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ChE 150 LE 3 Reviewer

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- Jamie Joice

Lecture 18 - The Atmosphere (2 Slides)


● Introduction
○ Atmosphere
○ envelope of gas that surrounds the earth
○ No sharp boundary between atmosphere and outer space
○ Within 80 km of the earth’s surface
● Evolution of Present Atmosphere
○ At first, ​hydrogen and helium
○ Next, volcanic emissions
■ Water vapor 85%
■ CO​2​ 10%
■ Nitrogen 1-5%
■ Sulfur 1-5%
■ Particulates
○ Water vapor condensed → formed oceans
○ Carbon dioxide was fixed in the oceans
○ Photo-dissociation → formed oxygen
■ 2 H​2​O + uv → 2 H​2​ + O​2
○ → formed ozone
■ 3 O​2​ + uv → 2 O​3
○ Warming of the atmosphere = ​reaction of free radicals
○ Current composition is due to the evolution of​ photosynthetic organisms
● Atmospheric Structure
○ Different energy inputs → layering
○ Different distribution gases → varying capacity to absorb solar energy
○ Four Layers
1. Troposphere
○ 0-12 km from Earth’s surface
○ Contains 90% of the mass of atmosphere
○ Contains CO​2​, water vapor, and methane → regulates temperature
○ Temperature declines with elevation (lapse rate = 6.5 o​​ C/km)
○ Where weather takes place
2. Stratosphere
○ 12 to 50 km from earth’s surface
○ Ozone production zone
○ Temperature increases with altitude (UV radiation absorption increases
the temperature)
○ Contains 1000 times less water than troposphere
○ Horizontal mixing​ ​spreads pollutant particles
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere
- Greenhouse Effect
○ Greenhouse gases: CO​2​ CH​4​, H​2​O, NO​2​, O​3
○ Transparent to incoming ​short wave solar energy​ (short wave UV yung galing sa sun!!)
○ GHG absorb outgoing long wave (long wave infrared from earth!!)
■ Mnemonic!! Short = UV , long = INFRARED
○ Mean global surface temp (MGST) = 15​o​C
■ W/o GHG = -22​o​C

● Tropospheric Circulation
○ Factors
■ Differential solar radiation
■ Reduced thickness of the troposphere from the equator to the poles
■ Coriolis effect
■ Variation of earth’s regional altitudes and cover types
○ Differential Heating of Earth’s Surface
■ Oblate spheroid = ​Uneven Heating
● Poles receive less radiation than equator
■ Tilt of earth’s rotation axis
■ Convection currents because poles receive less energy
■ MAS CONCENTRATED ung solar energy sa equator
○ Convection
■ Energy transfer between equator and poles
■ + energy above equator regions
■ Air moving → pressure gradients → winds
● Steeper pressure gradients → faster winds
○ Which has a higher density? ​Dry air or moist air?
■ Dry air = 29.87 g/mol
■ Water vapor = 18.02 g/mol
■ Moist air is less dense than dry air!!
○ The thunderstorms of the Intertropical Convergence zone (ITCZ) form a line across the
eastern Pacific Ocean
■ ITCZ - low pressure zone of convergent air masses caused by warm air rising in
the tropics


○ Coriolis Effect
■ Apparent deflection of a freely moving object caused by the earth’s rotation
■ North Hemisphere: air is deflected to the right of its path
■ South Hemisphere: air is deflected to the left of its path
■ Greatest at poles; nonexistent at the equator

● Winds
○ Local Winds
■ Valley breeze - Warm air rises in the morning (valley breeze), cool air sinks
■ Mountain breeze - cool air sinks (mountain breeze), warm air rises
○ Seasonally Changing winds
■ La Nina
■ El Nino
○ Wind Measurement
○ Wind speed can affect dilution of pollutants.
■ Concentration of pollutants INCREASE as wind speed DECREASES

● Stability
○ Degree to which the atmosphere will support, tolerate, or suppress turbulent motions
○ Related to ​wind speed ​ and l​ apse rate
○ Three categories:
■ Neutral stability
■ Unstable atmosphere
■ Stable atmosphere

● Lapse Rate
○ = change of temperature with altitude ΔT/ΔH
○ Adiabatic lapse rate
■ Change of temperature ​without a change in altitude of an air parcel​ without
gaining or losing heat to the environment surrounding the parcel
○ Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (Γ​d​) = 1C/100m


■ Assumes a dry parcel of air.
○ Wet adiabatic Lapse Rate (Γ​m​) = 6C / 1000m


■ As parcel rises, H​2​O condenses and gives off heat, and warms air around it
○ Γ​m =
​ Γ​d,​ + λ/C​p​ dH/dz

○ Ambient or environmental lapse rate (​γ)
■ Actual atmospheric temperature change with altitude
■ Varies with weather conditions (unlike wet adiabatic which varies with temp and
moisture content)
○ THREE TYPES
■ Neutral
● Ambient lapse rate = adiabatic lapse rate
● γ = ​Γ​d

■ Unstable
● Ambient lapse rate > adiabatic lapse rate
● γ > ​Γ​d
● Good for pollutant dispersion!!!
■ Stable
● Ambient lapse rate < adiabatic lapse rate
● γ < ​Γ​d
● Not good for pollutant dispersion

○ Special cases of stable Atmosphere


■ Isothermal
● When there is no change in temperature with atmosphere
■ Inversion
● Ambient temperature increases with elevation
● Happens sa madaling araw when sun is about to rise
● Most severe form of stable temp!!

● Inversion
○ Kind of inversion
■ Radiation Inversion
■ Frontal inversion
■ Subsidence Inversion

● Plumes
○ Smoke trail​ from a tall stack; Shape is dependent on stability of atmosphere
○ Kinds:​ (MNEMONIC: FaLoCo LoFu)
■ Fanning plume

■ Looping plume
● Superadiabatic lapse rate from ground up to plume height

■ Coning plume
● Roughly neutral lapse rate from the surface well past plume height
● Plume grows gradually both upward and downward

■ Lofting plume
● A stable layer lies underneath a neutral or unstable layer so the plume is
lofted upward
● Can't disperse downwards because of the inversion and stable layer
■ Fumigating plume
● - A special case of the fanning plume that goes through a transition
● Can extend a concentrated plume a significant distance from the source
and then rapidly mix it to the ground

Lecture 19 - Air Pollution (2 slides)


● Definition
○ Presence in the outdoor atmosphere of ​one or more air contaminants​ in sufficient
quantities and of such duration
○ Threaten to be injurious to human, plant, or animal life​ which reasonably interferes with
the comfortable enjoyment of life and property

● Sources
○ Natural
■ Volcanic eruption
■ Forest fire
■ Sand storm
■ Pollen grains
○ Man-Made
■ Mobile source
■ Stationary source
■ Area source

● Air Pollutants
○ Any matter found in the atmosphere other than the composition of air and the inert gases
in their natural or normal concentrations, that is​ detrimental to health or the environment.
○ Classification
■ According to origin
● Primary Pollutants - directly emitted to the atmosphere (SOx NOx HCs)
● Secondary Pollutants - reacted from primary
■ According to Chemical Composition
● Organic - HCs, VOCs, CFCs
● Inorganic - CO​2​, CO, NOx, SOx
■ According to state of matter
● Particulate Pollutants
○ FInely divided solids or liquids
○ Will eventually settle out
○ E.g. dust, smoke, fumes, fly ash
● Gaseous Pollutants
○ Behave much as air and don’t settle out
○ E.g. CO, SOx, NOx, VOCs

● Particulates
○ Any dispersed matter, solid or liquid in which the individual aggregates are larger than a
single small molecule (0.002 microns diameter) but smaller than about 500 microns.
○ Physical Characteristics
■ Size
● We want 0.01 µm to 100 µm
■ Mode of Formation
● Solid particulates - dust, smoke, fly ash, fumes
● Liquid - mist, spray
■ Settling properties
● Suspended - <1 µm - 20µm
● Settleable or dustfall - >10 µm
■ Optical characteristics
● Ability to scatter light: 0.38 - 0.76 µm
○ Chemical Characteristics
■ Organic - phenols, organic acids, alcohols
■ Inorganic - nitrates, sulfates, metals
○ Biological Characteristics - Includes protozoa, bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores, pollens

○ EFFECTS OF PARTICULATES
■ Decreased visibility
■ Human health
● Respirable Suspended Particulates (RSP) <10µm
● Nature and extent depend on
1. Toxic Substance
2. Recipient
3. Dose
4. Environment

■ Aeroallergens - causes allergies


■ Effects on plants and animals - dust on plants may reduce photosynthesis
■ Effect on materials - soiling, discoloration
■ Meteorological effects

○ Some Examples
■ Lead Particulates
● Particles from vehicular
● Damage to nervous system
■ Oxides of Sulfur
● SO​2​ and SO​3
● SO​2 -​ soluble in water, 4 to 8 days, 1000 km
■ Oxides of Nitrogen
● Comes mostly from agriculture
● NO, NO​2
■ Photochemical Smog
● Mixture of ozone, NOx, and hydrocarbons
● Sunlight, NOx, VOCx, T>18​o​C


■ CO​2​ and CO
● CO​2​ is a greenhouse gas
● CO is a lethal gas
■ Hydrocarbons
■ Ozone
● Protects us from UV
● Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) -- Found primarily as refrigerants, propellants
for aerosol sprays and production of styrofoams
■ VOCs
● Emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids
● Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten
times higher) than outdoors

● Indoor Air Pollution (p. 27)


○ Air pollutants that originate from building materials,furnishings, equipment and human
activities as cooking, cleaning and smoking
○ Exposure Reduction!!
○ Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) -​ ​building occupants experience ​acute health and
comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building​, but no specific illness
or cause can be identified.
○ Some examples
■ VOCs
■ Combustion Products
■ Lead and Radon
● Radon is released during natural decay of uranium
● Second leading cause of lung cancer in US
■ Biological Pollutants
● Bioaerosol
○ Any biological agent transmitted by the airborne route
○ Associated with allergies and asthma
● Mold
● Endotoxin
○ LPS (lipopolysaccharides)
○ Dust associated with dying bacterial cells
● Virus and bacteria
● Animal allergens, Arthropod and plant allergens

Three Danger Levels of Indoor Pollution


1. Allergens and Particulates
2. Infectious Agents
3. Toxic Compounds

● Philippine Clean Air Act (RA 8749) - 1999


○ DAO 2000-81: IRR of RA 8749
○ Emission fees based on ​mass emission rates
■ Operational data on annual production
■ Fuel usage and type
○ Mobile sources: DOTC (LTO), Stationary: DENR

● Air quality management


○ Kinds of Standards:
■ Primary - for protection of human health
■ Secondary - for prevention of environmental and property damage
○ 6 Criteria Pollutants​ (MNEMONIC: No SoCo Lead, PMPO)
■ Suspended particulate matter
■ SO​2
■ NO​2
■ Photochemical oxidants
■ CO
■ Lead

● Atmospheric Cleansing Processes


○ Dispersion -- Wind currents lessen the concentration of pollutants in any one place
○ Rainout - Small particles acting as nuclei may fall as rain
○ Washout - Raindrop collides with and collects particles as it falls
○ Chemical Reaction

● Air pollution control


○ Control at the source!!
■ Change process
■ Change fuel
■ Good operating practices
○ Needs equipment that
■ DESTROY, MASK, COUNTERACT, TRAP
○ Dilution
■ Tall stacks
■ Disperse somewhere else
■ discouraged!!

Lecture 20 - Particulate Matter Control (2 slides)


● Physical Principles
○ Gravity
○ Inertia
○ Filtration
○ Particle Enlarging
○ Electrostatic attraction
● Equipment
○ Mechanical Collectors
■ Gravity settling chambers
■ Baffle chambers
■ Centrifugal collectors
● Cyclones
● Dynamic precipitators
○ Wet Scrubbers
○ Baghouse filters
○ Electrostatic precipitation

Equipment Theory of Operation Applicable Industrial Efficiency


Pollutants Application
Gravity Settling -Uses gravitational settling -PM > 10 µm pre-cleaner < 50%
Chambers -removal of PM by ​reducing -most designs: Depends on residence
gas velocity PM > 50 µm time!

Baffle chambers/ -waste gas hits baffle, they -PM between pre-cleaner 50-90%
collectors fall 5-25 µm Increases with particle size
-separation of PM because and/or density,
of ​momentum
increased gas stream
velocity, number of baffles

cyclones Removal of PM by PM of sizes < 10 -pre-cleaner -First - Increases linearly with


centrifugal and inertial µm but > 2.5 µm stage PM control particle density, gas
forces ​induced by forcing for sinter plants, stream velocity and
waste gas to change roasters, kilns and rotational passes
direction furnaces - Exponential increase with
particle diameter

Wet scrubbers -incorporates the particles PM <= 10 µm -Iron foundries 90- 99% depending on
uses slaked lime into liquid droplets Hazardous -petroleum type of scrubber (packed,
or limestone slurry -Contact mechanism may pollutants refineries fludized, venturi wet
to remove sulfur either be ​inertial -paper mills, scrubber)
dioxide from flue impingement​ or i​nterception -control of SO 2
gas: during gravitational settling emissions

Baghouse filters -​dry​ particulates are trapped PM <= 10 µm -process with dust Depends on fabric chosen,
on filters made of cloth Hazardous generation cleaning frequency and
-Particles are​ shaken or pollutants -Industrial boilers, methods and particulate
blown ​from the filters down iron and steel characteristics
into a collection hopper production
- steel foundries, Fabric:
-cement -woven
manufacturing, -nonwoven (felt)

Electrostatic -use ​electric forces PM > 1 µm -Typical design efficiencies


precipitation -Entrained particles are between 99 and 99.9%
given an electrical charge
when they pass thru a -Equipment size
corona - Varies with electric field
-Particles once charged are strength
attracted to a collector -Dependent on gas
which assumes a charge temperature, dust
opposite that of entrained resistivity, chemical
particles -Particles are composition of the dust
removed from the collector and gas, particle size
plates by “rapping” distribution

Equipment Advantages Disadvantages

Gravity Settling -low capital cost -low efficiency


Chambers - low energy -large size
-no moving parts
-low pressure drop
-dry collection and disposal

Baffle chambers/ -Low capital cost -no no for sticky


collectors -No moving parts - high pressure drop
-Smaller space requirements than GSC - low efficiency pa rin
-Relatively low P drop Dry collection
Cyclones -can be used at high T - still low collection
-no moving parts (low maintenance) - prone to ​internal​ erosion
- low to moderate P drop - high efficiency → high pressure drops
-small space
-dry collection
- can handle high dust and large particles

Wet scrubbers -simultaneous gas absorption and particulate - since basa, corrosion/erosion
removal -since may water product, additional cost for
-Ability to cool and clean high temperature wastewater treatment
moisture-laden gases -liquid entrainment → contamination
-Corrosive gases and mists can be recovered - Water vapor contributes to visible plume under
and neutralized some atmospheric conditions
-Reduced dust explosion risk (kasi basa)
-Efficiency can be varied

Baghouse filters -High collection efficiencies Over-temperature limitations


-Collection of small particle possible Sensitivity to filtering velocity
-Dry collection possible Affected by relative humidity (condensation)
-Decrease of performance is noticeable Susceptibility of fabric to chemical attack

Electrostatic -very efficient -HIGH INITIAL COST


precipitation -very small particles can be collected -hopper may be clogged
-can be wet or dry particles -high voltage
-small pressure drop and power reqts -sensitive to variable dust loading/flow rates
-low maintenance, unless corrosive/adhesive -efficiency may deteriorate
materials
-few moving materials
-can handle high temp

Lecture 21 - Gaseous Contaminant Control


● Principal Gases of Concern
○ SOx, NOx, HCl, CO, CxHx, Odor
● Current Treatment Processes
○ Sorption Techniques (adsorption and absorption)
○ Condensation
○ Thermal oxidation/combustion
○ biofiltration

Theory of Operation Examples

Adsorption -gas (adsorbate) passes Characteristics Activated carbon​ – Eliminating


through porous material - Affinity to specific odors, purifying gases
(adsorbent) substances Silica ge​l – Drying and purifying
See: ChE 126 - High surface area to volume gases
ratio Alumina ​– Drying air and gases
- Easy to regenerate Molecular sieves ​– Controlling
and recovering Hg, SO 2 and NO
x emissions

Absorption Involves bringing Efficiency depends on: Absorption Units


Process in which a contaminated effluent gas - Properties of gas and solvent Spray towers
gaseous pollutant is (absorbate or solute) into - Pressure of gas above the Packed towers
dissolved in a liquid contact with liquid solution Venturi scrubbers
absorbent (solvent) - Temperature of the system -
Turbulence
- Packing medium used

Condensation Increasing a compound’s Condensation Equipment Choice depends on:


Process of converting partial pressure​ until it is - ​Contact condensers - ​Amount and type of coolant​ that
a gas or vapor to liquid equal or more than its (Vapor and cooling medium must be used
(Generally considered vapor pressure at the given are brought into direct contact) - ​Waste liquid disposal ​problems
as a pretreatment temperature -- - ​Surface condensers that will result
process for air (Physical adsorption of - ​Amount of compound​ that is to
pollution control) Reduction of a gaseous contaminants onto a surface be recovered
mixture’s temperature to its as the gaseous compound
saturation temperature condenses) (SEE NOTES BELOW)
(most common )

Thermal oxidation -Pollutants react with Applications Types


oxygen under high - For control of emissions that - Direct Combustion
temperature require d​estruction of - Recuperative
-COMBUSTION pollutants ​such as toxic or - Catalytic
-Possible generation of NO hazardous gases - Recuperative Catalytic
x and new pollutants - Industries include​ painting, - Regenerative
chemical, printing and - Thermal Oxidizer
pharmaceutical industries (SEE NOTES BELOW)

Biofiltration -Process by which gaseous Effective on certain VOCs Viable in treating large volumes of
USES BIOFILTER pollutants are removed (alcohol, ketones, and many gas with low levels of
from process gas stream by aliphatic and aromatic HCs​) contaminants
aerobic digestion​ or and some inorganic
consumption by microbe compounds (SEE NOTES BELOW)

For HCs : 50-100 g/(h-m 3 )

Other notes:​ (na di kasama sa table sa taas)


● Condensation
○ Other Systems:
■ Refrigeration systems: -45 to -100 o​​ C
■ Cryogenic Systems: up to -200 0​​ C
○ Generally applicable to ​relatively concentrated streams ( > 1000 ppm)
○ Typically employed when ​product recovery is desired
○ Application of condensers in air pollution control
■ As pretreatment devices
■ Used ahead of adsorbers, absorbers, and incinerators
■ Used primarily for hydrocarbons

● Thermal Oxidation
○ Direct Combustion
○ Recuperative -nasa loob ung HEx
○ Catalytic - may catalysts
○ Recuperative Catalytic
○ Regenerative -with preheating para
○ Thermal Oxidizer - nasa labas ung HEx
● Biofiltration
○ Biofilter
■ Consists of simple bed of material that is conducive to the support of microbe
growth thru which the gas passes at low velocity
■ Bed is usually kept moist and gas is humidified before entry in the filter
■ Bed may be made of compost, peat, wood chips, soil, polystyrene, fiberglass
wool, clay or granulated activated carbon (GAC)
○ Maintenance
■ Mineralization causes bed to collapse which causes increase in pressure drop
■ Presence of “poisons” like halogens and toxic metals can impair or kill
microorganisms

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