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Qualitative Analysis of Functional Groups

Assignment
SCH4U, CHEMISTRY
RIBBA PATHAN
JUNE 30TH, 2017
Variables
Dependent Variable: In this lab the dependent variable was the
reaction of the unknowns with each of the reagents (including
water).
Independent Variable: An independent Variable is the thing
that is deliberately changing throughout the experiment .In this
case the independent variable was the identity of the unknown(s).
Controlled Variable: A lab as sensitive as this one had
controlled variables that altered with the results. A controlled
variable that changed the results was temperature, as temperature
had different effects on different compounds. Another controlled
variable was the amount of a particular reagents mixed with one of
the unknowns
Question
In this lab activity, organic compounds were classified based on
their functional groups. Also a variety of unknown compounds had
to be identified based on their observable physical and chemical
properties. Five unknowns (1, 4, 5, 7, and 13) needed to be
identified based on the boiling points and the results for eater
solubility and their reactions with a number of different reagents.
A question that needed to be answered was:
How does the identity of the unknown affect the reactions with each
of the reagents?
Hypothesis
This lab was basically based on positive and negative outcomes that
helped with the identification of the unknowns. A positive or
negative outcome had a different meaning when
it come to particular unknown. Water solubility was used to
indicate how many carbons were in the change, if the unknown was
soluble it meant the chain had 3 or less carbons in it. If the
compound was insoluble it meant the chain had 6 or more carbon,
However if the chain had 4 or 5 carbons it may or may not be
soluble. Cerric Nitrate was used to indicate if the unknown was an
alcohol or not. a positive test indicate it was an alcohol. Chromic
Acid was used to indicate if the unknown was either a 10 or 20.
Alcohol or an aldehyde, a possible test indicated it was one of the
three that were mentioned. DNPH was used to indicate if unknown
was an aldehyde or a ketone, a positive test indicated it was one of
the two that were mentioned. Iron chloride was used to indicate if
the unknown was a phenol compound. A positive test indicated that
it was a phenol. Iodoform was to indicate if the unknown was an
acetaldehyde or a methyl ketone a positive test indicated that it was
either of the two. finally Potassium permanganate was used to
indicate if the unknown was an aldehyde or an alkene or a phenol.
A positive test indicated it was either of the three mentioned the
prediction/educated guess that was made that the water solubility
and the addition of different compound such as the ones mentioned
would help in identifying each unknown very easily. As different
unknowns were prone to different outcomes when it came to the
compound that were mentioned this helped with the establishment
of the family groups as well.
Materials:
1) Apparatus.
2) Container.
3) Water.
4) Cerric Nitrate.
5) Chromic Acid.
6) DNPH.
7) Iron Chloride.
8) Iodoform.
9) Potassium Permanganate.
Procedure
1) Unknown #1 was mixed with water in a container to determine
solubility in water.
2) Three drops of unknown #1 was added to 10 drops of an acidified
ceric ammonium nitrate solution (a yellow solution).The two
compounds were mixed in the apparatus to determine if the
unknown was an alcohol or not.
3) Three drops of unknown #1 was mixed with 5 drops of acetone
and 5 drops of chromic acid solution (an orange solution). This test
was used to determine if the unknown was either a 10 or 20 alcohol
or an aldehyde.
4) Five drops of unknown #1 was mixed with 5 drops of the
dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent (an orange solution) in 2 ml of
ethanol and the tube was shaken. If no positive test is observed
immediately, the mixture should be allowed to stand for 15
minutes. This test was used to determine if unknown was an
aldehyde or a ketone.
5) About 20 drops of 5% FeCl 3 solution (a yellow solution) was
added to a tube containing 3 drops of unknown #1 and the tube
was stirred. This test was used to determine if the unknown was a
phenol.
6) Three drops of unknown #1 was added to 3 ml of water and 10
drops of KI/I 2 solution (a dark purple-brown solution). 10% NaOH
solution was added dropwise until the dark color of the solution
fades to yellow. The solution was heated at 600C. if the color of the
solution was heated at 600C. if the color of the solution became
colorless, more KI/I 2 solution was added. This test was used to
determine if the unknown was an acetaldehyde or a methyl ketone.
7) 3 drops of unknown #1 was dissolved in 2 ml of water or aqueous
ethanol. 2% KMnO 4 solution (a purple solution) was added dropwise
and the solution was shaken. This test was used to determine if the
unknown was an aldehyde or an alkene or a phenol.
8) Steps 1-7 were repeated were unknowns #4, #5, #7, and #13.

Observations
Results:

# Water Cerric Chromic DNPH Iron Iodoform Potass.


Solubility Nitrate Acid Chloride Permang.

1 Insoluble Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Positive

4 Insoluble Positive Positive Negative Negative Negative Negative

5 Insoluble Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Positive

7 Insoluble Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative

13 Insoluble Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative


Conclusion
To conclude this lab lab was a success as all the unknowns
were identified. Unknown #1 was an alkane with a maximum of 7
carbons in its chain which belong to the hydrocarbon group
unknown #4 was aalcohol with minimum of 4 carbons in its chain
which belong to the hydroxyl family. Unknown #5 was an aldehyde
with a maximum of 8 carbons in its chain which belong to the
carbonyl group. Finally both unknowns #7 and #13 were ketones
with a minimum of 6 carbons in their respective chains which
belong to the carbonyl group. This lab also answered the question
that was stated, the identity of the unknown affects the reactions
with each of the reagents because different organic compound have
different reaction when it comes to each reagents. For example. If
an unknown when mixed with Cerric nitrate turns to a red / red-
brown color it means that the unknown has to be an alcohol of
some sort. This method was applied to all of the reagents that were
included in this lab. All in all, this lab was a complete success as it
furthered the learning of organic compounds and families.

References
. Writing a Formal Lab Report, Virtual High
School.