu, what is its formula?
ZnCl2 has a formula weight of 65.37 + 2(35.45) =136.27, So ZnCl2 is the formula.
3. Yes. If the atomic weight of chlorine and sulfur are known, and the changes on the copper and zinc
ions are known, the prediction of the chemical formula for compounds is possible.
4. Zn moles = ZnCl2 moles= 3.57/65.37= 0.0546 mol Zn
Mass ZnCl2 = 0.0546 * 136.27 =7.44g

5. Al2S3 + H2O 2Al(OH)3 + H2S


5.50/ 150.1 = 0.0366 mol Al2S3
0.0366 *2 * 78.0=5.72g Al(OH)3

6. 2Cu2S + 3O2 2Cu2SO3

Cu2SO3 CuO2 + 2SO2

CHEMICAL REACTION OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD

5. After calculation, percent rate should be >95%


6. Brown fumes are formed, the copper dissolves to form a blue solution. The reaction is
exothermic and heat is produced. Cu + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O
7. Cu(NO3)2 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + 2 NaNO3 precipitate formed
8. The precipitate turns black upon heating Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O
9. NaNO3
10. CuSO4
11. a brown -black precipitate forms
12. ZnSO4 in solution, the solution becomes colorless
13. H2
14. It is colorless
15. ZnSO4
16. Shiny brown
17. It should be, but actually, it is not uniform.
18. Poor transfer, washing techniques and incomplete reactions

Post lab Questions


1. Copper sulfate limited the amount of copper formed
2. The recovered copper might not be washed free of salts, or not completely dried or no all of the
zinc reacted.
3. CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O

Oxygen, because to completely react, 2.8mol of CH4 needs 5.6mol of oxygen. From the reaction
equation, 5 mol of oxygen can produce 2.5mol of CO2. Thus 2.5*44= 110g CO2

4. 8.0g CH4 = 0.050 mol CH4, 16.0 g O2= 0.05mol O2

From the reaction above, 0.50mol oxygen can react with 0.25 mol CH4 to produce 0.25 mol CO2 and
0.5mol H2O:

0.25mol CO2 =0.25* 44=11.0g CO2; 0.50 mol H2O=0.50*18= 11.0g H2O

Remaining CH4=0.50-0.25=0.25 mol CH4 =0.25*16=4.0g CH4

5. 1.60g CuO=0.0201mol CuO. According to its reaction equation CuO+H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O,
0.0201 mol H2SO4 is required for complete reaction. (0.0201/4)*1000= 5.03ml
6. 2.00gZn=0.0306 mol Zn; 2.00g CuSO4= 0.0125 mol CuSO4. Their reaction is done in 1:1 ratio. Thus
the unreacted Zn = 0.0306-0.0125= 0.0181 mol Zn= 0.0181*65.37= 1.18g Zn