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Earth as a SYSTEM

SYSTEM - A set of interconnected components that are


interacting to form a unified whole.
EXAMPLE of a system- ECOSYSTEM.
(Organisms are interrelated and interacting)
The Earth system is essentially a CLOSED SYSTEM.

A closed system is a system in which


there is only an exchange of heat or
energy and no exchange of matter.

The Earth receives energy from the sun and


returns some of this energy to space.
Components or subsystems
of the Earth system
THE EARTH SUBSYSTEMS
Biosphere Hydrosphere

Geosphere Atmosphere
Major Themes

SCALE ENERGY CYCLE


Major Themes

Scale

Processes in the Earth system act on length scales


of microns to thousands of kilometers, and on
time scales of milliseconds to millions of years.
Major Themes

Energy
The Earth system is powered by one external
source: the Sun

and two internal ones:

- radioactive decay
- gravitational energy (heat still being lost from
planetary formation).
Major Themes

Cycles

Material in the Earth system is continually


recycled in numerous overlapping cycles.
The
Carbon
Cycle
The
Rock
Cycle
The Hydrologic (Water)
Cycle
Biosphere

Includes all life


forms on Earth

It covers all ecosystems—from the soil to the


rainforest, from mangroves to coral reefs,
and from the plankton-rich ocean surface to the
deep sea.
Photosynthesis

The Carbon Cycle


James Lovelock used
the "Daisy World Model"
to illustrate how the
biosphere is capable of
regulating its
environment.

The Albedo Effect …


Hydrosphere

Dynamic mass of
water that is
continuously on the
move
1. About 70% of the Earth is covered with liquid
water (hydrosphere) and much of it is in the
form of ocean water.
2. Only 3% of Earth's water is fresh: two-thirds
are in the form of ice, and the remaining
one-third is present in streams, lakes, and
groundwater.

The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

Precipitation, Evaporation, Runoff, Infiltration, etc...


Condensation, Precipitation, Evaporation,
Transpiration, Infiltration, Surface Runoff.
Atmosphere

The atmosphere is the


thin gaseous layer
that envelopes the
lithosphere.

The present atmosphere is composed of 78%


nitrogen (N), 21% oxygen (O2), 0.9%
argon, and trace amount of other gases.
One of the most important processes by
which the heat on the Earth's surface is
redistributed is through atmospheric
circulation.
Geosphere

The Solid Earth

extends from the


surface to the center
Connect to Earth

Create a concept map which explains how


the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere,
and biosphere are interconnected.

Use arrows and simple illustrations.


4.6 Billion Years of
Interaction
Geosphere

Hydrosphere Biosphere

Atmosphere
LITHOSPHERE

The lithosphere
includes the crust and
the upper part of the
mantle.
Layers of the Earth

CRUST (continental &


oceanic)

MANTLE (upper & lower)

CORE (outer & inner)


Which layer is it?
CRUST

- It’s the light and very thin outer


skin of the Earth.
- The outermost layer where energy
and mineral resources are derived.
Different elements that
compose the Earth’s CRUST
 Oxygen 46.60
 Silicon 27.72
 Aluminum 8.13
 Iron 5.00
 Calcium 3.63
 Sodium 2.83
 Potassium 2.59
 Magnesium 2.09
 Titanium 0.40
 Hydrogen 0.14
MANTLE

- Less dense layer


- Made up of silicate rocks, mostly
made of the elements silicon,
oxygen, iron and magnesium.
CORE

- Denser layer
- the Earth’s magnetic field
- strengthens the idea that the
Earth’s outer core is molten/liquid.
Historical Development of
the concept of EARTH SYSTEM
Sources:
1. Ms. Laguda ppt. (Regional SHS
Mass Training of Grade 11
Teachers)
2.TG Earth & Life Science