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Hindu texts

Hindu texts are manuscripts and historic


literature related to any of the diverse
traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are
shared resources across these traditions
and broadly considered as Hindu
scriptures.[1][2] These include the Vedas
and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in
defining the term "Hindu scripture" given
the diverse nature of Hinduism,[2][3] many
include Bhagavad Gita and Agamas as
Hindu scriptures,[2][3][4] while Dominic
Goodall includes Bhagavata Purana and
Yajnavalkya Smriti to the list of Hindu
scriptures.[2]

There are two historic classifications of


Hindu texts:

Shruti – that which is heard,[5] and


Smriti – that which is remembered.[6]

The Śruti refers to the body of most


authoritative, ancient religious texts,
believed to be eternal knowledge authored
neither by human nor divine agent but
transmitted by sages (rishi). These
comprise the central canon of
Hinduism.[5][7] It includes the four Vedas
including its four types of embedded texts
- the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the
Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.[8] Of
the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), the Upanishads
alone are widely influential among Hindus,
considered scriptures par excellence of
Hinduism, and their central ideas have
continued to influence its thoughts and
traditions.[9][10]

The Smriti texts are a specific body of


Hindu texts attributed to an author,[8] as a
derivative work they are considered less
authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism.[6] The
Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse
texts, and includes but is not limited to
Vedāngas, the Hindu epics, the Sutras and
Shastras, the texts of Hindu philosophies,
the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical
literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous
Nibandhas (digests) covering politics,
ethics, culture, arts and society.[11][12]

Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts


were composed in Sanskrit, many others
in regional Indian languages. In modern
times, most ancient texts have been
translated into other Indian languages and
some in Western languages.[2] Prior to the
start of the common era, the Hindu texts
were composed orally, then memorized
and transmitted orally, from one
generation to next, for more than a
millennia before they were written down
into manuscripts.[13][14] This verbal
tradition of preserving and transmitting
Hindu texts, from one generation to next,
continued into the modern era.[13][14]

The Vedas

Manuscripts of 18th-century Hindu texts in Sanskrit


and in a regional language Odiya (below)
The Vedas are a large body of Hindu texts
originating in ancient India, with its
Samhita and Brahmanas complete before
about 800 BCE.[15] Composed in Vedic
Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest
layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest
scriptures of Hinduism.[16][17][18] Hindus
consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya,
which means "not of a man,
superhuman"[19] and "impersonal,
authorless".[20][21][22] The knowledge in the
Vedas is believed in Hinduism to be
eternal, uncreated, neither authored by
human nor by divine source, but seen,
heard and transmitted by sages.[7]
Vedas are also called śruti ("what is
heard") literature,[23] distinguishing them
from other religious texts, which are called
smṛti ("what is remembered"). The Veda,
for orthodox Indian theologians, are
considered revelations, some way or other
the work of the Deity.[24] In the Hindu Epic
the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is
credited to Brahma.[25]

There are four Vedas

The Rigveda,
The Yajurveda,
The Samaveda and
The Atharvaveda.[26][27]
Sub-Classification of Veda

Each Veda has been Sub-Classified into


four major text types:-

The Samhitas (mantras and


benedictions),
The Aranyakas (text on rituals,
ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-
sacrifices),
The Brahmanas (commentaries on
rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and
The Upanishads (text discussing
meditation, philosophy and spiritual
knowledge).[26][28][29]

The Upanishads
The Upanishads
The Upanishads are a collection of Hindu
texts which contain some of the central
philosophical concepts of
Hinduism.[30][note 1]

The Upanishads are commonly referred to


as Vedānta, variously interpreted to mean
either the "last chapters, parts of the Veda"
or "the object, the highest purpose of the
Veda".[31] The concepts of Brahman
(Ultimate Reality) and Ātman (Soul, Self)
are central ideas in all the
Upanishads,[32][33] and "Know your Ātman"
their thematic focus.[33] The Upanishads
are the foundation of Hindu philosophical
thought and its diverse traditions.[10][34] Of
the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely
known, and the central ideas of the
Upanishads have had a lasting influence
on Hindu philosophy.[9][10]

More than 200 Upanishads are known, of


which the first dozen or so are the oldest
and most important and are referred to as
the principal or main (mukhya)
Upanishads.[35][36] The mukhya
Upanishads are found mostly in the
concluding part of the Brahmanas and
Aranyakas[37] and were, for centuries,
memorized by each generation and
passed down verbally. The early
Upanishads all predate the Common Era,
some in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th
century BCE),[38] down to the Maurya
period.[39] Of the remainder, some 95
Upanishads are part of the Muktika canon,
composed from about the start of
common era through medieval Hinduism.
New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the
Muktika canon, continued being
composed through the early modern and
modern era, though often dealing with
subjects unconnected to Hinduism.[40][41]

The Puranas
The Puranas are a vast genre of Hindu
texts that encyclopedically cover a wide
range of topics, particularly myths,
legends and other traditional lore.[42]
Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in
regional languages,[43][44] several of these
texts are named after major Hindu deities
such as Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva and
Goddess Devi.[45][46] The Puranas genre of
literature is found in
both Hinduism and Jainism.

The Puranic literature is encyclopedic,[47]


and it includes diverse topics such as
cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of
gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages,
and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages,
temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar,
mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as
theology and philosophy.[42][44][45] The
content is highly inconsistent across the
Puranas, and each Purana has survived in
numerous manuscripts which are
themselves inconsistent.[43] The Hindu
Puranas are anonymous texts and likely
the work of many authors over the
centuries; in contrast, most Jaina Puranas
can be dated and their authors
assigned.[43]

There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great


Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor
Puranas),[48] with over 400,000 verses.[42]
The Puranas do not enjoy the authority of
a scripture in Hinduism,[48] but are
considered a Smriti.[49] These Hindu texts
have been influential in the Hindu culture,
inspiring major national and regional
annual festivals of Hinduism.[50] The
Bhagavata Purana has been among the
most celebrated and popular text in the
Puranic genre.[51][52]

Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata, is


hagiographically credited as the compiler
of the Puranas. The date of the production
of the written texts does not define the
date of origin of the Puranas. They existed
in an oral form before being written down,
and were incrementally modified well into
the 16th century. Wendy Doniger, based on
her study of indologists, assigns
approximate dates to the various Puranas.
She dates Markandeya Purana to c. 250
CE (with one portion dated to c. 550
CE), Matsya Purana to c. 250–500
CE, Vayu Purana to c. 350
CE, Harivamsa and Vishnu Purana to c.
450 CE, Brahmanda Purana to c. 350–950
CE, Vamana Purana to c. 450–900
CE, Kurma Purana to c. 550–850 CE,
and Linga Purana to c. 600–1000 CE.
Maha Puranas, said to be eighteen in
number, divided into three groups of six,
though they are not always counted in the
same way:-

Sattva Vishnu Purana,  Bhagavata Purana,  Naradeya Purana,  Garuda Purana,  Padma
("Truth") Purana,  Varaha Purana

Rajas Brahmanda Purana,  Brahma Vaivarta Purana,  Markandeya Purana,  Bhavishya


("Passion") Purana,  Vamana Purana,  Brahma Purana

Tamas Matsya Purana,  Kurma purana,  Linga Purana,  Shiva Purana,  Skanda Purana, 
("Ignorance") Agni Purana

The Bhagavad Gita


A 19th century manuscript of the Hindu text Bhagavad
Gita

The Bhagavad Gita is a 700–verse Hindu


scripture in Sanskrit that is part of
the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–
40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata). This
scripture contains a conversation between
Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and
charioteer Lord Krishna on a variety of
philosophical issues. Commentators see
the setting of the Gita in a battlefield as an
allegory for the ethical and moral
struggles of the human life. The Bhagavad
Gita's call for selfless action inspired many
leaders of the Indian independence
movement including Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi, who referred to the
Gita as his "spiritual dictionary". Numerous
commentaries have been written on the
Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views
on the essentials, beginning with Adi
Sankara's commentary on the Gita in the
8th century CE.
The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of
the concept of Dharma, theistic bhakti,
the yogic ideals of
moksha through jnana, bhakti, karma,
and Raja Yoga (spoken of in the 6th
chapter) and Samkhya philosophy. 

Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters


(section 25 to 42) in the Bhishma Parva of
the epic Mahabharata and consists of 700
verses. The Sanskrit editions of
the Gita name each chapter as a particular
form of yoga. However, these chapter
titles do not appear in the Sanskrit text of
the Mahabharata. Swami
Chidbhavananda explains that each of the
eighteen chapters is designated as a
separate yoga because each chapter, like
yoga, "trains the body and the mind".

Eighteen Chapters Of
Bhagavad Gita

1. Prathama Adhyaya (The Distress of


Arjuna: contains 46 verses): Arjuna
requests Lord Krishna to move
his chariot between the two armies.
2. Sankhya Yoga (The Book of
Doctrines: contains 72 verses): Lord
Krishna explains Arjuna about Sankhya
yoga. Sankhya refers to one of six
orthodox schools of the Hindu Philosophy.
This chapter is often considered the
summary of the entire Bhagavad Gita.
3. Karma Yoga (Virtue in Work or Virtue Of
Actions: contains 43 verses): Lord Krishna
explains about Karma yoga, i.e.
Performance of prescribed duties, but
without attachment to results, is the
appropriate course of action.
4. Gyaana–Karma-Sanyasa Yoga (The
Religion of Knowledge: contains 42
verses): Krishna reveals that he has lived
through many births, for the protection of
the pious and the destruction of the
impious and stresses the importance of
accepting a guru.
5. Karma–Sanyasa Yoga (Religion by
Renouncing Fruits of Works: contains 29
verses): Arjuna asks if it is better to forgo
action or to act. Krishna answers that both
are ways to the same goal, but that acting
in Karma yoga is superior.
6. Dhyan Yoga or Atmasanyam
yoga (Religion by Self-Restraint: contains
47 verses): Lord Krishna describing
the Ashtanga yoga, elucidates the
difficulties of the mind and the techniques
by which mastery of the mind might be
gained.
7. Gyaana–ViGyaana Yoga (Religion by
Discernment: contains 30 verses): Krishna
describes the absolute reality and its
illusory energy Maya.
8. Aksara–Brahma Yoga (Religion by
Devotion to the One Supreme God: contains
28 verses): This chapter
contains eschatology of the Bhagavad
Gita. Importance of the last thought before
death, differences between material and
spiritual worlds are described.
9. Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya Yoga (Religion
by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly
Mystery: contains 34 verses): Krishna
explains how his eternal energy pervades,
creates, preserves, and destroys the entire
universe.
10. Vibhuti–Vistara–Yoga (Religion by the
Heavenly Perfections: contains 42 verses):
Krishna is described as the ultimate cause
of all material and spiritual existence.
11. Visvarupa–Darsana Yoga (The
Manifesting of the One and
Manifold: contains 55 verses): On Arjuna's
request, Krishna displays his "universal
form" (Viśvarūpa).
12. Bhakti Yoga (The Religion of
Faith: contains 20 verses): Lord Krishna
describes the process of devotional
service (Bhakti yoga).
13. Ksetra–Ksetrajna Vibhaga
Yoga (Religion by Separation of Matter and
Spirit: contains 35 verses): The difference
between transient perishable physical
body and the immutable eternal soul is
described.
14. Gunatraya–Vibhaga Yoga (Religion by
Separation from the Qualities: contains 27
verses): Krishna explains the three modes
(gunas) of material nature pertaining to
goodness, passion, and nescience.
15. Purusottama Yoga (Religion by
Attaining the Supreme: contains 20
verses): Krishna identifies the
transcendental characteristics of God
such as, omnipotence, omniscience,
and omnipresence.
16. Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga
Yoga (The Separateness of the Divine and
Undivine: contains 24 verses): Krishna
identifies the human traits of the divine
and the demonic natures.
17. Sraddhatraya-Vibhaga Yoga (Religion
by the Threefold Kinds of Faith: contains 28
verses): Krishna qualifies the three
divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and
even eating habits corresponding to the
three modes (gunas).
18. Moksha–Sanyasa Yoga (Religion by
Deliverance and Renunciation: contains 78
verses): In this chapter, the conclusions of
previous seventeen chapters are summed
up.

Post-Vedic texts
The texts that appeared afterwards were
called smriti. Smriti literature includes
various Shastras and Itihasas (epics like
Ramayana, Mahabharata), Harivamsa
Puranas, Agamas and Darshanas.

The Sutras and Shastras texts were


compilations of technical or specialized
knowledge in a defined area. The earliest
are dated to later half of the 1st
millennium BCE. The Dharma-shastras
(law books), derivatives of the Dharma-
sutras. Other examples were
bhautikashastra "physics", rasayanashastra
"chemistry", jīvashastra "biology",
vastushastra "architectural science",
shilpashastra "science of sculpture",
arthashastra "economics" and nītishastra
"political science".[53] It also includes
Tantras and Āgama_(Hinduism)
literature.[54]

This genre of texts includes the Sutras and


Shastras of the six schools of Hindu
philosophy.[55][56]

The Tevaram Saivite hymns


The Tevaram is a body of remarkable
hymns exuding Bhakti composed more
than 1400–1200 years ago in the classical
Tamil language by three Saivite
composers. They are credited with igniting
the Bhakti movement in the whole of India.

Divya Prabandha Vaishnavite


hymns
The Nalayira Divya Prabandha (or Nalayira
(4000) Divya Prabhamdham) is a divine
collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in
Tamil means 'four thousand') composed
before 8th century AD [1], by the 12 Alvars,
and was compiled in its present form by
Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th
centuries. The Alvars sung these songs at
various sacred shrines. These shrines are
known as the Divya Desams.

In South India, especially in Tamil Nadu,


the Divya Prabhandha is considered as
equal to the Vedas, hence the epithet
Dravida Veda. In many temples, Srirangam,
for example, the chanting of the Divya
Prabhandham forms a major part of the
daily service. Prominent among the 4,000
verses are the 1,100+ verses known as the
Thiru Vaaymozhi, composed by
Nammalvar (Kaaril Maaran Sadagopan) of
Thiruk Kurugoor.
Other Hindu texts
Ancient and medieval era Hindu texts for
specific fields, in Sanskrit and other
regional languages, have been reviewed as
follows,
Field Reviewer Reference
[57]
Agriculture and food Gyula Wojtilla

P Acharya, [58][59]
Architecture
B Dagens

Devotionalism Karen Pechelis [60]

AB Keith,
[61][62][63]
Drama, dance and performance arts Rachel Baumer and James Brandon,
Mohan Khokar
[64]
Education, school system Hartmut Scharfe
[65]
Epics John Brockington

Gnomic and didactic literature Ludwik Sternbach [66]

Grammar Hartmut Scharfe [67]

Law and jurisprudence J Duncan M Derrett [68]

[69]
Lexicography Claus Vogel

Kim Plofker [70][71]


Mathematics and exact sciences
David Pingree

MS Valiathan, [72][73]
Medicine
Kenneth Zysk

Emmie te Nijenhuis, [74][75]


Music
Lewis Rowell
[76]
Mythology Ludo Rocher
[77]
Philosophy Karl Potter
[78]
Poetics Edwin Gerow, Siegfried Lienhard
[79]
Gender and Sex Johann Jakob Meyer

State craft, politics Patrick Olivelle [80]

Tantrism, Agamas Teun Goudriaan [81]

Temples, Sculpture Stella Kramrisch [82]

[83]
Scriptures (Vedas and Upanishads) Jan Gonda

See also
See also
Hindu Epics
List of Hindu scriptures
List of historic Indian texts
List of sutras
Sanskrit literature
Prasthanatrayi

Notes
1. These include rebirth, karma, moksha,
ascetic techniques and renunciation.[30]

References
1. Frazier, Jessica (2011), The Continuum
companion to Hindu studies, London:
Continuum, ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pages
1–15
2. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press,
ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page ix-xliii
3. Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of
Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of
New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4,
pages 46–52, 76–77
4. RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures,
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41078-2, pages 1–11 and Preface
5. James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shruti", The
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2:
N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-
3179-8, page 645
6. James Lochtefeld (2002), "Smrti", The
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N–Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-
3179-8, page 656–657
7. Ramdas Lamb (2002). Rapt in the Name:
The Ramnamis, Ramnam, and Untouchable
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7914-5386-5.
8. Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual
Sources for the Study of Hinduism,
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1867-6, pages 2–3
9. Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early
Upanisads, Oxford University Press,
ISBN 978-0-19-535242-9, page 3; Quote:
"Even though theoretically the whole of
vedic corpus is accepted as revealed truth
[shruti], in reality it is the Upanishads that
have continued to influence the life and
thought of the various religious traditions
that we have come to call Hindu.
Upanishads are the scriptures par
excellence of Hinduism".
10. Wendy Doniger (1990), Textual Sources
for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition,
University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-
226-61847-0, pages 2–3; Quote: "The
Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu
philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus
are widely known and quoted by most well-
educated Hindus, and their central ideas
have also become a part of the spiritual
arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus."
11. Purushottama Bilimoria (2011), The
idea of Hindu law, Journal of Oriental
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130
12. Roy Perrett (1998), Hindu Ethics: A
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in: Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell
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68–71
14. William Graham (1993), Beyond the
Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in
the History of Religion, Cambridge
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pages 67–77
15. Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction
to Hinduism . Cambridge University Press.
pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.
16. see e.g. MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39;
Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's
Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09
17. see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957,
p. 3; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and
Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68;
MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit
literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia.
Accessed 2007-08-09
18. Sanujit Ghose (2011). "Religious
Developments in Ancient India " in Ancient
History Encyclopedia.
19. Vaman Shivaram Apte, The Practical
Sanskrit-English Dictionary , see
apauruSeya
20. D Sharma, Classical Indian Philosophy:
A Reader, Columbia University Press, pages
196–197
21. Jan Westerhoff (2009), Nagarjuna's
Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction,
Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-
538496-3, page 290
22. Warren Lee Todd (2013), The Ethics of
Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: A Selfless
Response to an Illusory World, ISBN 978-1-
4094-6681-9, page 128
23. Apte 1965, p. 887
24. Müller 1891, pp. 17–18
25. Seer of the Fifth Veda: Kr̥ṣṇa
Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in the Mahābhārata
Bruce M. Sullivan, Motilal Banarsidass,
pages 85–86
26. Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to
Hinduism, Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0, pages 35–39
27. Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the
Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-
Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde
II.1.b.) Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. A history
of Indian literature: I.1 Vedic literature
(Samhitas and Brahmanas); I.2 The Ritual
Sutras. Wiesbaden 1975, 1977
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Introduction to Scriptures and Theology,
ISBN 978-0-595-38455-6, pages 8–14;
George M. Williams (2003), Handbook of
Hindu Mythology, Oxford University Press,
ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2, page 285
29. Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature:
(Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
01603-2
30. Olivelle 1998, p. xxiii.
31. Max Muller, The Upanishads , Part 1,
Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI
footnote 1
32. Mahadevan 1956, p. 59.
33. PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of
Indian Thought, State University of New
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35–36
34. Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as
Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors:
Thomas P. Kasulis et al.), State University of
New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1080-6,
page 39; Quote: "The Upanishads form the
foundations of Hindu philosophical thought
and the central theme of the Upanishads is
the identity of Atman and Brahman, or the
inner self and the cosmic self.";
Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown
(2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-
1-59257-846-7, pages 208–210
35. Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma,
and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy,
Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-
14485-8, Chapter 1
36. E Easwaran (2007), The Upanishads,
ISBN 978-1-58638-021-2, pages 298–299
37. Mahadevan 1956, p. 56.
38. Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early
Upanishads, Oxford University Press,
ISBN 978-0-19-512435-4, page 12–14
39. King & Ācārya 1995, p. 52.
40. Ranade 1926, p. 12.
41. Varghese 2008, p. 101.
42. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of
Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman),
Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3, pages
437–439
43. John Cort (1993), Purana Perennis:
Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
and Jaina Texts (Editor: Wendy Doniger),
State University of New York Press,
ISBN 978-0-7914-1382-1, pages 185–204
44. Gregory Bailey (2003), The Study of
Hinduism (Editor: Arvind Sharma), The
University of South Carolina Press,
ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7, page 139
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Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
02522-5, pages 1–5, 12–21
46. Nair, Shantha N. (2008). Echoes of
Ancient Indian Wisdom: The Universal
Hindu Vision and Its Edifice . Hindology
Books. p. 266. ISBN 978-81-223-1020-7.
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Literature (1995 Edition), Article on
Puranas, ISBN 0-877790426, page 915
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Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Puranas, Temple University Press,
ISBN 978-81-208-3972-4, page xii, 4
49. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of
Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman),
Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3, page
503
50. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
02522-5, pages 12–13, 134–156, 203–210
51. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press,
ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page xli
52. Thompson, Richard L. (2007). The
Cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana
'Mysteries of the Sacred Universe . Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-
208-1919-1.
53. Jan Gonda (1970 through 1987), A
History of Indian Literature, Volumes 1 to 7,
Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
02676-5
54. Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta
(1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature,
A History of Indian Literature, Volume 2,
Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
02091-6, pages 7–14
55. Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying
Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian
Intellectual History, Columbia University
Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7, pages 2–5
56. Karl Potter (1991), Presuppositions of
India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass,
ISBN 978-81-208-0779-2
57. Gyula Wojtilla (2006), History of
Kr̥ṣiśāstra, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,
ISBN 978-3-447-05306-8
58. PK Acharya (1946), An Encyclopedia of
Hindu Architecture , Oxford University
Press, Also see Volumes 1 to 6
59. Bruno Dagens (1995), MAYAMATA : An
Indian Treatise on Housing Architecture and
Iconography, ISBN 978-81-208-3525-2
60. Karen Pechelis (2014), The Embodiment
of Bhakti, Oxford University Press,
ISBN 978-0-19-535190-3
61. The Sanskrit Drama , Oxford University
Press
62. Rachel Baumer and James Brandon
(1993), Sanskrit Drama in Performance,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0772-3
63. Mohan Khokar (1981), Traditions of
Indian Classical Dance, Peter Owen
Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7206-0574-7
64. Hartmut Scharfe (2002), Education in
Ancient India, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-
12556-8
65. John Brockington (1998), The Sanskrit
Epics, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-10260-6
66. Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhāṣita:
Gnomic and Didactic Literature, Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
01546-2
67. Hartmut Scharfe, A history of Indian
literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,
ISBN 3-447-01722-8
68. J Duncan M Derrett (1978),
Dharmasastra and Juridical Literature: A
history of Indian literature (Editor: Jan
Gonda), Vol. 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,
ISBN 3-447-01519-5
69. Claus Vogel, A history of Indian
literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,
ISBN 3-447-01722-8
70. Kim Plofker (2009), Mathematics in
India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-
0-691-12067-6
71. David Pingree, A Census of the Exact
Sciences in Sanskrit, Volumes 1 to 5,
American Philosophical Society, ISBN 978-
0-87169-213-9
72. MS Valiathan, The Legacy of Caraka,
Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-81-250-2505-4
73. Kenneth Zysk, Medicine in the Veda,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1401-
1
74. Emmie te Nijenhuis, Musicological
literature (A History of Indian literature ; v.
6 : Scientific and technical literature ; Fasc.
1), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-
447-01831-9
75. Lewis Rowell, Music and Musical
Thought in Early India, University of Chicago
Press, ISBN 0-226-73033-6
76. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-
02522-5
77. Karl Potter, The Encyclopedia of Indian
Philosophies, Volumes 1 through 27, Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4
78. Edwin Gerow, A history of Indian
literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,
ISBN 3-447-01722-8
79. JJ Meyer, Sexual Life in Ancient India,
Vol 1 and 2, Oxford University Press,
ISBN 978-1-4826-1588-3
80. Patrick Olivelle, King, Governance, and
Law in Ancient India, Oxford University
Press, ISBN 978-0-19-989182-5
81. Teun Goudriaan, Hindu Tantric and
Śākta Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,
ISBN 3-447-02091-1
82. Stella Kramrisch, Hindu Temple, Vol. 1
and 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-
208-0222-3
83. Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic literature
(Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01603-5

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Further reading
R.C. Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures,
Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0-
679-41078-2
Dominic Goodall, Hindu Scriptures,
University of California Press, ISBN 978-
0-520-20778-3