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PROF. DR.-ING.

MAX KLÖCKER ALTE VAALSER STRASSE 147


LEHRGEBIET ANTRIEBS- UND F...RDERTECHNIK SOWIE 52074 AACHEN
STAHLBAU EINSCHL. STRUKTURANALYSE TEL. 0241/85282
AN DER FACHHOCHSCHULE K...LN

Expert Opinion

Assessment of the Safety Behaviour

of Wedge Locking Washer Pair Nominal Size 8

19.04.2010

Client

HEICO Befestigungstechnik GmbH


Ensestraße 1-9
59469 Ense

Contents

1. Ge nera l

1.1 Automatic release: mechanisms of loosening and unwinding


1.2 Safety measures: state of the technology

2. Reason and purpose of the examinations

3. Vibration test to examine the effect of the Wedge locking washer pairs

4. Experimental parameters and experimental procedure


4..1 Variants examined and their installation in the test
4.2 Strength class and hardening
4.3 Surface
4.4 Lubrication
4.5 Clamping length
4.6 Preload force and torque
4.7 Experimental setting and determination of transverse displacement
4.8 Test frequency

5. Test findings and Conclusions

6. Sources

This expert opinion consists of 8 pages.

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1 General

1.1 Automatic release: mechanisms of loosening and unwinding

The function of the bolt connection is to connect parts in the assembly with the preload force applied and
transferred to the operating forces.

The loosening of threaded connections is generally characterised by loss of clamp load /1/.

Differentiating loosening and unwinding.

With predominantly axial loading bolt loosening occurs due to plastic deformation caused by settling
and creep phenomena. With a normal bolt connection designed with high tension and long clamping
length, these plastic deformations can be sufficiently compensated for so that no loosening is expected
/2/.

The mechanisms of unwinding typically occur at angles in dynamically loaded bolted connections. The
main reason for this is that when acting perpendicularly to the bolt axis, the dynamic lateral load
decreases the friction between the components and is eventually eliminated. One result is slippage in the
contact zones. Thus, relative movement in the joints between the components is possible in the head and
between the thread edges of the bolt and nut. The lateral stiffness affects the individual parts of the
threaded connection.

According to Blume, the elastic bending deformation of the threaded shaft with forced transverse
displacements of the clamped components has a significant impact on the unwinding of the bolt /3/. The
failure limit is defined by the boundary shift. It depends upon the elasticity of the bolt and the transferability of
the lateral forces on the head or nut through friction. According to Blume the structural mechanics
equivalence model is inadequate to capture the real deformation mechanisms. In the determination of the
theoretical movement limit in the unwinding from a theoretical point of view, it originates exclusively from the
S-shaped deformation of the threaded shaft and the expected friction on the bearing surfaces of the threaded
components. Due to other practical factors, however, it is not suitable for a mathematical proof of unwinding
safety /4/. The designer therefore must depend upon experience, recommendations in standards and
experimental testing.

In the vibration test to assess the safety measures against unwinding, a reference standard must first be
established by implementing an experimental setting to eliminate the influence of testing stand stiffness on the
test results: on the vibration testing stand according to DIN 65151 /5/, the transverse displacement in the
clamped state is determined as when the pre-load force for an uncoated bolt has fallen to zero after a
specified number of cycles (300 LW). This transverse displacement is then compared with studies based
on safety measures.

This approach will be defined in a future supplement to DIN 25201-4 /6/.

1.2 Safety measures (state of the technology)

A diagram of the loosening mechanism as well as of the safety mechanism to prevent loosening is
summarised in DIN 25201-4: ”Securing threaded connections” (in Table A1) /6/. The standard contains a
summary in table form of safety elements and their function types and provides instruction on their application.
The standard DIN 25201-4 basically differentiates:
· unwinding safety to reduce the contact pressure due to increased contact surfaces and to compensate
for the expected amounts from the suspension of the locking washer. The effective use of these safety
elements requires a detailed knowledge of the elasticities of the individual fasteners.
· security nut with locking or adhesive functional elements. Locking elements require sufficient slippage
security elements between the safety nuts and the bearing surfaces of the bolt or nut and the
components. The necessary material is shown on page 3 of 3 and is achieved by an appropriate
design of the locking washer and through various hardnesses.

Page 2 of 9
• loss prevention devices with clamping elements. These are usually only effective if the bolted
connection is already inoperative. By an increase in the friction of the bolt they cause an increase in
unwinding torque and should before be given an additional preload force. In addition, these elements
prevent a final separation.

The Wedge locking washer pairs under examination are set out in Table A1 of DIN 25201-4:
“Construction guidelines for rail vehicles and their components – Bolt connections – Safety of bolt
connections” /6/ in the Security nuts with locking elements category.

2 Reason and purpose of the examinations

The aim of the examination was to assess the safety behaviour of the Wedge locking washer pairs in
comparison with the unsecured bolt connections by vibration tests on a test device in accordance with
DIN 65151.

3 Vibration test to examine the effect of the safety elements

To examine the effectiveness of safety elements, the testing device is used in accordance with DIN 65151
/5/. This consists of transversely moving slides which are clamped together over the bolt and nut to be tested.
Between the slides, a roller guide is arranged to stop the friction between the clamped parts and to
concentrate on the examination of the unwinding process of the bolt. The transverse displacement of
the slides comes from an adjustable eccentric drive mechanism (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Principal test design and recognised measured variables

The locking washers to be assessed are compared with the unsecured bolt connection. For this, in an
experimental setting of the bolt connections which are unsecured and otherwise comparable in all test
parameters in the clamped state, the transverse displacement is determined by the unwound bolt after 300
load cycles (preload force = 0 N). This transverse displacement is maintained for the examination of the
locking washers, so that the safety or torque retaining bolt is directly comparable with the unsecured set-
up. The running time of an unwinding process described in terms of measured variables (clamp load,
lateral displacement, shear force, number of cycles) is shown as an example in Figure 2. The failure
criterion used for the test is the preload torque loss that is detected as a function of cycle load changes.
Furthermore, during the experimental procedure the initiated lateral force and lateral displacement
continued to be measured.

This testing and the test parameters were developed and verified within the framework of an industrially
sponsored research contract from the University of Applied Science in Cologne and IMA Materials
Research and Application in Dresden /7/. It will be presented in a future supplement to DIN 25201-4 / 6 /.

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Figure 2: Principal test sequence during the vibration test: preload force (1), shear force (2) and
transverse displacement (3)

With respect to the current practice /7/ was agreed with the client

Runs: residual preload force after 2000 load cycles greater than 80% of the preload assembly.
For quantitative comparison of the runs the percentage of the residual clamp load at
2000 LC cycles is identified and put into the results

Failure: residual preload force after 2000 load cycles less than 80% of the preload assembly.
For quantitative comparison of the failure, the number of cycles where the 80% criterion is
exceeded is determined and placed against the summary of the results.

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4 Experimental parameters and experimental procedure

With the client, HEICO Befestigungstechnik GmbH, the following were set up for the vibration tests:

4.1 Variants examined and their installation in the test

· Experimental settings with unsecured bolts (3 to 5 times)

· Tests with the bolts secured by narrow wedge locking washer pairs M8x2.5

12 tests to determine the reproducibility.

Mounting position in the test: the test bolt with the wedge locking washer pair to be assessed was
inserted into the top of the slide and driven by an eccentric top slide. It protruded through the bolt hole of
the fixed lower slide and was secured there with similarly torsioned nuts (strength class, surface). The Wedge
locking washer pair was placed on a torsion washer ISO 7093 -1 (hardness class 200 HV). Nut and washer
were replaced for each test.

4.2 Strength classes and hardening

The bolts were marked with 8.8 and GFD, the nuts with 8.

In accordance with the strength class of the nuts the washers DIN 7093-1 had the required hardness
200HV.

4.3 Surface

The bolt parts were each coated with

· flZnnc 480h-L

(label on package)

The wedge locking washer pairs were coated as follows:

· “Narrow” washer geometry: Delta Protect (KL100)

The washers DIN 7093-1 were ground flat and polished.

4.4 Lubrication

The head-bearing surfaces and threads of the test samples were lubricated with molybdenum sulphite.

4.5 Clamping Length

The clamping length (distance between the contact surfaces in the test) was 17 x the nominal diameter.

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4.6 Preload force and torque

The test bolts were tightened with a special torque wrench. The following preloads were tightened:

M8: 9.1 kN

These values correspond to the 80% preload force according to VDI 2230, based on 90% utilisation of
the yield point, if strength class is defined as 10.9 (according to FK10 of the nuts tested) and the friction is
0.14. The corresponding torque was metrologically recorded and measured using the special key.

Table 2 in accordance with ZEV-Rail Glasers Annalen 132, May 2008/7/.


The preload strengths given in the table represent 50% of the values provided in VDI 2230 [8].

Unit M8 M10 M12 M 16 M20 M24 M30 M36


2 2
8.8 RP0,2 = 640 N/mm RP0,2 = 660 N/mm
vRp0,2 = 1,0 kN 20.1 32.0 46.6 87.7 141 203 325 475
a)
50% kN 9.1 14.4 21.0 39.5 64 92 146 214
75% a) kN 13.6 21.6 31.5 59.2 95 137 219 320
100%a) kN 18.1 28.8 42.0 78.9 127 183 292 427
2
10.9 RP0,2 = 940 N/mm
vRp0,2 = 1,0 kN 29.6 47.0 68,5 128.8 201 290 463 676
50% a) kN 13.3 21.2 30,8 58.0 91 130 208 304
75% a) kN 20.0 31.7 46,2 86.9 136 196 312 456
100% a) kN 26.6 42.3 61.7 115.9 181 261 417 609
2
A2-70 RP0,2 = 450 N/mm
vRp0,2 = 1,0 kN 14.2 22.5 32.8 61.7 96.3 These thread sizes
50% a) kN 6.4 10.1 14.8 27.7 43.4 Are not available
75%a) kN 9.6 15.2 22.1 41.6 65.0 on the market!
100% a) kN 12.7 20.3 29.5 55.5 86.7
A4-80 RP0,2 = 600 N/mm2
vRp0,2 = 1,0 kN 18.9 30.0 43.7 82.2 128.5 These thread sizes
50% a) kN 8.5 13.5 19.7 37.0 57.8 Are not available
75% a) kN 12.7 20.3 29.5 55.5 86.7 on the market!
100% a) kN 17.0 27.0 39.4 74.0 115.6
Ripp RP0,2 = 940 N/mm2
vzul = 1,0 b) kN 23.2 37.0 54.0 102,0
50% c) kN 11.6 18.5 27.0 51,0 These thread sizes are not
75% c) kN 17.4 27.8 40.5 76,5 available on the market! il bl
100% c) kN 23.2 37.0 54.0 102,0
a) Percentage refers to an allowable yield point utilisation Rp 0.2 of 90%
b) Permitted preload force according to Acument company document
c) Percentage refers to an Acument company document

4.7 Experimental setting and determination of transverse displacement

In all attempts transverse displacement setting for all tests were determined by experimental settings on
the unsecured bolts with the preload forces shown in section 4.6.

In the cross-braced setting there were the following transverse displacements:


M8 +/- 0,06 mm
+/- (0,098 mm non-stressed).

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4.8 Test frequency

According to DIN 65151 the frequency of the transverse displacement is set at 12.5 Hz.

5 Test findings and conclusions

The safety behaviour of the wedge locking washer pairs under examination can be clearly seen in the
following table.

M8-8.8, “Narrow” disc geometry

Load Rest-FV at Rest -FV at


FV 80% F V change 2000 LW 2000 LW
Test number [kN] [kN] of [kN] [%]
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_1-P1 8.98 7.18 > 2000 7.76 86.41
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_1-P2 9.08 7.26 > 2000 7.92 87.22
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_1-P3 9.08 7.26 > 2000 7.77 85.57
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_1-P4 9.03 7.22 > 2000 7.56 83.72
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_1-P5 8.98 7.18 > 2000 7.70 85.75
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_2-P1 9.08 7.26 > 2000 7.91 87.11
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_2-P2 9.03 7.22 > 2000 7.87 87.15
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_2-P3 9.20 7.36 > 2000 7.81 84.89
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_2-P4 9.08 7.26 > 2000 7.78 85.68
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_2-P5 8.94 7.15 > 2000 7.65 85.57
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_3-P1 9.03 7.22 > 2000 7.74 85.71
KVO08_100415_73-11-35-81_3-P1 9.08 7.26 > 2000 7.88 86.78

Overall assessment:

In the test conditions presented in Section 4, all the examined wedge locking washer pairs, without
exception, showed a residual preload force of more than 80% of the assembly preload strength
after 2000 load cycles.

The locking effect of the examined wedge locking washer pairs, according to the quantitative
test result, was rated as fully effective.

These tests were carried out with the greatest care and the expert opinion was formed in good faith and
conscience. However errors cannot be ruled out.

Fundamentally, the users of the results are not exempt from testing the usability of the described safety
elements in specific cases.

Neither legal responsibility not liability can be accepted by the expert.

(Prof. Dr. Eng. Max Klöcker)

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Quellennachweis

/1/ Ilgner, K.H.; Esser, J.: Schraubenvademecum 9. Auflage, Textron Verbindungstechnik GmbH&Co

OHG Neuwied, Rasch Verlag 2001, ISBN 3-935326-46-7.

/2/ VDI 2230, Blatt1: Systematische Berechnung hochbeanspruchter Schraubenverbindungen. Oktober

2001.

/3/ Blume, D.: Wann müssen Schraubenverbindungen gesichert werden? Verbindungstechnik 1

(1969) Nr. 4, S. 25-30.

/4/ Klöcker, M.; Hufschmidt, K. Einflussgrößen auf das selbsttätige Losdrehen von
Schraubenverbindungen und praxisgerechte Prüfung. DVM-Tagungsbericht Nr. 1644, Berlin 2004.

/5/ DIN 65151: Dynamische Prüfung des Sicherungsverhaltens von Schraubenverbindungen unter

Querbeanspruchung (Vibrationsprüfung). Februar 2002.

/6/ DIN 25201-4: Konstruktionsrichtlinie für Schienenfahrzeuge und deren Komponenten -


Schraubenverbindungen

– Teil 4: Sichern von Schraubenverbindungen. Juni 2004.

/7/ Franke, R.; Gärtner, E.; Klöcker, M.: Funktionssicherheit von Schraubenverbindungen mit
Sicherungselementen für Schienenfahrzeuge

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FM-04-PM
Form
Ed 1 Rev 0
Page 9 of 9 Certificate of accuracy

Lingo24 Ltd.
66 Queen’s Road
ABERDEEN, AB 15 4YE

roxana.telescu@lingo24.com

12th of July 2011

To whom it may concern

I hereby certify that the attached English translation: Expert Opinion, Assessment of the Safety
Behaviour of Wedge Locking Washer Pair Nominal Size 8 from 19.04.2010 is a true and correct
translation of the attached German document, to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Signed for and on behalf of Lingo24 Ltd,

TELESCU ROXANA
Account Manager
Lingo24 Ltd

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