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# Quadratic Equation Progression Trigonometric Identities Spherical Trigonometry

## Form: AM ∙ HM = (GM)2 Squared Identities: Sine Law:

2 sin 𝑎 sin 𝑏 sin 𝑎
Ax + Bx + C = 0 2 2
sin A + cos A = 1
Arithmetic Progression: = =
Roots: 1 + tan2 A = sec 2 A sin 𝐴 sin 𝐵 sin 𝐴
d = a 2 − a1 = a 3 − a 2
s 2 − 4AC
−B ± √B 1 + cot 2 A = csc 2 A Cosine Law for sides:
x= a n = a1 + (n − 1)d cos 𝑎 = cos 𝑏 cos 𝑐 + sin 𝑏 sin 𝑐 cos 𝐴
2A Sum & Diff of Angles Identities:
a n = a x + (n − x)d Cosine Law for angles:
Sum of Roots:
n sin (A ± B) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos 𝐴 = − cos 𝐵 cos 𝐶 + sin 𝐵 sin 𝐶 cos 𝑎
B Sn = (a1 + a n )
x1 + x2 = − 2 cos (A ± B) = cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B Spherical Polygon:
A
Harmonic Progression: tan A ± tan B πR2 E E = spherical excess
Product of Roots: - reciprocal of arithmetic tan (A ± B) =
C 1 ∓ tan A tan B AB = E = (A+B+C+D…) – (n-2)180°
progression 180°
x1 ∙ x2 = + Double Angle Identities:
A Geometric Progression: Spherical Pyramid:
1 minute of arc =
r = a 2 /a1 = a 3 /a2 sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A 1 πR3 E 1 nautical mile
Binomial Theorem cos 2A = cos 2 A − sin2 A V = AB H = 1 nautical mile =
a n = a1 r n−1 3 540°
6080 feet
Form:
a n = a x r n−x cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A − 1 1 statute mile =
(x + y)n cos 2A = 1 − 2 sin2 A 5280 feet
1 − rn n-sided Polygon
rth term: Sn = a1 2 tan A # of diagonals:
1 knot =
r th
= nCm x n−m y m 1−r tan 2A = n Interior Angle, ɤ: 1 nautical mile
a1 1 − tan2 A d = (n − 3) (n − 2)180° per hour
where: m=r-1
S∞ = 2 γ=
1−r n
Deflection Angle, δ: Area = n ∙ ATRIANGLE
Worded Problems Tips Triangle Common Quadrilateral δ = 180° − γ 1
 Age Problems 1 Square: Rectangle: Area = n ∙ R2 sinβ
A = bh Central Angle, β: 2
→ underline specific time conditions A = s2 A = bh
2 360° 1
 Motion Problems P = 4s P = 2a + 2b β= Area = n ∙ ah
1 n 2
→a =0 A = ab sin C d = √2s d = √b 2 + h2
2
→s = vt Parallelogram:
1 sin B sin C Polygon Names
A = a2 A = bh 16 - hexadecagon
 Work Problems 3 - triangle
2 sin A A = ab sin θ 17 - septadecagon
work A = √s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) 1 5 - pentagon
A = d1 d2 sin θ 19 - nonadecagon
rate = 2 6 - hexagon/sexagon 20 - icosagon
time a+b+c 7 - septagon/heptagon 21 - unicosagon
Case 2: Equal rate s= Rhombus: 8 - octagon 22 - do-icosagon
→ usually in project management 2 A = ah 9 - nonagon 30 - tricontagon
→ express given to man-days or man-hours A = a2 sin θ 10 - decagon 31 - untricontagon
Trapezoid 1 11 - undecagon/ 40 - tetradecagon
 Clock Problems A = d1 d2 monodecagon 50 - quincontagon
11M − 60H 1 2 12 - dodecagon/ 60 - hexacontagon
+ if M is ahead of H
θ= - if M is behind of H
A = (a + b)h bidecagon 100 - hectogon
2 2
Ellipse 13 - tridecagon 1,000 - chilliagon
A1 n ma2 + nb 2 14 - quadridecagon 10,000 - myriagon
a2 + b2
Ex-circle- 1 1 1 1 = ;w = √ A = πab C = 2π√ 15 - quindecagon/ 1,000,000 - megagon
A2 m m+n 2 pentadecagon ∞ - aperio (circle)
= + +
In-circle 𝑟 𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟3
Centers of Triangle Inscribed Circle:
Circumscribing Circle: Cyclic Quadrilateral: (sum of opposite angles=180°)
INCENTER abc AT = rs
- the center of the inscribed circle (incircle) AT = A = √(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d)
of the triangle & the point of intersection of
4R
Escribed Circle: Ptolemy’s Theorem is applicable:
the angle bisectors of the triangle.
opposite side a+b+c+d
diameter = AT = R a (s − a) ac + bd = d1 d2 s=
sine of angle 2
a b c AT = R b (s − b) Non-cyclic Quadrilateral:
d= = = AT = R c (s − c) ε
sin A sin B sin C
A = √(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d) − abcd cos 2
2
Pappus Theorem
CIRCUMCENTER
- the center of the circumscribing circle Pappus Theorem 1: Prism or Cylinder Pointed Solid
(circumcircle) & the point of intersection of SA = L ∙ 2πR V = AB H = AX L 1
the perpendicular bisectors of the triangle. v
V = AB H
Pappus Theorem 2: LA = PB H = Px L 3
AB/PB → Perimeter or Area of base Right Circ. Cone Reg. Pyramid
V = A ∙ 2πR H → Height & L → slant height 1
AX/PX → Perimeter or Area of cross- LA = πrL LA = PB L
NOTE: It is also used to locate centroid of an area. section perpendicular to slant height 2

## Spherical Lune: Spherical Wedge:

Special Solids Spherical Solids
ORTHOCENTER Alune 4πR2 4
Sphere: Vwedge 3 πR
3
- the point of intersection of the altitudes of Truncated Prism or Cylinder: =
the triangle. V = AB Have V = πR3 θrad 2π
LA = PB Have 3 Alune = 2θR2 2
LA = 4πR2 Vwedge = θR3
3
Frustum of Cone or Pyramid: Spheroid:
H 4 Spherical Zone:
V = πabc
V= (A + A2 + √A1 A2 ) 3
Azone = 2πRh
3 1 LA = 4π [
a2 + b2 + c 2
]
CENTROID Spherical Sector:
3
- the point of intersection of the medians of 1
the triangle. Prolate Spheroid: V = Azone R
3
4 2
V = πabb V = πR2 h
3
a2 + b2 + b2 3
Prismatoid:
LA = 4π [ ] Spherical Segment:
H 3
V = (A1 + 4AM + A2 ) For one base:
6 Oblate Spheroid: about major axis 1
EULER LINE 4
V = πh2 (3R − h)
V = πaab 3
- the line that would pass through the 3 For two bases:
orthocenter, circumcenter, and centroid of a2 + a2 + b2
LA = 4π [ ] 1
the triangle. 3 V = πh(3a2 + 3b2 + h2 )
Archimedean Solids Analytic Geometry Ellipse Hyperbola
- the only 13 polyhedra that are - the locus of point that moves such - the locus of point that moves such
convex, have identical vertices, and Slope-intercept form: Distance from a point to another point: that the sum of its distances from that the difference of its distances
their faces are regular polygons. y = mx + b d = √(y2 − y1 )2 + (x2 − x1 )2 two fixed points called the foci is from two fixed points called the foci
constant. is constant.
Nn Nn Point-slope form:
E= V= Distance from a point to a line: General Equation: General Equation:
2 v y − y1
where: s m= |Ax + By + C| Ax 2 + Cy 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 Ax 2 − Cy 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0
E → # of edges x − x1 d=
V → # of vertices √A2 + B 2 Standard Equation: Standard Equation:
N → # of faces Two-point form: (x − h)2 (y − k)2 (x − h)2 (y − k)2
n → # of sides of each face Distance of two parallel lines: − =1
v → # of faces meeting at a vertex y2 − y1 y − y2 a2
+
b2
=1
a2 b2
= |C1 − C2 |
x 2 − x1 x − x 2 d= (x − h)2 (y − k)2 (y − k)2 (x − h)2
Conic Sections
Point-slope form:
√A2 + B 2 b2
+
a2
=1
a2

b2
=1
General Equation: x y Angle between two lines:
Ax 2 + Bxy + Cy 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 + =1 m2 − m1
a b tan θ =
Based on discriminant: 1 + m1 m2
B 2 − 4AC = 0 ∴ parabola
B 2 − 4AC < 0 ∴ ellipse Parabola
B 2 − 4AC > 0 ∴ hyperbola - the locus of point that moves such that it is always equidistant from a
fixed point (focus) and a fixed line (directrix).
Based on eccentricity, e=f/d: Elements: Elements:
General Equation: Elements:
𝑒 = 0 ∴ circle 2 Eccentricity, e: Loc. of directrix, d:
Location of foci, c: Same as ellipse:
Length of LR,
𝑒 = 1 ∴ parabola y + Dx + Ey + F = 0 Location of foci, c: a c 2 = a2 + b2 Loc. of directrix, d
df
𝑒 < 1 ∴ ellipse x 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 e=
dd
=1 c 2 = a2 − b2 d= Eq’n of asymptote:
Eccentricity, e
e y − k = ±m(x − h)
𝑒 > 1 ∴ hyperbola Standard Equation: Length of LR:
Length of latus Eccentricity, e: where:
2
(x − h) = ±4a(y − k) rectum, LR: 2b2 c m is (+) for upward asymptote;

## Circle (y − k)2 = ±4a(x − h) a a m = b/a if the transverse axis is horizontal;

m = a/b if the transverse axis is vertical
- the locus of point that moves such
that its distance from a fixed point 1 revolution
called the center is constant. Engineering Economy
General Equation: = 360˚  Simple Interest:
Versed sine:
x 2 + y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 I = P𝑖n where:
= 400 grads vers A = 1 − cos A F → future worth
Standard Equation: = 6400 mills Versed cosine: F = P(1 + 𝑖n) P → principal or present worth
i → interest rate per interest period
(x − h) + (y − k)2 = r 2
2
covers A = 1 − sin A r → nominal interest rate
 Compound Interest:
Tetrahedron n → no. of interest periods
Half versed sine: F = P(1 + 𝑖)n m → no. of interest period per year
Line Tangent to Conic Section 1 − cos A t → no. of years
hav A = r mt ER → effective rate
To find the equation of a line 2 2 F = P (1 + )
tangent to a conic section at a H = a√ Exsecant:
m
given point P(x1, y1):
3 I r m
exsec A = sec A − 1 ER = = (1 − ) − 1
In the equation of the conic 2 P m
equation, replace:
SA = a √3
 Inflation:  Rate of return:  Continuous Compounding Interest:
𝑥 2 → 𝑥𝑥1 √2 3 𝑖f = 𝑖 + f + 𝑖f annual net profit F = Pe rt
V=a RR =
𝑦 2 → 𝑦𝑦1 12 capital
ER = er − 1
 Break-even analysis: Annual net profit
𝑥 + 𝑥1 = savings – expenses

## 𝑥→ cost = revenue – depreciation (sinking fund)

1
 Annuity:
2 RP = ′
𝑦 + 𝑦1 RR (1 + 𝑖)n − 1 where:

𝑦→ F = A[ ] F → future worth
2 𝑖 P → principal or present worth
Depreciation A → periodic payment
𝑥𝑦1 + 𝑦𝑥1 (1 + 𝑖)n − 1

i → interest rate per payment
𝑥𝑦 → BVm = FC − Dm P = A[ ] n → no. of interest periods
2 𝑖(1 + 𝑖)n n’ → no. of payments

 Straight-Line: CALTECH:
Differential Calculus FC − SV Mode 3 2  Perpetuity:
x y
d= (time) (BV) A
Curvature: Radius of curvature: n P= = F(1 + 𝑖)−n
0 FC
y" 3
Dm = d(m) n SV 𝑖 where:
k= 3
[1 + (y′)2 ]2 C → capitalized cost
ρ=  Capitalized Cost: FC → first cost
[1 + (y′)2 ]2 𝑦"  Sinking Fund: where: OM → annual operation
FC → first cost OM RC − SV or maintenance cost
Maxima & Minima (Critical Points): (1 + i)n − 1 −1 SV → salvage cost C = FC + + RC → replacement cost
d = (FC − SV) [ ] d → depreciation 𝑖 (1 + 𝑖)n − 1 SV → salvage cost
𝑑𝑦 𝑖 per year
AC → annual cost
= y′ = 0 (+) minima m
(1 + i) − 1
n → economic life
m → any year before n
AC = C ∙ 𝑖
𝑑𝑥 (-) maxima Dm = d [ ] BVm → book value (RC − SV)𝑖
𝑖 after m years
AC = FC ∙ 𝑖 + OM +
Point of inflection: Dm → total depreciation
(1 + i)n − 1
 Sum-of-the-Years-Digit (SYD):
𝑑2 𝑦 n−m+1
= y" = 0 dm = (FC − SV) [ ] CALTECH:  Single-payment-compound-amount factor:
𝑑𝑥 2 ∑ years Mode 3 3
(F/P, 𝑖, n) = (1 + 𝑖)n
x y
(time) (BV)
∑nn−m+1 x 0 FC  Single-payment-present-worth factor:
Integral Calculus-The Cardioid Dm = (FC − SV) [ ] n SV −n
∑n1 x n+1 SV
(P/F, 𝑖, n) = (1 + 𝑖)
A = 1.5πa2  Equal-payment-series-compound-amount factor:
 Declining Balance (Matheson): ′
P = 8a BVm = FC(1 − k)m CALTECH: (1 + 𝑖)n − 1
Mode 3 6 (F/A, 𝑖, n) = [ ]
r = a(1 − sin θ) r = a(1 − cos θ) SV = FC(1 − k)n k → obtained x y 𝑖
(time) (BV)
r = a(1 + sin θ) r = a(1 + cos θ) Dm = FC − BVm 0 FC  Equal-payment-sinking-fund factor:
n SV ′ −1
 Double Declining Balance:
(1 + 𝑖)n − 1
(A/F, 𝑖, n) = [ ]
BVm = FC(1 − k)m 𝑖
k = 2/n k → obtained  Equal-payment-series-present-worth factor:

Dm = FC − BVm (1 + 𝑖)n − 1
where: (P/A, 𝑖, n) = [ ]
FC → first cost 𝑖(1 + 𝑖)n
 Service Output Method: SV → salvage cost
FC − SV d → depreciation per year  Equal-payment-series-capital-recovery factor:
Qn → qty produced during
d= ′ −1
Qn economic life
Qm → qty produced during
(1 + 𝑖)n − 1
up to m year
(A/P, 𝑖, n) = [ ]
D = dQ m Dm → total depreciation
𝑖(1 + 𝑖)n
Statistics Fractiles Transportation Engineering Traffic Accident Analysis
Measure of Natural Tendency  Range Design of Horizontal Curve  Accident rate for 100 million
= 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑚 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑚 vehicles per miles of travel in a
 Mean, x̅, μ → average
 Minimum radius of curvature segment of a highway:
→ Mode Stat 1-var  Coefficient of Range 2
→ Shift Mode ▼s Stat Frequency? on 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑚 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑚 v A (100,000,000)
= R= R=
→ Input 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑚 + 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑚 g(e + f) ADT ∙ N ∙ 365 ∙ L
→ AC Shift 1 var x̅ R → minimum radius of curvature
A → no. of accidents during period of analysis
 Quartiles e → superelevation
f → coeff. of side friction or ADT → average daily traffic
 Median, Me → middle no. when n is even
skid resistance N → time period in years
n+1 1 2 3 v → design speed in m/s L → length of segment in miles
Me th = Q1 = n Q2 = n Q3 = n g → 9.82 m/s2
2 4 4 4
 Accident rate per million entering
1 n n when n is odd  Centrifugal ratio or impact factor
Me th
= [( ) + ( + 1)] vehicles in an intersection:
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
Q1 = (n + 1) ; Q1 = (n + 1) ; Q1 = (n + 1) v A (1,000,000)
4 4 4 Impact factor = R=
 Mode, Mo → most frequent gR
 Interquartile Range, IQR
R → minimum radius of curvature
Standard Deviation v → design speed in m/s A → no. of accidents during period of analysis
= 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒
g → 9.82 m/s2 ADT → average daily traffic entering all legs
 Population standard deviation = Q3 − Q1 N → time period in years
→ Mode Stat 1-var Power to move a vehicle
 Coefficient of IQR  Severity ratio, SR:
→ Shift Mode ▼ Stat Frequency? on P = vR
𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒
→ Input = P → power needed to move vehicle in watts f∙i
𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 + 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 SR =
→ AC Shift 1 var σx v → velocity of vehicle in m/s
Q − Q1 R → sum of diff. resistances in N
f∙i∙p
= 3
 Sample standard deviation
Q3 + Q1 f → fatal
Design of Pavement i → injury
→ Mode Stat 1-var  Quartile Deviation (semi-IQR) = IQR/2 p → property damage
→ Shift Mode ▼ Stat Frequency? on  Rigid pavement without dowels
→ Input  Outlier  Spacing mean speed, US:
→ AC Shift 1 var sx
→ extremely high or low data higher than 3W ∑d n
or lower than the following limits: t=√ Us = =
f ∑t ∑ 1
NOTE:
Q1 − 1.5IQR > x ( )
If not specified whether population/sample U1
in a given problem, look for POPULATION. Q 3 + 1.5IQR < x  Rigid pavement with dowels
Coefficient of Linear Correlation  Time mean speed, Ut:
 Decile or Percentile 3W 3W
or Pearson’s r d
m t=√ t=√ ∑
im = (n) 2f 4f ∑ U1
→ Mode Stat A+Bx
10 or 100 Ut = t =
→ Input (at the edge) (at the center) n n
→ AC Shift 1 Reg r t → thickness of pavement Ʃd → sum of distance traveled by all vehicles
Normal Distribution W → wheel load Ʃt → sum of time traveled by all vehicles
NOTE: f → allow tensile stress of concrete Ʃu1 → sum of all spot speed
-1 ≤ r ≤ +1; otherwise erroneous 1/Ʃu1 → reciprocal of sum of all spot speed
 Flexible pavement n → no. of vehicles
 Population standard deviation
W  Rate of flow:
Variance t=√ −r
 Z-score or
standard score → Mode Stat 𝜋f1 q = kUs
 standard deviation = σ
or variate → AC Shift 1 Distr f1 → allow bearing pressure of subgrade q → rate of flow in vehicles/hour
 variance = σ2 r → radius of circular area of contact
left of z → P( k → density in vehicles/km
x−μ between wheel load & pavement
 relative variability = σ/x z= uS → space mean speed in kph
σ right of z → R(
Mean/Average Deviation bet. z & axis → Q(  Thickness of pavement in terms  Minimum time headway (hrs)
x → no. of observations
μ → mean value, x̅ → Input of expansion pressure = 1/q
 Mean/average value σ → standard deviation expansion pressure
t=  Spacing of vehicles (km)
b pavement density
1 = 1/k
mv = ∫ f(x)dx Exponential Distribution
b−a a  Stiffness factor of pavement
 Peak hour factor (PHF)
P(x ≥ a) = e−λa = q/qmax
 Mean value
P(x ≤ a) = 1 − e−λa
Es 3 s

SF = √
1 b P(a ≤ x ≤ b) = e−λa − e−λb Ep
RMS = √ ∫ f(x)2 dx ES → modulus of elasticity of subgrade
b−a a EP→ modulus of elasticity of pavement

## Discrete Probability Distributions Walli’s Formula

π
 Binomial Probability Distribution 2 [(m − 1)(m − 3)(m − 5) … (1 or 2)][(n − 1)(n − 3)(n − 5) … (1 or 2)]
P(x) = C(n, x) p q x n−x ∫ cosm θ sinn θ dθ = ∙α
0 (m + n)(m + n − 2)(m + n − 4) … (1 or 2)
where:
p → success NOTE:
q → failure
α = π/2 for m and n are both even
 Geometric Probability Distribution α =1 otherwise
x−1
P(x) = p(q ) Tip to remember:
Fibonacci Numbers
 Poisson Probability Distribution 𝑥2 − 𝑥 − 1 = 0
n n
x −μ 1 1 + √5 1 − √5 Mode Eqn 5
μ e
P(x) = an = [( ) −( ) ]
x! √5 2 2 𝑥=
1 ± √5
2

## Period, Amplitude & Frequency

x = r cos θ
Period (T) → interval over which the graph of y = r sin θ
function repeats r = x2 + y2
Amplitude (A) → greatest distance of any point y
on the graph from a horizontal line which passes θ = tan−1
halfway between the maximum & minimum
x
values of the function
Frequency (ω) → no. of repetitions/cycles per unit
of time or 1/T

## Function Period Amplitude

y = A sin (Bx + C) 2π/B A
y = A cos (Bx + C) 2π/B A
y = A tan (Bx + C) π/B A
Measurement measure lay-out too long Effect of Curvature & Refraction
too long add subtract e Azimuth
CD = MD (1 + )
TL hcr = 0.067K 2 from South
Due to temperature: too short
e D2
(add/subtract); measured length Probable Errors h = h2 + (h − h2 ) − 0.067D1 D2
CD = MD (1 − ) D1 + D2 1
C = αL(T2 − T1 ) TL Reduction to
Probable Error (single):
Sea Level
Due to pull: Stadia Measurement Leveling
(add/subtract); measured length ∑(x − x̅) CD MD
E = 0.6745√ Horizontal: =
(P2 − P1 )L n−1 Elev𝐵 = Elev𝐴 + 𝐵𝑆 − 𝐹𝑆 R R+h
C=
EA D = d + (f + c) Inclined Upward:
Probable Error (mean):
Due to sag: 𝑓 error/setup = −eBS + eFS
(subtract only); unsupported length D = ( )s +C Subtense Bar
E ∑(x − x̅) 𝑖 Inclined Downward:

## w 2 L3 Em = = 0.6745√ D = Ks + C error/setup = +eBS − eFS θ

C= √n n(n − 1) D = cot
24P 2 Inclined: Total Error: 2
Proportionalities of weight, w: eT = error/setup ∙ no. of setups
Due to slope: D = Ks cos θ + C
(subtract only); measured length E=error; d=distance; n=no. of trials

1 1 H = D cos θ
C 2 = S 2 − h2 Double Meridian Distance Method DMD
𝑤∝ 𝑤∝ 𝑤∝𝑛 V = D sin θ
𝐸2 𝑑 DMD𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 = Dep𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡
Normal Tension:
DMD𝑛 = DMD𝑛−1 + Dep𝑛−1 + Dep𝑛
0.204W√AE Area of Closed Traverse Area of Irregular Boundaries
PN = DMD𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡 = −Dep𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡
√PN − P Trapezoidal Rule: 2A = Σ(DMD ∙ Lat)
Lat = L cos α
Dep = L sin α d
A= [h + hn + 2Σh]
Error of Closure:
2 1 Double Parallel Distance Method DPD
Parabolic Curves Simpson’s 1/3 Rule:
= √ΣL2 + ΣD2 DPD𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 = Lat𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡
Symmetrical: d DPD𝑛 = DPD𝑛−1 + Lat 𝑛−1 + Lat 𝑛
Relative Error/Precision: A = [h1 + hn + 2Σh𝑜𝑑𝑑 + 4Σh𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 ]
L Error of Closure 3 DPD𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡 = −Lat 𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡
H = (g1 + g 2 ) =
Perimeter Note: n must be odd 2A = Σ(DMD ∙ Dep)
8
L 2
x 2 ( 2) 1 acre = Simple, Compound & Reverse Curves Spiral Curve
= L 4047 m2
y H 1
Unsymmetrical:
L1 L2
H= (g + g 2 )
2(L1 +L2 ) 1
g 3 (L1 +L2 ) = g1 L1 + g 2 L2
Note: Consider signs.

Earthworks
𝑑𝐿 0 𝑑𝑅
±𝑓𝐿 ±𝑓 ±𝑓𝑅 L2 180°
θ= ∙
f w I 2RLs π
A= (d + dR ) + (fL + fR ) T = R tan
2
2 L 4 θ Ls 2
I i= ; p=
Volume (End Area): E = R [sec − 1] 3 24R
2
L I
L3
Ve = (A1 + A2 ) m = R [1 − cos ] x=
2 2 6RLs
Volume (Prismoidal): L = 2R sin
I L5 LT → long tangent
ST → short tangent
2 Y=L− 2 R → radius of simple curve
L 40R2 Ls L → length of spiral from TS to any point
VP = (A1 + 4Am + A2 ) π along the spiral

6 Lc = RI ∙ Ls I Ls → length of spiral
180° Ts = + (R + p) tan I → angle of intersection
I c → angle of intersection of the simple
Prismoidal Correction: 2 2 curve
20 2πR p → length of throw or the distance from
= I tangent that the circular curve has been
L D 360° Es = (R + p) sec − R offset
CP = (c − c2 )(d1 − d2 ) 2 x → offset distance (right angle
12 1 1145.916 distance) from tangent to any point on
R= 0.036k 3 the spiral
xc → offset distance (right angle
VP = Ve − Cp D Ls = distance) from tangent to SC
R Ec → external distance of the simple
Volume (Truncated): 0.0079k 2
curve
θ → spiral angle from tangent to any
Σh e= point on the spiral
VT = ABase ∙ Have = A( ) R θS → spiral angle from tangent to SC
n i → deflection angle from TS to any point
A D L on the spiral
is → deflection angle from TS to SC
VT = (Σh1 + 2Σh2 + 3Σh3 + 4Σh4 ) = y → distance from TS along the tangent
n DC Ls to any point on the spiral

Stopping Sight Distance Parabolic Summit Curve Parabolic Sag Curve Underpass Sight Distance Horizontal Curve
L>S
v2 L>S L>S L>S
S = vt + A(S)2
2g(f ± G) L= 2 A(S)2 A(S)2 h1 + h2 S2
L= L= H= C− R=
a = g(f ± G) (deceleration) 200(√h1 + √h2 ) 122 + 3.5S 800H 2 8M
v L<S L<S L<S L<S
2
tb = (breaking time)
200(√h1 + √h2 ) 122 + 3.5S 800H L(2S − L)
g(f ± G) L = 2(S) − L = 2(S) − L = 2(S) − R=
A A A 8M
f
Eff = (100) L → length of summit curve A → algebraic difference A → algebraic difference of L → length of horizontal
fave S → sight distance of grades, in percent grades, in percent curve
v → speed in m/s h1 → height of driver’s eye L → length of sag curve L → length of sag curve S → sight distance
t → perception-reaction time h1 = 1.143 m or 3.75 ft S → sight distance A(K)2 R → radius of the curve
For passengers comfort,
f → coefficient of friction h2 → height of object L= where K is speed in KPH
M → clearance from the
G → grade/slope of road h2 = 0.15 m or 0.50 ft
Properties of Fluids Pressure Dams Stability of Floating Bodies
s Mg 1 1
W= p𝑎𝑏𝑠 = p𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 + p𝑎𝑡𝑚 F1 = ɤAh1 = ɤh1 2 ; F2 = ɤAh2 = ɤh2 2
2 2
W M p = ɤh 1
ɤ= ; ρ= U1 = ɤh2 B ; U2 = (h1 − h2 )ɤB
V V s. g.1 2
pg h2 = h h2
ɤ = ρg = s. g.2 1 RM = W1 (X1 ) + W2 (X2 )+. . . +W𝑛 (X𝑛 ) + F2 ( )
RT 3
h𝑤 = s. g.1 h1
V 1 h 1 2 MG = metacentric height
s. v. = = OM = F1 ( ) + U1 ( B) + U2 ( B) MG = MB𝑂 ± GB𝑂
M ρ 3 2 3 Use (-) if G is above BO and (+) if G is below BO.
Hydrostatic Forces Note that M is always above BO.
ɤ ρ Rx̅ = RM − OM
s. g. = = Ig ɤIg sin θ RM or OM = Wx
ɤ𝑤 ρ𝑤 e= e= RM μR𝑦
Aӯ F FS𝑂 = & FS𝑆 = = W(MG sin θ)
∆P 1 OM R𝑥
EB = − ; β= On plane surfaces: B2 tan2 θ
∆V EB B MB𝑂 = [1 + ]
V F = ɤh̅A 𝑒 = | − x̅| 12D 2
2 Stresses/Hoops
𝑑𝑦 FT On curved surfaces: vs I
μ=τ = B R𝑦 6𝑒 pD
𝑑𝑉 L2 Fℎ = ɤh̅A 𝑒< ; q=− [1 ± ] St = MB𝑂 = =
6 B B 2t VD sin θ VD
μ L2 F𝑣 = ɤV
B 2R 𝑦
υ= = 2T sg m
ρ T 𝑒> ; q= s= Buoyancy Abel = A
F = √ Fℎ + F𝑣 2 2 6 3x̅ pD sg l tot
pd B R𝑦 St = tensile stress BF = W
σ= NOTE:
𝑒= ; q=− p = unit pressure sg m
4 BF = ɤ𝑤 V𝑑 Vbel = V
ħ = vertical distance from cg of
submerged surface to liquid surface
6 B D = inside diameter sg l tot
4σcosθ h̅ = ӯ (for vertical only) 2R 𝑦 t = thickness of wall
h= 𝑒 = 0; q = s = spacing of hoops
ɤd B T = tensile force Celerity (velocity of sound)
(rigid pipes)
Relative Equilibrium of Fluids Bernoulli’s Energy Theorem Major Losses in Pipes
EB
c=√
Horizontal Motion: Rotation: Darcy Weisbach Eq’n: ρw
P1 v1 2 P2 v2 2
a ω2 x z1 + + = z2 + + + H. L. L v2
tan θ = tan θ = ɤ 2g ɤ 2g (non-rigid pipes)
g g H. L. = f
D 2g EB
with pump: c=√
E D
Inclined Motion: 2 2
ω x r2
x 2
0.0826 f L Q 2 ρw (1 + B )
Et
ah y= ; = P1 v1 2 P2 v2 2 H. L. =
2g h y z1 + + + HA = z2 + + + H. L. D5
tan θ = ɤ 2g ɤ 2g Water Hammer
g ± av 1 2 Manning’s Formula:
V= πr h with turbine:
∆Pmax = ρcv
Vertical Motion: 2 10.29 n2 L Q2
H. L. = 2L
a 1 rpm =
π
rad/sec P1 v1 2 P2 v2 2 D16/3 tc =
p = ɤh (1 ± ) 30 z1 + + − HE = z2 + + + H. L. c
g ɤ 2g ɤ 2g Hazen William’s Formula:
A. TIME of closure:
output QɤE
efficiency = ; HP = 10.64 L Q1.85 rapid/instantaneous
∆P = ∆Pmax
Series-Parallel Pipes input 746 H. L. = 1.85 4.87
Pump → Output & Turbine → Input
C D Slow Closure
tc
Series Connection: ∆P = ∆Pmax ( )
1 atm t actual
H. L.T = H. L.1 + H. L.2 +. . . +H. L.n Fluid Flow Most Efficient Sections = 101.325 KPa B. TYPE of closure:
Q = Av Rectangular: = 2166 psf Partial Closure (vf ≠ 0)
Q T = Q1 = Q 2 = Q n = 14.7 psi ∆P = ρc(vi − vf )
Q → discharge b = 2d
= 760 mmHg Total Closure (vf = 0)
Parallel Connection: → flow rate d = 29.9 inHg ∆P = ρcvi
→ weight flux R=
H. L.T = H. L.1 = H. L.2 = H. L.n 2
volume flow rate → m3/s
weight flow rate → N/s Trapezoidal: Open Channel
Q T = Q1 + Q 2 +. . . +Q n mass flow rate → kg/s
x = y1 + y2 Specific Energy: Manning Formula:
2 1 1/6
R= E= +d C= R
2 2g n
Without headloss: Time to remove water from h1 to h2 with constant cross-section:
2As Bazin Formula:
t= (√h1 − √h2 ) Triangular: v = C√RS 87
v = √2gh C=
CAo √2g b = 2d Theoretically: m
1+
With headloss: A = d2 8g √R
Time to remove water from h1 to h2 with varying cross-section:
C=√
v = Cv √2gh
h1
As dh θ = 90° f
t=∫ Kutter Formula:
h2 CAo √2gh Semi-circular:
Q = CA o √2gh 1 0.000155
d = r (full) + 23 +
Time in which water surfaces of two tanks will reach same elevation: r C= n S
C = Cc C v (As1 )(As2 )
2 R= 1+
n
(23 +
0.000155
)
t= (√h1 − √h2 ) 2 √R S
a
Cc = CAo √2g (As1 + As2 ) Circular: TRAPEZOIDAL:
If C is not given, use Manning’s in V:
A Q max if d = 0.94D For minimum seepage:
θ 1 2/3 1/2
v Vmax if d = 0.81D
b = 4d tan v= R S
Cv = Hydrodynamics 2 n
vt
Force on Curve Vane/Blade: Force on the Jet
(at right angle):
v2 1
H. L. = [ − 1] ∑ Fx = ρQ(v2x − v1x )
2g Cv 2 F = ρQv

## H. L. = ∆H[1 − Cv 2 ] ∑ Fy = ρQ(v2y − v1y )

2
x
y= Force on Pipe’s Bend & Reducer:
4Cv 2 h
Unit Weight: Specific Gravity of Solid: m1 − m2 V1 − V2
ɤs SL = − ɤw
(Gs + Gs ω)ɤw Gs = m2 m2
ɤ= ɤw
1+e e m2
(Gs + Se)ɤw Bulk Specific Gravity: SL = ; SR =
ɤ= Gs V2 ɤw
1+e g = Gs (1 − n)
When S=0:
1
Gs ɤw
Relative Compaction: Atterberg Limits G𝑠 =
ɤd 1
ɤd = R= PI = LL − PL − SL
1+e SR
Volume Weight ɤd 𝑚𝑎𝑥
When S=100%:
Se = Gs ω ω − PL GI = (F − 35)[0.2 + 0.005(LL − 40)]
(Gs + e)ɤw Relative Density/ LI = +0.01(F − 15)(PI − 10)
Vv Ww W ɤsat = LL − PL
e= ω= ɤ= 1+e Density Index:
Vs Ws V e𝑚𝑎𝑥 − e LI State
ɤsub = ɤsat − ɤw Dr = SI = PL − SL LI < 0 Semisolid PI Description
Vv WS e𝑚𝑎𝑥 − e𝑚𝑖𝑛 0 < LI < 1 Plastic 0 Non-plastic
n= 0<e<∞
n ɤd = (Gs − 1)ɤw LL − ω
CI = LI > 1 Liquid 1-5 Slightly plastic
V e= V ɤsub = 1 1
1−n 1+e − LL − PI 5-10 Low plasticity
Vw ɤ ɤd 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ɤd qu Ac Class 10-20 Medium plasticity
0<n<1 ɤd = Dr = PI
S= e 1+ω Gs ɤw 1 1 Ac = ; St = und AC < 0.7 Inactive 20-40 High plasticity
Vv n= ɤzav = −
ɤd 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ɤd 𝑚𝑎𝑥
μ q u rem 0.7 < AC < 1.2 Normal >40 Very High plastic
1+e 1 + Gs ω μ = % passing 0.002mm AC > 1.2 Active

## Permeability Stratified Soil Dr (%) Description

Sieve Analysis
0 – 20 Very Loose
∆h v Sorting
20 – 40 Loose Uniformity Coeff. of Gradation
v = ki ; i = ; v𝑠 = Coefficient:
L n 40 – 70 Medium Dense Coefficient: or Curvature:
70 – 85 Dense
Q = vA = kiA 85 – 100 Very Dense
D60 (D30 )2 D75
Cu = Cc = So = √
Constant Head Test: D10 D60 ∙ D10 D25
QL Pumping Test: Suitability Number:
k=
Aht Unconfined: 3 1 1
Falling/Variable Head Test: r1 Sn = 1.7√ + +
for Parallel flow:
aL h1 Q 𝑙𝑛 (D50 ) 2 (D20 ) 2 (D10 )2
h1 k1 + h2 k 2 +. . . +hn k n r2
k= 𝑙𝑛 k eq = k=
At h2 H π(h1 2 − h2 2 )
Hazen Formula Casagrande: for Perpendicular flow: Confined: Compressibility of Soil
k = c ∙ D10 2 k = 1.4e2 k 0.85 H r
Q 𝑙𝑛 1 Compression Index, CC: Swell Index, CS:
Kozeny-Carman: Samarasinhe: k eq = r2
h1 h2 h k= Cc = 0.009(LL − 10%) 1
2
e n
e + +. . . + n 2πt(h1 − h2 ) Cs = Cc
k = C1 ∙
1+e
k = C3 ∙
1+e
k1 k 2 kn e − e′ 5
Cc =
∆P + Po
Stresses in Soil NOTE: Flow Net / Seepage 𝑙𝑜𝑔
Po
Quick
Effective Stress/ condition: Isotropic soil: For normally consolidated clay:
Intergranular Stress: Nf Flow line ---- 1
pE = 0 q = kH
2
3 e − e′
pE = pT − pw Nd S= H (for one layer only)
Capillary Rise:
Equipotential line ----
4 1+e
Pore Water Pressure/
C Non-Isotropic soil: 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10 Cc H ∆P + Po
Neutral Stress: hcr =
eD10 Nf S= 𝑙𝑜𝑔
pw = ɤw hw q = √k x k z H 1+e Po
Nd Nf → no. of flow channels [e.g. 4]
Total Stress: Nd → no. of potential drops [e.g. 10] With Pre-consolidation pressure, Pc:
pT = ɤ1 h1 + ɤ2 h2 +. . . +ɤn hn when (△P+Po) < Pc:
Cs H ∆P + Po
AT REST:
S= 𝑙𝑜𝑔
Lateral Earth Pressure Shear Strength of Soil 1 + eo Po
k o = 1 − sin Ø
ACTIVE PRESSURE: Ө → angle of failure in shear when (△P+Po) > pc:
1 Ø → angle of internal friction/shearing resistance Cs H Pc Cc H ∆P + Po
pa = k a ɤH 2 − 2cH√k a C → cohesion of soil S= 𝑙𝑜𝑔 + 𝑙𝑜𝑔
2 1+e Po 1 + e Pc
Ø
For Inclined: θ = 45° + Over Consolidation Ratio (OCR):
2 pc
cos β − √cos 2 β − cos 2 Ø
k a = cos β TRI-AXIAL TEST: OCR = ; OCR = 1 (for normally consolidated soil)
cos β + √cos 2 β − cos 2 Ø σ1 → maximum principal stress
po
→ axial stress Coefficient of Compressibility:
For Horizontal:
1 − sin Ø → deviator stress
△e → change in void ratio
ka = av = △P → change in pressure
1 + sin Ø → plunger pressure ∆P
σ3 → minimum principal stress Coefficient of Volume Compressibility:
If there is angle of friction α bet. wall and soil: → confining pressure
2
cos Ø → lateral pressure ∆e
ka = 2
mv = ∆P
sin(Ø + α) sin Ø → cell pressure 1 + eave
cos α [1 + √ ] → chamber pressure
cos α Coefficient of Consolidation:
 Normally consolidated: Hdr → height of drainage path
PASSIVE PRESSURE: r Hdr 2 Tv → thickness of layer if drained 1 side
1 sin Ø = Cv = → half of thickness if drained both sides
pP = k P ɤH 2 + 2cH√k P σ3 + r t Tv → factor from table
2 Coefficient of Permeability: t → time consolidation
For Inclined:  Cohesive soil:
r k = mv Cv ɤw
cos β + √cos 2 β − cos 2 Ø sin Ø =
k P = cos β x + σ3 + r
DIRECT SHEAR TEST:
cos β − √cos 2 β − cos 2 Ø c σn → normal stress  Normally consolidated soil:
For Horizontal:
tan Ø = σs → shear stress
x σS
1 + sin Ø tan Ø =
kP =  Unconsolidated- σN
1 − sin Ø undrained test:
 Cohesive soil:
If there is angle of friction α bet. wall and soil: c=r
2 σS c
cos Ø tan Ø = =
kP =  Unconfined x + σN x
2 compression test:
sin(Ø − α) sin Ø
cos α [1 − √ ] σS = c + σN tan ∅
cos α σ3 = 0
Terzaghi‘s Bearing Capacity (Shallow Foundations) Soil Stability
 General Shear Failure  Bearing Capacity Factor  Analysis of Infinite Slope
(dense sand & stiff clay)
Ø Factor of safety against sliding (without seepage)
Square Footing: Nq = tan2 (45° + ) eπ tan Ø C tan ∅
2
qult = 1.3cNaSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
c + qNq + 0.4ɤBNɤ FS = +
Nc = (Nq − 1) cot Ø ɤ H sin 𝛽 cos 𝛽 tan 𝛽 β
Circular Footing:
Factor of safety against sliding (with seepage) where:
qult = 1.3cNc + qNq + 0.3ɤBNɤ Nɤ = (Nq − 1) tan 1.4Ø C → cohesion
C ɤ′ tan ∅ β → angle of backfill from horizontal
Strip Footing:  Parameters FS = + Ø → angle of internal friction
qult → ultimate bearing capacity ɤ𝑠𝑎𝑡 H sin 𝛽 cos 𝛽 ɤ𝑠𝑎𝑡 tan 𝛽 H → thickness of soil layer
qult = cNc + qNq + 0.5ɤBNɤ qu → unconfined compressive strength
c → cohesion of soil  Analysis of Finite Slope
 Local Shear Failure
(loose sand & soft clay) qu Factor of safety against sliding
c= Ff + Fc
Square Footing: 2
′ ′ ′ FS =
qult = 1.3c′Nc + qNq + 0.4ɤBNɤ q = ɤDf (for no water table)
W sin 𝜃
β θ
Circular Footing: qult Pallow Maximum height for critical equilibrium
where:
qult = 1.3c′Nc ′ + qNq ′ + 0.3ɤBNɤ ′ qallow = = (FS=1.0) Ff → frictional force; Ff = μN
FS A
4𝐶 sin 𝛽 cos ∅ Fc → cohesive force
Strip Footing: qult − q Hcr = [ ] Fc = C x Area along trial failure plane
qult = c′Nc ′ + qNq ′ + 0.5ɤBNɤ ′ qnet = ɤ 1 − cos(𝛽 − ∅) W → weight of soil above trial failure plane
FS
Stability No.: Stability Factor:
EFFECT OF WATER TABLE: C 1 H H
m= SF = − = BC
ɤH m tan 𝜃 tan 𝛽

## Capacity of Driven Piles (Deep Foundations)

 Pile in Sand Layer  Pile in Clay Layer

## Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Q f = PAkμ Q Q f = CLαP

q = ɤ(Df − d)+ɤ′d q = ɤDf q = ɤDf
where: where:
3rd term ɤ = ɤ′ 3rd term ɤ = ɤ′ 3rd term ɤ = ɤave P → perimeter of pile C → cohesion
A → area of pressure diagram dc L → length of pile
for d ≤ B
k → coefficient of lateral pressure α → frictional factor
ɤave ∙ B = ɤd + ɤ′(B − d) μ → coefficient of friction P → perimeter of pile
NOTE: for d > B
Q tip = pe Nq Atip Qf Q tip = cNc Atip
ɤ′= ɤ𝑠𝑢𝑏 = ɤ − ɤ𝑤 ɤave = ɤ (AKA Qbearing) (AKA Qbearing)

where: where:
Group of Piles  Alternate Equation for Group pe → effective pressure at bottom QTIP c → cohesion
Efficiency (sand only) Nq → soil bearing factor Nc → soil bearing factor
 Group Efficiency (sand or clay) Atip → Area of tip Atip → Area of tip
2(m + n − 2)s + 4d Critical depth, dc:
Q des−group Eff = Q T = Q f + Q tip Loose 10 (size of pile)
Eff = mnπD Dense 20 (size of pile) Q T = Q f + Q tip
Q des−indiv where:
m → no. of columns QT QT
n→ no. of rows Q des = Q des =
s → spacing of piles F. S. F. S.
D → diameter of pile

## Weirs Froude Number Critical Depth

v For all sections:
NF = where:
√gdm Q2 Ac 3 Q → flow rate m3/s
where: g → 9.81 m/s2
v → mean velocity (Q/A)
= AC → critical area
g → 9.81 m/s2 g Bc BC → critical width
dm → hydraulic depth (A/B)
B → width of liquid surface NOTE:
E is minimum for critical depth.
 Rectangular Q2 ∙ B c
NF = √ 3 For rectangular sections ONLY:
Considering velocity of approach: where: Ac ∙ g
2 va 3/2 va 3/2 W → channel width Take note that it is only derived from 3 q2
dc = √ = Ec
2
Q = C√2g L [(H + ) −( ) ] L → weir length the critical depth equation.
g 3
3 2g 2g Z → weir height Critical Flow NF = 1
Neglecting velocity of approach: H → weir head Subcritical Flow NF < 1 Q
2 Supercritical Flow NF > 1 q=
PARAMETERS: B where:
Q = C√2g L H 3/2 q → flow rate or discharge
3 C → coefficient of discharge
Reynold’s Number v2 per meter width
EC → specific energy at
va → velocity of approach m/s E𝑐 = + d𝑐 critical condition
Considering velocity of approach: m → weir factor
2g vC → critical velocity
Dv Dvρ
va 3/2 va 3/2 NR = = vc = √gdc
Q = m L [(H + ) −( ) ]  Triangular (symmetrical only) υ μ
2g 2g
Neglecting velocity of approach: 8 θ Laminar Flow (NR ≤ 2000) Hydraulic Jump
3/2 Q= C√2g tan H 5/2 64
Q=mLH 15 2 Height of the jump: Power Lost:
hf =
Q = m H 5/2 NR ∆d = d2 − d1 P = QɤE
Francis Formula (when C and m is not given)
Considering velocity of approach: When θ=90° Length of the jump:
Turbulent Flow (NR > 2000) NF1 −1
va 3/2 va 3/2 Q = 1.4H 5/2 L v 2 L = 220 d1 tanh
22
Q = 1.84 L′ [(H + ) −( ) ] hf = f
2g 2g  Cipolletti (symmetrical, slope 4V&1H) D 2g Solving for Q:
Neglecting velocity of approach: θ = 75°57’50”
2
Q = 1.84 L′ H 3/2
Q = 1.859 L H 3/2 0.0826 f L Q For all sections:
hf =
NOTE: D5 ɤQ
 with Dam: P2 − P1 = (v − v2 )
L’ = L for suppressed
Neglecting velocity of approach:
Boundary Shear Stress g 1
L’ = L – 0.1H for singly contracted
3/2 τ = ɤRS P = ɤh̅A
L’ = L – 0.2H for doubly contracted Q = 1.71 L H
Boundary Shear Stress For rectangular sections ONLY:
Time required to discharge:
(for circular pipes only) q2 1
2As 1 1 f = (d1 ∙ d2 )(d1 + d2 )
t= [ − ] τo = ρv g 2
mL √H2 √H1 8
Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors, Ø Working Strength Design (WSD)
→ choose largest U in design
(a) Flexure w/o axial load ……………………… 0.90 or Alternate Strength Design (ASD)
Basic Loads: (b) Axial tension & axial tension w/ flexure .… 0.90
(c) Axial comp. & axial comp. w/ flexure: Allowable Stresses (if not given):
𝑈 = 1.4𝐷 + 1.7𝐿
(1) Spiral ……………………………….………. 0.75  Horizontal members  Vertical members
With Wind Load: (2) Tie …………………….…………….………. 0.70 (i.e. beam, slab, footing, etc.) (i.e. column, wall, etc.)
𝑈 = 0.75(1.4𝐷 + 1.7𝐿 + 1.7𝑊) (d) Shear & torsion ……………………….………. 0.85 fc = 0.45 f’c fc = 0.25 f’c
(e) Bearing on concrete ……………….…,……. 0.70 fs = 0.50 fy fs = 0.40 fy
𝑈 = 0.9𝐷 + 1.3𝑊
𝑈 = 1.4𝐷 + 1.7𝐿 where:
Design Conditions Values f’c → compressive strength of concrete at 28 days
With Earthquake Load: Over-reinforced: fy → axial strength of steel
Choose Smaller Value/ Structural Grade ASTM Gr.33 / PS Gr.230 fy = 230 MPa
𝑈 = 1.32𝐷 + 1.1𝑓1 𝐿 + 1.1𝐸 → concrete fails first Round-down Intermediate Grade ASTM Gr.40 / PS Gr.275 fy = 275 MPa
→ fs < fy (USD) → Moment Capacity
𝑈 = 0.99𝐷 + 1.1𝐸 → Ms > Mc (WSD)
High Carbon Grade ASTM Gr.60 / PS Gr.415 fy = 415 MPa

With Earth Pressure Load: → 424.3.2 for fy = 275 MPa; fs ≤ 140 MPa
Under-reinforced:
for fy = 415 MPa; fs ≤ 170 MPa
𝑈 = 1.4𝐷 + 1.7𝐿 + 1.7𝐻 → steel fails first Choose Larger Value/
→ fs > fy (USD) Round-up
𝑈 = 0.9𝐷 → Ms < Mc (WSD)
Modular Ratio, n (if not given):

𝑈 = 1.4𝐷 + 1.7𝐿 → Estronger Esteel 200,000
Balance Condition: n= = =
With Structural Effects: → concrete & steel Eweaker Econcrete 4700√fc′
simultaneously fail
𝑈 = 0.75(1.4𝐷 + 1.7𝐿 + 1.4𝑇) → fs = fy (USD) 424.6.4 n must be taken as the nearest whole number & n ≥ 6
𝑈 = 1.4(𝐷 + 𝑇) → Ms = Mc (WSD) 424.6.5 for doubly, use n for tension & use 2n for compression

Internal Couple Method: Solutions for Cracked Section (Singly): Solutions for Cracked Section (Doubly):

##  Location of neutral axis, NA:  Location of neutral axis, NA:

Factor k:
n Factor j: Ay̅above NA = Ay̅below NA Ay̅above NA = Ay̅below NA
k= 1 x x
fs j= 1− k bx ( ) = nAs (d − x) bx ( ) + (2n − 1)A′s (x − d′ ) = nAs (d − x)
n+ 3 2 2
fc
x → obtained x → obtained
Moment Resistance Coefficient, R:
1  Solve transferred moment of inertia at NA:  Solve transferred moment of inertia at NA:
R = fc kj
2 bx 3 bx 3
Moment Capacity:
INA = + nAs (d − x)2 INA = + (2n − 1)A′s (x − d′ )2 + nAs (d − x)2
3 3
1
Mc = C ∙ jd = fc kdb ∙ jd = Rbd2 INA → obtained INA → obtained
2
 Solve for Stresses or Resisted Moment:  Solve for Stresses or Resisted Moment:
Ms = T ∙ jd = As fs ∙ jd
For concrete: For tension steel: For concrete: For tension steel: For comp. steel:

## Provisions for Uncracked Section:

Mc ∙ x fs Ms ∙ (d − x) Mc ∙ x fs Ms ∙ (d − x) fs′ Ms′ ∙ (x − d′)
fc = = fc = = =
 Solve for inertia of gross section, Ig.
INA n INA INA n INA 2n INA
 Solve for cracking moment, Mcr.
 Solve for actual moment, Ma: Solutions for Gross Section (Singly): Solutions for Uncracked Section (By Sir Erick):
2
wL  Location of neutral axis, NA:
Ma = (for simply supported beam)
8 Ay̅above NA = Ay̅below NA
409.6.2.3. if Ma < Mcr, no crack; Ig = Ie x d−x
if Ma > Mcr, w/ crack; solve for Ie bx ( ) = b(d − x) ( ) + (n − 1)As (d − x)
2 2
 Solve for inertia of cracked section:
x → obtained
bx 3
Icr = + nAs (d − x)2  Location of neutral axis, NA:
 Solve transferred moment of inertia at NA:
3 bx 3
b(d − x) 3
 Solve for effective moment of inertia, Ie:
h INA = + + (n − 1)As (d − x)2
yt = ; y → obtained 3 3
Mcr 3 Mcr 3 2 t INA → obtained
Ie = ( ) ∙ Ig + [1 − ( ) ] ∙ Icr  Solve moment of inertia of gross section at NA:
Ma Ma  Solve for Stresses or Resisted Moment:
3
bx For concrete: For tension steel:
409.6.2.4. For simply supported, Ie = Ie (mid) Ig =
For cantilever, Ie = Ie (support) 12 Mc ∙ x fs Ms ∙ (d − x)
Ig → obtained fc = =
Ie mid + Ie support INA n INA
Ie =
2  Solve for cracking moment:

## 409.6.2.5. Factor for shrinkage & creep due

Mcr ∙ yt
fr = 0.7√fc′ =
time-dep factor, ξ: Ig
𝜉 5 yrs + 2.0
Mcr → obtained
𝜆= 12 mos 1.4
1 + 50𝜌′ 6 mos 1.0
3 mos 1.0
 Solve for instantaneous deflection:
4
5wL
δi = (for uniformly distributed load)
384Ec Ie
Say, 70% of load is sustained after n yrs.
 Solve for final deflection:
Ultimate Strength Design Steel Ratio
 Based in Strain Diagram:  Ultimate Moment Capacity: Steel ratio for balance condition:

## εs 0.003 Mu = ∅Mn 0.85fc′ β1 600

= ρb =
d−c c Mu = ∅R n bd2 fy (600 + fy )
d−c 10 Maximum & Minimum steel ratio:
εs = 0.003 ( ) Mu = ∅fc′ bd2 ω(1 − ω)
17
c fy ρmax = 0.75ρb Minimum Concrete Covers:
d−c ω=ρ ′ As max = 0.75As b
fs = 600 ( ) fc 20 mm → slab
c
 Coefficient of resistance, Rn: 1.4 √fc′ 40 mm → beam
a = β1 c ρmin = ρmin = → column
10 fy 4fy
a → depth of compression block Rn = fc′ ω(1 − ω)
c → distance bet. NA &
17
(choose larger between the 2) 75 mm → column footing
extreme compression fiber Mu → wall footing
Rn = → retaining wall
∅bd2
Provisions for β1: Singly or Doubly ?
0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.85  Steel reinforcement ratio, ρ:
Singly Reinforced Beam (SRB) Balance Condition for Doubly
* 1992 NSCP As
ρ= ρ < ρmax (rectangular only)
β1 = 0.85 − 0.008(fc′ − 30) bd As′
* 2001 NSCP As < As max (any section) ρb 𝑑 = ρb 𝑠 +
0.05  Combined ρ & Rn: bd
β1 = 0.85 − (fc′ − 30) Doubly Reinforced Beam (DRB) As ′
7
* 2010 NSCP 0.85fc′ 2R n ρ𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑑 = 0.75ρb 𝑠 +
0.05 ρ= [1 − √1 − ] ρ > ρmax (rectangular only) bd
β1 = 0.85 − (fc′ − 28) fy 0.85fc′
7 As > As max (any section) As 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ρ𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑑 bd
𝑑

Singly Reinforced Beam Singly Reinforced Beam Doubly Reinforced Beam Doubly Reinforced Beam
Computing MU with given As:
if SRB or DRB:
Computing As with given WD & WL: Computing MU with given As:
(1st) Compute for ab:
(1st) Compute for a: (1st) Compute ultimate moment, Mu: (1st) Compute for a:
d − c𝑏
C=T WU = 1.4WD + 1.7WL fs = fy = 600 [ ] Cc + Cs = T
c𝑏
0.85fc′ ab = As fs WU L2 Thus, 0.85fc′ ab + As ′fs ′ = As fs
(assume tension steel yields fs=fy)
MU = (for simply supported)
8 600d (assume tension steel yields fs=fs’=fy)
0.85fc′ ab = As fy c𝑏 =
600 + fy 0.85fc′ ab + As ′fy = As fy
(2nd) Solve for coeff. of resistance, Rn:
a → obtained c𝑏 → obtained a → obtained
MU
Rn =
(2nd) Check if assumption is correct: ∅bd2 a 𝑏 = β1 c𝑏 (2nd) Check if assumption is correct:
a = β1 c a 𝑏 → obtained a = β1 c
(3rd) Solve for steel ratio, ρ:
c → obtained c → obtained
(2nd) Solve for Asmax:
0.85fc′ 2R n
d−c ρ= [1 − √1 − ] C=T d−c
fs = 600 [ ] fy 0.85fc′ fs = 600 [ ]
c 0.85fc′ a 𝑏 b = As 𝑏 fy c
fs → obtained Check: fs → obtained
As 𝑏 → obtained
ρmin ≤ ρ ≤ ρmax
If fs > fy, tension steel yields; correct a. If fs > fy, tension steel yields; correct a.
If fs < fy, tension steel does not yield; If ρmin < ρ < ρmax, use ρ. As max = 0.75As 𝑏 If fs < fy, tension steel does not yield;
compute for new a. If ρmin > ρ, use ρmin. compute for new a.
If ρ > ρmax, design doubly. (2nd) Solve for given As
(2nd-b) Recomputation: & compare: c − d′
fs ′ = 600 [ ]
C=T (4th) Solve for area of steel c
If As < As max
reinforcement, As and required no. of
0.85fc′ ab = As fs bars, N: Solve the given beam fs ′ → obtained
d−c using SRB Investigation
0.85fc′ β1 cb = As ∙ 600 [ ] As = ρbd If fs’ > fy, compression steel yields;
c procedure.
correct a.
c → obtained As ρbd If fs’ < fy, compression steel does not
N= =
Ab π 2 If As > As max yield; compute for new a.
d
a = β1 c 4 b Solve the given beam
a → obtained using DRB Investigation (2nd-b) Recomputation:
procedure. C=T
(3rd) Solve for Moment Capacity: 0.85fc′ ab + As ′fs ′ = As fs
a Doubly Reinforced Beam (4th) Solve for # of tension bars: NOTE: Use fs & fs’ as
Mu = ∅(C or T) [d − ]
2 DESIGN As As1 + As2 fs = 600 [
d−c
]
a Computing As with given Mu: N= = c
Mu = ∅(0.85fc′ ab) [d − ] or Ab π 2
d c−d′
2 fs ′ = 600 [ ]
a (1st) Solve for nominal M1:
4 b c
Mu = ∅(As fs ) [d − ]
2 0.85fc′ β1 600 (5th) Solve for fs’: c → obtained
ρb =
fy (600 + fy ) c − d′
fs ′ = 600 [ ] a = β1 c
ρmax = 0.75ρb c a → obtained
As1 = 0.75ρb ∙ bd If fs’ > fy, compression steel yields;
a As’ = As2. (3rd) Solve for Moment Capacity:
M1 = (As1 fy ) [d − ] If fs’ < fy, compression steel does not a
2 Mu = ∅Cc [d − ] + ∅Cc [d − d′]
yield; Use fs’ to solve for As’. 2
(2nd) Solve for nominal M2: a
(6th) Solve for As’: Mu = ∅(0.85fc′ ab) [d − ]
MU 2
M2 = − M1 As ′fs ′ = As2 fy
∅ + ∅(As ′fs ′)[d − d′] or
(7th) Solve for # of compression bars:
(3rd) Solve for As2: a
As As′ Mu = ∅T [d − ]
M2 = (As2 fy )[d − d′] N= = 2
Ab π d 2 a
As2 → obtained 4 b Mu = ∅(As fs ) [d − ]
2
Design of Beam Stirrups T-Beam Thickness of One-way Slab & Beam
NSCP Provisions for effective flange width: NSCP Provisions for minimum thickness:

## i. Interior Beam: ii. exterior Beam: Canti- Simple One Both

L L lever Support End Ends
(1st) Solve for Vu: bf = bf = bw +
NSCP Provisions for 4 12 Slab L/10 L/20 L/24 L/28
ΣFv = 0 max. stirrups spacing: s1 s2 s1
bf = bw + + bf = bw + Beams L/8 L/16 L/18.5 L/21
Vu = R − wu d 1 2 2 2
2Vc = √fc ′bw d fy
wu L 3 bf = bw + 8t f bf = bw + 6t f Factor: [0.4 + ] [1.65 − 0.0003𝜌𝑐 ]
Vu = − wu d 700
(for lightweight concrete only)
2 i. when Vs < 2Vc,
(2nd) Solve for Vc: d Minimum Steel Ratio
1 smax = or 600mm
Vc = √fc ′bw d 2
For one-way bending:
6 k → steel ratio
ii. when Vs > 2Vc,
(3rd) Solve for Vs: d i. fy = 275 MPa,
Vu = ∅(Vc + Vs ) smax = or 300mm
4 k = 0.0020
Vs → obtained ii. fy = 415 MPa,
iii. & not greater than to: k = 0.0018
(4th) Theoretical Spacing: 3Av fy iii. fy > 415 MPa,
n
dA v fy smax = 400
s= n b k = 0.0018 [ ]
fy
Vs
NOTE: For two-way bending:
ρ → steel ratio
fyn → steel strength for shear reinforcement
Av → area of shear reinforcement
1.4 √fc′
n → no. of shear legs ρmin = ρmin =
π 2 fy 4fy
Av = d ∙n
4 (choose larger between the 2)

## Design of One-way Slab

LONGITUDINAL OR MAIN BARS TEMPERATURE BARS/
(1st) Compute ultimate moment, Mu:
SHRINKAGE BARS
WU = 1.4WD + 1.7WL (6th) Compute steel ratio, ρ:
As (11th) Solve for As:
WU L2 ρ=
MU = bd As = kb⫠ h
8
(7th) Check for minimum steel ratio: NSCP Provision for k:
(2nd) Solve for slab thickness, h: i. fy = 275 MPa, k = 0.0020
See NSCP Provisions for minimum thickness. 1.4 √fc′ ii. fy = 415 MPa, k = 0.0018
ρmin = & ρmin = iii. fy > 415 MPa, k = 0.0018 (400/fy)
fy 4fy
(3rd) Solve for effective depth, d:
(12th) Determine # of req’d temp. bars:
db If ρmin < ρ, use ρ.
d = h − cc − If ρmin > ρ, use ρmin & recompute As. As As
2 N= =
(8th) Determine # of req’d main bars:
Ab π d 2
(4th) Solve for a: 4 b
a
As As
Mu = ∅(C) [d − ] N= = 2 (13th) Determine spacing of temp. bars:
2 Ab π
a d b
4 b
Mu = ∅(0.85fc′ ab) [d − ] s=
2 (9th) Determine spacing of main bars:
N
a → obtained b (14th) Check for max. spacing of temp. bars:
s=
(5th) Solve for As: N smax = 5h or 450mm
C=T
(10th) Check for max. spacing of main bars:
0.85fc′ ab = As fy smax = 3h or 450mm
As → obtained

## Design of Column TIED COLUMN SPIRAL COLUMN

P = PC + PS PN = 0.8P PN = 0.85P
PU = ∅0.8P ; ∅ = 0.7 PU = ∅0.85P ; ∅ = 0.75
P = 0.85fc′ (Ag − Ast ) + Ast fy
PU = (0.7)(0.8)[0.85fc′ (Ag − Ast ) + Ast fy ] PU = (0.75)(0.85)[0.85fc′ (Ag − Ast ) + Ast fy ]
Ast
ρ= No. of main bars: Spacing of bars: fc′ Ag volume of spiral
Ag ρs = 0.45 [ − 1] =
Ast fy Ac volume of core
Thus, N= s = 16db
P Ab s = 48dt
Ag = π

0.85fc (1 − ρ) + ρfy N is based on Pu. s = least dimension (dsp )2 ∙ π(Dc −dsp ) 4Asp
s=4 π =
0.01Ag < Ast < 0.08Ag NOTE: If spacing of main bars < 150mm, use 1 tie per set. (D )2 ∙ ρs Dc ρs
4 c

Design of Footing WIDE BEAM SHEAR PUNCHING/DIAGONAL TENSION SHEAR BENDING MOMENT
VU1 = qU (B)(x) VU2 = PU − qU (a + d)(b + d) x
qA = qS + qC + qsur + qE MU = qU (B)(x) ( )
2
P PU √fc′ √fc′ ** design of main bars and
qE = ; qU = VU1 ≤ ∅Vwb = ∅ Bd VU2 ≤ ∅Vpc = ∅ b d
A ftg Aftg 6 3 o temperature bars –
Same as slab.
where: VU1 VU2
qA → allowable bearing pressure τwb = τpc =
∅Bd ∅bo d
qS → soil pressure
qC → concrete pressure
qsur → surcharge
√fc′ √fc′
τwb(allw) = τpc(allw) =
qE → effective pressure 6 3
qU → ultimate bearing pressure
Ø = 0.85