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Question 1

A 5.00 L sample of N2(g) is held at a pressure of 2.00 atm and a. 301.0 K


a temperature of 315 K. Assuming ideal-gas behavior, how b. 300.4 K
many moles of N2(g) are present in this sample? c. 295.0 K
d. None of the above answers is correct.
a. 2.69 mol
b. 0.208 mol Question 6
c. 0.387 mol If a person breathes at a rate of 14 respirations per minute,
d. 0.004 mol and each respiration involves 0.5 dm 3 of air, what will be the
total mass of air breathed in a day? (Take T = 300 K and P =
Question 2 101.3 kPa, and assume that the air behaves as an ideal gas
At a temperature of 500oC and a pressure of 699 Torr, sulfur with a molar mass of 0.029 kg/mol).
vapor has a density of 3.71 g/dm 3. What molecular formula
for sulfur is compatible with this set of conditions? a. 11.9 kg
b. 119 g
a. S2 c. 238 g
b. S3 d. 14.6 kg
c. S8
d. (S2)3 Question 7
If you have 1.55 mol of F2(g) at 1.11 atm pressure and a
Question 3 temperature of 0oC, what is the volume of this gas sample,
Consider a gas for which the equation of state P(V m - b) = RT assuming ideal-gas behavior?
(with b = 0.04 dm3/mol) can be used to describe its P-V-T
behavior. Suppose a 2-mol sample of this gas is compressed a. 31.3 L
isothermally and reversibly from an initial volume of 10 dm 3 b. 22.4 L
to a final volume of 1 dm 3. How much work (w) is done on the c. 3170 L
gas sample in this compression process, and how much is the d. 0.0821 L
internal energy (U) of the gas changed?
Question 8
a. w = 11.7 kJ and ∆U = 11.7 kJ The density of ice, H 2O(s), at 273 K, is 0.915 kg/dm 3, and that
b. w = 11.9 kJ and ∆U = 0 of liquid water is 0.99987 kg/dm 3. How much thermodynamic
c. w = 5.85 kJ and ∆U = -5.85 kJ work must be done to melt 1 mol of ice at 1 bar pressure?
d. w = 5.85 kJ and ∆U = 0
a. 0.167 J
Question 4 b. 0.167 kJ
Consider a process in which a sample of water vapor expands c. 1.67 J
reversibly and adiabatically from a state in which its pressure d. 39.9 cal
is 60 Torr and its volume is 0.5 dm 3 to a state in which its
volume is 3 dm3. If it is assumed that the water vapor behaves Question 9
as an ideal gas (with respect to its P-V-T properties) and that The heat capacity of a substance can be measured under
the ratio of its Cp,m and Cv,m heat-capacity quantities is given by either constant-volume or constant-pressure conditions.
γ = Cp,m/Cv,m = 1.3, what will be the final pressure of the vapor Which of the following sets of relationships between C v (heat
sample? capacity under constant-volume conditions) and Cp (heat
capacity under constant-pressure conditions) are always true?
a. 5.83 bar
b. 230 Torr a. Cp (gas) > Cv (gas); Cp (solid) ≈ Cv (solid); and Cp (gas)
c. 5.84 Torr >> Cp (solid)
d. There is not enough information provided to answer b. Cv (gas) ≈ Cv (solid) and Cp (liquid) ≈ Cv (liquid)
this question.
c. Cv (gas) > Cv (liquid) > Cv (solid) and Cv > Cp in all
Question 5 phases
Consider a process in which exactly 107 J of heat is added to 1 d. Cp approaches a value of 0 as the sample
mol of CH3OH(g) under constant-volume conditions. If the temperature approaches 0 K but increases without
initial temperature of the methanol vapor sample is 298 K, bound as the sample temperature is increased.
what will be the temperature of the vapor after the 107 J of
heat is added? You may assume ideal-gas behavior and use a
value of 43.89 J/K-mol for Cp,m (the molar heat capacity of
methanol vapor under constant-pressure conditions).
a. The molar heat capacities of He(g) and Ne(g) have
identical values at T = 500 K.
Question 10 b. The average kinetic energy of the atoms in an He(g)
The Van der Waals equation-of-state for real gases may be sample is the same as the average kinetic energy of
written as P = RT(Vm - b)-1 - a(Vm)-2, where P denotes pressure, the atoms in an Ne(g) sample.
T is temperature, Vm denotes molar volume, and 'a' and 'b' c. The average speed of the atoms in an He(g) sample is
are parameters (sometimes referred to as the Van der Waals the same as the average speed of the atoms in an
coefficients) that reflect properties of the individual Ne(g) sample.
molecules (or atoms) in the gas. Which of the following d. The average speed of the atoms in an He(g) sample is
statements regarding the 'a' and 'b' parameters is not true? greater than the average speed of the atoms in an
Ar(g) sample.
a. The Van der Waals 'a' parameter reflects the
existence and strength of attractive intermolecular Question 14
interactions in the gas, and the value of 'a' is always The first law of thermodynamics states that:
≥0.
b. The van der Waals 'b' parameter is related to the a. The energy of a system always increases in any
physical sizes of the constituent molecules (or atoms) physical or chemical process.
of the gas. b. The energy of a system always decreases in any
c. The magnitude of the 'a' parameter for N 2(g) is physical or chemical process.
expected to be greater than that for NH3(g). c. The entropy of a system always increases in any
d. The magnitude of the 'b' parameter for Ar(g) is larger spontaneous process.
than that for He(g). d. The energy of the universe (encompassing system +
surroundings) is always conserved in any physical or
Question 11 chemical process.
Which of the following corresponds to a concise statement of
the zeroth law of thermodynamics? Question 15
A 1.50-mol sample of an ideal gas at 245 K and 0.75 bar
a. Three solid bodies that are all in thermal equilibrium pressure is altered by some process that takes it to a state in
will have the same temperature. which its temperature is increased to 295 K and its pressure is
b. Gas molecules in motion tend to stay in motion in increased to 0.90 bar. What will be the enthalpy change (∆H)
the absence of applied forces. of the gas in this process?
c. Two material bodies that are separately in thermal
equilibrium with a third body are in thermal a. 1.56 kJ
equilibrium with each other. b. 1.40 kJ
d. Molecules can be treated as non-interacting point- c. -1.56 kJ
masses when contained in gaseous samples at very d. 0.62 kJ
low pressures and number densities.
Question 16
Question 12 A process in which there is no thermal energy exchanged
Which of the following statements is incorrect? between a system and its surroundings is called:

a. The most probable value of a velocity component is a. An isothermal process


equal to the most probable speed of the molecules b. An isobaric process
in a dilute gas. c. A diathermic process
b. The average kinetic energy of the molecules in a gas d. An adiabatic process.
is independent of the molecular mass.
c. The ratio of the most probable speed to the mean Question 17
speed has the same value for all gases at all Consider 0.1 mol of an ideal gas contained in a cylinder of
temperatures. volume 2.5 dm3 at a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of
d. Derivation of the ideal-gas equation-of-state from 301 K. Next, suppose you consider three different processes
the kinetic-molecular theory of gases requires that for changing the state of the gas sample to one in which the
the gas molecules be treated as non-interacting volume is reduced to 0.25 dm3, the pressure is increased to 10
point masses. bar, and the temperature is 301 K (the same as the
temperature in the initial state). The paths of the three
Question 13 alternative processes are specified as follow:
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Process #1 is a two-step process in which the gas sample is
first heated at constant volume until the pressure reaches a
value of 10 bar, and then the gas is cooled under constant the following quantities associated with the (1) → (2) change-
pressure (10 bar) until its equilibrium volume is reduced to of-state process cannot be determined without a detailed
0.25 dm3 and its temperature is 301 K. specification of path?

Process #2 is a two-step process in which the gas sample is a. The change in the entropy of the system (∆S)
first cooled under constant pressure (1 bar) until its
equilibrium volume is reduced to 0.25 dm 3, and then the gas b. The change in the Gibbs free energy of the system
is heated under constant volume conditions until its pressure (∆G)
reaches a value of 10 bar and its temperature is 301 K. c. The change in the internal energy of the system (∆U)

Process #3 is a single-step process in which the gas is d. The work done and heat exchanged during the
isothermally compressed from its initial state to its final state process
at a fixed temperature of 301 K.
Question 21
Which of the three processes above would require the least Consider the reaction 2 C(s) + Cl 2(g) + 2 F2(g) → CF2ClCF2Cl(g),
amount of work in effecting the specified change of state, and for which the standard reaction enthalpy has a value of ∆rH0
what would be the ∆U (change in internal energy) for this = -890.4 kJ/mol at a temperature of 298 K. What is the value
process? of ∆rU0 for this reaction at T = 298 K?

a. Process #1; ∆U = 0 a. 4064 kJ/mol


b. Process #2; ∆U = 0 b. -895.4 kJ/mol
c. Process #2; ∆U > 0 c. -890.4 kJ/mol
d. Process #3; ∆U = 0 d. -885.4 kJ/mol

Question 18 Question 22
Consider a cyclic process in which a system performs a net In a free expansion (or Joule expansion) of a gas, no work is
amount of work on its surroundings (i.e., w net < 0, done either on or by the gas system. If the gas in such a
corresponding to the net work done by the system). Would process behaves as an ideal gas, which of the following
this process be endothermic (qnet > 0), exothermic (qnet < 0), or statements is also true for the free-expansion process?
adiabatic (qnet = 0) with respect to the net heat (q net) exchange
between system and surroundings? And what would be the Note: In the answer options below, U denotes the internal
relationship between qnet and wnet? energy of the gas, S denotes the entropy of the gas, q denotes
the heat exchanged between the gas and its surroundings,
a. Endothermic, with |qnet | > |wnet| Vinitial denotes the initial volume of the gas (before expansion),
b. Exothermic, with qnet = wnet < 0 and Vfinal denotes the final volume of the gas (after
c. Endothermic, with qnet = -wnet expansion).
d. Adiabatic, with qnet = 0 and wnet < 0
a. ∆U = 0; q > 0; and ∆S = nR ln (Vfinal/Vinitial)
Question 19 b. ∆U > 0; q > 0; and ∆S = nR ln (Vfinal/Vinitial)
Consider a process in which a gas is expanded adiabatically c. ∆U = 0; q = 0; and ∆S = nR ln (Vfinal/Vinitial)
and reversibly under constant-pressure conditions, and the d. ∆U = 0; q = 0; and ∆S = 0
amount of work done by the gas in this process is 10 kJ. What
changes in the internal energy (U) and entropy (S) of the gas Question 23
will accompany this process? Suppose a 1-mol sample of an ideal gas is expanded
isothermally and reversibly from a volume of 10 L to a volume
a. ∆U = -10 kJ and ∆S = 0 of 20 L at a temperature of 298 K. How much work (w) is done
b. ∆U = 10 kJ and ∆S = 0 in this process, and what are the changes in the internal
c. ∆U = 0 and ∆S = 10 J/K energy (∆U) and entropy (∆S) of the gas?
d. There is not enough information to determine the
values of ∆U and ∆S. a. w = 1.717 kJ; ∆U = 0; ∆S = 5.76 J/K
b. w = -1.717 kJ; ∆U = -1.717 kJ; ∆S = 0
Question 20 c. w = 0; ∆U = 1717 J; ∆S = 5.76 J/K
Consider a process in which a system undergoes a change d. w = -1717 J; ∆U = 0; ∆S = 5.76 J/K
from some initial thermodynamic state (1) to some final
thermodynamic state (2). Suppose that the thermodynamic Question 24
variables of state are well-characterized for both the initial Suppose you want to cool a sample of N 2(g) from 25oC to
and final states, but the path (through the variable space) -195oC by a one-step process involving a Joule-Thomson
between the two states is not well-characterized. Which of expansion in which the final pressure is 1 bar. The Joule-
Thomson coefficient for N2(g) over the specified temperature during an isothermal expansion process at a temperature of
range may be taken to be μ J-T = 0.75 K/bar. Calculate the 900 K, and the system subsequently gives up heat to heat sink
enthalpy change (∆H) associated with this cooling process and during an isothermal compression process at a temperature
determine what the initial pressure (P initial) of the gas must be of 300 K. What would be the maximum efficiency (ηmax)
in order to realize the desired temperature change. Which of achievable with this engine, and what would be the maximum
the following equations gives correct results for P initial and ∆H? net work (wnet,max) that one could derive from this engine?

a. Pinitial = 292 bar and ∆H > 0 a. ηmax = 0.333; maximum net work from engine = 300
b. Pinitial = 292 bar and ∆H = 0 J
c. Pinitial = 225 bar and ∆H = 0 b. ηmax = 0.667; maximum net work from engine = 900
d. Pinitial = 292 bar and ∆H < 0 J
c. ηmax = 0.333; maximum net work from engine = 200
Question 25 J
The Joule-Thomson experiment involves an isenthalpic d. ηmax = 0.667; maximum net work from engine = 600
thermodynamic process, and the measurements performed J
in a Joule-Thomson experiment permit evaluation of the
quantity μJ-T = (∂T/∂P)H ≈ ∆T/∆P. The observed values of μJ-T Question 29
are: Consider the following chemical reactions and their standard
reaction enthalpies (∆rHo) at 298 K.
a. < 0 for nearly all gases.
b. > 0 for nearly all gases. NH3 + HCl(g) → NH4Cl(s) ∆rH0 = -176 kJ/mol
c. > 0 only for gases that exhibit ideal-gas P-V-T N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g) ∆rH0 = -92 kJ/mol
behavior. N2(g) + 4 H2(g) + Cl2(g) → 2 NH4Cl(s) ∆rH0 = -629 kJ/mol
d. independent of the initial temperature and pressure
of the gas undergoing the Joule-Thomson expansion Use this thermochemical data to calculate the standard heat
process. of reaction for the synthesis of hydrogen chloride gas from
H2(g) and Cl(g) at a temperature of 298 K. The value of ∆ rHo (at
Question 26 298 K) for the reaction H2(g) + Cl2(g) → 2 HCl(g) is:
The standard heat of combustion of solid glucose (C6H12O6) at
298 K is ∆cH0(298 K) = -2801 kJ/mol. What is the value of a. -242 kJ/mol
∆cU0(298 K) for glucose (where ∆cU0 denotes the change in b. -897 kJ/mol
internal energy accompanying the combustion of glucose at 1 c. -185 kJ/mol
bar pressure)? d. 391 kJ/mol

a. -2801 kJ/mol Question 30


b. 3455 kJ/mol Consider the reaction C6H5COOH(s) + (15/2) O2(g) → 7 CO2(g)
c. 2801 kJ/mol + 3 H2O(l), for which the standard reaction enthalpy is ∆ rHo =
d. 0 -3228.2 kJ. Calculate the ∆ rUo for this reaction and determine
whether any thermodynamic work would be done on (w > 0)
Question 27 or by (w < 0) the reaction system if the reaction is carried out
Which of the following statements is incorrect? at a constant pressure. (Assume that the gases in this reaction
exhibit ideal-gas behavior at T = 298.15 K and P = 1 bar.)
a. In cyclic thermodynamic processes, it is always true
that the net changes in internal energy (∆U), entropy a. ∆rUo = -3230.7 kJ and w > 0
(∆S), and enthalpy (∆H) of a system are zero (i.e., b. ∆rUo = -3230.7 kJ and w = 0
∆Unet = ∆Snet = ∆Hnet = 0). c. ∆rUo = -3228.2 kJ and w = 0
b. The entropy of a system always increases with an d. ∆rUo = -3227.0 kJ and w < 0
increase in temperature under either constant-
volume or constant-pressure conditions. Question 31
c. In reversible adiabatic processes, it is always true Consider the reaction N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g), and the
that ∆S = 0 and ∆U = w (work). following thermodynamic data: standard heat of formation of
d. An isothermal expansion of an ideal gas always gives NH3(g), ∆fHo = -46.11 kJ/mol; standard molar entropy of N 2(g),
∆U > 0 and ∆S = 0. Smo = 191.61 J/K-mol; standard molar entropy of H 2(g), Smo =
130.684 J/K-mol; and standard molar entropy of NH 3(g), Smo =
Question 28 192.45 J/K-mol. Calculate the ∆H, ∆S, and ∆G for this reaction
Consider a heat engine that operates on a Carnot cycle and carried out under standard pressure and temperature
uses an ideal gas as a working fluid. Suppose that the heat conditions. Which of the following are the correct values for
reservoir of the engine supplies 1 kJ of heat to the system ∆H, ∆S, and ∆G?
a temperature of 300 K. If this gas sample is heated to 373 K
a. ∆H = -92.22 kJ; ∆S = -198.76 J/K; ∆G = -32.99 kJ and its volume is allowed to expand to 10 dm 3, how much
heat (q) is required to perform this process, and what is the
b. ∆H = 92.22 kJ; ∆S = 198.76 J/K; ∆G = 32.99 kJ entropy change (of the gas) that accompanies this process?

c. ∆H = -46.11 kJ; ∆S = -99.38 J/K; ∆G = -16.49 kJ a. ∆S = 16.97 J/K; the value of q depends on whether
the process is carried out reversibly or irreversibly
d. ∆H = -46.11 kJ; ∆S = -129.8 J/K; ∆G = -7.43 kJ
b. ∆S = 5.44 J/K; q = 1825 J
Question 32 c. ∆S = 11.53 J/K; q = 1825 J
The Carnot heat engine operates on a thermodynamic cycle d. ∆S = 16.97 J/K; q = 1825 J
comprised of the following sequence of processes:
Question 36
Consider a container with rigid, adiabatic walls that is fitted
a. An isothermal expansion, an adiabatic expansion, an
with a partition that separates the container into two
isothermal compression, and an adiabatic
chambers (one having twice the volume of the other). The
compression
larger chamber contains a 2-mol sample of N 2(g) at 298 K and
b. An isothermal expansion, an isochoric expansion, an
1 bar pressure, and the smaller chamber contains a 1-mol
isothermal compression, and an isochoric
sample of He(g) at 298 K and 1 bar pressure. Now suppose
compression
that the partition between the chambers is removed and the
c. An isentropic expansion, an isoenthalpic expansion,
N2 and He gases are allowed to mix. This mixing process is
an isothermal compression, and an adiabatic
isothermal and also adiabatic. Assuming that the gases
compression
behave ideally, what would be the ∆U (change in internal
d. An isobaric heating, an isothermal expansion, an
energy), ∆H (enthalpy change), and ∆S (entropy change) that
isobaric cooling, and an isothermal compression
accompany this mixing process?
Question 33
a. ∆U = ∆H = ∆S = 0
The standard heat of reaction for the decomposition of ZnO(s)
b. ∆U = 0; ∆S = 15.88 J/K; and there is not enough
is ∆rHo = 348 kJ/mol. What does this information tell you
information to determine ∆H
about the formation of ZnO(s) under standard STP
c. ∆U = 0; ∆H = 0; ∆S = -15.88 J/K
conditions?
d. ∆U = 0; ∆H = 0; ∆S = 15.88 J/K
a. The formation of ZnO(s) is an endothermic process.
Question 37
Consider a process in which a 2-mol sample of a certain gas is
b. The formation of ZnO(s) is an exothermic process. heated reversibly from 275 K to 375 K under a constant
pressure of 1 bar, and the entropy change for the gas is ∆S =
c. No thermal energy is either taken up or given off in 13.3 J/K. What will be the value of ∆S for a process in which
the formation process. the same gas sample is heated irreversibly from 275 K to 375
d. None of the above answers is correct. K under a fixed pressure of 1 bar?

Question 34 a. ∆S > 13.3 J/K


Which of the following statements regarding a Carnot-cycle b. ∆S = 13.3 J/K
engine is incorrect? c. ∆S < 13.3 J/K
d. There is not enough information provided to answer
a. Increasing the temperature of the hot reservoir (i.e., this question.
the heat source) will increase the efficiency of the
engine. Question 38
b. Decreasing the temperature of the cold reservoir Suppose 2 moles of water at 333 K are added to 4 moles of
(i.e., the heat sink) will increase the efficiency of the water at 293 K. What would be the entropy change associated
engine. with this process, assuming that there is no exchange of heat
c. A Carnot cycle is by definition a reversible cycle. with the surroundings? (The heat capacity of water is Cp,m =
75.3 J/K-mol and may be considered to be independent of
d. Since the Carnot cycle is a cyclic process, the net temperature.)
work done is zero.
a. 26 J/K
Question 35 b. 0.8 J/K
Consider a 2-mol sample of an ideal gas, with a molar heat c. -12.6 J/K
capacity Cv,m = 12.5 J/K-mol, confined to a volume of 5 dm 3 at d. -0.8 J/K
gas and its heat capacity has a fixed value of C p,m = 20.8 J/K-
Question 39 mol.)
The enthalpy of vaporization of methanol is 35.27 kJ/mol at
its normal boiling point of 64.1oC. What is the entropy of a. 41.8 J/K-mol
vaporization of methanol at this temperature, and what is the b. -17.5 J/K-mol
entropy change in the surroundings when a mole of methanol c. -41.8 J/K-mol
is vaporized at a temperature of 64.1oC and a pressure of 1 d. 24.2 kJ/mol
bar?

a. ∆vapS0 = 104.6 J/K-mol for methanol;


∆S(surroundings) = -104.6 J/K-mol Question 43
b. ∆vapS0 = -104.6 J/K-mol for methanol; Which of the following processes carried out on a 1-mol
∆S(surroundings) = 104.6 J/K-mol sample of a monatomic gas (assumed to exhibit ideal-gas P-V-
c. ∆vapS0 = 104.6 J/K-mol for methanol; T behavior) will result in the greatest increase in the entropy
∆S(surroundings) = 0 of the gas?
d. ∆vapS0 = 550.2 J/K-mol for methanol;
∆S(surroundings) = 0 a. Isothermal expansion from a volume of 5 L to a
volume of 10 L
Question 40 b. Heating the gas from 300 K to 600 K under constant-
The heat of fusion for H2O at 273.15 K and 1 bar pressure is volume conditions
6.008 kJ/mol; the heat of vaporization for H2O at 373.15 K and c. Isothermal expansion from a volume of 10 L to a
1 bar pressure is 40.656 kJ/mol; and the molar heat capacity volume of 15 L
(Cp,m) of liquid water between 273 K and 373 K has a nearly d. Reversible adiabatic expansion from a volume of 5 L
constant value of 75.29 J/K-mol (under a pressure of 1 bar). to a volume of 10 L
Given these conditions, which of the following processes will
result in the largest increase in entropy of a 1-mol sample of Question 44
H2O? Which of the following provides a succinct statement of the
Clausius Inequality?
a. Vaporizing H2O(l) at 373 K and 1 bar pressure
a. dS ≥ dq/T for all isothermal processes carried out
b. Melting H2O(s) at 273 K and 1 bar pressure reversibly or irreversibly at a constant temperature T.
c. Heating H2O(l) from 273 K to 373 K under a constant
pressure of 1 bar b. dS ≥ dqrev/T for any reversible process carried out at
d. Melting H2O(s) at 273.15 K and 1 bar pressure, and a constant temperature T.
then heating the liquid water from 273.15 K to just c. dS ≥ 0 for all spontaneous processes occurring in any
short of the boiling point at 373.15 K under a kind of system.
constant pressure of 1 bar d. dG ≤ 0 for a spontaneous process occurring in an
isolated system.
Question 41
Two 1-mol blocks of aluminum, one at 273 K and the other at Question 45
373 K, are brought into thermal contact. What will be the Which of the following represents a necessary condition for a
temperature of the two blocks when they have reached chemical reaction to proceed from reactants to products
thermal equilibrium, and what will be the total entropy spontaneously?
change (∆Stot) that accompanies the thermal equilibration
process? (Assume that the two blocks of aluminum are in a a. The reaction must be endothermic.
container with walls that keep them completely isolated from b. The reaction must be exothermic.
outside surroundings, and take the heat capacity of the c. The total entropy of the reacting chemical system
aluminum blocks to be Cp,m = 24.35 J/K-mol.) and its surroundings must increase.
d. The standard entropy change, ∆rS0, for the chemical
a. Tequil = 323 K and ∆Stot = 0 reaction must be ≥ 0.
b. Tequil = 323 K and ∆Stot = 0.59 J/K
c. Tequil = 323 K and ∆Stot = -0.59 J/K Question 46
d. Tequil = 373 K and ∆Stot = 6.21 J/K Which of the following statements is correct?

Question 42 a. For a closed system, ∆S can never have a negative


What is the change in the molar entropy of Ar(g) when it value.
undergoes the following process: Ar(298 K, 1 bar) → Ar(100 K, b. For a reversible process in a closed system, ∆S must
10 bar)? (You may assume that the argon behaves as an ideal be zero.
c. For an adiabatic process in a closed system, ∆S Question 51
cannot have a negative value. Which of the following statements does NOT conform to the
d. For an adiabatic process in a closed system, ∆S must laws of thermodynamics?
be zero.
a. The entropy of the universe always increases in a
spontaneous change-of-state process.
b. The energy of the universe always remains constant
in any change-of-state process.
c. The entropy of a system always decreases with a
decrease in the temperature of the system.
Question 47 e. The entropy of any chemically pure substance
Identify the FALSE statement among the following choices: approaches a value of zero as the temperature of the
substance approaches a value of 0 K, and at T = 0 K, S
a. Calorimetry involves the measurement of heat = 0.
transfer during a physical or chemical process.
Question 52
b. According to the third law of thermodynamics, the Among the following processes, which would have a ∆Gm
entropies of all perfectly crystalline substances must value > 0?
be the same at the absolute zero of temperature
(i.e., at T = 0 K). a. Solid water (ice) melts at 1 bar pressure and a
c. For any given change of state, the work done by a temperature of 0oC.
system in an irreversible process is always greater b. Solid water (ice) melts at 1 bar pressure and a
than that in a reversible process. temperature of 5oC.
d. The Joule-Thompson effect relates to the c. Liquid water is vaporized at 1 bar pressure and a
temperature change occurring in a gas during an temperature of 105oC.
isenthalpic expansion of the gas. d. Liquid water is vaporized at 1 bar pressure and a
temperature of 95oC.
Question 48
The translational motions of the molecules in a gas contribute Question 53
to the total entropy of the gas. What is the translational At what pressure will (G - G0) be 2000 J/mol for an ideal gas at
contribution to the total entropy of a 1-mol sample of N 2(g) at 25oC?
a temperature of 298 K and a pressure of 1 bar?
a. 2.1 kPa
a. 15.03 J/K b. 21 atm
b. -15.03 J/K c. 2.24 Pa
c. 150.3 J/K d. 2.24 bar
d. 198.1 J/K
Question 54
Question 49 Calcium carbonate can exist in two distinctly different
What is the standard molar entropy (S m0) of oxygen atoms at crystalline forms, called calcite and aragonite. The standard
298 K (assumed to behave as an ideal gas)? Gibbs free energy of formation for calcite at 298 K is ∆ fG0 =
-1128.79 kJ/mol, and the standard Gibbs free energy of
a. 143.4 J/K-mol formation for aragonite at 298 K is ∆fG0 = -1127.75 kJ/mol.
b. 1.43 J/K-mol Which crystalline form is the more thermodynamically stable
c. 1550 J/K-mol at a temperature of 298 K and a pressure of 1 bar, and what
d. -143.4 J/K-mol would be the value of ∆ rG0 for the calcite → aragonite
transformation at 298 K?
Question 50
Which of the following played a significant role in developing a. Calcite is more stable; ∆rG0= -1.04 kJ/mol
the concept of entropy and in formulating the second law of b. Aragonite is more stable; ∆rG0= 1.04 kJ/mol
thermodynamics? c. Aragonite is more stable; ∆rG0= -1.04 kJ/mol
d. Calcite is more stable; ∆rG0= 1.04 kJ/mol
a. The Nernst heat theorem
b. The equipartition-of-energy principle Question 55
c. The formulation and analysis of the Carnot cycle and Consider a chemical reaction that is exothermic. If you
heat engine increase the temperature of the reaction mixture, how will
d. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle this action change the equilibrium constant for the reaction?
a. It will increase its value.
b. It will decrease its value. a. 2478 J
c. It will have no effect on its value. b. -2478 kJ
d. There is not enough information provided to answer c. 12.22 kJ
this question. d. There is not enough information provided to answer
this question.

Question 60
Consider the following reaction for the decomposition of
sodium bicarbonate:
Question 56
Consider a process in which 1 mol of an ideal gas is 2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
isothermally expanded from 0.01 m 3 to 0.10 m3 at a
temperature of 25oC. What is the ∆G for this process? The ∆rH0 and ∆rS0 for this reaction have values of 85.2 kJ/mol
and 215 J/K-mol, respectively. What is the minimum
a. 5.7 kJ temperature required for an NaHCO3(s) sample to
b. -479 J spontaneously decompose into the products shown above
c. -5.70 kJ (under 1 bar pressure conditions)?
d. 479 J
a. 275 K
Question 57 b. 396 K
Consider the dimerization reaction 2 NO 2(g) → N2O4(g). This c. 479 K
reaction is exothermic, since the major chemical change is the d. 301 K
formation of a new bond (the N-N bond). The value of ∆ rH0 for
this reaction carried out at a temperature of 298 K is -57.2 kJ. Question 61
The standard molar capacity of N2O4(g) is Cp,m = 77.28 J/K-mol, Consider the following two reactions: (1) glutamate + NH 4+ ↔
and the standard molar heat capacity of NO 2(g) is Cp,m = 37.2 glutamine, for which ∆rG0 = 15.7 kJ/mol at 37oC; and (2) ATP
J/K-mol. Given this information, what is the value of ∆ rH0 for ↔ ADP + Pi, for which ∆rG0 = -31.0 kJ/mol at 37 oC. (In
the dimerization reaction carried out at a temperature of reaction (2), ATP denotes adenosine triphosphate, ADP
1298 K? denotes adenosine diphosphate, and Pi represents inorganic
phosphate.) These two reactions can be coupled by an
a. -54.3 kJ enzyme catalyst (glutamine synthetase), which leads to the
b. -60.1 kJ following reaction: (3) glutamate + NH4+ + ATP ↔ glutamine +
c. -43.2 kJ ADP + Pi. What is the equilibrium constant for reaction (3) at a
d. 12.2 kJ temperature of 37oC?

Question 58 a. 2.3 x 10-3


Consider the exothermic reaction CO(g) + 2H2(g) ↔ CH3OH(g) b. 1.1
at equilibrium at 500 K and 10 bar. Which of the following c. 3.8 x 102
actions would lead to a decrease in the amount of methanol d. There is not enough information provided to answer
in the equilibrium reaction mixture? this question.

a. The temperature is raised from 500 K to 600 K. Question 62


Consider the reaction Cu2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) ↔ Cu(NH3)42+(aq),
b. The pressure is increased from 10 bar to 12 bar. for which ∆rG0 = -70.54 kJ at 298 K. Now suppose you make up
a reaction mixture in which the activities (a) of the various
c. An inert (unreactive) gas is pumped into the reaction species have the following values: a(Cu 2+) = 0.01; a(NH3) =
mixture under constant-volume conditions. 0.01; and a(of the cupric complex product) = 0.01. What will
d. Hydrogen (H2) gas is added to the mixture at be the value of ∆rG (at 298 K) for the reaction in the mixture
constant pressure. you have prepared?

Question 59 a. -116 kJ
Consider the following reaction between glycine and nitrous b. -24.9 kJ
acid in an aqueous solution: NH2CH2COOH(aq) + HNO2(aq) ↔ c. 24.9 kJ
HOCH2COOH(aq) + N2(g) + H2O(l). What would be the d. There is not enough information provided to answer
difference between the ∆rG0 and ∆rA0 for this reaction at 298 this question.
K, assuming that the N2(g) product can be treated as an ideal
gas? Question 63
Consider the reaction glycerol(aq) + HPO 42-(aq) ↔ DL- c. -104.6 J/K-mol
glycerol-1-phosphate2-(aq) + H2O(l). The equilibrium constant d. There is not enough information provided to answer
for this reaction at 37oC is 0.012, and the value of ∆ rG0 at 25oC this question.
is 9.37 kJ. Given this information, what is the equilibrium
constant (Keq) for the reaction at 25oC, and what is the value Question 68
of ∆rH0 for the reaction? (You may assume that the ∆ rH0 of the Suppose you wanted to shift the equilibrium position of the
reaction is independent of temperature.) reaction 2 NO2(g) → N2O4(g) in the direction that favors
more dimer formation. Which of the following changes in
a. Keq = 0.462 at 25oC; ∆rH0= 40.1 kJ reaction conditions would help achieve that goal?
b. Keq = 0.046 at 25oC; ∆rH0= 21.2 kJ
c. Keq = 0.003 at 25oC; ∆rH0= -40.1 kJ a. An increase in the total pressure of the reaction
d. Keq = 0.023 at 25oC; ∆rH0= -40.1 kJ mixture, with temperature held constant
Question 64 b. An increase in the temperature of the reaction
Consider the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) → 2 HI(g). It is reported that mixture, with total pressure held constant
an equilibrium mixture of this reaction system contains the c. A decrease in the total pressure of the reaction
following concentrations of the reacting species: [H 2] = 1.14 x mixture, with temperature held constant
10-2 M; [I2] = 1.2 x 10-3 M; and [HI] = 2.52 x 10-2 M. Given this d. A simultaneous increase in temperature and increase
information, the equilibrium constant for this reaction may be in pressure
calculated to have a value of:
Question 69
a. 1842 The enzyme catalase catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen
b. 46.4 peroxide by the exothermic reaction H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½
c. 18.4 O2(g). Suppose that a small amount of solid catalase is added
d. 12.6 to a 0.1 M aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide in a
calorimeter, with the initial temperature of the solution being
Question 65 25oC. If all the heat liberated in the reaction is retained by the
Consider the reaction N2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2NO(g). The solution, what will be the final temperature of the solution
equilibrium constant for this reaction has a value of 2.5 x 10 -3 after the reaction mixture has reached its final equilibrium
at a temperature of 2400 K. What would be the partial state? (The relevant heats of formation for H 2O2(aq) and
pressure of NO in an equilibrium mixture that is at 2400 K and H2O(l) are: ∆fH = -191.17 kJ/mol (for aqueous H2O2) and ∆ fH =
contains N2(g) at a partial pressure of 0.1 bar and O 2(g) at a -285.83 kJ/mol (for liquid H2O). (The heat capacity of the
partial pressure of 0.1 bar? solution may be taken as having a value of 4.18 kJ/K-L (i.e.,
4.18 kJ/K per liter of solution).)
a. 2.5 x 10-5 bar
b. 5.0 x 10-3 bar a. 47.6oC
c. 0.2 bar b. 27.3oC
d. There is not enough information provided to answer c. 25.2oC
this question. d. 22.7oC

Question 66 Question 70
For the process H2O(l) → H2O(s), occurring at a temperature The equilibrium constant (Kc) for the hydrolysis of adenosine
of -10oC, the ∆Sm has a value of -20.54 J/K-mol. Which of the triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and
following would reflect the values of ∆H m and ∆Gm associated phosphate is 1.67 x 105 mol/dm3 at 37oC, and the ∆rH0 for this
with the freezing of water at a temperature of -10oC? reaction has a value of -20.1 kJ/mol. Given this information,
what is the value of ∆rS0 for the reaction?
a. ∆Hm < 0; ∆Gm < 0
b. ∆Hm < 0; ∆Gm = 0 a. 35.1 J/K-mol
c. ∆Hm < 0; ∆Gm > 0 b. 35.1 J/mol
d. ∆Hm > 0; ∆Gm = 0 c. 295 J/K-mol
d. -35.1 J/K-mol
Question 67
Methanol boils at a temperature of 337.2 K under standard Question 71
pressure (P = 1 bar) conditions, and its standard enthalpy of The equilibrium constant for the dimerization reaction 2
vaporization is ∆vapH0 = 35.27 kJ/mol. What is the standard NO2(g) → N2O4(g) has a value of 6.75 at a temperature of 298
entropy of vaporization of methanol? K. What is the value of ∆rG0 for this reaction at 298 K?

a. 104.6 kJ/K-mol a. 4.73 kJ


b. 104.6 J/K-mol b. 9.46 kJ
c. -4.73 kJ Consider the phase transformation process C(graphite) →
d. -2.85 kJ C(diamond). The ∆G for this process at 1 bar pressure and a
temperature of 298 K has a value of 2.900 kJ/mol, and the ∆S
Question 72 for the process under these same pressure and temperature
The equilibrium constant for the reaction H 2(g) + ½O2(g) ↔ conditions has a value of -3.36 J/K-mol. If you raised the
H2O(l) is reported to have a value of 3.5 x 10 41 at a temperature from 298 K to 1000 K, but kept the pressure
temperature of 298 K. Given this information, what is the constant at 1 bar, would this increase, decrease, or not
value of ∆rG0 for this reaction at 298 K? change the thermodynamic stability of graphite versus
diamond?
a. 237 kJ
b. -237 kJ a. Increase
c. 237 J b. Decrease
d. -116 kJ c. Not change
Question 73 e. There is not enough information provided to answer
What is the equilibrium pressure of NH 3(g) over a sample of this question.
NH4Cl(s) as a result of decomposition at 25oC, given that ∆rG0 Question 78
= 91.12 kJ for the reaction NH4Cl(s) ↔ NH3(g) + HCl(g)? For H2O(s) at 0oC and 1 atm and H 2O(l) at 0oC and 1 atm,
which of the following quantities must be equal for the two
a. 1.03 x 10-8 bar phases?
b. 1.06 x 10-16 bar
c. 0.65 bar a. The molar entropy (Sm)
d. 0.81 bar b. The molar enthalpy (Hm)
c. The molar Gibbs free energy (Gm)
Question 74 d. The molar volume (Vm)
What is the equilibrium pressure of O 2(g) over a sample of
NiO(s) at 298 K, given that ∆rG0 = 211.7 kJ for the reaction Question 79
NiO(s) ↔ Ni(s) + ½O2(g)? The equilibrium vapor pressure of water at 298 K is 24 Torr. Is
the chemical potential of H2O(l) at 298 K and 20 Torr less than,
a. 0.843 bar equal to, or greater than the chemical potential of H 2O(g) at
b. 7.78 x 10-38 bar the same temperature and pressure?
c. 6.05 x 10-75 bar
d. 8.05 x 10-5 bar a. Greater than
Question 75 b. Equal to
What is the pressure of CO 2(g) over a sample of CaCO 3(s) at a c. Less than
temperature of 1000 K, given that ∆rG0 = 22.9 kJ for the d. There is not enough information provided to answer
reaction CaCO3(s) ↔ CaO(s) + CO2(g)? this question.

a. 0.99 bar Question 80


b. 15.7 bar The molar enthalpy of sublimation of CO 2(s) is 25.23 kJ/mol at
c. 6.4 x 10-4 bar the standard sublimation temperature, 194.6 K. What is the
d. 6.4 x 10-2 bar molar entropy of sublimation of CO 2(s) at the standard
sublimation temperature?
Question 76
Consider a process in which liquid water is vaporized under a. 0.13 J/K-mol
constant pressure and temperature conditions, with P = 1 atm b. 129.7 J/K-mol
and T = 373.15 K. Which of the following would be true for c. -129.7 J/K-mol
the ∆Am and ∆Gm quantities associated with this process? d. There is not enough information provided to answer
(Note that Am denotes the molar Helmholtz free-energy this question.
function and Gm denotes the molar Gibbs free-energy
function.) Question 81
The normal boiling point of Br 2 is 331.9 K, and its vapor
a. ∆Am < 0; ∆Gm = 0 pressure at 298 K is 0.287 bar. Within the approximations
b. ∆Am > 0; ∆Gm = 0 inherent to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, what value of
c. ∆Am = 0; ∆Gm = 0 ∆vapHm (the molar enthalpy of vaporization) for Br 2 would be
d. ∆Am < 0; ∆Gm < 0 compatible with this data?

Question 77 a. -30.7 kJ/mol


b. 30.7 kJ/mol
c. 70.6 kJ/mol b. The vapor pressure of the solution will be less than
d. -12.6 kJ/mol ½(PA* + PB*) when species A and B are present in
equimolar amounts (where PA* and PB* denote the
Question 82 vapor pressures of pure liquid A and pure liquid B,
Which of the following statements is incorrect? respectively).
c. The vapor pressure of the solution will exhibit
a. For a one-component system, the maximum number positive deviations from Raoult's law behavior.
of phases that can coexist in equilibrium is three.
d. If the mole-fraction of species A (XA) is much larger
b. When three phases coexist in equilibrium in a one- than the mole-fraction of species B (XB), then the
component system, one of the phases must be a gas, vapor pressure of B will follow Henry's law behavior.
one must be a liquid, and one must be a solid.
Question 86
c. For a one-component system, the most stable phase Consider a dilute benzene-in-ethanol solution in which the
at a given T and P is the phase with the lowest Gm mole-fraction of benzene is 0.013. The partial vapor pressure
(molar Gibbs free energy). of the benzene component of this solution has a value of 12.8
d. For a pure substance, the vapor pressure of the solid Torr. Given this information, what would be the value of the
is equal to the vapor pressure of the liquid at the Henry's law constant for the benzene in this solution?
triple-point temperature.
a. 0.166 Torr
Question 83 b. 1.02 L-atm
Which of the following statements is incorrect? c. 985 Torr
d. 985 Torr/mol
a. It is impossible for four phases of a single pure
substance to coexist at equilibrium. Question 87
b. The maximum number of phases that can coexist in a Consider a dilute liquid solution comprised of solvent A and
system composed of four components is equal to six. solute B. For this system, which of the following statements is
incorrect?
c. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation can be used in the
characterization of solid-liquid phase equilibria. a. The chemical potential of A in solution is always less
than the chemical potential of pure liquid A (at fixed
d. Two phases at equilibrium must have the same values of pressure and temperature).
pressure. b. Additions of more solute to the solution will always
lower the chemical potential of the solvent.
Question 84 c. Additions of a nonvolatile solute to the solution will
Consider a 0.01 M aqueous solution of KCl. How will the vapor always lower the vapor pressure of the solution.
pressure of this solution compare with the vapor pressure of
pure liquid water? d. At any given temperature, the vapor pressure of the
solution will always be less than the vapor pressure
a. It will be higher. of the pure solvent.
b. It will be lower.
c. It will be the same. Question 88
d. There is not enough information provided to answer Consider a process in which 0.2 mol of liquid acetone is mixed
this question. with 0.8 mol of liquid chloroform at a temperature of 35 oC
and a pressure of 1 bar. Under these conditions,
Question 85 measurements show that the activity coefficients of the
Consider a binary liquid solution in which the constituent acetone and chloroform constituents of the mixture have the
species are labeled A and B. Suppose that the A-B pairwise values 0.544 (for acetone) and 0.957 (for chloroform). Given
attractive interactions are stronger than the average of the A- this information, what would be the ∆G associated with the
A and B-B pairwise attractive interactions. Which of the mixing process?
following statements about the properties of this solution is
incorrect? a. 1683 J
b. -1683 J
a. The vapor pressure of the solution will exhibit c. -1282 J
negative deviations from Raoult's law behavior. d. 440 J

Question 89
Consider a real gas which, at a temperature of 298 K and observed for a 1-molal solution of CaCl 2 in water? (Recall that
some particular pressure P, has a fugacity coefficient with a both NaCl and CaCl2 are completely dissociated in aqueous
value of 1.75. At the given pressure P, what is the difference solution.)
between the chemical potential of the real gas versus that of
an ideal gas? That is, what is the value of μ(real gas) - μ(ideal a. 5.55oC
gas)? b. 11.1oC
c. 2.47oC
a. -1.39 kJ/mol d. There is not enough information provided to answer
b. 0 this question.
c. 1.39 kJ/mol
d. There is not enough information provided to answer Question 94
this question. The solubility of argon in water is 5.15 x 10 -3 g of Ar per 100 g
of H2O at 25oC and an argon pressure of 1 atm. Given this
Question 90 information, what is the value of the Henry's law constant for
Consider a solution made by dissolving 342 g of sucrose in an argon-water mixture at 25oC?
127 ml of water at 45oC. The vapor pressure of water at 45 oC
is 0.095 atm and the density of water at 45 oC is 0.992 g/ml. a. 4.31 atm
What is the vapor pressure of the sucrose/water solution? b. 4.31 x 105 Pa
(Note: The molar mass of sucrose is 180.2 g/mol.) c. 12.4 bar/mol
d. 4.31 x 104 atm
a. 0.075 atm
b. 0.115 atm Question 95
c. 0.224 atm The vapor pressure of pure liquid toluene at 300 K is P* =
d. 0.008 atm 3.572 kPa, and the vapor pressure of pure liquid benzene at
300 K is P* = 9.657 kPa. Assuming that mixtures of toluene
Question 91 and benzene behave as ideal solutions, what will be the total
Consider a toluene-benzene solution in which the mole- vapor pressure (PT) of a toluene-benzene mixture containing
fraction of toluene is 0.33. At a temperature of 300 K, the 0.60 mole-fraction of toluene at a temperature of 300 K, and
total vapor pressure of this solution is 7.89 kPa, and the what will be the mole-fraction of toluene (X toluene) in the vapor
partial pressures of the toluene and benzene constituents of over this mixture?
the vapor are Ptoluene = 1.214 kPa and Pbenzene = 6.677 kPa,
respectively. At 300 K, the vapor pressure of pure liquid a. PT = 7.219 kPa; Xtoluene = 0.643 (in vapor)
toluene is P* = 3.572 kPa and the vapor pressure of pure b. PT = 6.006 kPa; Xtoluene = 0.643 (in vapor)
liquid benzene is P* = 9.657 kPa. What are the activities (a) c. PT = 6.006 kPa; Xtoluene = 0.357 (in vapor)
and activity coefficients (γ) of the toluene and benzene d. There is not enough information provided to answer
constituents of the solution? this question.

a. a(toluene) = 0.3399; a(benzene) = 0.6914; γ(toluene) Question 96


= 1.03; γ(benzene) = 1.03 When 2.8 x 10-4 kg of a certain chemical compound is
b. a(toluene) = 0.77; a(benzene) = 0.23; γ(toluene) = dissolved in 0.579 L of water at 27 oC, the osmotic pressure of
1.11; γ(benzene) = 0.89 the resultant solution is measured and found to have a value
c. a(toluene) = 0.46; a(benzene) = 0.54; γ(toluene) = of 0.1625 atm. What is the molar mass of the chemical
0.79; γ(benzene) = 0.93 compound?
d. There is not enough information provided to answer
this question. a. 107.5 g/mol
b. 6.602 g/mol
Question 92 c. 73.3 g/mol
If 5.0 g of glucose, C6H12O6, is dissolved in 1.0 L of water at 300 d. 57.9 g/mol
K, what osmotic pressure will the solution exhibit?
Question 97
a. 0.69 bar When 6.29 g of a certain nonvolatile solute is dissolved in 500
b. 0.012 atm g of water, the freezing point of the resultant aqueous
c. 6.9 atm solution is 0.646oC lower than that of pure water. The
d. 69 Pa cryoscopic constant for water is K f = 1.856 K-kg/mol. Given
this information, what is the molar mass of the solute
Question 93 species?
If a 1-molal solution of NaCl in water shows a freezing-point
depression of 3.7oC, what is the freezing-point depression a. 36.1 g/mol
b. 72.2 g/mol d. There is not enough information provided to answer
c. 36.1 kg/mol this question.
d. 18.1 g/mol
Question 103
Question 98 The electronic ground state of molecular oxygen is three-fold
Which of the following will have the highest boiling-point degenerate, and the first electronic excited state is two-fold
temperature? degenerate and is located at an energy 15.72 x 10 -20 J above
the ground state. In a sample of O 2(g), maintained at an
a. A 0.01 M aqueous solution of BaCl2 equilibrium temperature of 298 K, what would be the ratio of
b. A 0.1 M aqueous solution of CaCl2 the populations of O2 molecules in the first electronic excited
c. A 0.1 M aqueous solution of sucrose state versus the electronic ground state?
d. A 0.1 M aqueous solution of KCl
a. 2.50 x 10-17
Question 99 b. 3.75 x 10-17
Which of the following will have the lowest boiling-point c. 1.67 x 10-17
temperature? d. 1.67 x 1017

a. Pure liquid water Question 104


b. A 0.01 M aqueous solution of NaHCO3 The fundamental vibrational frequency of an oxygen molecule
c. A 12 M solution of sulfuric acid (O2) is 4.741 x 1013 s-1. What would be the value of the
d. A 0.1 M aqueous solution of glucose vibrational partition function for O2 at a temperature of 1000
K, assuming that the molecular vibrational motion can be
treated in the harmonic oscillator approximation?

a. 1115
Question 100 b. 1.115
Which of the following will have the lowest freezing-point c. 10.15 s-1
temperature? d. 10.15 J
Question 105
a. A 0.01 M aqueous solution of NaCl The ground electronic state of atomic oxygen is five-fold
b. A 0.01 M aqueous solution of BaCl2 degenerate, the first electronic excited state is three-fold
c. A 0.01 M aqueous solution of KBr degenerate and is located 3.142 x 10 -24 J above ground, and
d. A 0.01 M aqueous solution of FeCl3 the second electronic excited state is nondegenerate and is
located 4.498 x 10-24 J above ground. No other electronic
Question 101 excited states of atomic oxygen are thermally accessible at
Among the following statements, which one is incorrect? 300 K. Given this information, what is the value of the
electronic partition function for atomic oxygen at a
temperature of 300 K?
a. The molar entropy of a substance is an extensive
property.
b. The molar entropy of a substance always increases a. 9
with an increase in temperature. b. 6.74 x 10-24
c. The molar entropy of a molecular gas depends on c. 4.03 x 10-24
the molar mass of the constituent molecules. d. 6.743

Question 106
d. The entropy of a molecular system depends on the
What is the value of the molecular translational partition
spacings between the rotational and vibrational
function for the nitrogen molecules in a sample of N 2(g)
energy levels of the constituent molecules.
confined to a container of volume 1 m 3 and a temperature of
300 K?
Question 102
Consider two systems that are identical in all respects, except
that in one the molecules are distinguishable, whereas in the a. 2.41 x 108
other the molecules are indistinguishable. What would be the b. 1.45 x 1032
difference between the molar entropies of these two c. 1.45 x 1032 J/m3
systems? d. 2.41 x 108 kJ/molecule

a. 446.9 J/K-mol
b. 53.8 J/K-mol
c. There is no difference.
ANSWER KEY 58. A
59. A
1. C 60. B
2. C 61. C
3. B 62. B
4. C 63. D
5. A 64. B
6. A 65. B
7. A 66. A
8. A 67. B
9. A 68. A
10. C 69. B
11. C 70. A
12. A 71. C
13. C 72. B
14. D 73. A
15. A 74. C
16. D 75. D
17. B 76. A
18. C 77. A
19. A 78. C
20. D 79. A
21. D 80. B
22. C 81. B
23. D 82. B
24. B 83. C
25. B 84. B
26. A 85. C
27. D 86. C
28. D 87. D
29. C 88. B
30. D 89. C
31. A 90. A
32. A 91. A
33. B 92. A
34. D 93. A
35. A 94. D
36. D 95. C
37. B 96. C
38. B 97. A
39. A 98. B
40. A 99. A
41. B 100.D
42. C 101.A
43. A 102.A
44. A 103.C
45. C 104.B
46. C 105.D
47. C 106. B
48. C
49. A
50. C
51. D
52. D
53. D
54. D
55. B
56. C
57. A