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CONTEMPORARY

INDIAN ARCHITECTURE

(NON -SECULAR)

LOTUS TEMPLE

LOTUS

TEMPLE

LOTUS

TEMPLE

Built by Iranian architect Fariborz Sahba

Architectural Style : Expressionist

Located in New Delhi, India

Year of Design: 1976

The team comprised of 800 engineers, technicians, workers and artisans

Years of Construction: 1978 - 1986

Was consecrated and opened to the public in December 1986.

LOTUS

TEMPLE

is

a

Bahāʾī

mashriq

Faith House of Worship or

al-adkhār,

Arabic

phrase

meaning "Dawning-place of the remembrances of God"

It

serves

as

the

Mother

Temple

of

the Indian Subcontinent

Like

every

other

Bahāʾī

Houses

of

Worship, the Lotus Temple is open to all,

regardless

qualification.

of

religion

or

any

other

The structure is inspired by the lotus flower and is arguably one of the most
The
structure
is
inspired by the lotus
flower and is arguably
one of the most visible
instances of biomimicry
in contemporary
architecture.
by the lotus flower and is arguably one of the most visible instances of biomimicry in
The overall effect is that of a floating lotus flower — a Bah āʾī symbol

The overall effect is that of a floating lotus flowera Bahāʾī symbol of purity,

beauty, and divinityon

the verge of blooming and

surrounded by its leaves.

LOTUS

TEMPLE

The temple complex consists of the main house

of worship; the ancillary block which houses

the reception centre, the library and the administrative building; and the restrooms block.

Set

plinth in a 26-acre (10.5-

hectare) expanse of landscaped gardens, the white marble edifice rises to a height of more than 40 metres (130 ft) and diameter of 70

on an elevated

meters (230 ft).

MATERIALS

The temple is built of marble, cement and sand. The petals were coated with marble from Rajasthani Macrana, dolomite cement is mine

Alwar, near Delhi, and white silica sand Jaipur. The

structure is concrete combining precast concrete also fluted petals.

More than 10,000 different sizes of marble were

used in the construction of the Lotus Temple.

The reinforcement used was entirely galvanized

steel to avoid the long term negative effects of iron

rusting. A Concrete mix design of M30 concrete has

been used.

In keeping with Bahá'í scripture, the Lotus temple is organized as a nine-sided circular structure
In keeping with Bahá'í
scripture, the Lotus temple is
organized as a nine-sided
circular structure that is
comprised of 27 “leaves” or
“petals” (marble-clad free-
standing concrete slabs),
organized in groups of three
on each of the temple’s nine
sides.
(marble-clad free- standing concrete slabs), organized in groups of three on each of the temple’s nine
“Entrance Leaves” Petals in the first ring face outward, forming canopies over the nine entrances.
“Entrance Leaves”
Petals in the first ring
face outward, forming
canopies over the nine
entrances.
face outward, forming canopies over the nine entrances. “Inner Leaves” In the innermost ring, the petals
“Inner Leaves” In the innermost ring, the petals curve inward to partially enclose the central
“Inner Leaves”
In the innermost ring,
the petals curve inward
to partially enclose the
central prayer hall,
which accommodates
about 2,500 people.
“Outer Leaves” The second ring covers the outer hall.
“Outer Leaves”
The
second
ring
covers
the
outer
hall.
All around the lotus are red sandstone walkways , with beautiful curved balustrades, bridges ,stairs

All around the lotus are red sandstone walkways, with beautiful curved

balustrades, bridges ,stairs

and which surround the

nine pools representing the floating leaves of the lotus. Apart from serving

an obvious aesthetic

function, the pools also help ventilate the building.

Below the entrance

leaves and outer leaves, nine massive arches

rise in a ring. A row of steps through each

arch lead into the main

hall

and outer leaves, nine massive arches rise in a ring. A row of steps through each
The interior of the structure is revealed in true Expressionist fashion, with precast ribbed roof

The interior of the

structure is revealed in true Expressionist fashion, with precast

ribbed roof exposed

in the worship spaces.

Lotus Temple Model

Lotus Temple Model
The structure appears the top of actually glass- and-steel roof that open contains but a

The

structure appears

the

top

of

actually

glass-

and-steel roof that

open

contains

but

a

admits

daylight.

natural

Of the temple's total electricity use of 500

kilowatts (KW),

120KW is provided by solar power

generated by the building. This saves

the

120,000 rupees per month. It is the first temple in Delhi to

temple

use solar power.

building. This saves the 120,000 rupees per month. It is the first temple in Delhi to

The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles.

Since its inauguration to public worship in December 1986, the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi has, as of late 2001, attracted more than 70 million visitors, making it one of the most visited buildings in the world.

It has become the most visited building in India, surpassing even the Taj Mahal with some 4.5 million visitors a year.

CONTEMPORARY

CONTEMPORARY (SECULAR)

(SECULAR)

Rashtrapati Bhavan

Rashtrapati

Bhavan

Rashtrapati

Bhavan

Architect: Edwin Lutyens

Architectural Style: Delhi Order

Location: New Delhi, Delhi, India

Construction Started : 1912

Completed: 1929

Formerly known as “The Viceroy’s House”

Rashtrapati

Bhavan

the official residence of the Rashtrapati

or the President of India

the largest residence of a head of state in

the world until the Presidential Complex of Turkey opened 29 October 2014.

It took almost 18 years to construct this building and on the on the 18th year of

its completion, independent.

India

became

Rashtrapati

Bhavan

Consisting of 4 floors and 340 rooms

600 feet long from end to end, 180 feet

to the top of its central dome

Floor area: 200,000 sq ft (19,000 sqm)

covered 4 ½ acres and included 12

separate internal courtyards

built using 700 million bricks and 3,000,000 cu ft (85,000 cu. m) of stone with only a minimal usage of steel.

Lutyens'

designs were all starkly

classical and entirely European in style. Lutyens professed no fondness at all for Indian touches on western architecture. Indeed, he disliked the idea of an "'orientalised' classicism"; but, after all, he had to reach a compromise.

early

much

to

political

debate

incorporating

local

Lutyens

indo-

Rashtrapati

Bhavan

After

conceded

Saracenic motifs.

Various Indian designs were added to the building. These included:

Indian designs were added to the building. These included:  several circular stone the building, as

several circular stone

the

building, as water features are an

important part of Indian

architecture.

basins on top

of

several chuttris on the roofline which helped to break up the flatness

of the roofline not

covered by the dome

a traditional Indian chujja or chhajja : a sharp, thin, protruding element which extended 8

a traditional Indian chujja or

chhajja: a sharp, thin, protruding element which extended 8 ft. (2.4 m) from the building, and created

deep shadows

8 ft. (2.4 m) from the building, and created deep shadows grilles made from red sandstone,

grilles made from red sandstone,

called jalis or jaalis. These jalis

were inspired by Rajasthani design.

statues of elephants and fountain sculptures of cobras in the gar of the retaining walls

statues of elephants and fountain sculptures of cobras in the gar of the retaining walls

sculptures of cobras in the gar of the retaining walls bas-reliefs around the base of the

bas-reliefs around the base of the Jaipur Column, made by British sculptor, Charles Sargeant Jagger. The column has a distinctly peculiar crown on top, a glass star springing out of bronze lotus blossom

The front of the palace, on the east side, has 12 unevenly spaced massive columns

The front of the palace, on the

east side, has 12 unevenly

spaced massive columns with the Delhi Order capitals. These capitals have a fusion of acanthus leaves with the 4

pendant Indian bells.

with the Delhi Order capitals. These capitals have a fusion of acanthus leaves with the 4

The Central Dome

The Central Dome • raised copper-clad central dome. • Octagonal turrets encircle a pierced stone drum,

raised copper-clad central dome.

Octagonal turrets encircle a pierced stone drum, which is capped with a vast hemispherical.

more than twice the height of the building itself.

supported by evenly spaced columns which form a porch with an open area between.

reflects both Indian and British Styles . (The Pantheon

of Rome and the Buddhist Stupa at Sanchi)

11 11 1. Main Entrance Portico 2. North Court 11 8 9 11 10 3.
11
11
1. Main Entrance Portico
2. North Court
11
8
9
11
10
3. South Court
11
4. Durbar Hall
5
5
5
11
5. State Drawing Room
6. State Library
3
4
2
11
7. State Supper Room
8. State Dining Room
11
7
6
9. West Garden Loggia
1
10. State Ballroom
11
11. Court
FLOOR PLAN
Durbar Hall underneath the main dome, is the Durbar Hall , which was known as

Durbar Hall

underneath the main

dome, is the Durbar Hall,

which was known as the

Throne Room during

it had

thrones for the Viceroy and Vicereine (his wife)

The hall has a 2-ton

chandelier which hangs from a 33-metre height.

British rule when

Royal Ballroom Ashoka Hall

Royal Ballroom

Royal Ballroom Ashoka Hall

Ashoka Hall

State Dining Room North Drawing Room

State Dining Room

State Dining Room North Drawing Room

North Drawing Room

Mughal Gardens

 situated at the back of the Rashtrapati Bhavan, incorporate both Mughal and English landscaping
 situated at the back
of
the
Rashtrapati
Bhavan, incorporate
both
Mughal
and
English landscaping
styles and feature a
great variety of
flowers.

In July 2014, a museum inside Rashtrapati Bhavan was inaugurated by President of India Pranab Mukherjee. The museum helps visitors to get an inside view of the Rashtrapati Bhavan, its art, architecture and get educated

about lives of past presidents .

- END -

Thank You!