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OF

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A Comparative Study

By

MARILINA TZELEPI
2

Igor Stravinsky and Bela Bartok are two of the most prominent composers of the
twentieth century. Although they came from different backgrounds and focused on
different styles and aspects of music, their contributions to music history are of equal
importance. The piano as an instrument and source of inspiration played a great role in
Stravinsky and Bartok’s compositional development. The piano had reached its
contemporary form and structure by the middle of the nineteenth century and had many
more potentialities than its predecessors. It was acoustically more efficient and its
mechanism was more advanced. Stravinsky and Bartok, among others, realized this and
focused on making the most out of the instrument. Their efforts in this compositional
field are reflected in their piano sonatas. The latter are important works and their analysis
and comparison would be quite beneficial for the understanding of Stravinsky and
Bartok’s piano music.

Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) came from a musical family and was introduced to
music at a very early age. His father was an opera singer at the Imperial Opera of St.
Petersburg. His vast collection of rare books and music scores was very appealing to his
son, who became very interested in studying operatic works and eventually transcribing
many of them for the piano1. His growing fondness for the instrument can also be
attributed to the fact that his mother was a pianist. In addition, experiences such as that of
attending a concert by Joseph Hoffman made Stravinsky enthusiastic enough to
concentrate more on his piano studies2.

An important turn in the Stravinsky’s music studies was his acquaintance and
study with Rimsky-Korsakov, whose composition master classes he attended in 1903.
After his mentor’s death in 1908, Stravinsky did not pursue any further composition
studies. Thereafter, his mentality and attitude towards Russian compositional styles
changed; he believed in creative thought as an integral part of the compositional process.
Technique was no longer the most important thing; it was now the musical idea, the
_________________
1. Charles M. Joseph, Stravinsky and the piano, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983), 1-3.

2. Oliver Michael, Igor Stravinsky, (London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1995), 24.
3

aesthetics of the composer that elevated the music to a higher level3. During the following
years, a number of short piano works followed, among major instrumental compositions
such as Le Sacre du Printemps and L’ Histoire du Soldat. His friendship with pianist
Arthur Rubinstein had led him to writing piano works such as the Three Movements of
Petruschka (piano reduction dedicated to Rubinstein) and the Piano Concerto of 19244. It
was the same year that Stravinsky wrote a piano sonata that was one of the works that
represented his compositional style during the height of what is known as the composer’s
Neoclassical period.

Scholars trace the beginning of Neoclassicism in Stravinsky’s art back in 1920,


when he worked on an adaptation of Pergolesi’s music for Pulcinella5. This revived the
composer’s contact with the classical compositional traits that he cherished during his
earlier years. In fact, it was through his uncle that Stravinsky was introduced to the music
of great classical era composers such as Beethoven and Brahms. The result of such an
influence was an early piano sonata in F# minor, written in 1903, with pianistic elements
tracing back to Brahms’ earlier piano sonatas, as well as Tschaikovsky’s piano sonata in
G major6. Stravinsky, until the end of his life, thought that the manuscript of this sonata
had been lost. What he never found out was that the sonata score was found and kept in
the State Public Library of Leningrad7. Although a serious compositional effort, the 1903
sonata was not nearly as successful as the one written in 1924.

Stravinsky started composing the Piano Sonata of 1924 in Biarritz and completed
_______________________

3. Boris Asaf’yef, A Book about Stravinsky (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982), 155-156.

4. Charles Joseph, Stravinsky and the Piano, 111 and 161-162.

5. Ibid., 164.

6. Ibid., 10 and 30-31.

7. Eric White, Stravinsky: The composer and his works (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979), 174
4

it in Nice. It was published in 1925 by Koussevitsky (Edition Russe de Musique) and


was dedicated to the Princess Edmond of Polignac. Its first performance was realized
the summer of the following year at the Donaueschingen Festival8. Regarding the
style of the work, Stravinsky himself wrote,

Though determined to retain full liberty in composing this work, I had, while engaged on it, a strong
desire to examine more closely the sonatas of the classical masters in order to trace the direction and
development of their thought in the solution of the problems presented by that form. I therefore
replayed, amongst others, a great many of Beethoven’s Sonatas9.

Apparently, Stravinsky’s main concern was to avoid excessive lyricism and he


sought to do so by composing a piece in accordance with the dynamic and kinetic
standards of the baroque and classical eras. One approach to this issue was avoiding
instruments that had the ability to be very expressive, such as strings and concentrating
more on wind, percussion instruments and the piano. His position regarding this issue is
so strong that he even instructs that his piano sonata “should be played without emotional
inflection”10.

The 1924 Sonata consists of three movements, the two outer with nothing but a
metronome marking (quarter note = 112). Stravinsky’s son Soulima entitled the first
movement Comodo and the third movement Finale, to which his father neither objected
nor agreed to11. Regarding the title of the composition, Stravinsky explains: “I used the
term sonata in its original meaning, as being derived from sonare…Consequently, I did
not feel myself restricted to the form that has become customary since the end of the
eighteenth century”. Consequently, the composer is expressing his intention of focusing
_______________

8. White, Stravinsky: The Composer and his Works, 320.

9. Stravinsky: Chronicle of my life, quoted in Roman Vlad, Stravinsky, 88.

10. Joseph, Stravinsky and the piano, 165.

11. From a 1974 interview with Soulima Stravinsky in Charles Joseph, Stravinsky and the Piano, 162.
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more on the sound structure rather than on the lyrical, song-like aspect of music –
referred to as cantare, the opposite of sonare12.

The first movement of the sonata seems to be dominated by the tonality of C. This
can be established by the fact that what can be identified as the second theme is in C and
the movement also ends with a C major chord. The strongest points of the movement are
its linear composition and perpetual motion in 8th-note triplets. The opening theme is six
measures long, a total of thirty-two notes that move within a two-octave gamut (ex.1a).
Charles Joseph justifiably notices similarities between the opening of Stravinsky’s sonata
and that of Beethoven’s Appassionata, in which the theme is also in unison and in a two-
octave frame13 (ex.1b). The right and left hand are harmonically independent and this
amounts to a certain degree of confusion. However, it is the metrical strictness that holds
the composition together – there are absolutely no tempo changes throughout the
movement14. Any rhythmic accentuations are rare.
Ex. 1a
Stravinsky: Sonata, I., mm 1-615

Ex. 1b
Beethoven: Sonata op.53 Appassionata, I., mm.1-516

_________________________
12. Stravinsky: Chronicles, quoted in White. Stravinsky, 320.
13. Joseph. Stravinsky and the Piano, 166-167.
14. White, Stravinsky, 322.
15. Stravinsky, Piano Sonata (New York: Boosey & Hawkes Inc), 2.
16. Beethoven, Piano Sonatas vol. II (Paris: Durand & Cie, 1915), 135.
6

Harmonically, emphasis is given to thirds, especially to the minor third and to the
diminished triad – they dominate the staccato perpetual motion, as Charles Joseph
remarks17. This is very evident throughout the movement. A different kind of theme
interrupts the on-going flow of the right hand: in measures 13-31 a melody is developed
on top of the triplet motion which is carried on by the left hand (ex.2). Leon Oleggini,
seems to believe that this theme is reminiscent of the “Gloria” of the religious chant Les
Anges dans nos campagnes and Roman Vlad agrees18. Generally, there is extensive
arpeggiation in both hands, often in canonic form. Although there is no real sonata-form
in this movement, there are still three sections into which it can be divided: introductory
section, measures 1-80, followed by a middle section that could be labeled development
in a looser sense and the melodic theme in C reoccurs in measure 126, which can be
marked as the beginning of the recapitulation. Following the cadence in c minor in
measure 148, a 12-measure coda reminds us of the opening theme only briefly, before it
settles to a cadence in C, concluding the movement.
Ex. 2
Stravinsky: Sonata, I., mm. 15-2119.

The second movement of the sonata is entitled Adagietto. It is written in the key
of A flat Major, and many, including Charles Joseph, seem to believe that Beethoven’s
influence is strongly present in more than one aspects20. First of all, the relationship of
the first movement key to that of the second movement – C and A flat respectively –
_______________
17. Joseph, Stravinsky, 167.
18. Leon Oleggini, Connaissance de Stravinsky (Lausanne : Editions Maurice & Pierre Foetisch), 213 and Vlad,
Stravinsky, 89.
19. Stravinsky, Piano Sonata, 2.
20. Joseph, Stravinsky, 166-167.
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reminds us of Beethoven’s similar key relationship in the sonata Pathetique – c and A


flat. This movement’s character is different as well: it is an elegie-like composition, as
characterized by White21, which introduces a simple, meditative melody, which gradually
becomes more ornamented as the movement unfolds. Stravinsky himself described this
compositional style as “Beethoven frisé”22.

Asaf’yef divides the second movement into three sections23. The opening section
(mm. 1-13) is the introduction of the theme and ornamentations around it. This theme can
be compared to that of the second movement of Beethoven’s Pathétique sonata and there
are some interesting similarities with Chopin’s Larghetto from the second Piano
Concerto (ex. 3a-c).
Ex.3
a. Stravinsky, Piano Sonata, 2nd mov., mm. 1-324 b. Beethoven, Sonata op. 13, 2nd mov., mm. 1-325

c. Chopin, Piano Concerto No.2, 2nd mov., mm. 7-826

In the second section (mm. 14-40) a very simple melody is introduced, above a
rich rhythmic accompaniment of groups of two sixty-fourth notes – different than that of
the opening and closing sections. The melody in this section bears no ornamentations and
its rhythmic accompanimental figures resemble those of Tannhauser (ex. 4a-b). The third
and final section of the second movement is a reoccurrence of the opening theme, in an
_________________
21. White. Stravinsky, 321.
22. Vlad. Stravinsky, 88.
23. Asaf’yef. A Book about Stravinsky, 259.
24. Stravinsky, Piano Sonata, 9.
25. Beethoven, Sonates pour piano vol. I, 146.
26. Chopin, Concerto in F minor for the piano, 40.
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even more florid and ornamented form, with fuller and more complex harmonies27.

Ex. 4
a. Stravinsky: Sonata, II, mm.20-2328

b. Wagner: Pilgrim’s chorus from Tannhauser, piano transc. by Liszt, mm. 53-5729

The last movement of the 1924 sonata shares the compositional principles of the
first movement. Apart from sharing the same metric indication (quarter note = 112), it is
contrapuntal, linear and is dominated by perpetual motion. One might say that it bears a
strong resemblance to Bach’s two-part inventions. The dominating key is that of e minor,
a fact that is again reminiscent of Beethoven and his tendency to “explore remote keys”

_________________

27. Joseph, Stravinsky and the Piano, 166-167.


28. Stravinsky. Piano Sonata, 11.
29. Franz Liszt. Transcriptions from Wagner’s Operas (New York: Dover Publications Inc, 1981), 70.
9

through the last movements of some of his later sonatas, as Walter White successfully
remarks29. Furthermore, the pitch relation of the third movement to the first (C, E) is that
of a third. This is important considering the gravity Stravinsky gives to thirds especially
in the first movement of the sonata30. One main difference between the first and third
movements is that 16th-note quadruplets have taken the place of the 8th-note triplets. This
has the rhythmic effect of sounding faster in comparison with the first movement,
although the tempo has not changed at all.

The opening theme of the third movement is introduced solo in the left hand (mm
1-8). It consists of 64 notes, as opposed to the theme of the first movement, in which
White counted 32 notes31. Although Stravinsky’s sonata is part of his Neo-Classical
period, the third movement exhibits a strong influence by Bach. A clear example of this
is one of two instances where one hand carries the theme of the movement in its original
form, while in the other hand the same theme appears in augmentation (ex. 5)32.

Ex. 5
Stravinsky, Piano Sonata, 3rd mov.33
a. mm. 49-52

b. mm. 117-121

________________
29. White. Stravinsky, 321.
30. Joseph. Stravinsky, 170.
31. White. Stravinsky, 321.
32. Charles Joseph, Stravinsky and the piano, 171.
33. Stravinsky. Piano Sonata, 16 and 19.
10

This movement can also be divided into three sections. The first section, measures 1-
53 introduces the theme, which occurs several times – in different pitches and rhythmic
values. The second section, measures 54-100 has some rhythmic peculiarities, consisting
originally of triplets and eighth-notes and slowly returning to the movement’s original
perpetuum mobile form, with the theme eventually reappearing in the third section,
measures 101-127. The movement’s coda (mm.128-137) interestingly recalls the theme
of the first movement, in quadruplets instead of the original triplets34 (ex. 6) and ends in a
perfect E Major cadence - well welcomed after the preceding harmonic confusion. It is
interesting that the composer chose to end the movement in E Major and not minor. This
is another trait frequently found in Bach’s compositions.
Ex. 6
Stravinsky, Piano Sonata, 3rd mov., mm. 127-13735

In writing the pieces of the Neoclassical period, Stravinsky did not wish to restrict
himself to old forms; he was merely seeking a balance between the compositional
material available to him during his time and that of the past. He was successful in adding
his own personal characteristics while combining the two. Another composer that shared
Stravinsky’s love of the classical era was Bela Bartok. Raised in a different background,
he developed different beliefs regarding music as an art. Consequently, he pursued a
different direction in the compositional field – apparent in most of his works, including
_________________
34. White. Stravinsky, 322.
35. Stravinsky. Piano Sonata, 19.
11

his Piano Sonata of 1926.

Bela Bartok (1881-1945) came from a poor family. His father died when he was
seven years old. His mother, a schoolteacher and pianist brought him up. She was also the
one to give Bartok his first piano lessons. During his high school years in Bratislava, he
developed a friendship with Erno Dohnanyi, who was to have a great influence on Bartok
throughout his life. Dohnanyi was, at the time, influenced by classical composers and
especially by Brahms. Following his friend’s preferences, Bartok’s first compositions
were modeled mostly after Mozart and Beethoven – from a structural point of view. His
allegiance to Dohnanyi also led him to enroll in the Budapest Academy of Music. During
his studies at the Academy (1899-1903), he was a piano student of Istvan Thoman, pupil
of Liszt. The Academy was under the influence of German tradition and, as a result,
Bartok studied works mainly by Bach, Beethoven and Schumann. He was also influenced
by Wagner’s music and even more by Richard Strauss, after attending the Budapest
premiere of Also Sprach Zaratustra in 190236.

From the beginning of his friendship with Dohnanyi, Bartok had become well
acquainted with Hungarian tradition and his enthusiasm grew after his encounter with
Zoltan Kodaly in 190537. Together, the two collected and studied folk songs from
different regions of Hungary. This research made Bartok even more aware of the
importance of tradition, as is evident in his works. Folk-like themes and traditional
dance-like rhythms are some of the main elements found in his compositions.

The early 1920s found Bartok’s compositional activity subject to influences by


Stravinsky and Schoenberg. In fact, he regarded Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring as “the most
grandiose musical opus of the past thirty years”38. Bartok concentrated on the percussive
________________
36. Paul Griffiths, Bartok (London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, 1984), 7.
37. Ibid., 17.
38. Bartok, in interview included in Joseph Ujfalussy. Bela Bartok (Budapest: Corvina, 1971), quoted in
Griffiths. Bartok, 115.
12

qualities of the piano. The piano works that follow are filled with noisy barbaric ostinatos
combined with folk-like melodies and great rhythmic variety. In the year 1926, Bartok
composed only piano works, among which the famous piano sonata39.

Bartok’s piano sonata had many compositional elements similar to the earlier
Allegro Barbaro of 191140. The percussive element dominates the first and third
movements, in the form of repeated noisy chords. The first movement of the sonata
seems to be dominated by the tonality of E Major, although there is no indication of a set
tonality in the movement. Repetition of the tonic and dominant chords of E Major in the
left hand establish the above-mentioned tonality. Paul Wilson detects an exposition, a
short development, a recapitulation that is short of some of the expositional elements and
a coda41. His opinion is justified – the structure of the movement is quite clear. There are
three patterns on which the architecture of the movement is based: that of the opening
measure, the main theme and that of measures 44-45 (ex.7a, b, c). All three patterns are
subjected to numerous transpositions during the course of each section.

Ex. 7
Bartok: Piano Sonata, 1st mov.42

a. m. 1 b. mm. 17-18 c. mm. 44-45

______________________

39. The 1926 piano works include the Piano Sonata, the First Piano Concerto, a set of Nine Little Piece and three
pieces that marked the beginning of the Miicrokosmos series, completed over the course of 12 years.
40. Griffiths. Bartok, 114.
41. Paul Wilson. The Music of Bela Bartok ( New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1992), 55-57.
42. Bela Bartok. Piano Sonata (New York: Boosey & Hawkes Inc, 1939), 3-4.
13

An interesting aspect of Bartok’s harmonic treatment of the sonata is the use of bi-
tonal chords. Ex.8 shows one instance where the left hand plays d minor – e minor
chords, with d# – c# on top. The development section is based mostly on the third pattern
(ex.7c) and there are additional enhancements, such as grace notes. The original theme is
brought back in the recapitulation, which, however, is significantly shorter than the
exposition. A coda introduces a new tempo, faster than the original, while frantic ostinato
chords and an ascending glissando in the right hand lead to the end of the movement.

Ex. 8
Bartok, Piano Sonata, 1st mov., mm. 64-6543

The second movement of the sonata is labeled Sostenuto e pesante and is


primarily in the tonality of Ab Major. Unlike the first and third movements, it is quiet and
slow. It can also be divided in sections. Wilson detects an ABA’ ternary form44. Indeed,
the opening motif seems to come back in measure 43, more concise this time – it seems
as though what is stated in measures 1-6 of the beginning is now synopsized in a single
measure. The dominating chord for the first six measures is Ab-Eb-F with a persistent E
natural in the right hand (ex. 9).
Ex. 9
Bartok, Piano Sonata, 2nd mov., mm. 1-345

_____________________
43. Bartok. Piano Sonata, 5.
44. Wilson. The Music of Bela Bartok, 71.
45. Bartok. Piano Sonata, 14.
14

In the A section, a chorale-like treatment with little imitations among the voices
appears (ex.10). Furthermore, there seems to be a shift from the dominant Ab of
measures 1-6 to F# in the following seven measures. Afterwards, the former is restored
until the end of the section.
Ex. 10
Bartok, Piano Sonata, 2nd mov., mm. 10-1246

The following section (mm. 30-41) follows the same contrapuntal principle – it
features imitations among the different voices, topped with dissonant chords. It starts
softly and a gradual crescendo reaches its peak in the beginning measure of the A’
section. The last section is very expressive by its range of dynamics (from pp to ff). It is
dominated by two three-note patterns – a minor third and a responding major third (ex.
11). The last measures of the movement are reminiscent of its opening material.

Ex. 11
Bartok, Piano Sonata, 2nd mov., mm. 48-5247

The last movement of Bartok’s Piano Sonata is built on a theme that strongly
resembles a folk song. The movement is built in ABA form, which occurs twice,
resembling a “Haydnesque scheme”, according to Wilson48. It is true that the movement’s
structure ______________________
46. Bartok. Piano Sonata, 14.
47. Ibid., 16.
48. Wilson, The Music of Bela Bartok, 78.
15

could be compared to works of the classical era. There are three fundamental elements in
this movement. Of major importance is the theme (mm. 1-8) that appears in its original
simple form or a fourth higher, supported by clusters – also essential in this movement
(ex. 12a-b). Another important feature is a melodic pattern bearing a strong resemblance
to the theme (ex. 12c). The rhythmic construction of the movement is undisputable
evidence of Bartok’s nationalism.
Ex. 12
Bartok, Piano Sonata, 3rd mov.49
a. mm. 1-7

b. mm. 53-58

c. mm. 20-23

The following chart demonstrates the sections into which the third movement of Bartok’s
sonata can be divided:
A B A | A2 B2 A2 | A3 B3 A3 |coda

m.1-44 m.45-91 m.92-110 | m.111-142 m.143-56 m.157-174 | m.175-19 m.198-246 m.247-263 | m. 264-280

_____________
49. Bartok. Piano Sonata, 17-19.
16

The second appearance of the ABA form finds the theme of the movement
slightly varied – in 16th-notes instead of 8th-notes (ex. 13), only to come back in its
familiar state in its final appearance on top of repeated chords (mm. 226-245). An
accelerando leads to a coda marked Vivacissimo, which is dominated by ostinato seventh
chords in the left handsequence of the base line is F# - A – F# - C – A – G – F – E (ex.
14).

Ex. 13
Bartok: Piano Sonata, 3rd mov., mm. 143-14550

________________________________

Ex. 14
Bartok: Piano Sonata, 3rd mov., mm. 269-28051

________________________

50. Bartok, Piano Sonata, 22.


51. Ibid., 27.
17

The piano sonatas by Stravinsky and Bartok are each outstanding musical
compositions and are of considerable importance to the piano repertoire. The masters of
the baroque and classical eras significantly influenced the two composers. As shown
earlier, Stravinsky’s sonata displays elements found in Beethoven’s compositions and
Bartok’s sonata is modeled after the traditional sonata-allegro and rondo forms.

In spite of all the above, Stravinsky’s approach to his piano sonata is different
than Bartok’s in more ways than one. Stravinsky was opposed to the Russian school and
its romanticism and was seeking to abstain from it. His sonata was to be played with no
tempo changes and with no emotional coloring. On the contrary, Bartok believed in the
emotions provoked by music and was very aware of the musical tradition of his country.
This is evident in his sonata, which contains folk elements and dance-like rhythms as
well as frequent tempo changes. Stravinsky’s priority was to achieve a mechanical result.
Bartok’s was not. Furthermore, the dynamics of the two works differ significantly:
Stravinsky only marked certain dynamics and made it clear that no crescendi or
diminuendi were to occur. In Bartok’s sonata, there are several instances of different
dynamics and of gradual changes that lead to a climax. Finally, Stravinsky uses a linear
approach, while Bartok is more chordal. Barbaric ostinatos, clusters and harsh chords are
some of the means that the composer uses in order to achieve the musical pulse he
desires. Despite the differences between the two sonatas, what brings the two composers
close together is their love for the classical era and their effort to incorporate classical
traits to their works, as well as to elaborate on them. That is the greatest thing they have
in common.
18

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Asaf’yev, Boris. A Book about Stravinsky. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press,
1982.

Griffiths, Paul. The Master Musicians: Bartok. London and Melbourne: J. M. Dent &
Sons, Ltd, 1984.

Joseph, Charles M. Stravinsky and the piano. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research
Press, 1983.

Oleggini, Leon. Connaissance de Stravinsky. Lausanne: Editions Maurice et Pierre


Foetisch.

Oliver, Michael. Igor Stravinsky. London: Phaidon Press Ltd, 1995.

Van Den Toorn, Pieter C. The Music of Igor Stravinsky. New Haven – London: Yale
University Press, 1983.

Vlad, Roman. Stravinsky. New York – Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1978.

White, Eric Walter. Stravinsky: The composer and his works. Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press, 1966.

Wilson, Paul. The Music of Bela Bartok. New Haven and London: Yale University
Press, 1992.

MUSICAL SCORES

Bartok, Bela. Sonate (piano solo). London: Boosey & Hawkes Inc., 1939.

Beethoven, Ludwig Van. Sonates pour piano Vol. I, Paris: Durand & Cie, 1915.

____________________. Sonates pour piano Vol. II. Paris: Durand & Cie, 1915.

Chopin, Frederic. Concerto in F minor for the Piano. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1918.

Liszt, Franz. Complete Piano Transcriptions from Wagner’s Operas. New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1981.

Stravinsky, Igor. Sonate pour piano (1924). London: Boosey & Hawkes Inc.
19

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Asaf’yev, Boris. A Book about Stravinsky. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press,
1982.

Griffiths, Paul. The Master Musicians: Bartok. London and Melbourne: J. M. Dent &
Sons, Ltd, 1984.

Joseph, Charles M. Stravinsky and the piano. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research
Press, 1983.

Oleggini, Leon. Connaissance de Stravinsky. Lausanne: Editions Maurice et Pierre


Foetisch.

Oliver, Michael. Igor Stravinsky. London: Phaidon Press Ltd, 1995.

Van Den Toorn, Pieter C. The Music of Igor Stravinsky. New Haven – London: Yale
University Press, 1983.

Vlad, Roman. Stravinsky. New York – Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1978.

White, Eric Walter. Stravinsky: The composer and his works. Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press, 1966.

Wilson, Paul. The Music of Bela Bartok. New Haven and London: Yale University
Press, 1992.

SCORES

Bartok, Bela. Sonate (piano solo). London: Boosey & Hawkes Inc., 1939.

Beethoven, Ludwig Van. Sonates pour piano Vol. I. Paris: Durand & Cie, 1915.

____________________. Sonates pour piano Vol. II. Paris: Durand & Cie, 1915.

Chopin, Frederic. Concerto in F minor for the Piano. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1918.

Liszt, Franz. Complete Piano Transcriptions from Wagner’s Operas. New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1981.

Stravinsky, Igor. Sonate pour piano (1924). London: Boosey & Hawkes Inc.