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Production and Operations

Management
(New Book)

1
Chapter 14:
Work Study, Method study
and work measurement
Industry has been striving
hard to discover new
methods and techniques
which could help produce
goods of required quality
at reasonable costs
Methods Engineering or
Industrial engineering:
(Work Study)
-work simplification
-job design
-value analysis
Methods Engineering or
Industrial engineering:
(Work Study)
-Time study
(work measurement)
-Method study
It is necessary that
employees work harder, be
more productive so that
production costs can be
kept low to meet global
competition
Work study is defined as
that body of knowledge
concerned with the
analysis of the work
methods and equipment
used , design of optimum
work methods, and their
standardization
Work study is also
understood as a
systematic, objective, and
critical examination of the
factors affecting
productivity for the
purpose of improvement
Objective of Work study
is to analyze the present
method of doing a job,
systematically in order to
develop a new and better
method
Objective of Work study
is to measure the work
content of a job by
measuring the time
required to do the job for a
qualified worker and to
establish standard time
Objective of Work study
is to increase productivity
by ensuring best possible
use of human, machine,
and material resources and
to achieve best quality
product at minimum
possible cost
Objective of Work study
is to improve operational
efficiency
Benefits of Work study
-increased productivity
and operational efficiency
-reduced manufacturing
costs
-improved workplace
layout
Benefits of Work study
-better manpower and
capacity planning
-fair wages to employees
-better working conditions
-improved work flow
Benefits of Work study
-reduced material handling
costs
-provides a standard of
performance
-better employee morale
and labor relations
Benefits of Work study
-basis of a sound incentive
scheme
-better job satisfaction to
employees
WORK
METHOD STUDY WORK STUDY
MEASUREMENT

1.Select the work to be studied 1.Select the work to be measured


2.Record effective and
2. Record the present method
ineffective time
using
3.Examine to eliminate
ineffective time
Flow Motion Film analysis
Operation Process charts charts 4.Define method to be used
Process charts
charts
5.Breakdown job into elements

6.Measure quantity of work


3. Examine the facts critically By
-time study
4. Develop best method -synthesis
- Analytical estimating

5. Define new method 7.Estimate normal time


and add allowances
6. Install and maintain new method to determine standard time
HIGHER
PRODUCTIVITY
The questioning attitudes of methods study

1. What is done? What is the purpose of operation? Why should it be


done? What would happen if it were not done? Is every part of the
operation necessary?
2. Who does the work? Why does this person do it? Who could do it
better? Can changes be made to permit a person with less skill and
training to do this work?
3. Where is the work done? Why is it done there? Could it be done
somewhere else more economically?

4. When is the work done? Why should it be done then? Would it be


better to do it some other time?

5. How is the work done? Why is it done this way?


Recording techniques in
method study:
operation
storage

transportation
combined
inspection

Delay/temporary storage
Process charts used in
method study:
-outline process chart
-operation process chart
-flow process chart
-two handed process chart
Process charts used in
method study:
-multiple activity chart
-man machine chart
-flow diagram
-string diagram
-SIMO chart
Flow Process chart
SIMULTANEOUS MOTION CYCLE -SIMO CHART
TWO HANDED PROCESS CHART
MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART
OPERATION PROCESS CHART
Outline process chart
STRING DIAGRAM
Motion study is the
science of eliminating
wastefulness resulting
from using unnecessary, ill-
directed and inefficient
motion.
The usual procedure of
performing micro motion
study is to take motion
picture of the operations,
analyze the film and to
prepare a SIMO chart
In analyzing the film very
small time values 1/2000 th

of a minute are obtained


by reading a
microchronometer
The examples of therbligs
(micro motions) are:
-search Sr
-select St
-grasp G
-transport empty TE
-transport loaded TL
The examples of therbligs
(micro motions) are:
-hold H
-release load RL
-position P
-pre-position PP
The examples of therbligs
(micro motions) are:
-inspect I
-assemble A
-disassemble DA
-use U
-unavoidable delay UD
The examples of therbligs
(micro motions) are:
-avoidable delay AD
-Plan Pn
-Rest for overcoming fatigue R
-find F
Motion economy and work
efficiency:
Most workers do not enjoy
making unnecessary or
wasted motions particularly if
they result in fatigue.
Motion study helps to reduce
fatigue and waste motions.
The principles of motion
economy:
-efficient use of operator
-arrangement of the
workplace
-tools and equipment
Memo motion study:
A special form of micro
motion study in which motion
pictures are taken at slow
speeds. Sixty frames per
minute and one hundred
frames per minute are
common.
Work measurement:
It establishes work content of a job.
It is defined as application of
techniques designed to establish
work content of a specified task by
determining the time required for
carrying out the task at a defined
standard of performance by a
qualified worker
A qualified worker is one who is
accepted as having the necessary
physical attributes, possessing the
required intelligence and education,
and having acquired skill and
knowledge to carry out the work in
hand to satisfactory standards of
safety, quantity and quality
Standard time is the amount
of time a qualified worker ,
working at a normal rate of
speed will require to perform
the specified task.
It is expressed as minutes per
unit.
Steps in work measurement:
-break the job into elements
-record the observed time for
each element by means of
either time study, synthesis,
or analytical estimating
method
Steps in work measurement:
-establish elemental time
values by extending observed
time into normal time by
applying a rating factor
-assess relaxation allowance
for personal needs and
physical and mental fatigue
Steps in work measurement:
-add the relaxation allowance
time to the normal time for
each element to arrive at
work content
Steps in work measurement:
-determine frequency of
occurrences of each element
in the job, multiply the work
content of each element by
its frequency and add up the
times to arrive at the work
content of the job
Steps in work measurement:
-add contingency allowance if
any to arrive at the
standard time
to do the job
Time study:
-select the job to be studied
-select the worker to be
studied
-conduct stopwatch time
study
Various elements in a job:
-repetitive element
-occasional element
-constant element
-variable element
-manual element
-machine element
-governing element(occupying longer
time than other elements)
-foreign element(breakage of tool)
RATING ASSIGNED IN LEVEL OF PERFOMANCE CORRESPONDS
THE SCALE TO WALKING
SPEED
60-80 75- 100-
100 133.33

0 0 0 No activity Nil

40 50 67 Very slow, clumsy, no interest to do the job 2 mph

60 75 100 Normal, steady, unhurried performance 3 mph

80 100 133.33 Businessman like, brisk, performance of a qualified 4 mph


worker

100 125 167 Very fast, incentive motivated 5 mph

NORMAL OR BASIC TIME=OBSERVED TIME X RATING FACTOR


RELEVANT ALLOWANCES
RELAXATION ALLOWANCE PERSONAL, FATIGUE OR 10% TO 20% OF NORMAL
DELAY ALLOWANCE ( TOILET, TIME
DRINKING WATER, PHONE
CALLS ETC)
CONTINGENCY ALLOWANCE OBTAINING SPECIAL 5% OF NORMAL TIME
MATERIALS FROM STORES,
SHARPENING TOOLS,
CONSULTATION WITH
SUPERVISOR
PROCESS ALLOWANCE WORKING ON AUTOMATIC
MACHINE DURING WHICH
WORKER IS FORCED TO BE
IDLE DURING WORK CYCLE
INTERFERENCE ALLOWANCE WHEN THE WORKER IS
WORKING ON 2 OR
3MACHINES

PERIODIC ACTIVITY SETTING UP A TOOL ON


ALLOWANCE MACHINE
Synthesis method:
Technique of work
measurement by synthesizing
elemental time values obtained
from previous time studies on
other jobs containing similar
job elements or from standard
data (normal time values for
different elements)
Analytical estimating:
The time values are determined
by using synthetic data or on
the basis of past experience of
the experienced work study
engineer
Predetermined motion time
system (PMTS)
Work measurement technique
by which normal times are
established for basic human
motions and these time values
are used to build up time for a
job
Work sampling is a work
measurement technique that
randomly samples the work of
one or more employees at
periodic intervals to determine
the proportion of total
operation that is accounted for,
in one particular activity
Work sampling
Total number of observations=2500
No. of working observations=2100
No. of units produced in 100 hours duration=6000
Proportion of manual labor=2/3
Proportion of machine time=1/3
observed rating factor=115%
total allowances=12% of normal time
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Actual working time=100x(2100/2500)=84 hours
Time taken per article=(84x60)/6000=0.84 minutes
observed manual labor time=0.84x(2/3)=0.56 minutes
observed machine time=0.28 minutes
normal labor time per unit=0.56x1.15=0.644 minutes
Work sampling
normal labor time per unit=0.56x1.15=0.644 minutes

standard labor time=0.644+12%=0.721

standard time per unit=0.721+0.28=1.00 minute


THANK YOU

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