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Metrode Products Limited Hanworth Lane Chertsey Surrey, KT16 9LL UK Telephone: Fax: Email (technical) Email

Metrode Products Limited Hanworth Lane Chertsey Surrey, KT16 9LL UK

Telephone:

Fax:

Email (technical)

Email (sales)

+44(0)1932 566721

+44(0)1932 569449

tech@metrode.com

sales@metrode.com

DUPLEX & SUPERDUPLEX

FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

CONTENTS

Page

1. Introduction

1

2. Base Materials

2

3. Consumables

3

4. Welding Guidelines

5

5. Properties

8

Appendix 1

22%Cr Duplex Data Sheet

B60

Appendix 2

Zeron 100 Superduplex Data Sheet

B61

Appendix 3

2507 Superduplex Data Sheet

B62

DUPLEX & SUPERDUPLEX

FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

DUPLEX & SUPERDUPLEX FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS 1. INTRODUCTION Duplex and superduplex stainless steels are

1.

INTRODUCTION

FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS 1. INTRODUCTION Duplex and superduplex stainless steels are currently

Duplex and superduplex stainless steels are currently finding widespread use for a range of applications. The excellent combination of strength and corrosion resistance has proved to be invaluable, especially in the offshore and chemical industries. The more widespread application of duplex and superduplex stainless steels is rapidly increasing into areas of general fabrication, where it is replacing standard austenitic stainless steels such as 316L.

The different industry sectors and applications each have their own welding consumable requirements. For this reason the range of consumables available is relatively large, each consumable having particular attributes. For example, in the offshore industry, where fixed pipe welding is prevalent and relatively stringent impact requirements are imposed, the 2205XKS, Zeron 100XKS, 2507XKS and Supercore 2205P are used. In general fabrication where ease of use and cosmetic appearance are important, with less emphasis on impact properties, Ultramet 2205 and Ultramet 2507 will be preferred. There is also an entirely separate area of use, covering casting repairs which will be subsequently solution annealed, where lower nickel, matching composition, consumables are sometimes used.

The Metrode product range has consumables for the MMA(SMAW), TIG (GTAW), MIG (GMAW), FCAW and SAW processes which cover all of the potential applications. This Technical Profile covers not only the extensive range of Metrode consumables for duplex and superduplex materials, but also the practical aspects of welding these steels. The important features of weld procedure qualification – corrosion (G48A), impact properties, hardness and microstructure – are discussed and the procedural controls required to achieve the optimum properties are examined.

Weld procedure records of successful procedures are provided together with the typical properties achieved. This information is intended to give sufficient guidance to enable weld procedures to be successfully carried out.

2.

BASE MATERIALS

There is a wide range of base materials that can be broadly grouped into duplex and superduplex alloys. There are many, essentially equivalent, materials from many different manufacturers. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the main base material specifications for wrought and cast duplex and superduplex along with nominal composition and examples of the proprietary alloys available.

Table 1:

Wrought alloys – standard duplex stainless steels

UNS No EN 10088 Cr Ni Mo Cu W N PRE N * Examples of
UNS No
EN 10088
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
W
N
PRE N *
Examples of proprietary
materials
S32304
1.4362
23
4
0.1
-
-
0.10
24
SAF 2304 (Sandvik/Avesta)
UR35N (CLI)
S31803 (1)
1.4462
22
5
2.8
-
-
0.15
32/33
UR45N (CLI)
SAF 2205 (Sandvik/Avesta)
S32205 (1)
1.4462
23
6
3
-
-
0.18
35
2205 (Avesta)
UR45N+ (CLI)
S32550
1.4507
25
6.5
3
1.5
-
0.16
38/39
Ferralium 255 (Meighs)
S31260
-
25
7
3
0.5
0.3
0.16
37
DP3 (Sumitomo)

(1)

UNS S32205, a variant of S31803 with analysis restricted to the upper range.

Table 2:

Wrought alloys – superduplex stainless steels

UNS No EN 10088 Cr Ni Mo Cu W N PRE N * Examples of
UNS No
EN 10088
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
W
N
PRE N *
Examples of proprietary
materials
S32760
1.4501
25
7.5
3.5
0.7
0.7
0.23
40
Zeron 100 (Weir)
S32750
1.4410
25
7
3.8
-
-
0.25
42
SAF 2507 (Sandvik/Avesta)
S39274
-
25
7
3.1
-
2
0.25
40
DP3W (Sumitomo)
S32550
1.4507
26
7
3.5
1.5
-
0.26
40
UR52N+ (CLI)
Ferralium SD40 (Meighs)

*

PRE N =

Pitting Resistance Equivalent based on:

Cr + 3.3Mo + 16N

PRE W =

Cr + (3.3Mo + 0.5W) + 16N includes the role of tungsten alloying

Table 3:

Cast alloys – duplex and superduplex stainless steels

UNS No DIN ASTM A890 Equivalent wrought alloy J92205 4A S31803 / S32205 - J93370
UNS No
DIN
ASTM A890
Equivalent wrought alloy
J92205
4A
S31803 / S32205
-
J93370
-
S32550
1.4515/1.4517
J93380
6A
S32760
1.4508
S32750
J93404
5A
1.4469

3.

CONSUMABLES

Tables 4 and 5 summarise the Metrode range of duplex and superduplex welding consumables. Full data sheets for these products are presented in Appendices 1-3.

Table 4:

Filler materials for welding 22%Cr duplex stainless steels

Parent material Wrought Cast UNS S32304 & S31803 UNS J92205 & J93370 Filler material Overmatching
Parent material
Wrought
Cast
UNS S32304 & S31803
UNS J92205 & J93370
Filler material
Overmatching analysis
Matching analysis *
Final condition
As-welded
Solution annealed (1120°C + WQ)
TIG / MIG
ER329N
1.6, 2.4 & 3.2mm ø:
TIG
Filler wire
1.2mm MIG & Mechanised/Orbital TIG
PRE N : 35 min
MMA
Electrodes
SUPERMET 2205
Rutile coated
General purpose: downhand
SUPERMET 2506
Rutile coated
Downhand welding and repair of castings
2.5
– 5.0mm ø
2.5
– 5.0mm ø
PRE N : 38
PRE N : 36
ULTRAMET 2205
Rutile coated
AWS: E2209-16
All-positional: structural
2.5
– 4.0mm ø
PRE N : 35 min
SUPERMET 2506Cu
Rutile coated
AWS: E2553-16
2205XKS
Downhand welding and repair of
Cu-bearing alloy castings
Basic coated
2.5
– 5.0mm ø
(maximum weld toughness)
AWS: E2209-15
All-positional: pipework
PRE N : 38
2.5
– 5.0mm ø
PRE N : 35 min
Flux Cored Wire
(FCAW)
SUPERCORE 2205
&
SUPERCORE 2205P
Downhand
AWS: E2209T0-4
Rutile Flux Cored
All-positional: pipework
AWS: E2209T1-4
1.2mm ø, Argon +20% CO 2
PRE N : 35 min
Sub-Arc (SAW)
Wire / Flux
ER329N 1.6 & 2.4mm ø
SSB Flux 25kg drum
Basic: (BI ≈ 3)
PRE N : 35 min

* "Matching analysis preferred, but in practice overmatching consumables have proved acceptable, eg Supermet 2205.

Table 5:

Filler materials for welding 25%Cr type superduplex stainless steels

Parent material Wrought Cast UNS S32760, S32750, S32550, S39274 UNS J93380 & J93404 Filler material
Parent material
Wrought
Cast
UNS S32760, S32750, S32550, S39274
UNS J93380 & J93404
Filler material
Overmatching analysis
Matching analysis **
Final condition
As-welded
Solution annealed (1120°C + WQ)
TIG / MIG
Filler wires
ZERON 100X
ZERON 100M
1.6, 2.4 & 3.2mm ø:
TIG
1.0mm MIG & Mechanised/Orbital TIG
PRE N : 40 min
MMA
Electrodes
ZERON 100XKS
Basic coated (max weld toughness)
All-positional: pipework
2.5
– 5.0mm ø
PRE N : 40 min
SUPERMET 2507Cu
Rutile coated + Cu/W alloyed
Downhand welding and repair of
similarly alloyed castings
2.5 – 5.0mm ø
PRE N : 40 min
2507XKS *
Basic coated (max weld toughness)
All-positional: pipework
2.5
– 4.0mm ø
PRE N : 40 min
ULTRAMET 2507 *
Rutile coated
All-positional: structural
2.5
– 4.0mm ø
PRE N : 40 min
Sub-Arc (SAW)
Wire / Flux
ZERON 100X 1.6 & 2.4mm Ø
ZERON 100M 2.4mm ø
SSB FLUX 25kg drum
Basic (BI=3)
PRE N : 40 min

* For welding UNS S32760 Zeron 100XKS is preferred, especially for service in sulphuric acid.

**

'Matching analysis' preferred, but in practice overmatching consumables have proved acceptable, eg Zeron 100XKS.

4.

WELDING GUIDELINES

4.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES

Weld procedures for duplex and superduplex stainless steels need to be controlled to ensure weld properties are achieved and also to ensure conformance with appropriate standards. Welding guidelines for Zeron 100 are presented in Appendix 4, and Appendix 5 gives examples of some successful weld procedures and the properties achieved. The general philosophy for welding duplex and superduplex stainless steels is shown in Figure 1. Some of the specific areas of weld procedure control that are closely defined in specification and application standards are explained in more detail in section 4.2.

Figure 1:

Welding duplex & superduplex stainless steels

more detail in section 4.2. Figure 1: Welding duplex & superduplex stainless steels Page 5 Issue

4.2

PREHEAT, INTERPASS & HEAT INPUT CONTROLS

Preheat

Interpass

temperature

Is not normally required. Preheat should only be used on material below about 5°C (41°F) or which is not dry.

With standard duplex stainless steel, interpass temperatures are normally restricted to 150 o C (300°F) maximum. This is in line with a number of specifications/codes:

NORSOK M601, Shell ES106 and ES124; all 150°C (300°F) maximum.

Heat input For the filling runs of a joint fairly high heat inputs are required before any noticeable effect is seen on the properties of duplex stainless steel welds. A range of 0.5 – 2.5 kJ/mm (12.5-62.5kJ/in) has been proposed as acceptable based on work at TWI, but the maximum is often restricted to lower heat inputs, eg Shell ES106, 0.5 – 2.0 kJ/mm (12.5-50kJ/in); Shell ES124, 0.5 – 1.75 kJ/mm (12.5-

45kJ/in).

The procedural controls required are described here generally for duplex and superduplex stainless steels, in practice the control for duplex stainless steels, in practice the control for duplex stainless steels can be more relaxed than for superduplex.

4.3 DISSIMILAR JOINTS

Duplex and superduplex stainless steels are inevitably joined to other alloys. For most commonly used engineering alloys, this does not present any problem, provided the appropriate consumable used. Diagrams such as the Schaeffler diagram can prove useful in selecting the correct filler material.

There will generally be a number of consumables which will provide an acceptable technical solution for any dissimilar joint, so the selection will often be based on practical aspects. For example, to reduce the number of procedures and consumables utilised, if duplex (2205) consumables are being used, these can conveniently be used for joints between duplex and CMn, low alloy and most austenitic stainless steels. The same applies to superduplex consumables.

Duplex and superduplex consumables can also be used for surfacing CMn and low alloy steels without any intermediate buffer layers. Figure 2 summarises the selection of weld metals for dissimilar joints involving duplex and superduplex stainless steels.

Figure 2:

Duplex & superduplex stainless steel dissimilar butt joints Recommended filler wires *

steel dissimilar butt joints Recommended filler wires * * Only wires are listed for brevity –

*

Only wires are listed for brevity – associated MMA and FCW are also suitable.

**

Consumable may need to be selected to meet minimum strength requirements of the CMn/low alloy steel.

5.

PROPERTIES

5.1

TENSILE

The tensile properties of duplex and superduplex weld metals comfortably achieve the requirements of the associated base materials. Transverse tensile tests made using the correct consumable fail in the base material.

Typical tensile properties for the various welding processes in duplex and superduplex are given below in Table 6.

Table 6:

Typical tensile properties

UTS, Elongation, % RoA, % MPa (Ksi) 0.2% Proof Stress, MPa (Ksi) 4d 5d TIG
UTS,
Elongation, %
RoA, %
MPa (Ksi)
0.2% Proof Stress,
MPa (Ksi)
4d
5d
TIG ER329N
800
(116)
600 (87)
32
29
65
MIG ER329N
800
(116)
600 (87)
32
29
50
32
30
50
SAW ER329N + SSB
800
(116)
600 (87)
2205XKS
810
(118)
660 (96)
28
26
45
Ultramet 2205
850
(123)
675 (98)
27
25
40
Supermet 2205
850
(123)
650 (94)
30
28
40
Supercore 2205 / 2205P
800
(116)
650 (94)
27
25
40
TIG Zeron 100X
920
(133)
725 (105)
25
24
40
MIG Zeron 100X
920
(133)
725 (105)
25
24
40
SAW Zeron 100X + SSB
920
(133)
725 (105)
25
24
40
Zeron 100XKS
900
(130)
700 (102)
24
22
45
2507XKS
900
(130)
700 (102)
28
25
45
Ultramet 2507
950
(138)
750 (109)
25
22
40

Although the consumables listed in Table 6 are primarily for use in the as-welded condition, they are also used in the solution annealed condition – typically >1120°C (2050°F) / 3hrs + WQ. Following a solution anneal, the elongation will increase and the UTS will be slightly reduced but the major difference in tensile properties will be the reduction in 0.2% proof stress. Even following a full solution anneal heat treatment, the weld metal will meet the requirements of the appropriate base material.

Requirements are now being seen which specify tensile properties at moderately elevated temperatures, eg 120 - 160°C (250-320°F). The graph on the next page, Figure 3, shows the general trend for the reductions in strength to be expected on testing at temperatures up to ~160°C

(320°F).

Figure 3:

Hot Tensile Properties for duplex and superduplex weld metals

1000 Duplex 0.2% proof 900 Duplex UTS Superduplex 0.2% proof Superduplex UTS 800 700 600
1000
Duplex 0.2% proof
900
Duplex UTS
Superduplex 0.2% proof
Superduplex UTS
800
700
600
500
400
0
50
100
150
200
250
Temperature, o C
5.2
TOUGHNESS
MPaStrength,

CVN toughness versus temperature curves describe a shallow sloping relationship, free from the pronounced ductile-brittle transition characteristics of CMn weld metals. Consequently CVN values show low scatter and overall, reflect a more consistent pattern of weld toughness than achieved from CMn weld metal. See Figures 4 and 5.

Figure 4:

22%Cr type standard duplex stainless steel butt weld CVN toughness

4 and 5. Figure 4: 22%Cr type standard duplex stainless steel butt weld CVN toughness Page

Figure 5:

25%Cr type superduplex stainless steel butt weld CVN toughness

type superduplex stainless steel butt weld CVN toughness Weld metal oxygen content, in the form of

Weld metal oxygen content, in the form of oxide/silicate micro-inclusions, strongly influences toughness. As oxygen increases, toughness is reduced. Gas shielded TIG, PAW and MIG processes promote lower weld metal oxygen levels than flux shielded MMA, FCAW and SAW processes.

CVN absorbed energy (joules), for standard 10 x 10mm (0.4 x 0.4in) test specimens, and lateral expansion values show a close relationship up to the 100J level:

Lateral Expansion (mm/in)

Charpy Energy (J)

100

Since lateral expansion values are not significantly affected by CVN specimen size, they can be used as a useful indicator of potential full-size CVN performance.

Correction factors, based on the sub-size test specimen ligament cross-sectional area, provide a useful conversion to potential 10 x 10mm (0.4 x 0.4in) impact values, eg:

Specimen size, mm (in) 10 x 10 (0.4 x 0.4) 10 x 7.5 (0.4 x
Specimen size, mm (in)
10 x 10
(0.4 x 0.4)
10 x 7.5
(0.4 x 0.3)
10 x 5
(0.4 x 0.2)
10 x 3.3
(0.4 x 0.1)
Ligament Area relationship
1
0.75
0.5
0.33
Typical test data, J (ft-lb)
95
(70)
56 (41)
41 (30)
27 (20)
Values corrected for 10 x 10 specimen, J (ft-lb)
95
(70)
75 (55)
82 (60)
82 (60)
J / cm 2 (ft-lb/in 2 )
119 (546)
93 (430)
103 (469)
102 (469)

Analysis of weld metal CVN values and Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness suggests that 40J (29ft-lb) average, 27J (20ft-lb) minimum single values at the minimum design temperature are sufficient to avoid the risk of brittle fracture. A corresponding minimum CTOD value of 0.1mm (~0.004in) is considered appropriate.

Post-weld solution anneal (~1150°C/2100°F) + water quench heat treatment significantly improves weld toughness performance.

5.3 HARDNESS 5.3.1 NACE NACE requirements define maximum hardness levels for parent material to secure
5.3
HARDNESS
5.3.1
NACE
NACE requirements define maximum hardness levels for parent material to secure reliable
resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in H 2 S-bearing ('sour') media. The following table
shows the maximum hardness allowed as defined in NACE MR0175-97 (note the most recent
revision of MR0175 should be referred to).
Grade
Duplex
Superduplex
UNS S31803
eg SAF 2205
UNS S32750
eg SAF 2507
UNS S32760
eg Zeron 100
Condition
Sol. Ann. + Cold Worked
232°C max.
0.002MPa H 2 S max.
1100MPa YS max.
Sol. Ann
232°C.
0.01MPa H 2 S max.
Sol. Ann. + Cold Worked
120g/l Cl -
0.02MPa H 2 S
Hardness;
36 max.
32 max.
34 max.
HRC
5.3.2
Weld Metal & HAZ

NACE hardness limits are used in fabrication specifications covering weldments.

The weld root zone is subject to strain hardening induced by thermal contraction stresses. Each weld deposition strain hardening event.

Root weld metal hardness directly relates to the number of weld beads in the joint. For example, 8in (219mm) diameter x 18.3mm (0.75in) wall thickness Zeron 100 superduplex stainless steel pipe TIG welded in the ASME 5G position using Zeron 100X filler wire and completed in 30 passes shows weld metal and HAZ root hardnesses higher than the corresponding cap hardnesses (Figure 6).

Figure 6:

Zeron 100 butt weld Rockwell C hardness values

cap hardnesses (Figure 6). Figure 6: Zeron 100 butt weld Rockwell C hardness values Page 11

Vickers Hardness (HV) is more applicable for the examination of specific weld zones, eg HAZ. (HV 10kg hardness indentation 1/10 size of HRC 150kg.)

If HV is used, care should be taken in correlating to HRC and it is recommended the new Welding Institute (UK) HV/HRC correlation (Figure 7) is used rather than ASTM E140 which was developed for CMn steels.

Figure 7:

TWI HV/HRC comparison

developed for CMn steels. Figure 7: TWI HV/HRC comparison The TWI HV/HRC correlation curve, based on

The TWI HV/HRC correlation curve, based on statistical interpretation of hardness measurements from a wide range of 22%Cr duplex and 25%Cr superduplex weldments, is more realistic for equating hardness values derived by the two test methods. The limitations of the previous ASTM E140 CMn steel correlation curve are highlighted, particularly with respect to meeting NACE MR0175 HRC hardness requirements for 'sour' service applications.

5.4

CORROSION

The corrosion performance of duplex and superduplex weld metals is often assessed during procedure qualification using the ASTM G48A test.

Typical acceptance criteria include: nil pitting, maximum test specimen weight loss of 20mg or 4-5g/m 2 (~0.001lb/ft 2 )of surface tested. Accurate, meaningful, weight loss determination demands careful attention to test specimen preparation: polishing (eg 1200 grit) of all edges and surfaces not under test.

To obtain uniform results, some specifications allow pickling and repassivation – eg 20% HNO 3 + 5%HF, 60°C (140°F), 5 minutes as in NORSOK M-601 Rev 2.

Ar/1-2%N 2 gas shielding (+ pure argon purge) enhances weld metal nitrogen level, to boost pitting resistance, and may be essential practice where:

- the specified G48A test temperature exceeds the argon shielded ER329N root weld critical pitting limit (~25°C/77°F) and Zeron 100X filler metal usage is prohibited.

- nitrogen losses from argon shielded Zeron 100X TIG root bead weld metal jeopardises satisfactory G48A test performance at ~40°C (104°F).

- restoration of pitting resistance where early removal of backing gas protection causes root surface oxidation and susceptibility to attack.

With multi-pass TIG welding, Ar + N 2 usage should be restricted to initial root runs to avoid excessive nitrogen build-up, and the associated risk of weld porosity.

Pitting attack of specimen surfaces not under test, eg edge 'endgrain' micro-structure, is generally not considered a relevant part of acceptance criteria, though may cause problems meeting weight loss limits, where applicable.

Figure 8:

Pitting diagram

loss limits, where applicable. Figure 8: Pitting diagram 5.5 MICROSTRUCTURE & FERRITE CONTENT The properties of

5.5 MICROSTRUCTURE & FERRITE CONTENT

The properties of duplex and superduplex stainless steel are dependent on the duplex ferritic- austenitic microstructure.

Round-robin tests have shown point counting (ASTM E562) of weld joints (weld metal & HAZ) to have very low reproducibility from one laboratory to another. For this reason, it is recommended that, for weld metals, ferrite content be measured in FN (ferrite number) using suitably calibrated magnetic instruments.

Despite the better reproducibility of FN measurements and IIW recommendations, procedure specifications still tend to be written around point counting with a ferrite content of about 25-65% normally being specified.

Once the filler and hence weld metal composition has been selected, the cooling rate during welding is the factor that primarily controls the ferrite content. Slower cooling rates reduce the ferrite content – hence high heat inputs and preheating reduce the ferrite content.

The WRC diagram can be used as a convenient method for estimating the potential ferrite content, in FN, from the analysis. There is always likely to be some discrepancy between calculated and measured ferrite values.

There is a move towards acceptance criteria being based on actual corrosion and mechanical properties rather than weld metal microstructure.

The 'Position Statement' from IIW in Appendix 7 helps to clarify the position in the case of dispute. Other useful references include:

- Gooch, T G & Woollin, P: 'Metallurgical examination during weld procedure qualification for ferritic-austenitic stainless steels'; Stainless Steel World 1999 conference, November 1999, The Hague.

- Kotecki, D J: 'Standards and industrial methods for ferrite measurement'; 1998 Welding Journal, May 49-52.