Sunteți pe pagina 1din 137

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 1 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Chapter 14

Electronic Suspension
and Steering Systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Objectives

Identify the components of electronic


suspension systems.
Explain the operation of electronic
suspension systems.
Identify types of electronic suspension
systems.
Explain the operation of electronic steering
systems.
Identify the components of electronic steering
systems.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension System
Fundamentals
Electronic suspension system uses
electronic components to control parts
of suspension system
Systems vary according to:
Type and number of input sensors
Whether air compressor is present
Number of wheels controlled

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension System
Fundamentals
All systems control operation of shock absorbers or
strut cartridges
Most air-operated systems control ride height and
quality by increasing or decreasing air in air shocks
Air shock systems always contain an air compressor
Hydraulic systems:
Have no compressor
Control ride quality but not ride height
Regulate hydraulic flow through shock absorber internal
parts

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension System
Fundamentals
Basic suspension components of
electronic suspension identical to those
on conventional suspension systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Input
Sensors
Variety of input sensors used
Most systems use one or more:
Height sensors
Vehicle speed sensors
Acceleration sensors
Steering wheel rotation sensors
Switches

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height Sensors

Height sensor
converts position of
vehicle body and
axle into electrical
signal
Some vary electrical
resistance as
distance changes
Some vary magnetic
field of current
passing through
sensor as distance
changes (Buick)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height Sensors

When current flow varies, voltage varies


Control module reads change in voltage
as change in height
Sensor usually installed on body or
frame
Linkage connects sensor to axle or
control arm
When weight added or removed from
vehicle, body moves in relation to axle
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height Sensors
When system compensates for weight
change:
Lever moves in opposite direction
Movement tells control module that ride
height correct
Common systems use:
Two sensors on front suspension
• Attached to lower control arm and body
One on rear
• Attached to rear axle and body
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height Sensors

Height sensor:
Records position of suspension part it is
attached to
Sends information to control module
Control module
Interprets sensor signal vehicle height

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height Sensors

Advantage of system:
Control module can monitor height at all
four wheels
Make changes to keep vehicle level

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Vehicle Speed Sensor

Vehicle speed sensor


either attached:
To output shaft of
transmission or transaxle
In differential of rear-
wheel drive vehicle
Consists of:
Toothed wheel
Small coil
Uses magnetism to
(Toyota)
create AC signal

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Vehicle Speed Sensor

Some speed sensors wired to engine


control module (ECM) or body control
module (BCM)
ECM or BCM controls engine factors
such as fuel mixture and ignition timing
based partially on signal from speed
sensor
ECM also directs speed input to
suspension control module
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Acceleration Sensor

Acceleration sensor or accelerometer:


Measures speed of vehicle acceleration or
deceleration
Input from sensor used to calculate
suspension firmness
Keeps vehicle body level during heavy
acceleration or braking

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Acceleration Sensor

Some sensors, are


lateral
accelerometers:
Mount at right angle
to centerline of
vehicle
Detect body roll
when vehicle turns
sharply

(Bosch)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Acceleration Sensor

Modern accelerometer consists of:


Piezoelectric crystal
Weight
Changes in speed and direction cause
weight to press on crystal
Crystal produces small electrical currently
Signal is sent to control module

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Steering Wheel Rotation Sensor

Some vehicles use


steering wheel
rotation sensor as
input to suspension
system
Sensor determines:
Which direction
steering wheel is
turned (Nissan)

How quickly steering


wheel is turned

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

1. All of the following are electronic


suspension input sensors, except:
A. speed sensor.
B. height sensor.
C. temperature sensor.
D. acceleration sensor.

C. temperature sensor.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Switches

Switches are on-off


devices that send
specific signal to
control module
Most are two
position switches
Usually on-off
Some have several
positions
(Corvette)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Switches

Switches include:
Brake pressure switches
Manual control switches
Suspension service switches
Door switches

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Brake Pressure Switches

Brake system hydraulic pressure


increases when vehicle brakes hard
Brake pressure switch closes at preset
pressure
When switch closes, voltage signal is
sent to module
Tells module vehicle braking is severe

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Brake Pressure Switches

Brake switch located in brake hydraulic


system
Many ride control systems do not use
brake pressure input

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Manual Control Switches

Manual control switches:


Driver-accessible switches mounted on
dashboard
Used to move between soft and firm
positions when desired
Manual switches usually have two or
three positions

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Suspension Service Switches

Suspension service switch:


Used to disable electronic suspension
system before vehicle raised on lift
• System would attempt to compensate for
suspension changes when wheels drop
• If system not disabled with wheels off ground,
vehicle height will be incorrect when wheels
back on ground

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Suspension Service Switches

Suspension
service switch
usually located in
trunk
Switch may be
called on-off
switch by some
manufacturers

(Lexus)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

2. True or False? The suspension service


switch must be put in the Off position
before the vehicle is raised on a frame
lift.

True.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Door Switches

Door switch:
Type of input switch
Informs ride control system that someone
is entering or leaving vehicle
Most electronic suspension systems do not
use door switch input

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module
Control module:
Computer
• Processes signals (inputs) from input sensors
and sends command signals (output) to output
devices
• Examples: Air compressor and flow control
actuators

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module

(Cadillac)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module
Microprocessor
Uses control loop principle
Compares input information from sensors
with preset information
Decides whether output devices should be
activated

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module
Control module has delay mechanism
that prevents system activation for 5-10
seconds
Delay mechanism keeps system from
operating excessively when vehicle
driven over rough roads

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module
Most modern modules have data link
connector
Some electronic suspension systems
electrically connected to ECM or PCM
Diagnostic connector of ECM/PCM
retrieves suspension system trouble
codes and other information

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module
Control module can be located anywhere on
vehicle
Under the hood
Dashboard
Under a seat
In trunk
Ride-height suspension modules may be
single units with height sensor
Some vehicles do not have separate module

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Control
Module
Suspension control is part of ECM or
PCM
ECM or PCM receives sensor inputs
and makes ride control decisions based
on inputs

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

3. The electronic suspension _____


processes signals (inputs) from input
sensors and sends command signals
(output) to output devices.

control module

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Output
Devices
Output of electronically controlled
suspension system may be either:
Air pressure system similar to that of
conventional air shock system
Hydraulic controls located directly at shock
absorber or strut
Some use air and hydraulic components

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Suspension Output
Devices
Air-operated system components
Hydraulic system components
System lights

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air-Operated System Components

Output devices found in air-operated


suspension systems include:
Air compressor
Control relay
Exhaust valve and solenoid
Air drier
Air lines and fittings
Air springs
Air shock absorbers/struts

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Compressor

Most common air compressor used in


air-operated systems:
Single-piston compressor driven by small
electric motor
Compressor consists of:
Piston and cylinder
Two check valves at top of cylinder

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Compressor

Check valves arranged so that:


When piston moves down in cylinder, inlet
valve opens by atmospheric pressure
When piston moves up, pressure increase
closes inlet valve

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Compressor

Outlet valve:
Remains closed
when piston moves
downward
Opens by
pressurized air when
piston moves
upward

(General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Compressor

Compressor assembly contains either:


Pressure relief valve
Pressure relief switch
When preset pressure value reached:
Valve opens to relieve pressure
Switch opens to de-energize motor
• When pressure drops, switch closes and
voltage supplied to motor
• Switch may be replaced by relay
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

4. How many pistons does the typical air


suspension compressor have?

The typical air suspension compressor


has one piston.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Control Relay

Some compressors operated by relay


Control module energizes relay
Relay sends power to compressor
Relays may be:
Electromechanical (contact point)
Power transistors

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Exhaust Valve and Solenoid

Air exhaust valve


operated by
exhaust valve
solenoid
Solenoid:
Controlled by
module
Energized to release
pressure from
system when ride
height excessive (Chevrolet)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Exhaust Valve and Solenoid

Air may be exhausted either:


Directly to atmosphere
Through air drier

(General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Drier

Air drier keeps moisture from entering


shock absorbers
Contains chemical called desiccant
Desiccant absorbs moisture
Air entering system from compressor
passes through drier and moisture
removed

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Drier

Filter keeps desiccant from entering


other parts of system
When air is released from system, it
passes through drier and takes some
moisture with it
Keeps desiccant from being overloaded
with moisture

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Drier

Some driers installed ahead of


compressor
Check valve in drier maintains set
pressure in system

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

5. An air _____ contains a material called


desiccant.

drier

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Lines and Fittings

Air lines connect other air system parts


Air lines made of plastic tubing
Air line diameter about 1/32'' (0.8 mm)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Lines and Fittings
Fitting at end of each air line used to attach
line to other components
Fittings:
Keep lines from blowing off under pressure
Seal against leaks

(Lexus)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Springs

Air springs used in place of both spring


and shock absorber in some air-operated
systems
Basic component of air spring is rubber
diaphragm, or membrane
Diaphragm installed between lower
control arm and vehicle body

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Springs

Filling diaphragm
with air causes it to
expand
As diaphragm
expands, it pushes
body upward
When air removed,
diaphragm
collapses, allowing
body to drop down
(Ford)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Shock Absorbers/Struts

Air shock absorbers are conventional


shock absorbers with sealed air
chambers
When used on struts, chambers
sometimes called air bladders

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Shock Absorbers/Struts

Compressed air can be added to


chambers to:
Compensate for vehicle loading
Increase ride height
Sealed chamber exerts pressure on
shock interior
Pressure causes shock to try to expand

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air Shock Absorbers/Struts

As shock expands, it pushes upward


against vehicle weight, causing rear of
vehicle to rise
Air shocks or struts installed in same
location as conventional shocks and
struts

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

6. True or False? A vehicle with air springs


has conventional (not air-operated)
shock absorbers.

False. A vehicle with air springs does not


have any shock absorbers.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hydraulic System Components

On vehicles without air compressor,


internal hydraulic system of shock or
strut controlled to vary ride firmness
Unlike air-operated systems, these
systems cannot control ride height
Hydraulic systems consist of two major
components:
Flow control actuators
Ride relays
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Actuators

Electric flow control


actuators installed in
shocks or struts
Actuator is electric
solenoid that
operates flow control
valve
Valve controls flow of
hydraulic fluid
through shock

(General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Actuators

Most flow control solenoids pulse on


and off
On for certain percentage of time
vehicle is operating
Percentage may be called duty cycle
Solenoid and valve assembly located in
shock or strut

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

7. Flow control actuators are used on


_____ ride control systems.

hydraulic

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Ride Relays

Some systems with flow control


solenoids have soft and firm ride relays
Relays energized from dashboard switch
Modify computer input to compensate for
driver preferences

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
System Lights

Electronic suspension controls use


indicator lights
Installed in instrument panel
These lights used to:
Indicate system status
Warn of suspension system problem

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Status Lights
Some vehicles have
lights at manual
control switch to
indicate which ride
status or mode has
been selected
Lights usually
consist of LEDs
(light emitting
diodes) mounted on
switch itself (Lexus)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Status Lights

Some status lights used to indicate


problems
System has defect if:
All lights are on at once
Lights flash on and off
Some lights are located on center
console

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Warning Lights

Some system use dashboard-mounted


warning lights
Light may be:
Standard automotive bulb
LED
Light operated by suspension control
module

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Warning Lights
Most warning lights come on briefly when
vehicle started to check module and light
operation
If light is illuminated at any other time,
system has defect

(Nissan)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Types of Electronic Suspension
Systems
Three general types of electronically
controlled suspension systems:
Air-operated ride and height control system
Hydraulic ride control system
Combination system using both air and
hydraulic controls

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air-Operated Ride and Height
Control System
Air-operated ride and height controls
use one of two height adjustment
devices:
Air springs
Air shock absorbers

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air-Operated Ride and Height
Control System
Air pressure to either type is:
Increased by air compressor
Decreased by exhaust valve
Electronic control system operates:
Compressor
All associated valves and switches

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air-Operated Ride and Height
Control System
Typical sensor inputs include:
Ride height
Vehicle speed
Output devices are:
Air compressor
Exhaust valve

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air-Operated Ride and Height
Control System
Control module:
Processes inputs
Issues commands to air compressor and
exhaust valve solenoid

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Air-Operated Ride and Height
Control System
Height-sensitive system
Speed-sensitive system

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 75 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height-Sensitive System

Height-sensitive system
varies pressure
delivered to air springs
or air shocks based on
ride height input
Module operation of
compressor and
pressure relief valve
solenoid controls ride
height

(General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 76 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height-Sensitive System

Distance between axle and body


decreases when weight added
Height sensor lever moves
Telling module that height has decreased
Module energizes compressor motor
Causing compressor to send pressurized
air to air springs or air shocks

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 77 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height-Sensitive System

Increased pressure raises vehicle body


in relation to axle
When module determines height has
returned to normal, it de-energizes
compressor motor

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 78 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height-Sensitive System

When extra weight


removed, distance
between axle and body
increases
Height sensor lever
moves in opposite
direction
Height sensor input
causes module to
energize exhaust valve
solenoid
Exhaust valve opens (General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 79 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Height-Sensitive System

Air pressure exits system


Body moves downward
When height returns to normal, module
de-energizes exhaust valve solenoid
Height-sensitive system may also be
used as part of combination system

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 80 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Speed-Sensitive System

Speed-sensitive suspension lowers vehicle body as


speed increases
Accomplished by reducing air pressure in shocks or
struts as speed increases
When speed is reduced, air compressor energizes,
causing vehicle height to increase

(Ford)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 81 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Speed-Sensitive System

Control module receives input directly


from vehicle speed sensor or by way of
ECM or PCM
When vehicle reaches preset speed:
ECM or PCM releases air pressure from air
springs or shocks
Vehicle is lowered

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 82 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Speed-Sensitive System

Amount vehicle is lowered varies with


engine speed
System does not operate until vehicle
reaches cruising speeds

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 83 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

8. A speed-sensitive suspension lowers


the vehicle body as the vehicle’s speed
_____.

increases

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 84 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hydraulic Damping Systems

Module varies operation of solenoids to


control flow of fluid in shocks or struts
Can be done:
• Manually through instrument panel switch
• Automatically by control module based on
sensor inputs
• A combination of manual and automatic
controls

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 85 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hydraulic Damping Systems

Input sensors for


hydraulic ride
control system
include:
Accelerometer
Speed sensor
Brake pressure
(Lexus)

sensor
Steering wheel
position sensor

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 86 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hydraulic Damping Systems

Control module:
Processes inputs from sensors
Energizes solenoids at shocks or struts
Solenoid operation reduces amount of
flow through fluid orifices
Firming suspension as necessary

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 87 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hydraulic Damping Systems

Control module can control individual


solenoids
Results in variations in firmness from one
side of vehicle to other
Helpful when cornering or hard braking

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 88 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hydraulic Damping Systems

Manual control systems


Automatic control systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 89 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Manual Control Systems

Instrument panel switch controls manual


system
Switch may be:
Two-position, generally on-off switch
Three-position switch, with additional
“automatic” (or auto) position
• Automatic control takes over when selected

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 90 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Automatic Control Systems

Control module operates automatic


system based on inputs from sensors
Inputs include:
Accelerometer
Vehicle speed sensor
Sometimes steering wheel and brake
sensors

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 91 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Automatic Control Systems
System stiffens suspension when
sensors signal firmer suspension needed
When accelerometer input indicates
vehicle being braked hard:
Module signals control solenoids, or
actuators, in shocks/struts to close
Damping effect increased
Increased shock firmness reduces
tendency of vehicle to dive during hard
braking
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 92 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Automatic Control Systems

When input indicates hard braking over:


Module signals solenoids to allow normal
flow through shocks or struts
Ride quality returns to normal settings for
maximum passenger comfort
System performs similar function when
vehicle accelerated or cornered hard

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 93 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Combination Systems

Combination system consists of both:


Air-operated shock absorbers
Hydraulic damping valves
System performs functions of air-
operated system:
Height control
Lowering at cruising speeds

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 94 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Combination Systems

System performs functions of hydraulic


system:
Control of body level during heavy
acceleration, braking, or cornering
Varying ride feel
Operation of system similar to operation
of individual systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 95 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Steering Control
Systems
Electronic steering control system:
Provides maximum power assist at low
speeds
Reduces assist at high speeds
Increases road feel and steering stability

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 96 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Steering Control
Systems
System functions by monitoring:
Vehicle speed
Speed at which steering wheel is turned
System uses this information to control
output of power steering pump

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 97 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Steering Control
Systems
If electronic steering control system
fails:
Power steering pump output is not affected
Power steering system operates normally
Dashboard mounted light warns driver
of system failure

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 98 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electronic Steering Control
Systems
Control system components
Control system operation
Electric power steering systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 99 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Control System Components

Basic components of electronic steering


systems same as conventional steering
system:
Pump
Gearbox
Connecting hoses

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 100 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Control System Components

Electronic components used to modify


operation of basic parts
Common electronic components:
Input devices
Control module
Output devices

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 101 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Input Devices

Two most common input sensors used


in electronic steering control systems:
Vehicle speed sensor
Steering wheel rotation sensor

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 102 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Vehicle Speed Sensor

Vehicle speed sensor operates in same


manner as described earlier
ac signal created in sensor
Sensor signals ECM or PCM
ECM or PCM sends speed reading to
steering control module

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 103 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Steering Wheel Rotation Sensor

Steering wheel
rotation sensor
installed in
steering column
Two basic types:
Electromagnetic
sensor
Optical sensor
(Lexus)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 104 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Steering Wheel Rotation Sensor

Electromagnetic sensor creates variable


ac voltage
Operates in same manner as wheel
speed sensor
Frequency sent to control module as
steering wheel turning speed signal

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 105 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Steering Wheel Rotation Sensor

Optical sensor (or optical disc) senses


steering wheel speed using:
Photo cell
Photo diode
Shutter assembly

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 106 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Steering Wheel Rotation Sensor

Photo diode creates light signal that is


picked up by photocell
Photocell converts light beam to
electrical signal

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 107 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Steering Wheel Rotation Sensor

Shutter:
Connected to steering shaft
Rotates with it
As shutter turns, slits interrupt light
beam
How fast light beam interrupted
determines electrical signal sent to
module

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 108 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

9. All of the following are part of a steering


wheel rotation optical sensor, except:
A. flow control actuator.
B. photo cell.
C. shutter assembly.
D. photo diode.

A. flow control actuator.


© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 109 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Control Module

Control module:
Processes inputs from vehicle and steering
wheel speed sensors
Sends output command to flow control
solenoid
Module usually installed near steering
wheel

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 110 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Output Devices

Several devices used to control steering


effort in power steering system
Some mounted on power steering pump
Others installed on steering gear
Systems will have only one type of
output device

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 111 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Output Devices

Output devices include:


Flow control solenoid
Inlet hose check valve
Pressure control solenoid
Electromagnet

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 112 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Solenoid

Flow control solenoid and valve


assembly:
Diverts flow to pump reservoir
Installed in outlet line of power steering
pump
Pulses on and off to control amount of fluid
diverted

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 113 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Solenoid

Module controls pulse time (or duty cycle) of


solenoid

(Toyota)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 114 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Inlet Hose Check Valve

Inlet to power steering gear contains


internal inlet hose check valve
If vehicle strikes pothole or bump when
flow rate low, severe kickback may be
felt in steering wheel

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 115 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Inlet Hose Check Valve

Check valve:
Keeps fluid from backing up through inlet
hose
Reduces kickback by allowing fluid in gear
to absorb some shock
Not all systems use this valve

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 116 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Pressure Control Solenoid

Controls pressure to steering gear valve


Increases or decreases steering effort
Solenoid located on rack-and-pinion steering
gear

(General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 117 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electromagnet

Some systems use electromagnet


assembly
Assembly located at power steering
valve in rack-and-pinion steering gear

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 118 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electromagnet

Electromagnetic
assembly consists of:
Permanent magnet
attached to input shaft of
valve
Two pole pieces (also
magnets) attached to
output section of valve
Magnetic coil installed in
pinion gear housing

(General Motors)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 119 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Control System Operation

In operation, electronic steering control


system components work together:
To control steering system operation
Regardless of type of output device used
Flow control systems
Pressure control systems
Electromagnetic systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 120 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Systems

At low vehicle speeds, module instructs


flow solenoid to allow full oil flow to
power steering gear
Solenoid opens completely
System inoperative
Control module still receives and
processes inputs from sensors

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 121 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Systems

At high speeds:
Rate at which steering wheel turned affects
electronic steering system operation
At straight-ahead cruising speeds, module
reduces power steering fluid flowing to
steering gear

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 122 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Flow Control Systems

Low fluid flow increases power steering


effort
Gives driver more control and road feel
When steering wheel rotation sensor
indicates steering wheel moving quickly:
Module signals flow control solenoid to
move to fully open position
• Provides full power assist needed to make
quick steering maneuver at high speeds

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 123 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Pressure Control Systems

Steering gear valve contains small


hydraulic pistons
Pistons use power steering pump
pressure to oppose movement of
steering gear
Extra pressure increases steering effort

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 124 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Pressure Control Systems

Electric solenoid:
Operated by control module
Regulates hydraulic pressure to pistons
At low speeds, solenoid reduces
pressure to pistons
Results in minimum steering effort

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 125 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Pressure Control Systems

At higher speeds, solenoid allows


pressure to pistons to increase:
Increasing steering effort
Improving road feel

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 126 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electromagnetic Systems

At low speeds:
Coil de-energized
Power steering at maximum assist
As speed increases:
Module proportionally energizes coil
Increasing current flow builds up magnetic
field around magnets in power steering
control valve

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 127 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electromagnetic Systems

Magnetic field increases resistance


between input and output sections of
valve
Driver input to steering gear has less effect
Driver must put more effort into turning
steering wheel to move steering gear
Increase in effort improves road feel

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 128 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

Power steering system


on some late-model
vehicles operated by
electric motor
Kinds of electric power
steering:
Electrohydraulic
• Steering conventional
hydraulic type, but
pump driven by electric
motor, not engine-driven
belt

(TRW)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 129 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems
Three electromechanical types have no
hydraulic components
Motor in these electromechanical
systems is installed:
(A) In steering gear and moves rack directly
(B) On steering column and operates pinion
gear meshed with ring gear attached to
steering shaft
(C) On rack and next to, and meshing with,
pinion gear
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 130 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

A B C
(TRW)

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 131 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

All electric power steering systems


operate on same principles
Computer controls overall system
operation
Computer bases decisions on inputs from
sensors

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 132 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

Sensor on steering column provides


inputs on:
Turning effort
Speed of steering wheel movement
Speed sensors provide vehicle speed
input

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 133 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

Vehicle speed inputs come from same


sensors that provide inputs used to
control:
Automatic transmission shifting
Anti-lock brake (ABS) operation

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 134 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

Computer:
Processes inputs
Sends voltage to electric motor
Amount and direction of voltage
depends on inputs received from
sensors

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 135 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Electric Power Steering Systems

At low speeds or during parking,


computer sends high voltage to motor to
provide maximum steering assist
At high speeds, computer sends
relatively small voltage to motor
Reduces assist to increase road feel

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 136 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review Questions

10. True or False? Some electric power


steering systems have hydraulic
components.

True.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 137 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.