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SERVICE MANUAL

4HK1-6HK1
ISUZU ENGINES

9-44061 NA
Replaces 9-44060 NA

Revised 05-2006
Issued 02-2006
SERVICE MANUAL

4HK1-6HK1
ISUZU ENGINES

Bur • Issued 05-2006


Printed in U.S.A. • Book/Form Number 9-44061 NA
Copyright © 2006. CNH America, LLC. All Rights Reserved.
CNH America, LLC reserves the right to make improvements in design or changes in specifications at any time without incurring any
obligation to install them on units previously sold.
All data given in this publication is subject to production variations. Dimensions and weights are only approximate. Illustrations do not
necessarily show products in standard condition. For exact information about any particular product, please consult your Dealer

REVISION HISTORY
Issue Issue Date Applicable Machines Remarks
First Edition 02-2006 4HK1- 6HK1 ISUZU ENGINES 9-44060 NA
Revision 1 05-2006 4HK1- 6HK1 ISUZU ENGINES 9-44061 NA

Any use of editorial or pictorial content is strictly prohibited without express written permission from
CNH America, LLC. Racine, WI 53403 U.S.A..
1

INDEX OF CHAPTERS

GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................................................... 0A

ENGINE MECHANICAL ......................................................................................................................................... 1A

COOLING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................... 1B

FUEL SYSTEM....................................................................................................................................................... 1C

ENGINE ELECTRICAL........................................................................................................................................... 1D

EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER........................................................................................................1F

NOTE: CNH Company reserves the right to make changes in the specification and design of the machine with-
out prior notice and without incurring any obligation to modify units previously sold.

The description of the models shown in this manual has been made in accordance with the technical specifica-
tions known as of the date of design of this document.

9-44061 Issued 02-06


IN-2 Introduction

UNITS OF MEASURE
This manual adopts the units of measure based on International System.
The MKSA system units of measure are indicated within brackets after the units of measure of the International
System.

Example: 24.5 MPa (250 kgf/cm2)

The following table converts the International System units of measure in some of the main units belonging to other
system.

To convert Into To convert Into


Quantity Multiply by Quantity Multiply by
from (IS) (Others) from (IS) (Others)
mm in 0.03937 MPa kgf/cm2 10.197
Lenght Pressure
mm ft 0.003281 MPa psi 145.0
L US gal 0.2642 kW CV-PS 1.360
Power
Volume L US qt 1.057 kW HP 1.341
m 3 yd 3 1.308 Temperature °C °F °C x 1.8 + 32
Mass kg lb 2.205 km/h mph 0.6214
Speed
N kgf 0.10197 min-1
rpm 1.0
Force
N lbf 0.2248 L/min US gpm 0.2642
Capacity
N.m kgf.m 0.10197 mL/rev cc/rev 1.0
Torque
N.m lbf.ft 0.7375
General Information 0A-1

GENERAL INFORMATION
General Information
Contents
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-2
Service Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-2
Reading the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-6
General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-7
0A-2 General Information

General Information
Service Precautions
In order to carry out work safely
1. Always use an engine stand when taking the
engine down from the vehicle.
Do not place the engine directly onto the ground,
or place in a manner that interferes with the oil
pan.
2. If you are working together with others, always pay
attention to each other's safety.
3. If you are repairing any part of the electrical
system, always remove the minus side cable from
the battery terminal before starting work. If you are
removing the battery cover, always remove the
cover in a place that is away from sources of fire/
heat.

6. All regular tools, gauges and special tools should


be regularly inspected, and prepared before
starting work. Do not use bent spanners, hammers
with damaged edges, chipped chisels, or any other
faulty or damaged tools.

4. Do not perform painting work or leave the engine


running for long periods of time in an enclosed or
badly ventilated indoor workshop.
5. Always use the correct specialized tool indicated in
the instructions. Using the incorrect tool may
cause damage to the parts or injury to the person
using the tool.
7. Always pay close attention to safety and handling
requirements when using grinders, cranes,
welders, and other such equipment.
Moreover, always wear the correct protective
garments and use the necessary safety tools for
the job in hand.
General Information 0A-3

8. Always check that there are no fuel leaks when


performing maintenance work on the fuel system. Replacement parts and part numbers.
(It may cause a fire.) 1. Always replace packing, oil seals, o-rings, caulking
lock nuts, folding lock plates, split pins and other
such parts with brand new parts.
2. The parts numbers contained in this manual may
not represent the supply condition of the parts, and
the part numbers may be changed due to
revisions. Therefore, parts should always be
checked against a parts catalogue before use.

Liquid gasket
1. Each time you disassemble parts that use liquid
gasket, completely remove the old gasket residue
from each of the parts and matching sections using
a scraper, then clean each of the parts to
completely remove oil, water, and dirt etc. from the
various surfaces. Using the specified type of liquid
gasket, apply new liquid gasket to each of the
surfaces before reassembling the parts.
2. In order to make it easier to clean liquid gasket
9. Pay close attention to the risk of ignition if you are surfaces, apply gasket remover liquid (Pando-
handling parts that carry a high voltage. 391D made by Three Bond Co., Ltd.) and leave
Furthermore, any oil or fat spilt onto rubber parts the part to stand for approximately 10 minutes,
must be wiped off immediately, as it will cause after which the old liquid gasket residue will be
deterioration of the rubber. easier to remove.
However, this should not be used on resin
components or painted components.
3. Please take care not to apply too much or too little
liquid gasket.
Also, you should always re-apply the liquid gasket
upon itself when you start and finish application.
4. Make sure that there are no gaps when re-
installing the liquid gasket parts to each other. If
there are gaps between the two parts, re-apply the
liquid gasket. Some parts, especially the oil pan,
use the same size studs as a guide to eliminate the
need for knock pin positioning etc.
5. Re-install these parts within 7 minutes of applying
the liquid gasket.
0A-4 General Information
If more than 7 minutes passes, remove the
previous liquid gasket and re-apply it.
6. Please wait for at least 30 minutes since the last
part is installed before starting the engine.

Liquid gasket

Seal section Product name Manufacturer's name


Between cylinder block and – Flywheel housing 1207B Three Bond
Between cylinder block and – Flywheel housing and –
1207B Three Bond
Crankcase
Between cylinder block and – Crank case 1207B Three Bond
Between cylinder block and – Front cover 1207B Three Bond
Cylinder block, head plug nipple, unit, switches 262 Loctite

• Always use the liquid gasket products listed above,


or a liquid gasket identical to the ones listed above.
• Use the correct quantity of liquid gasket. Always
follow the handling instructions for each product.

Application procedure
1. Wipe the contact surfaces clean of all water, fat or
oil. The contact surfaces should be dry.
2. Apply a regular bead width of liquid gasket to one
of the contact surfaces. Make sure that the bead
does not break at this point.

Notes:
If there are special regulations concerning the
application procedure in the repair document, please
follow those regulations.

Work procedure
1. Wipe the joint surfaces of the bolt, bolt hole, and
Important:
screw thread section clean of water, fat, and oil.
After tightening the bolt, do not apply excessive torque
The contact surfaces should be dry.
or try to rotate the bolt until at least one hour has
2. Apply Loctite to the top 1/3 of the screw. passed, and the Loctite has hardened.
3. Tighten the bolt to the correct tightening torque.
Procedure for using the Plastiguage

Type Measurable range mm (in)


PG-1 (Green) 0.025 – 0.076 (0.001 – 0.003)
PR-1 (Red) 0.051 – 0.152 (0.002 – 0.006)
PB-1 (Blue) 0.102 – 0.229 (0.004 – 0.009)

Example: Procedure for measuring the clearance


between the connecting rod bearing and crank pin.
• Clean the connecting rod and bearing, and install
the bearing to the rod.
• Cut the plastiguage to the same width as the crank
pin, and while avoiding the oil pore of the crank pin
lay the gauge parallel to the pin.
General Information 0A-5
• Line up the marks on the connecting rod and cap • Cut the plastiguage to the same size as the journal
and install the crank pin, apply molybdenum width, and while avoiding the oil pore of the journal
disulphide to the thread section and bearing lay the gauge parallel to the journal.
surface of the fastening bolt, and rotate both cap • Gently rest the crank case on the cylinder block,
and bolt to the correct torque. apply molybdenum disulphide to the thread section
and bearing surface of the fastening bolt, and
Important: tighten in sequence to the correct torque.
Do not move the connecting rod while using the
plastiguage. Important:
• Gently remove the cap and connecting rod, and Do not rotate the crankshaft while using the
measure the crushed width of the plastiguage plastiguage.
(clearance between rod and pin) using the scale • Gently remove the crankcase, and measure the
printed on the bag. crushed width of the plastiguage (clearance
between bearing and journal) using the scale
printed on the bag.

Example: Measuring the clearance between the crank


bearing and crank journal
• Clean the clamp face of the cylinder block and
crankcase bearing, and also the bearing, and
install the cylinder block to the crankcase.
• Gently rest the crankshaft on the cylinder block,
and rotate it approximately 30 degree to stabilize it.
0A-6 General Information
Reading the model
Engine number stamping position
4HK1

WSHK0185
General Information 0A-7
6HK1

WSHK0186

General information
Terminology, description of abbreviations
Terminology definitions
Term Explanation
Maintenance standard The generic name for reference values required for maintenance, such as nominal
dimension, selection of a reference point, and limit.
Nominal dimension Shows the standard value at the point of manufacture that does not include the
common difference.
Selection of a reference point Shows the standard value after assembling, repairing, or adjusting.
Limit When this value (dimensions) is reached, it shows that the part has reached its full
limit and must be replaced or repaired.
Front ⋅ rear, left ⋅ right, upper ⋅ These show each orientations of parts installed to the vehicle when looking from
lower the vehicle's forward direction.
Unit Units written to SI conventions (mainly torque, pressure, force)
[Example] Length: mm, Torque: N⋅m {kgf⋅m}
Warning Items that carry the warning mark pose a danger to life or threat of serious injury if
not strictly observed.
Caution Items that carry the caution mark may cause injury or lead to accidents if not strictly
observed.
Important Items that carry the important mark may cause the vehicle to break down, or may
prevent the guaranteed normal operation of the system or related parts if not strictly
observed.
0A-8 General Information

Term Explanation
Notes Items that should receive special mention within a work procedure.

Description of abbreviations Abbreviation Description


FWD Forward
Abbreviation Description Forward
AC Alternating Current F/C Fuel Cut
Alternating Current Fuel Cut
ACC Accessory GND Ground
Accessory Earth
ACG Alternating Current Generator IC Integrated Circuit
Alternating current generator Integrated circuit
API American Petrol Institute ID Plate Identification plate
American Petroleum Institute Identification plate, ID plate
ASM (Assy) Assembly IN Intake, Intake
Assembly Intake
ATDC After Top Dead Center ISO International Organization for
After Top Dead Center Standardization
International Organization for
BAT, BATT Battery
Standardization
Battery
I/PUMP Injection Pump
BRG, Brg Bearing
Injection Pump
Bearing
JIS Japanese Industrial Standard
BKT, BRKT Bracket
Japanese Industrial Standard
Bracket
L/H, LH Left Hand
BTDC Before Top Dead Center
Left hand side
Before Top Dead Center
M/V Magnetic Valve
CO Carbon Oxide
Magnetic valve
Carbon Monoxide
NOx Nitrogen Oxide
CONN Connector
Nitrogen Oxide
Connector
N-TDC Number - Top Dead Center
CPU Central Processing Unit
Top dead center rotational frequency
Central processing unit
OPT Option
C/U Control Unit
Option
Control unit
P Pole(S)
DC Direct Current
Pole
Direct current
PCV Pump Control Valve/ Positive
DI Direct Injection
Crankcase Ventilation
Direct injection
Pump control valve/ Positive crankcase
ECU Engine Control Unit / Electronic Control ventilation
Unit
PM Particulate Matter
Engine control unit / control unit
Particulate matter
ECM Engine Control Module
PS Pre-Stroke
Engine control module
Pre-stroke
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
PTO Power Take Off
Exhaust gas recirculation
Power take off
Exh, EXH Exhaust
QOS Quick On System
Exhaust
Rapid preheating system
Ft, FRT Front
Rr, RR Rear
Front
Rear
General Information 0A-9

Abbreviation Description SI (International System of Units)

R/H, RH Right Hand With regards the conversion to SI (International


Right hand side System of Units)
The introduction of the SI systems aims to
R/L Relay
internationally unify the metric system and the various
Relay
units used by different countries (traditional weights
STD Standard and measures, the foot pound method etc.), and to
Standard curb the confusion that occurs between the different
SW Switch units (conversion calculations etc.).
Switch The new calculating method which adopted SI units
was completely adopted in Japan in 1992, and is
TICS Timing & Injection rate Control System standardized by JIS-Z-8203.
A type of injection system All of the units in this manual are written in line with the
VGS Turbo Variable Geometry turbocharger International System of Units SI units, and conventional
System units are written in { } brackets.
Adjustable turbo, VGS turbo SI
W/L Warning Lamp French) Abbreviated name of Le Systeme International
Warning lamp d’Unites

Connection between main SI units and conventional units

SI Conventional Unit Item, unit conversion


Length m m Same as the conventional unit
Weight (Mass) kg kg Same as the conventional unit
Force N * kg, kgf 1 kgf = 9.80665 N
Torque N⋅m * kg⋅m, gf⋅m 1 kgf⋅m = 9.80665 N⋅m
Pressure Pa *kg/cm2, mmHg 1 kgf/cm2 = 9.80665 kPa, 1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa
Dynamic force, horsepower W PS 1 PS = 0.74 kW
Capacity, air volume displacement m3 Litle, L, cc 1 Litle = 1 dm3, 1 cc = 1mLitle = 1cm3
Fuel consumption g/(kW⋅h) g/(PS⋅h) 1 g/(PS⋅h) = 1.360 g/(kW⋅h)

*1 Published service data may conveniently use kg for


force and mass (weight) instead of kgf.
*2 Some conversion results may be rounded off to 1 or
2 decimal places.
Converting expressions of quantity
When converting, prefixes such as k (kilo) or m (mili)
are used.

M Mega 106 1,000,000


k Kilo 103 1,000
h Hecto 102 100
d Deci 10-1 0.1
c Centi 10-2 0.01
m Milli 10-3 0.001
µ Micro 10-6 0.000001

• 200 kgf/cm2 = 19,620 kPa = 19.6 MPa


• 40 mmHg = 5,332 Pa = 5.3 kPa
0A-10 General Information
Table of standard Isuzu tightening torque
The tightening torque values in the table below apply to
all situations unless a special tightening torque is
specified.
Isuzu standard bolts, nuts

N⋅m {kgf⋅m}
Strength 4.8
7T
classification 4T
Bolt head
Hexagon head bolt Flange bolt Hexagon head bolt Flange bolt
section shape
* M10 × 1.5 19.6 ~ 33.3 {2.0 ~ 3.4} 22.3 ~ 37.2 {2.3 ~ 3.8} 27.5 ~ 45.1 {2.8 ~ 4.6} 30.3 ~ 50.4 {3.1 ~ 5.1}
68.1 ~ 102.1 {6.9 ~
M12 × 1.25 49.0 ~ 73.5 {5.0 ~ 7.5} 54.9 ~ 82.3 {5.6 ~ 8.4} 60.8 ~ 91.2 {6.2 ~ 9.3}
10.4}
* M12 × 1.75 45.1 ~ 68.6 {4.6 ~ 7.0} 51.0 ~ 76.5 {5.2 ~ 7.8} 56.9 ~ 84.3 {5.8 ~ 8.6} 62.7 ~ 94.0 {6.4 ~ 9.6}
76.5 ~ 114.7 {7.8 ~ 83.0 ~ 124.5 {8.5 ~ 93.2 ~ 139.3 {9.5 ~ 100.8 ~ 151.1 {10.3 ~
M14 × 1.5
11.7} 12.7} 14.2} 15.4}
71.6 ~ 106.9 {7.3 ~ 77.2 ~ 115.8 {7.9 ~ 88.3 ~ 131.4 {9.0 ~ 94.9 ~ 142.3 {9.7 ~
* M14 × 2
10.9} 11.8} 13.4} 14.5}
104.0 ~ 157.0 {10.6 ~ 115.6 ~ 173.3 {11.8 ~ 135.3 ~ 204.0 {13.8 ~ 150.1 ~ 225.2 {15.3 ~
M16 × 1.5
16.0} 17.7} 20.8} 23.0}
100.0 ~ 149.1 {10.2 ~ 109.4 ~ 164.2 {11.2 ~ 129.4 ~ 194.2 {13.2 ~ 142.5 ~ 213.8 {14.5 ~
* M16 × 2
15.2} 16.7} 19.8} 21.8}
151.0 ~ 225.6 {15.4 ~ 195.2 ~ 293.2 {19.9 ~
M18 × 1.5 — —
23.0} 29.9}
151.0 ~ 225.6 {15.4 ~ 196.1 ~ 294.2 {20.0 ~
* M18 × 2.5 — —
23.0} 30.0}
206.0 – 310.0 {21.0 ~ 269.7 ~ 405.0 {27.5 ~
M20 × 1.5 — —
31.6} 41.3}
190.2 ~ 286.4 {19.4 – 249.1 ~ 374.6 {25.4 ~
* M20 × 2.5 — —
29.2} 38.2}
251.1 – 413.8 {25.6 ~ 362.8 ~ 544.3 {37.0 ~
M22 × 1.5 — —
42.2} 55.5}
217.7 ~ 327.5 {22.2 ~ 338.3 ~ 507.0 {34.5 ~
* M22 × 2.5 — —
33.4} 51.7}
358.9 ~ 539.4 {36.6 ~ 430.5 ~ 711.0 {43.9 ~
M24 × 2 — —
55.0} 72.5}
338.3 ~ 507.0 {34.5 ~ 406.0 ~ 608.0 {41.4 ~
* M24 × 3 — —
51.7} 62.0}

The * mark indicates where soft materials have been used for internal thread sections, such as castings.
General Information 0A-11

N⋅m {kgf⋅m}
9.8
Strength classification 8.8
9T
Bolt head section
Hexagon head bolt Flange bolt Hexagon head bolt Flange bolt
shape
5.6 ~ 11.2 {0.6 ~ 6.6 ~ 12.2 {0.6 ~
M6 × 1 — —
1.1} 1.2}
13.4 ~ 25.7 {1.4 ~ 15.3 ~ 28.4 {1.6 ~ 16.7 ~ 30.4 {1.7 ~ 18.1 ~ 33.6 {1.9 ~
M8 × 1.25
2.6} 2.9} 3.1} 3.4}
31.3 ~ 52.5 {3.2 ~ 35.4 ~ 58.9 {3.6 ~ 37.3 ~ 62.8 {3.8 ~ 42.3 ~ 70.5 {4.3 ~
M10 × 1.25
5.4} 6.1} 6.4} 7.2}
31.3 ~ 51.4 {3.2 ~ 34.5 ~ 57.5 {3.5 ~ 36.3 ~ 59.8 {3.7 ~ 40.1 ~ 66.9 {4.1 ~
* M10 × 1.5
5.2} 5.8} 6.1} 6.8}
69.3 ~ 104.0 {7.1 ~ 77.7 ~ 116.5 {7.9 ~ 75.5 ~ 113.8 {7.7 ~ 85.0 ~ 127.5 {8.7 ~
M12 × 1.25
10.6} 11.9} 11.6} 13.0}
64.8 ~ 96.1 {6.6 ~ 71.4 ~ 107.2 {7.3 ~ 71.6 ~ 106.9 {7.3 ~ 79.5 ~ 119.2 {8.1 ~
* M12 × 1.75
9.8} 10.9} 10.9} 12.2}
106.2 ~ 158.8 {10.8 114.9 ~ 172.3 {11.7 113.8 ~ 170.6 {11.6 123.4 ~ 185.1 {12.6
M14 × 1.5
~ 16.2} ~ 17.6} ~ 17.4} ~ 18.9}
100.6 ~ 149.8 {10.3 108.2 ~ 162.2 {11.1 106.9 ~ 160.0 {10.9 115.5 ~ 173.3 {11.8
* M14 × 2
~ 15.3} ~ 16.6} ~ 16.3} ~ 17.7}
154.3 ~ 232.5 {15.7 171.1 ~ 256.7 {17.4 160.0 ~ 240.3 {16.3 176.9 ~ 265.3 {18.0
M16 × 1.5
~ 23.7} ~ 26.2} ~ 24.5} ~ 27.1}
147.6 ~ 221.4 {15.0 162.5 ~ 243.8 {16.6 153.0 ~ 229.5 {15.6 168.5 ~ 252.7 {17.2
* M16 × 2
~ 22.6} ~ 24.9} ~ 23.4} ~ 25.8}
222.5 ~ 334.3 {22.7 229.5 ~ 345.2 {23.4
M18 × 1.5 — —
~ 34.1} ~ 35.2}
223.6 ~ 335.4 {22.8 230.5 ~ 346.2 {23.6
* M18 × 2.5 — —
~ 34.2} ~ 35.3}
307.4 ~ 461.7 {31.4 316.8 ~ 475.6 {32.3
M20 × 1.5 — —
~ 47.1} ~ 48.5}
284.0 ~ 472.1 {29.0 293.2 ~ 440.3 {29.2
* M20 × 2.5 — —
~ 43.5} ~ 44.9}
413.6 ~ 620.5 {42.2 424.6 ~ 636.5 {43.3
M22 × 1.5 — —
~ 63.3} ~ 64.9}
385.7 ~ 578.0 {39.3 394.2 ~ 592.3 {40.0
* M22 × 2.5 — —
~ 58.9} ~ 60.4}
490.8 ~ 810.5 {50.0 554.1 ~ 830.6 {56.5
M24 × 2 — —
~ 82.7} ~ 84.7}
462.8 ~ 693.1 {47.2 520.7 ~ 781.6 {53.1
* M24 × 3 — —
~ 70.7} ~ 79.7}

The * mark indicates where soft materials have been used for internal thread sections, such as castings.
0A-12 General Information
Designations for Isuzu standard bolt heads

Legend
1. Hexagon head bolt(4.8, 4T) 9. Hexagon head bolt(Un-refined 8.8)
2. Hexagon head bolt(4.8, 4T) 10. Hexagon head bolt(Un-refined 8.8)
3. Flange bolt(4.8, 4T) 11. Flange bolt(8.8)
4. Flange bolt(4.8, 4T) 12. Flange bolt(8.8)
5. Hexagon head bolt(7T) 13. Hexagon head bolt(9.8, 9T)
6. Flange bolt(7T) 14. Hexagon head bolt(9.8, 9T)
7. Hexagon head bolt (refined 8.8) 15. Flange bolt(9.8, 9T)
8. Hexagon head bolt (refined 8.8) 16. Flange bolt(9.8, 9T)

Flare nut

Pipe diameter tightening torque Flare nut 2 side width (mm)


(for medium and large
Old New
size vehicles)
Flare nut tightening torque (service φ4.76 mm 12.8 ~ 18.6 {1.3 ~ 1.9} 14 14
standard value) N⋅m {kgf⋅m}
φ6.35 mm 23.5 ~ 49 {2.4 ~ 5.0} 17 17
φ8.0 mm 23.5 ~ 49 {2.4 ~ 5.0} 19 17
φ10.0 mm 44.1 ~ 93.2 {4.5 ~ 9.5} 22 19
φ12.0 mm 58.8 ~ 137.3 {6.0 ~ 14.0} 27 24
φ15.0 mm 78.5 ~ 156.9 {8.0 ~ 16.0} 30 30
General Information 0A-13
Taper screw from connectors (brass)

N⋅m {kgf⋅m}
Screw size PT(R) 1/8 PT(R) 1/4 PT(R) 3/8 PT(R) 1/12
— 2.0 ~ 14.7 4.9 ~ 15.7 9.8 ~ 16.7 9.8 ~ 17.7
(0.2 ~ 1.5) (0.5 ~ 1.6) (1.0 ~ 1.7) (1.0 ~ 1.8)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-1

ENGINE
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ISUZU DIESEL ENGINE (4HK1, 6HK1) . . . . . . . 1A-3 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A-82
Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-3 Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A-88
Main Data and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-11 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A-94
Cylinder Head Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-14 Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-101
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-14 Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-101
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-15 Piston, Connecting Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-103
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-16 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-103
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-18 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-103
Inlet Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-20 Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-104
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-20 Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-110
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-21 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-112
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-22 Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-114
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-24 Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-114
Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold . . . . . . . . . 1A-25 Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-115
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-25 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-115
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-26 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-115
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-27 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-117
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-28 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-117
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-32 Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-119
Timing Gear Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-35 Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-119
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-35 Front Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-120
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-36 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-120
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-38 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-121
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-40 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-122
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-51 Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-124
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-52 Crankshaft Front Oil Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-126
Rocker Arm Shaft ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-53 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-126
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-53 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-126
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-53 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-128
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-54 Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-133
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-56 Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-133
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-57 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-134
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-59 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-134
Camshaft ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-60 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-134
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-60 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-135
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-61 Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-138
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-62 Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-139
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-64 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-139
Fixing torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-66 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-139
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-66 Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-141
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-67 Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-141
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-69 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-141
Valve Stem Seal, Valve Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-70 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-146
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-70 Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-150
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-70 Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-150
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-71 Cylinder Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-152
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-72 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-152
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-74 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-152
Cylinder Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-75 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-153
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-75 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-154
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-75 Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-157
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-79 Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-157
1A-2 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Function Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-158
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-159
Oil Port Cover ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Oil Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-162
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-162
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-163
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-164
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-164
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-165
Oil Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-168
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-168
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-168
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-169
Oil Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-171
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-171
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-171
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-172
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-172
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-173
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-174
Oil Pressure Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-178
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-178
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-3

ISUZU DIESEL ENGINE (4HK1, 6HK1)


Precautions on Service Work Matters that require attention in specifically dealing
with this engine.
Matters that require attention in terms of
maintenance Holes or clearances in the fuel system, which serve as
a passage of fuel, including the inside of the injector,
To prevent damage to the engine and ensure reliability
are made with extreme precision. For this reason, they
of its performance, pay attention to the following in
are highly sensitive to foreign matter and if it gets in, it
maintaining the engine: When taking down the engine
can lead to an accident on the road, for instance; thus,
on the ground, do not make the bearing surface of the
make sure that foreign matter will be prevented from
oil pan touch directly the ground. Use a wood frame, for
getting in.
example, to support the engine with the engine foot and
When servicing the fuel system, every precaution must
the flywheel housing.
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign material into the
Because there is only a small clearance between the
system.
oil pan and the oil pump strainer, it can damage the
oil pan and the oil strainer. • Before beginning the service procedure, wash the
fuel line and the surrounding area.
• When the air duct or air cleaner is removed, cover
the air intake opening to prevent foreign matter • Perform the service procedures with clean hands.
from getting into the cylinder. If it gets into it, it can Do not wear work gloves.
considerably damage the cylinder and others while • Immediately after removing the fuel hose and/or
the engine is operating. fuel pipe, carefully tape vinyl bags over the
• When maintaining the engine, never fail to remove exposed ends of the hose or pipe.
the battery ground cable. If not, it may damage the • If parts are to be replaced (fuel hose, fuel pipe,
wire harness or electrical parts. If you need etc.) do not open the new part packaging until
electricity on for the purpose of inspection, for installation.
instance, watch out for short circuits and others.
• Apply engine oil to the sliding contact surfaces of Work procedure
the engine before reassembling it. This ensures • The fuel opening must be quickly sealed when
adequate lubrication when the engine is first removing the fuel pipe, injection pipe, fuel injector,
started. fuel supply pump, and common rail.
• When valve train parts, pistons, piston rings, • The eyebolts and gasket must be stored in a clean
connecting rods, connecting rod bearings or parts box with a lid to prevent adhesion of foreign
crankshaft journal bearings are removed, put them matter.
in order and keep them. • Fuel leakage could cause fires. Therefore, after
• When installing them, put them back to the same finishing the work, wipe off the fuel that has leaked
location as they were removed. out and make sure there is no fuel leakage after
• Gaskets, oil seals, O-rings, etc. must be replaced starting the engine.
with new ones when the engine is reassembled.
• As for parts where a liquid gasket is used, remove
an old liquid gasket completely and clean it up
thoroughly so that no oil, water or dust may be
clung to them. Then, apply the designated liquid
gasket to each place anew before assembly.
• Surfaces covered with liquid gasket must be
assembled within 7 minutes of gasket application.
If more than 7 minutes have elapsed, remove the
existing liquid gasket and apply new liquid gasket.
• When assembling or installing parts, fasten them
with the specified tightening torque so that they
may be installed properly.
1A-4 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
How to read the model
4HK1

Name
1. Cast The Engine Model 2. Stamp An Engine Number
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-5
6HK1

WSHK0001

Name
1. Stamp An Engine Number

Explanations on functions and operation Cylinder liner


The cylinder liner is selected to match an internal
Electronic engine control
diameter of a bore of the cylinder block and built, which
With the control unit, the range from injection to air
is imprinted on the left side of the cylinder.
intake/exhaust, including fuel injection quantity,
injection timing, intake air restriction, EGR, and idling Piston
rpm, is controlled. The piston is aluminum-alloy and an autothermatic
piston with a strut cast, while the combustion chamber
Cylinder block
is a round reentrant type.
The cylinder block is cast-iron with the center distance
of each bore being equal and is of the highly rigid, Cylinder head
symmetrical structure with the crankshaft center being The cylinder head is cast-iron and there are 4 valves
the center. The bearing cap is of the ladder frame per cylinder. The angular tightening method of the
structure and tightened up under the plastic range cylinder head bolt further increases reliability and
rotation angle method. durability.
Crankshaft imprinted is the grade of each journal diameter.
Tuftriding is given, while on the No. 1 balance weight
1A-6 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
EGR system 4HK1
Based upon data, including water temperature, engine
speeds or engine loads, it is controlled via Engine
Control Module (ECM) to purify exhaust by recycling
part of it.
Its main components include an EGR valve, an EGR
cooler and various sensors.
Connecting rod cap bolt
The angular tightening method of the connecting rod
cap bolt further increases reliability and durability.
Common rail-type electronic control injection
system
The common rail-type electronic control injection
system is composed of a fuel supply pump that sets the
target pressure of high-pressure fuel and supply it, a
common rail that measures such high-pressure fuel
and a fuel injector that turns it into a fine spray and
injects it. Each is controlled via ECM based upon
various signals, while injection timing or fuel injection
quantity is controlled under every possible driving 6HK1
condition.
Fuel injector
The fuel injector is a 7-hole nozzle that adjusts fuel
injection quantity or injection timing by opening or
closing an electromagnetic valve on the head of the
fuel injector.
ECM corrects the dispersion of fuel injection quantity
between fuel injectors according to ID code data in
memory. At the replacement of fuel injectors, ID code
data should be stored in ECM.
Fuel filter with sedimenter
It is a fuel filter with sedimenter that gets rid of water by
making use of the difference in specific gravity between
light oil and water, which comes with an indicator that
notifies you that it is filled with water.
Preheating system
The preheating system consists the ECM, the glow WSHK0049
relay, glow plugs and the glow indicator lamp. The • Insert a 0.4 mm (0.016 in) thickness gauge into a
preheating system is operated when the engine coolant clearance between the rocker arm and the bridge
temperature is low, and make the engine easy to start. to check it and adjust it if needed.
Lubrication system
It is an oil filter with full-flow bypass, which uses a Valve clearance mm (in)
water-cool oil cooler and oil jet to cool the piston. Intake valve 0.4 (0.016)
Exhaust valve 0.4 (0.016)
Function check
Inspection/adjustment of valve clearance Caution:
1. Inspection of valve clearance Adjust while being cold.
• Remove the cylinder head cover. 2. Adjustment of valve clearance
• Remove the fuel injector harness ASM.
Caution:
• Loosen the terminal nuts alternately to remove. Adjust valve clearance carefully so that the bridge may
• Remove the leak off pipe. become level (hit the end of the 2 valve axes).
• Rotate the crankshaft to make the No.1 cylinder a. Completely loosen all of the bridge and rocker
meet the compression top dead center (TDC). arm adjusting nuts and adjusting screws
(4HK1: 8 nuts and 8 screws, 6HK1: 12 nuts and
12 screws).
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-7
b. Place a 0.4 mm (0.016 in) thickness gauge • With a thickness gauge kept inserted, tighten
between the No. 1 cylinder rocker arm end and an adjusting screw of the bridge lightly and
the bridge cap. make sure that the tip of the adjusting screw
c. Tighten the rocker arm adjusting screw until the touches the end of valve axis and the
thickness gauge is snug (not tight) between the movement of the thickness gauge has become
rocker arm end and the bridge cap. tight.
d. Tighten the rocker arm lock nut. • Then, check if the end of the valve axis on the
opposite side is unstable or hits diagonally. If
e. Tighten the bridge adjusting screw until the
so, loosen the bridge adjusting screw a little so
bridge contacts the valve head.
that the end of the valves on both sides may
f. Tighten the bridge lock nut. touch properly.
g. Check that the thickness gauge is still held Valve bridge clearance: ± 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) or
snugly between the rocker arm end and the less
bridge cap. If it is too tight, slightly loosen the • After making an adjustment so that the end of
bridge adjusting screw and lock nut to restore the valves on both sides may touch properly,
snugness. tighten up an adjusting screw nut of the bridge
h. Remove the thickness gauge. with a flathead screwdriver so that the bridge
i. Repeat Steps 2 through 5 for the remaining adjusting screw may not rotate.
cylinders. Tightening torque: 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft)
Tightening torque: 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft)
Caution:
If the adjusting screw of the bridge is poorly adjusted,
the bridge would tilt and be pushed down and seized,
which may damage the bridge guide, for example.
Thus, adjust it accurately.

Name
1. Rocker Arm
2. Bridge Cap
3. Bridge
Tightening torque:
Rocker arm adjustment 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft)
screw nut
Bridge adjustment screw 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft)
nut
1A-8 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Adjustment table (4HK1)
Cylinder No. 1 2 3 4
Valve arrangement IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX
No. 1 cylinder
{ { { {
Compression top dead center position
No. 4 cylinder
× × × ×
Compression top dead center position

Adjustment table (6HK1)


Cylinder No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Valve arrangement IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX
No. 1 cylinder
{ { { { { {
Compression top dead center position
No. 6 cylinder
× × × × × ×
Compression top dead center position

• If the No. 1 cylinder is the compression TDC,


adjust a valve clearance with { mark given on
the table and if the No. 4 (4HK1) or No. 6
(6HK1) cylinder is the compression TDC, that
with × mark.
4HK1

6HK1

WSHK0002
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-9
4HK1

WSHK0003

• Attach the harness ASM to the fuel injector.


Tighten the harness bracket with the
designated torque. Name
1. Fuel Injector Harness Connector
Tightening torque: 48 N⋅m (4.9 kg⋅m/35 lb ft)
6HK1
• Install the terminal nuts on the fuel injector.

Tightening torque: 2 N⋅m (0.2 kg⋅m/18 lb in)

Note:
• Tighten the terminal nuts alternately in order to
prevent imbalance in tightening because they are
unified.
• Do not tighten the nuts too tightly because it leads
to damage to the terminal stud.
• Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head Cover”.
Compression pressure inspection
• Warm-up the engine.
1
• Remove a negative terminal of the battery and
remove all the glow plugs.
• Remove the harness connector for the fuel injector
WSHK0004
built on the lower head cover (no fuel will be
injected). Name
1. Fuel Injection Harness Connector
Caution:
When the harness connector is removed, ECM judges
• Install the negative terminal of the battery.
that it broke down and DTC is recorded. Upon
completion of measurement, never fail to clear memory • Turn on the starter to emit foreign matter within the
of ECM. cylinders.
(For how to clear memory of ECM, refer to the Engine • Install an adapter and a gauge of a compression
Control System Section) gauge of the special tool.
1A-10 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Compression gauge: 5-8840-2675-0 (J-26999-12)


Compression gauge adapter
4HK1: EN-46722
6HK1: 380.002.627
• Turn on the starter to inspect compression
pressure.
4HK1
Compression pressure MPa (psi) / 200 rpm
Standard 2.84 – 3.24 (412 – 469)
Limit 1.96 (284)
Differences among
294 kPa (43)
the cylinders

6HK1
Compression pressure MPa (psi) / 200 rpm
Standard 3.24 (469)
Limit 2.26 (327)
Differences among
294 kPa (43)
the cylinders

• Measure each cylinder one by one.

Caution:
To keep engine speed at 200 rpm or more, use fully
charged batteries.
• Remove a compression gauge of the special tool.
• Remove a negative terminal of the batteries.
• Install a harness connector for the fuel injector built
on the lower head cover.
• Install all the glow plugs.
Tightening torque: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)
• Install the negative terminal of the battery.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-11
Main Data and Specifications

Item Engine model 4HK1


Type Diesel/4-cycle/water cooled-type, inline four-cylinder
OHC
Combustion chamber form Direct injection type
Cylinder liner type Dry type
Number of cylinders - cylinder bore × mm (in) 4-115 (4.53) × 125 (4.92)
strokes
Displacement cc (cu.in) 5193 (317)
Compression ratio 17.5
Compression pressure MPa (psi)/rpm 3.23 (468)/200
Idle speed rpm 800
Valve clearance Intake 0.4 (0.016) (cold)
mm (in) Exhaust 0.4 (0.016) (cold)
Ignition type Compressed ignition
Injection order 1-3-4-2
Lubricating system
Lubricating type Pressure type
Oil pump type Gear type
Volume of lubricating oil L (qts) 13.0 (13.7) — 20.5 (21.7)
Oil filter type Full flow filter (cartridge type)
Oil cooling type Built-in, water-cooling
Cooling system
Cooling type Water cooling type
Radiator type Corrugated fin (pressure type)
Water pump type Centrifugal, belt type
Thermostat type 2 wax-type units
Thermostat valve-opening temperature °C (°F) 85 (185)
Volume of coolant L (qts) 14 (14.8) (incl. radiator)
Fuel system
Injection pump type Electronic control common rail type
Governor type Electronic type
Timer type Electronic type
Injection nozzle type Multi-hole type
7-hole and φ 0.16 mm (0.0063 in) inside diameter
Charging system
Generator type AC type
Power output V/A 24 - 50
Regulator type IC
1A-12 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Item Engine model 4HK1


Starting system
Starter type Reduction type
Power output V-kw 24 - 5.0
Preheat system type Glow plug
Glow plug standard voltage/electric current V/A 23 - 3.5

Item Engine model 6HK1


Type Diesel/4-cycle/water cooled-type, inline four-cylinder
OHC
Combustion chamber form Direct injection type
Cylinder liner type Dry type
Number of cylinders - cylinder bore × mm (in) 6-115 (4.53) × 125 (4.92)
strokes
Displacement cc (cu.in) 7790 (475)
Compression ratio 17.5
Compression pressure MPa (psi)/rpm 3.04 (441)/200
Idle speed rpm For Hitachi products: 800, For JCB and Sumitomo
products: 900
Valve clearance Intake 0.4 (0.016) (cold)
mm (in) Exhaust 0.4 (0.016) (cold)
Ignition type Compressed ignition
Injection order 1-5-3-6-2-4
Lubricating system
Lubricating type Pressure type
Oil pump type Gear type
Volume of lubricating oil L (qts) 28 (29.6) — 38 (40.2)
Oil filter type Full flow filter (cartridge type)
Oil cooling type Built-in, water-cooling
Cooling system
Cooling type Water cooling type
Radiator type Corrugated fin (pressure type)
Water pump type Centrifugal, belt type
Thermostat type 2 wax-type units
Thermostat valve-opening temperature °C (°F) 82 (180)
Volume of coolant L (qts) 14.5 (15.3)
Fuel system
Injection pump type Electronic control common rail type
Governor type Electronic type
Timer type Electronic type
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-13

Item Engine model 6HK1


Injection nozzle type Multi-hole type
7-hole and φ0.16 mm (0.0063 in) inside diameter
Charging system
Generator type AC type
Power output V/A 24 - 120
Regulator type IC
Starting system
Starter type Reduction type
Power output V-kw 24 - 5.0
Preheat system type Glow plug
Glow plug standard voltage/electric current V/A 23 - 3.5

Special tool

Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.626
Compression gauge

EN-46722
Compression gauge
adapter

380.002.627
Compression gauge
adapter
(6HK1)
1A-14 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Cylinder Head Cover


Components
4HK1

Name
1. Head Cover 3. Head Cover Case
2. Gasket 4. Gasket
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-15
6HK1

WSHK0005

Name
1. Head Cover 3. Head Cover Case
2. Gasket 4. Gasket

Removal
1. Remove the head cover.
2. Remove the gasket.
1A-16 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1 4HK1

Name Name
1. Head Cover 1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector
6HK1
6HK1

WSHK0006
WSHK0007
Name
1. Head Cover Name
1. Head Cover Case
3. Remove the fuel injector harness connector. 2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector
4. Remove the head cover case.
5. Remove the gasket.
Installation
1. Install the gasket on the lower cover.
2. Install the head cover case.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 18 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13 lb ft),
6HK1: 13 N⋅m (1.3 kg⋅m/9.6 lb ft)
3. Install the fuel injector harness connector.

Caution: Push it in thoroughly until the claws of the lock raise.


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-17
4HK1 4HK1

6HK1
Name
1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector

6HK1

WSHK0008

WSHK0007

Name
1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector

4. Install the gasket on the head cover.


5. Install the head cover and tighten up according to
the orders given on the figure.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 18 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13 lb ft),
6HK1: 13 N⋅m (1.3 kg⋅m/9.6 lb ft)
1A-18 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Torque Specifications
4HK1
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-19
6HK1

N m{kg m/lb ft}

13 {1.3 / 9.6}

13 {1.3 / 9.6}

WSHK0009
1A-20 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Inlet Cover
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Case ASM 4. Inlet Pipe
2. Inlet Cover 5. Reed Valve
3. Inlet Pipe Gasket
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-21
6HK1

4
6

WSHK0177

Name
1. Case ASM 4. Inlet Pipe
2. Inlet Cover 5. Reed Valve
3. Inlet Pipe Gasket 4. Bolt

Removal 4HK1
1. Remove the common rail.
Refer to the “Common Rail” in the fuel system
section.
2. Remove the inlet pipe.
3. Remove the case ASM.
• Remove the reed valve from the case ASM.
• Inspect the valve whether the carbon has not come
in contact around the valve.
1A-22 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1 Caution:
• Be careful not to forget to fasten the bolt indicated
with an arrow.
• Tighten up the stud part together with the common
rail.

WSHK0048
4. Remove the inlet cover.
• On the place where the case ASM is to be installed
inside the inlet cover (arrowed) is a bolt. Be careful
not to forget to remove it.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
• Peel the liquid gasket off carefully.
2. Install the reed valve to the case ASM
Tightening torque: 9.8 N⋅m (1.0 kg⋅m/7.2 lb ft)
3. Install the case ASM.
• Apply the liquid gasket and mount within 7
minutes.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Installation
1. Install the inlet cover.
• Apply the liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207C or
equivalent) by using a bead diameter of 2.5 – 5.5
mm (0.1 – 0.2 in) along a groove of the inlet cover.

• Install within seven minutes after applying liquid Name


gasket. 1. Case ASM
2. Reed Valve
Tightening torque: 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft) 3. Bolt
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-23
6HK1

WSHK0179

Name
1. Case ASM
2. Reed Valve
3. Bolt

4. Install the gasket on the inlet pipe and tighten up


with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
5. Install the common rail.
Refer to the “Common Rail” in the fuel system
section.
1A-24 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Torque Specifications
4HK1

6HK1

N m(kg m/lb ft)

20 (2 / 15) 39 (3 / 29)

24.5 (2.5 / 18)

WSHK0063
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-25

Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold


Components
4HK1

Name
1. Oil Feed Pipe 5. Turbo Charger ASM
2. Water Return Pipe 6. Exhaust Adapter
3. Exhaust Manifold 7. Oil Return Pipe
4. Water Feed Pipe
1A-26 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1

4 3 2

WSHK0012

Name
1. Oil Feed Pipe 4. Exhaust Adapter
2. Exhaust Manifold 5. Oil Return Pipe
3. Turbo Charger ASM

Removal
1. Loosen the radiator drain cock to drain coolant.
(4HK1 only)
2. Remove the air intake duct from the turbocharger
and the air cleaner.
3. Remove the charge air pipe from the turbocharger
and the charge air cooler.
4. Disconnect the front exhaust pipe.
5. Remove the EGR pipe.
6. Remove the oil feed pipe.
7. Remove the oil return pipe.
8. Remove the water feed pipe. (4HK1 only)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-27
• Remove the water return pipe. (4HK1 only) 6HK1

1 3 2

WSHK0013

Name Name
1. Water Return Pipe 1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
9. Remove the heat protector on the turbocharger. 3. Exhaust Adapter
10. Remove the exhaust adapter bolts.
11. Remove the four turbocharger clamping nuts.
12. Remove the turbocharger from the exhaust Inspection
manifold. • Inspection of exhaust manifold
13. Remove the exhaust manifold. Inspect the plane surface of the plane on which the
4HK1 manifold and the cylinder head are to be installed.

Manifold installation plane surface mm (in)


Standard 0.3 (0.01) or less
Limit 0.5 (0.02)

Caution:
If the plane surface exceeds the limit, replace it.

Name
1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


1A-28 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
• Check a crack in the exhaust manifold visually.
Carefully inspect he turbocharger for abrasion and/or
excessive wear. Make any necessary adjustments,
repairs, and/or part replacements.

Wheel shaft axial play


Use a dial gauge to measure the wheel axle shaft play
when a force of 12 N (2.7 lb) is alternately applied to
both sides of the compressor wheel.
4HK1
Axial play mm (in)
Standard 0.03 – 0.06 (0.0012 – 0.0024)
Limit 0.09 (0.0035)

6HK1
Axial play mm (in)
Standard 0.06 – 0.09 (0.0024 – 0.0036)
Name
Limit 0.11 (0.0043)
1. Oil Outlet
2. Oil Inlet

Installation
1. Put the gasket in to install the exhaust manifold.
• 4HK1: Tighten up with the 2 nuts and 6 bolts
according to the order given on the figure.

Tightening torque: 34 N⋅m (3.5 kg⋅m/25 lb ft)


• 6HK1: Tighten up with the 12 nuts according to the
order given on the figure.

Tightening torque: 55 N⋅m (5.6 kg⋅m/41 lb ft)


34 N⋅m (3.5 kg⋅m/25 lb ft) for (7)
only

Caution:
Do not tighten up too much because it hampers
expansion and contraction due to the heat from the
Wheel shaft and bearing clearance manifold.
Use a dial gauge to measure the clearance between
the wheel shaft and the bearing.
4HK1

Clearance mm (in)
Standard 0.056 – 0.127 (0.0022 – 0.0050)
Limit 0.14 (0.0055)

6HK1

Clearance mm (in)
Standard 0.10 – 0.17 (0.0039 – 0.0067)
Limit 0.205 (0.0081)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-29
4HK1 4HK1

6HK1
Name
1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter

6HK1

1 3 2

WSHK0014

2. Install the gasket and turbocharger to the exhaust


manifold. Tighten the nuts to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 52 N⋅m (5.3 kg⋅m/38 lb ft)


3. Tighten the adapter bolts (exhaust manifold side) WSHK0013
to the specified torque.
Name
Tightening torque: 32.4 N⋅m (3.3 kg⋅m/24 lb ft) 1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter

4. Install the water feed pipe to the turbocharger.


(4HK1 only)
• Tighten the joint bolts to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 41 N⋅m (4.2 kg⋅m/30 lb ft)


• Install the pipe bracket and tighten the bolts to the
specified torque.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


1A-30 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1 7. Install the turbocharger oil feed pipe to the top of
the turbocharger. Tighten the joint bolts to the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 41 N⋅m (4.2 kg⋅m/30 lb ft),
6HK1: 34.5 N⋅m (3.5 kg⋅m/25 lb ft)
• Install the pipe bracket and tighten the bolts to the
specified torque.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


8. Tighten the oil return pipe bolts to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque (Turbocharger side):
4HK1: 9 N⋅m (0.9 kg⋅m/80 lb in),
6HK1: 17.6 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13 lb ft)

Tightening torque (Cylinder block):


4HK1: 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft),
6HK1: 17.6 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13 lb ft)

Name
1. Water Feed Pipe

5. Install the water return pipe. Tighten the joint bolts


to the specified torque. (4HK1 only)

Tightening torque: 41 N⋅m (4.2 kg⋅m/30 lb ft)


6. Install the water return pipe bracket. Tighten the
bolts to the specified torque. (4HK1 only)

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


• Install the rubber hose between the water return
pipe and the thermostat housing.

4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Oil Return Pipe

9. Install the air intake duct and tighten the bolts to


the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 10 N⋅m (1.0 kg⋅m/89 lb in)


10. Install the charge air pipe in the turbo charger and
the charge air cooler.
Tightening torque:
Duct bolt 21 N⋅m (2.1 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)
Duct clip 6 N⋅m (0.6 kg⋅m/53 lb in)
11. Install the front exhaust pipe to the turbocharger
and tighten the nuts to the specified torque.
Name
1. Water Return Pipe Tightening torque: 67 N⋅m (6.8 kg⋅m/49 lb ft)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-31

12. Add cooling water to the radiator. (4HK1 only)


13. Install the EGR pipe.
• Put the gasket between both ends of the EGR pipe
and install to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


14. Replenish the coolant. (4HK1 only)
1A-32 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Torque Specifications
4HK1
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-33
6HK1

N m(kg m/lb ft)

17.6 (1.8 / 13) 34.5 (3.5 / 25)

23.5 (2.4 / 17) 50.5 (5.1 / 37) 32.4 (3.3 / 24)

17.6 (1.8 / 13)

WSHK0015
1A-34 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-35

Timing Gear Train


Components
4HK1

Name
1. Idle Gear B Shaft 7. Rear Oil Seal
2. Idle Gear A 8. Flywheel Housing
3. Idle Gear B 9. Slinger
4. PTO Idle Gear 10. Crankshaft Position Sensor
5. PTO Idle Gear Cover 11. Oil Pan
6. Flywheel 12. Fuel Supply Pump
1A-36 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1

10

1
3

5 8
12

11

WSHK0017

Name
1. Idle Gear B Shaft 7. Rear Oil Seal
2. Idle Gear A 8. Flywheel Housing
3. Idle Gear B 9. Slinger
4. PTO Idle Gear 10. Idle Gear A Shaft
5. PTO Idle Gear Cover 11. PTO Idle Gear Shaft
6. Flywheel 12. Oil Pump

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
3. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
4. Remove the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
5. Remove the fuel supply pump ASM.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-37
Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the fuel system 6HK1
section.

WSHK0064
7. Remove the flywheel.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. • Install the crankshaft stopper on the starter part of
6. Remove the crankshaft position sensor. the flywheel housing to stop the crankshaft from
• Remove the crankshaft position sensor before rotating.
remove flywheel.
Caution:
4HK1 Check if the stopper meshes with the ring gear without
fail and is installed properly.

Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: 380.002.628

• Loosen the fastening bolts of the flywheel little by


little according to the order given on the figure.

• After loosening all the bolts, remove the stopper to


remove the flywheel.

8. Remove the rear oil seal.


Refer to the “Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal”.
9. Use the slinger remover to remove the slinger.
1A-38 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Caution: • Never fail to remove the bolt(s) given on the figure.
If the oil seal has been removed, both the oil seal and
slinger must be replaced as a set.

Special tool
Slinger remover:
380.002.608 (For 4HK1 and 6HK1)
5-8840-2360-0 (For 4HK1)
380.002.625 (For 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


14. Remove the idle gear A.
15. Remove the idle gear A shaft. (6HK1)
16. Remove the oil pump. (6HK1)
17. Remove the idle gear B.
18. Remove the idle gear B shaft.

10. Remove the oil pan.


11. Remove the PTO idle gear cover.
12. Remove the PTO idle gear.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Inspection
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. 1. Measurement of idle gear backlash
13. Remove the flywheel housing. • Apply a dial gauge on the teeth of the idle gear to
be measured and move the gear to right and left
lightly to read how much the dial gauge shook
(never fail to fix the gear).

• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the


idle gear.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-39

Backlash of the timing gear mm (in)


Standard 0.10 – 0.17 (0.004 – 0.006)
Limit 0.30 (0.01)

• Measure backlash of the idle gear before removing


the idle gear A.

3. Outside diameter of idle gear shaft


• Use a micrometer to measure an external diameter
of each idle gear shaft.

• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the


shaft.

4HK1
2. Measurement of end clearance of the idle gear.
Outside diameter of idle gear shaft mm (in)
• Insert a thickness gauge between the idle gear and
the thrust collar to measure a clearance. Standard 29.959 – 29.980 (1.179 – 1.180)
Limit 29.80 (1.173)
• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace
either the idle gear or the thrust collar.
External diameter of the idle gear A shaft mm (in)
Axial play of idle gear mm (in) Standard 39.959 – 39.975 (1.573 – 1.574)
Standard 0.080 – 0.140 (0.003 – 0.006) Limit 39.80 (1.567)
Limit 0.20 (0.008)

• Measure an end clearance of the idle gear before


removing the idle gear B.
1A-40 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1 6HK1

Outside diameter of idle gear shaft mm (in) Clearance between the idle gear and the mm (in)
shaft
Standard 29.959 – 29.980 (1.179 – 1.180)
Standard 0.020 – 0.062 (0.0007 – 0.0024)
Limit 29.9 (1.177)
Limit 0.200 (0.0079)
External diameter of the idle gear A shaft mm (in)
Clearance between the idle gear A and the mm (in)
Standard 49.950 – 49.975 (1.967 – 1.968)
shaft
Limit 49.9 (1.965)
Standard 0.025 – 0.075 (0.0010 – 0.0030)
Limit 0.200 (0.0079)

4. Clearance between the idle gear and the idle gear


shaft
• Measure an inside diameter of the idle gear
bushing to calculate a clearance between the idle Installation
gear and the idle gear shaft.
1. Install the idle gear B shaft.
• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace • Tighten the idle gear B shaft to the specified
either the idle gear or the shaft. torque.

4HK1
Tightening torque: 31 N⋅m (3.2 kg⋅m/23 lb ft)
Clearance between the idle gear and the mm (in) • After installation, apply engine oil to the shaft.
shaft
Standard 0.020 – 0.062 (0.0007 – 0.0024)
Limit 0.200 (0.0079)

Clearance between the idle gear A and the mm (in)


shaft
Standard 0.025 – 0.066 (0.0009 – 0.0026)
Limit 0.200 (0.0079)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-41

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
2. Install the idle gear B. 1. Crank Gear
• Install the idle gear B in the direction given on the 2. Idle Gear A
figure and tighten up the fastening bolts with the
specified torque. • Align the crankshaft gear (2) L mark and idle gear
A (1) 0 marks.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 110 N⋅m (11.2 kg⋅m/81 lb ft),
6HK1: 95 N⋅m (9.7 kg⋅m/70 lb ft) • Tighten the installing bolt to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 133 N⋅m (13.6 kg⋅m/98 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Idle Gear
2. Thrust Collar
3. Bolt

3. Install the oil pump.


4. Install the idle gear A shaft. (6HK1)
5. Install the idling gear A.
• Rotate the crankshaft to make the No.1 cylinder
meet the compression top dead center (TDC).
1A-42 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Idle Gear C 6. Crankshaft Gear
2. Camshaft Gear 7. Oil pump Drive Gear
3. Idle Gear B 8. Fuel Supply Pump Gear
4. PTO Gear 9. Idle Gear A
5. PTO Idle Gear

6. Install the flywheel housing. 4HK1


• Clean the rear side of the cylinder block. In
particular, remove overflow liquid gasket
thoroughly when the crankcase is installed.

• As the figure shows, apply the liquid gasket


(ThreeBond 1207B or equivalent) inside a hole of
the bolt (except the bolt holes indicated with an
arrow) evenly.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-43
6HK1 • Align with the knock pin of the cylinder block and
install the flywheel housing.

Tightening torque of the flywheel housing (4HK1):


N⋅m (kg⋅m/lb ft)
1 = 96 (9.8/71) 2 = 77 (7.9/57) 3 = 38 (3.9/28)
• Tighten up the Mark 3 from the cylinder block side.

WSHK0043
4HK1
1A-44 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Tightening torque of the flywheel housing (6HK1):


N⋅m (kg⋅m/lb ft)
1 = 96 (9.8/71) 2 = 86 (8.8/63) 3 = 119 (12.1/88)
4 = 53 (5.4/39) 5 = 73 (7.4/54) 6 = 26 (2.7/19)
6HK1

1
1 2

5
1

3
6

1
3

4
1

WSHK0044
7. Install the PTO idle gear.
• Apply engine oil over the part where the gear of the
idle gear shaft is to be put together.

• Put the idle gear and the shaft together and install
it on the location given on the figure and tighten up
with the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 4HK1: 133 N⋅m (13.6 kg⋅m/98 lb ft)


6HK1: 119 N⋅m (12.1 kg⋅m/88 lb ft)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-45
6HK1

8. Install the PTO idle gear cover.


• Install the O-ring on the cover and install it on the 9. Install the oil pan.
flywheel housing and tighten up the tightening • Apply the liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or
bolts with the specified torque. equivalent) on a joint between the cylinder block,
the front cover and the flywheel housing with a
Tightening torque: 19 N⋅m (1.9 kg⋅m/14 lb ft) beat diameter of 3 mm (0.12 in).

4HK1 • Install the oil pan within 7 minutes after applying


the liquid gasket.
4HK1
1A-46 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1 6HK1

• With the flywheel housing, the front cover and the


stud of the crankcase as a guide, put together the Name
gasket and put the oil pan on it. 1. Oil Pan
Then, put the rubber ASM on the oil pan and fix it 2. Gasket
by fastening bolts and nuts. Tightening
4HK1 4HK1
• After fastening the oil pan at the respective points
of (1), (2), (3), and (4), fasten other parts.

Tightening torque: 30 N⋅m (3.1 kg⋅m/22 lb ft)


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-47
6HK1
• Fastening the oil pan from the part of A or B in
clock wise order.
• It tightens again by specified torque.
1
Tightening torque: 24.5 N⋅m (2.5 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
4

5
3
2

• After pressing in the slinger, make sure that the


distance between crankshaft end surface and the
slinger is A as specified.
4HK1

10. Install the rear slinger using installer, setting tool.


Special tool
4HK1
Use acceptable: Oil seal installer kit:
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 380.001.712
• Install the slinger (1) to the end of adapter (2).
Install the adapter to the crankshaft (3).
• Install the slinger sleeve (4) to the adapter. Tighten
the center bolt (5) until the sleeve comes in contact
with the adapter stopper.

Distance (A): 17.3±0.3 mm (0.7±0.01 in)


Distance (B): 10.8±0.1 mm (0.4±0.004 in)
1A-48 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1

• After pressing the oil seal, make sure that the


Distance (A): 17±0.3 mm (0.7±0.01 in) distance between crankshaft end surface and the
oil seal as specified.
Caution: 4HK1
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
11. Install the rear oil seal using installer, setting tool.

Distance (A): 7.8±0.3 mm (0.3±0.01 in)

Special tool
4HK1
Use acceptable: Oil seal installer kit:
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 380.001.712
• Apply engine oil to the oil seal lip.

Caution:
Do not allow engine oil to come in contact with the
outside oil seal and felt ring.
• Insert the oil seal (1) into the adapter (2).
• Insert the oil seal sleeve (3) to the adapter.
• Tighten the center bolt until the sleeve comes into
contact with the adapter stopper.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-49
6HK1 13. Rotate the crankshaft to make the No. 1 cylinder
meet the compression TDC.
14. Remove the oil drain adapter.
15. Install the O-ring on the fuel supply pump and
make the slits with an arrow meet and with the stud
bolt as a guide, install the fuel supply pump
tentatively.

Caution:
• When removing the fuel supply pump, if the stud
bolt on the cylinder block side loosens, or the stud
bolt is replaced, apply the Loctite No. 262 on the
side where the stud bolt is to be buried before
assembly.
B

Distance (B): 7.5±0.15 mm (0.3±0.006 in)


12. Install the flywheel.
• Along with the knock pin of the crankshaft, install
the flywheel and tighten up with the specified
torque according to the order given on the figure.

Tightening torque:
1st step = 78 N⋅m (8.0 kg⋅m/58 lb ft)
2nd step = 60°
3rd step = 60°

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


• Check if the alignment mark of the gear painted
white is at the location given on the figure when
viewed from the plug hole and tighten up with the
specified torque.
Nut tightening torque: 50 N⋅m (5.1 kg⋅m/37 lb ft)

Bolt tightening torque: 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 lb ft)


• If the location of the teeth of the painted gear is not
in the right place, put it together all over again.
1A-50 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
17. Install the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
18. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
19. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
20. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Plug Hole
2. Alignment Mark

16. Install the oil drain adapter ASM on the plug hole
and tighten with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 6 N⋅m (0.6 kg⋅m/53 lb in)
• Apply engine oil over the O-ring nice and thin and
install it.

Name
1. Adapter
2. O-Ring
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-51
Torque Specifications

N m{kg m/lb ft}

31 {3.2 / 23}

110 {11.2 / 81}


50 {5.1 / 37}
134 {13.7 / 99}

134 {13.7 / 99}

76 {7.7 / 56}
19 {1.9 / 14}

78 {8 / 58} 60 60

6 {0.6 / 4}

30 {3.1 / 22} 8 {0.8 / 6}

WSHK0065
1A-52 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.628
Crankshaft stopper

380.002.608
Slinger remover

5-8840-2703-0
J-43282
Oil seal installer kit

380.001.712
Oil seal setting tool
(6HK1)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-53

Rocker Arm Shaft ASM


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Camshaft Bracket 5. Rocker Arm Bracket
2. Rocker Arm 6. Camshaft Bracket
3. Wave Washer 7. Rocker Arm Shaft
4. Rocker Arm

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
• Along with the camshaft bracket, remove the
rocker arm shaft ASM.
1A-54 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
• Because the bolt(s) shown on the figure is are 6. Remove the camshaft bracket to take the shaft out.
designed to fix the rocker arm shaft, do not remove
it for now.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
Caution: 1. Camshaft Bracket
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the 2. Rocker Arm
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the 3. Wave Washer
hole into which oil pours back in the front. 4. Rocker Arm
5. Rocker Arm Bracket
6. Camshaft Bracket
Disassembly 7. Rocker Arm Shaft
1. Remove the camshaft bracket.
2. Remove the rocker arm. 7. Check if the oil hole is clogged of the camshaft
bracket (on the rear side).
3. Remove the wave washer.
4. Remove the rocker arm.
5. Remove the rocker arm bracket.
• Disassemble according to the order (2) – (4)
thereafter.

8. Check if the rocker arm shaft is bent.


• Place the rocker arm shaft on a V block.

• Check if it is bent by rotating the shaft with a dial


gauge on the center of the shaft.

• As a result of measurement, if its bend is slight,


press it to rectify it (while cold).
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-55
• If the bend of the shaft exceeds the limit, replace 10. Inspect a clearance between the rocker arm and
the shaft. the rocker arm shaft.
• Use a cylinder gauge to measure an inside
diameter of the bushing of the rocker arm to
Bend of the rocker arm shaft mm (in)
measure a clearance between the external
Limit 0.3 (0.012) diameter of the shaft.

• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the


rocker arm and the shaft.

Clearance between the rocker arm and mm (in)


rocker arm shaft
Standard 0.010 – 0.056 (0.0004 – 0.0022)
Limit 0.2 (0.0079)

9. Check if the rocker arm shaft is worn.


• Use a micrometer to measure 8 places of the
vibrating part of the rocker arm.

• If the measurement falls is the limit or less, replace


the shaft.

External diameter of the rocker arm shaft mm (in)


Standard 22.0 (0.866) 11. Inspect a clearance between the roller of the
Limit 21.85 (0.860) rocker arm and the rocker arm pin.
a. Pass a string, for instance, through an opening
between the rocker arm and the roller, pull it in
the direction indicated with an arrow strongly
and measure the gap between the rocker arm
and the roller with the roller stuck out. Figure 1
b. After marking the measuring point, pull the
string out and measure the gap of the marked
place with the roller pushed deep into the end.
Figure 2
c. The gap between the measurement taken
under a. and that under b. will be a clearance
between the roller and the rocker arm pin. If it
exceeds the limit, replace the rocker arm.

Clearance between the roller and the mm (in)


rocker arm pin
Standard 0.068 – 0.099 (0.0026 – 0.0038)
Limit 0.2 (0.0079)
1A-56 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

3. Install the wave washer between the rocker arm.


Reassembly 4. Install the rocker arm bracket.
• Pay attention to the direction in which the bracket
1. Install the camshaft bracket to one side of the
is put together and put it together with the rocker
rocker arm shaft tentatively first. When the rocker
arm shaft.
arm shaft ASM is installed on the cylinder head,
tighten them up fast. 5. Install the camshaft bracket.
• Assemble in the reverse order of disassembly. • Install the camshaft bracket on the rocker arm
shaft with the bolts indicated with an arrow
tightened tentatively. When the rocker arm shaft
ASM is installed on the cylinder head, tighten them
up fast.

2. Install the rocker arm.


• Apply engine oil in an inside diameter of the rocker
arm, the roller and the rocker arm pin and install it
on the rocker arm shaft.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-57

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
Name 1. Bridge Cap
1. Camshaft Bracket 2. Bridge
2. Rocker Arm
3. Wave Washer • Loosen an adjusting screw of the rocker arm, apply
4. Rocker Arm engine oil over the roller part of the rocker arm and
5. Rocker Arm Bracket install it on the cylinder head.
6. Camshaft Bracket
7. Rocker Arm Shaft • Loosen the bolts indicated with an arrow a little, it
will become easier to install it.

Installation
1. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
• If the bridge cap comes off, apply engine oil over
the inside of the bridge cap and put it together with
the bridge.

Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front.

• Apply engine oil on a screw of the bolts and nuts.

• Tighten up the tightening bolts of the rocker arm


ASM tentatively, and gradually tighten up the entire
rocker arm ASM horizontally according to the order
of the nut on the rocker arm side.

Tightening torque:
4HK1
Bolt (3) = 56 N⋅m (5.7 kg⋅m/41 lb ft)
Nut (1), Bolt (2), (4) = 27 N⋅m (2.8 kg⋅m/20 lb ft)
1A-58 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Camshaft Bracket Fixing Nut
2. Camshaft Bracket Fixing Bolt
3. Rocker Arm Bracket Fixing Bolt
4. Rocker Arm Shaft Set Bolt

6HK1
Nut (1) – (4) and Bolt (10) – (13) =
27 N⋅m (2.8 kg⋅m/20 lb ft)
Bolt (5) – (9) = 56 N⋅m (5.7 kg⋅m/41 lb ft)

4 6 8 9 7 5 3 1
2

11 12 13 10

• Adjustment of valve clearance


Refer to “Function Check”.
2. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-59
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


1A-60 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Camshaft ASM
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Bearing Cap 3. Knock Pin
2. Bearing 4. Camshaft Gear
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-61
6HK1

WSHK0055
Name
1. Bolt 7. Sub Gear
2. Washer 8. Dish Spring
3. Gear 9. Snap Ring
4. Pin 10. Pin
5. Spring 11. Camshaft
6. Pin

Removal Caution:
Put the removed bearings in order with a tag, for
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
example, by cylinder.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
3. Remove the camshaft bearing cap.
4. Remove the bearing upper.
5. Remove the camshaft ASM.
6. Remove the bearing lower.
1A-62 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

WSHK0057
Name
Disassembly 1. Snap Ring
1. Remove the scissors gear ASM. (6HK1) 2. Dish Spring
3. Sub Gear
• Fix the hexagon portion of the camshaft in a vise
4. Spring
using a mouth ring. Use snap ring pliers to remove
5. Camshaft Gear
the sub gear.
2. Remove the camshaft gear.
Caution:
Take care not to damage to the cam portion and the • Remove the fastening bolts of the camshaft gear
journal portion of the camshaft. and put the block of wood in a puller to remove the
camshaft gear.

WSHK0056

Name
1. Wood

3. Remove the knock pin.


4. Inspect the camshaft visually.
• Check if the journal and cam parts of the camshaft
are worn or damaged, if so, replace it.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-63
• If the height of the cam lobe is the limit or less,
replace the camshaft.

Height of the cam lobe mm (in)


Intake air Exhaust
Standard 52.8 (2.08) 54.5 (2.15)
Limit 51.8 (2.04) 53.5 (2.11)

5. Check the axial play of the camshaft.


• Use a thickness gauge to measure an end
clearance of the camshaft gear and the camshaft
bracket.

• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the


camshaft gear or the camshaft.

End clearance of the camshaft mm (in)


Standard 0.085 – 0.205 (0.033 – 0.008) 7. Check if the camshaft journal is worn.
Limit 0.25 (0.009) • Use a micrometer to measure wear which is not
even with a diameter of the camshaft journal.
Caution:
• If the measured uneven wear exceeds the limit,
Measure an end clearance of the camshaft before
replace the camshaft.
disassembling.

External diameter of the camshaft journal mm (in)


part
Standard 39.950 – 39.975 (1.5728 – 1.5738)
Limit 39.850 (1.5688)

Partial wear of the camshaft journal part mm (in)


Limit 0.05 (0.0019)

6. Check if the cam lobe is worn.


• Use a micrometer to measure the height of the
cam lobe.
1A-64 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Clearance of the journal part mm (in)


Standard 0.020 – 0.087 (0.0008 – 0.0034)
Limit 0.15 (0.0059)

8. Check for bent of the camshaft.


• Place the camshaft on a V block to measure a
bend with a dial gauge.

• Rotate the camshaft slowly to measure how much


the dial indicator shook. If it exceeds the limit,
replace the camshaft.
Reassembly
Bent of the camshaft mm (in) 1. Install the knock pin.
Limit 0.05 (0.0019) 2. Install the camshaft gear.
• With the side of the camshaft gear center boss part
stuck out being on the camshaft side, install the
camshaft gear along with the knock pin.

Tightening torque: 142 N⋅m (14.5 kg⋅m/105 lb ft)

Caution:
Be careful not to damage the cam and journal parts
when tightening up the gear.

9. Measure a camshaft journal oil clearance.


a. Measure an inside diameter of the camshaft
bearing with a dial gauge.
b. Read the difference between the inside
diameter of the camshaft bearing and the
diameter of the camshaft journal.
If the measured oil clearance exceeds the limit,
replace the camshaft bearing.
3. Install the scissors gear ASM. (6HK1)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-65
• Fix the hexagon portion of the camshaft in a vise • Before installing the camshaft to the cylinder head,
using a mouth ring. Assemble the spring with its rotate the sub gear using the special tool to
left end contacting the pin of camshaft main gear to prevent the spring force which acts on the sub
make a gap on the right. gear from affecting. Align the hole of the sub gear
• Assemble the sub gear so that its pin is inserted with the camshaft main gear and install the phase
into the gap between the right side of pin of the alignment pin from the sub gear side to match the
camshaft main gear and the right end of the spring. teeth.
Special tool
Use acceptable spanner wrench.

WSHK0057
Name WSHK0059
1. Snap Ring • Assemble onto the cylinder head.
2. Dish Washer
3. Sub Gear
4. Spring
5. Camshaft Gear

• Use snap ring pliers to assemble the snap ring and


the dish washer securely.

WSHK0056
1A-66 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Fixing torque

N m(kg m/lb ft)

142 (14.5 / 105)

WSHK0060
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-67
Installation 4HK1
1. Rotate the crankshaft to make the No. 1 cylinder
meet the compression TDC.
4HK1

WSHK0066
6HK1

6HK1

4. Install the baring upper to the bearing cap.


5. Install the bearing cap.
WSHK0049 • Apply engine oil on the bearing upper.
2. Install the camshaft bearing lower.
• Direct the front mark of the bearing cap toward the
• Apply engine oil over the camshaft bearing lower front of the engine and put it together with the
and install it on the cylinder head. cylinder head in numerical order.
3. Install the camshaft ASM.
• Put together the camshaft ASM so as to make the
“B” (4HK1) or “•” (6HK1) mark meets the upper
face of the cylinder head.
1A-68 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

• Apply engine oil over the screw part and tighten up


the bearing cap with the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 27 N⋅m (2.8 kg⋅m/20 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
7. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-69
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


1A-70 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Valve Stem Seal, Valve Spring


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Camshaft Bearing Cap 6. Valve Spring
2. Camshaft Bearing 7. Spring Upper Seat
3. Camshaft 8. Split Collar
4. Rocker Arm Shaft ASM 9. Bridge
5. Valve Stem Oil Seal 10. Valve Spring Seat

Removal 5. Remove the bridge (2).


1. Remove the cylinder head cover. Caution:
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”. Keep the removed bridge and bridge cap properly so
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM. that they may be put back to the original place.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
3. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
4. Remove the bridge cap (1).
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-71
8. Remove the valve spring.
Put the removed valve springs in order by cylinder
number.
9. Remove the valve stem oil seal.
• Use pliers to remove the oil seal.

10. Remove the valve spring seat.

Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge

Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front. Caution:
Do not reuse the removed oil seal.
6. Remove the split collar.
• Apply compressed air over the cylinder from the
glow plug holes to keep the valve at the home Inspection
position.
Check the valve spring.
• Use a replacer to compress the valve spring to Caution:
remove the split collar. Check the valve spring visually and if there is clear
damage or wear-out, replace it.
Special tool 1. Free length
Use acceptable: Valve spring replacer:
• Measure free length of the spring and if it is shorter
Use acceptable: Pivot:
than the specified limit, replace the spring.

4HK1

Free length of the valve spring mm (in)


Intake air Exhaust
Standard 65.9 (2.59) 68.1 (2.68)
Limit 62.9 (2.48) 65.1 (2.56)

6HK1

Free length of the valve spring mm (in)


Intake air Exhaust
Standard 59.9 (2.36) 68.1 (2.68)
Limit 58.7 (2.31) 66.7 (2.63)

7. Remove the spring upper seat.


• Remove the special tool to remove the upper seat.
1A-72 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

Tension of the valve spring N (lb)


Intake air Exhaust
Installation
46.0 (1.81) 46.0 (1.81)
length mm (in)
Standard 348 (78) 383 (86)
Limit 330 (74) 356 (80)

6HK1

Tension of the valve spring N (lb)


Intake air Exhaust
Installation
46.0 (1.81) 46.0 (1.81)
length mm (in)
Standard 348 (78) 378 (85)
2. Valve spring squareness
• Use a surface plate and a square to measure the Limit 309 (69) 329 (74)
valve spring squareness.
If the measured value exceeds the specified limit,
the valve spring must be replaced.
4HK1

Valve spring squareness mm (in)


Limit 3.0 (0.12)

6HK1

Valve spring squareness mm (in)


Limit 3.4 (0.13)

Installation
1. Install the valve stem oil seal.
• Apply engine oil over the peripheral part of the
valve guide and install the oil seal by using a valve
stem seal installer.

Caution:
After installing the valve stem oil seal, check if it is
inserted nice and deep and the oil seal is not tilted or
the garter spring has not come off.

3. Tension
• Use a spring tester to compress the spring to the
installation height. Measure tension of the
compressed spring. If the measurement is lower
than the limit, replace the spring.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-73
Special tool 3. Install the spring upper seat.
4HK1 4. Install the split collar.
Use acceptable: Valve stem seal installer: • Apply compressed air over the cylinder from the
6HK1 glow plug holes to keep the valve at the home
Use acceptable: Valve guide oil seal position.
installer:
• Use a replacer to compress the valve spring and
install the split collar.

Special tool
Use acceptable: Valve spring replacer:
Use acceptable: Pivot:

2. Install the valve spring.


• Install it with the paint mark or the narrow side of
the spring pitch being the lower side (cylinder head
side).

Paint mark 5. Apply engine oil over the bridge and install it.

Intake air Light blue Caution:


Move it up and down to check if it moves smoothly.
Exhaust Yellow
6. Apply engine oil over the bridge cap and install it.

Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front.

Name
1. Spring Pitch
2. Paint Mark
1A-74 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge

7. Install the camshaft ASM.


Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
8. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
9. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-75

Cylinder Head
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Bridge Cap 9. Idle Gear C Cover
2. Bridge 10. Idle Gear C
3. Bridge Guide 11. Glow Plug
4. Split Collar 12. Intake And Exhaust Valves
5. Spring Upper Seat 13. Cylinder Head
6. Valve Spring 14. Valve Spring Seat
7. Valve Stem Oil Seal 15. Thermostat
8. Valve Guide 16. Water Outlet Pipe

Caution: Removal
To avoid electric shock;
1. Drain the coolant.
Set the switch to the ‘OFF’ position and disconnect
battery negative cable before checking or repairing the 2. Remove the engine harness.
fuel injector, wiring or/and connectors. 3. Disconnect the front exhaust pipe.
1A-76 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4. Remove the turbocharger.
Refer to the “Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold”.
5. Remove the left-hand EGR adapter and right-hand
EGR pipe.
6. Remove the EGR water feed pipe.
7. Remove the EGR water return pipe.
8. Remove the EGR cooler.
9. Remove the water feed pipe for coolant water for
the EGR cooler and the water return pipe.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Harness Bracket
2. Harness Connector
3. Fuel Injector Terminal Nut
4. Nozzle Leak-Off Pipe

17. Remove the fuel leak-off hose.


18. Remove the fuel leak-off pipe (2).
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. 4HK1

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Water Return Pipe
3. EGR Cooler
4. EGR Pipe
5. Water Feed Pipe

10. Remove the fan guide bracket.


11. Remove the left-hand intake pipe between the
inter-cooler and the inlet duct.
12. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
13. Remove radiator upper hose.
14. Loosen the fuel injector terminal nuts alternately to
the same level, and remove the terminal.
15. Loosen the fuel injector harness bracket bolt,
remove the inside connector, and remove the
harness bracket.
Name
16. Remove the nozzle leak-off pipe (4).
1. High Pressure Pipe
2. Leak-Off Pipe
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-77
6HK1 6HK1

1
1 2

WSHK0019 WSHK0020
Name Name
1. High Pressure Pipe 1. Water Bypass
2. Leak-Off Pipe
20. Remove the EGR valve and EGR valve connector.
19. Remove the water bypass hose from the cylinder 21. Remove the cam angle sensor connector.
head side.
22. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
• Remove the engine coolant temperature sensor Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
connector.
23. Remove the camshaft ASM.
4HK1 Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
24. Remove the bridge cap carefully so that it does not
fall into inside the engine.
25. Remove the bridge.

Caution:
Store the removed bridge and bridge cap so that they
can be placed in their original locations.
26. Remove the glow plug connector.
27. Remove the glow plug.

Name
1. Water Bypass
1A-78 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
28. Remove the injection pipe clip, and remove the 31. If you have difficulty in removing the fuel injector,
injection pipe. set the fuel injector remover in the fuel injector,
4HK1 tighten the attachment part on the joint of the leak-
off pipe and pull out the fuel injector upward.

Special tool
Fuel injector remover: 380.002.601
Sliding hammer: 380.002.602

Caution:
When removing an fuel injector ID code, be sure to
attach the cylinder number.
When pulling out the fuel injector using a special tool,
check that the fuel injector sleeve does not come off.

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip

6HK1

Name
1. Sliding Hammer
2. Fuel Injector Remover
WSHK0021
3. Fuel Injector ASM
Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe Caution:
2. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip Attach a cylinder number to the removed fuel injector
when storing it.
29. Remove the common rail. Be sure not to make the nozzle touch something.
• Remove the common rail pressure sensor
connector.

30. Remove the fuel injector bracket.


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-79
6HK1

32. Remove the lower head cover. WSHK0022

33. Remove the cylinder head ASM.


• Loosen the cylinder head bolts in the order Disassembly
described in the drawing.
1. Remove the case ASM.
Caution: • Be sure not to lose the gasket.
Be sure not to overlook (1) and (2) because they are
attached with the flywheel housing with M10 bolts. 2. Remove the inlet cover.
• Remove the cylinder head gasket. • Remove liquid gasket adherent to the removed
inlet cover.
Caution:
Replace the head gasket with a new one once it was
removed.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


3. Remove the A/C compressor bracket.
4. Remove the exhaust manifold.
• Remove the heat protector and remove the
exhaust manifold.

5. Remove the exhaust gasket.


6. Disconnect the water outlet pipe.
7. Remove the thermostat.
1A-80 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
8. Remove the idle gear C cover. 1. Idle Gear C
• Put the edge of a driver on the outer circle of the 2. Shaft
sealing cup as shown in the drawing, tap it lightly,
reverse it, then pull it out with pliers or other 10. Remove the split collar.
equipment. 11. Remove the spring upper seat.
12. Remove the valve spring.
• Use a replacer to compress the valve spring to
remove the split collar.

Special tool
Use acceptable: Valve spring replacer:
Use acceptable: Pivot:
• Remove the special tool, then remove the upper
sheet and springs.

Sort the removed valve springs by cylinder


number.

9. Remove the idle gear C.

13. Remove the intake and exhaust valves.


• Sort the removed valves according to cylinders by
using tags and others.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-81
Special tool
Use acceptable: Valve guide replacer:

14. Remove the valve stem oil seal.


• Use pliers to remove the oil seals.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
16. Put the nozzle sleeve remover on the nozzle
sleeve from the bottom side of the cylinder head,
then pull out the nozzle sleeve.

Special tool
Nozzle sleeve remover: 380.001.720

Caution:
• Be sure not to scratch the bottom side of the
cylinder head.
• Do not reuse the removed nozzle sleeve.
• Carefully remove sawdust in the screw groove.

15. Remove the valve guide.


• Use the valve guide replacer to press out the
valve guides from the bottom side of the cylinder
head.

Name
1. Nozzle Sleeve

17. Remove the bridge guide.


• Electrically weld the nut on the head of the bridge
guide, attach the sliding hammer and pull it out.
1A-82 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
• Check the following causes in the case of leak of
the seal surface of the cylinder head, corrosion, air
leak and defective gasket.

– Improper installation
– Defective tightening of the cylinder head.
– Winding seal surface of the cylinder block.
a. Damage on the screw surface or extracted
cylinder head bolt due to extra tightening torque

Caution:
Replace suspicious bolt.
b. Inside the combustion chamber, glow plug hole.
• Check whether there is a crack between the
valve seats and in the cylinder head of the
exhaust port part, and replace the cylinder head
if there is serious damage or crack. Check the
collar if necessary.
Name
1. Nut

18. Remove the oil seal.


• Press the tool against the oil seal. Strike the tool to
remove the seal from the inside of the cylinder
head.

c. Flatness of the under surface of the cylinder


head
• Use a straight edge ruler and sickness gauge to
measure the four sides and diagonal lines as
shown in the drawing, and replace if they
exceed the limit.

Distortion of the under surface of the mm (in)


cylinder head
Inspection Standard 0.05 (0.002) or less
1. Check the cylinder head ASM. Limit 0.20 (0.0079)
• Remove varnish, soot and others adhered on the
metal surface completely. Use metal brush and
others so that the seal surface of the surface
where the gasket is installed is not hurt.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-83

Distortion of the exhaust manifold mm (in)


Standard 0.3 (0.0118) or less
Limit 0.5 (0.0197)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


d. Flatness of the surface where the exhaust
manifold and inlet cover are installed
• Use a straight edge ruler and sickness gauge to
measure the four sides and diagonal lines as
shown in the drawing, and replace if they
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
exceed the limit.
2. Bridge cap
Distortion of the surface where the mm (in) • Inspect abrasion and deformation of the surface
manifold and cover are installed where the cap and the rocker arm adjust bolt
Standard 0.05 (0.002) or less contact.

Limit 0.2 (0.0079) • If the amount of abrasion is 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) or


larger, or if it abrades away in a zonal shape,
replace it.

Abrasion of the bridge cap mm (in)


Limit 0.1 (0.0039)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


e. Flatness of the exhaust manifold
• Use a straight edge ruler and sickness gauge to
measure the flatness. If it exceeds the limit,
replace the exhaust manifold.
1A-84 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
3. Bridge 6HK1
• Make sure the bridge moves smoothly along the
bridge guide. The external diameter of the valve stem mm (in)
Standard Limit
• Measure the gap between the bridge and bridge
guide. Intake valve 8 (0.315) 7.88 (0.3102)
Exhaust valve

Gap mm (in)
Assembly standard 0.020 (0.00079) –
0.057 (0.00224)
Usage limit 0.1 (0.0039)

• Measure the gap between the valve guide and


valve stem within 10 mm (0.39 in) from the
valve guide, using a dial gauge.
• If the measured value exceeds the limit, replace
the valve guide and valve altogether.
4HK1
Name
1. Bridge Gap between the valve guide and mm (in)
2. Bridge Guide valve stem
Standard Limit
4. Check the valve guide.
Intake valve 0.038 (0.00150) – 0.20 (0.00787)
Caution: 0.071 (0.00280)
If there is a scratch or abnormal abrasion in the valve
stem and the inner diameter part of the valve guide, Exhaust valve 0.064 (0.00252) – 0.25 (0.00984)
replace it with new one along with valve guide. 0.096 (0.00378)
a. Measure the valve guide clearance.
6HK1
• Measure the diameter of the valve stem with a
micro meter. Gap between the valve guide and
If the diameter of the valve stem is smaller than mm (in)
valve stem
the limit, replace the valve and valve stem
altogether. Standard Limit
4HK1 Intake valve 0.039 (0.00153) – 0.20 (0.00787)
0.062 (0.00244)
The external diameter of the valve stem mm (in)
Exhaust valve 0.064 (0.00252) – 0.25 (0.00984)
Standard Limit 0.096 (0.00378)
Intake valve 8.946 (0.3522) – 8.88 (0.3496)
8.962 (0.3528)
Exhaust valve 8.921 (0.3512) – 8.80 (0.3465)
8.936 (0.3518)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-85
4HK1

Thickness of valve mm (in)


Standard Limit
Intake valve 1.8 (0.0709) 1.3 (0.0512)
Exhaust valve 1.75 (0.0689) 1.3 (0.0512)

6HK1

Thickness of valve mm (in)


Standard Limit
Intake valve 1.88 (0.074) 1.3 (0.0512)
Exhaust valve 1.75 (0.0689) 1.3 (0.0512)

5. Inspect abrasion of the bridge gap.


• Measure the contact surface of bridge cap and the
rocker arm, using a dial gauge.

• If the abrasion exceeds the limit, or there is an


abnormal abrasion (zonal abrasion), replace the
bridge cap.

Abrasion of the bridge cap mm (in)


Limit 0.1 (0.00394)

Valve seat
• Remove carbon, water stain and others on the
under surface of the cylinder head.
Install the valve in the cylinder head.
Measure the depth of the valve from the under
surface of the cylinder head, using a depth
gauge or straight edge ruler.
If the value exceeds the limit, replace the valve
insert or the cylinder head ASM.
4HK1

Depth of the valve mm (in)


Standard 0.7 (0.0276) – 1.2 (0.0472)
6. Check the valve. Limit 2.5 (0.0984)
Thickness of valve
• Measure the thickness of the valve. 6HK1
• If the measured value exceeds the limit, replace
Depth of the valve mm (in)
the valve and valve guide altogether.
Standard Limit
Intake valve 1 (0.039) 2.5 (0.098)
Exhaust valve 1.3 (0.051) 2.8 (0.11)
1A-86 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

• Measure the contact width of the valve seat. If Repair of the seat surface
the seat contact surface has a scratch or is
• Remove carbon from the surface of the valve
rough, or if the abrasion of the contact surface
seat.
exceeds the limit, modify or replace it.
• Use a seat cutter to minimize the scratch and
Contact width of the valve seat mm (in) other roughness (15/45/75°-blade), thereby
returning the contact width to the standard
Standard Limit value.
Intake valve 2.5 (0.0984) 3.0 (0.1181)
Exhaust valve 2.0 (0.0787) 2.5 (0.0984)

Caution:
Remove only scratches and roughness, and do not cut
the surface too much.
Use the free adjustment valve cutter pilot.
Contact surface of the valve seat
Do not let the valve cutter pilot waver inside the valve
• If the contact surface of the valve seat is guide.
defective, modify it or replace the valve, valve
guide and valve seat altogether.
Angle of the contact Exhaust side of 4HK1 and
surface: 6HK1: 45°
Intake side of 6HK1: 30°
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-87
Remove the valve seat insert
• Arc-weld the entire inner diameter of the valve
seat insert.
• Cool the valve seat insert for two to three
minutes. Contraction due to cooling makes it
easier to remove the valve seat insert.
• Remove the valve seat insert, using a screw
driver. Be sure not to hurt the cylinder head.

• Attach compound in the valve insert seat.


• Insert the valve into the valve guide.
• Attach compound on the valve seat surface,
rotate the valve and hit it lightly to grind them,
and confirm that it has even contact all round.

Caution:
Remove compound completely after grinding.

Name
1. Arc-Weld
2. Valve Seat Insert
3. Screw Driver

Install the valve seat insert


• Carefully place a washer (the outer diameter is
smaller than the valve seat insert) on the valve
seat insert.
• Use the press to apply pressure gradually on
the washer, thereby pushing the valve seat
insert.

Caution:
Do not apply too much pressure with the press.
Attach compound on the valve seat surface, rotate the
valve and hit it lightly to grind them, and confirm that it
Replace the valve seat insert has even contact all round.
1A-88 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name Name
1. Press 1. Cylinder Head
2. Attach Compound 2. Oil Seal Installer
3. Valve Seat
2. Install the bridge guide.
• Apply engine oil on the outer diameter of the guide,
Reassembly then use the installer to hammer it into the depth of
the finishing part of the hole of the cylinder head.
1. Install the oil seal. (Note: the height of the bridge guide is about
• Install on the surface of injection pipe insert. 37.5 mm {1.48 in} from the upper surface of the
head)
• Hammer it in so that the seal does not incline.
Special tool
Caution: Bridge guide installer: 380.001.722
Be sure not to hurt the rip. Engine oil
Special tool
Oil seal installer: 380.001.719

3. Nozzle sleeve
• Install the O-ring on the nozzle sleeve, apply
engine oil.

• Apply seal material on the taper section.

Loctite No. TL620


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-89
Special tool
Nozzle sleeve installer: 380.001.721

Name
1. Apply Seal Material
2. O-Ring Name
1. Punch Bar
• Install the nozzle sleeve on the cylinder head, 2. Ball
insert the guide sleeve. 3. Guide Sleeve
4. Nozzle Sleeve
• Use the guide sleeve to push in so that the nozzle 5. Bracket
sleeve fully contacts with the under surface of the 6. Bolt
cylinder head.
4. Install the valve guide.
• Insert the sleeve and fix it with the tighten and bolt.
• Hammer in the valve guide from the upper surface
• Insert the ball (bearing steel ball 9.525 mm of the cylinder head, using the valve guide
{0.375 in}) into the guide sleeve, attach the punch replacer.
bar and hammer out the ball.

Caution:
• Leave the cylinder head floating so that the ball
comes off from the under surface.
1A-90 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Special tool Special tool
Use acceptable: Valve guide replacer: 4HK1
Use acceptable: Valve stem seal installer:
6HK1
Use acceptable: Valve guide oil seal
installer:

Height from the upper surface of the cylinder head


to the edge surface of the valve guide: 13.9 mm
(0.5472 in) – 14.3 mm (0.5630 in)

Caution: 6. Install the intake and exhaust valves.


When replacing the valve guide, it must be replaced • Apply engine oil on the valve stem part and install
together with the valve. the valve.

5. Install the valve stem oil seal. 7. Install the valve spring.
• Apply engine oil on the outer diameter of the valve • Install the valve spring with the paint mark or the
guide, use the valve stem seal installer to install narrower side of the spring pitch on the under side
the oil seal. (the cylinder head side).
Caution:
After installation of the valve stem seal, confirm that the Paint mark
oil seal is not inclining and the garter spring is in place.
Intake side Light blue
Exhaust side Yellow
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-91

Tightening torque: 95 N⋅m (9.7 kg⋅m/70 lb ft)

Name
1. Spring Pitch
2. Paint Mark Name
1. Idle Gear C
8. Install the spring upper seat. 2. Shaft
9. Install the split collar.
11. Install the idle gear C cover.
• Use a replacer to compress the valve spring and
install the split collar. • Apply liquid gasket (Loctite 262 or 962T) on the
outer diameter of the idle gear C cover, use the
Special tool sealing cup setting tool to hammer it in so that the
Use acceptable: Valve spring replacer: measurements follow the drawing.
Use acceptable: Pivot:
Special tool
Sealing cup installer: 380.002.604

10. Install the idle gear C. WSHK0023


• Apply engine oil on the idle gear C shaft and the 12. Install the thermostat.
inner diameter of the idle gear, install the idle gear
C so that the side with gear groove is on the side of • Install the thermostat on the position shown in the
the rear surface of the engine. drawing.

• Tighten the idle gear C to the specified torque.

• Do not use impact wrench and like.


1A-92 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1 4HK1

6HK1
Name
1. Thermostat

6HK1

WSHK0025

14. Install the exhaust gasket.


15. Install the exhaust manifold.
WSHK0024 • Install the distance tube conical spring and the nut
on the stud of the cylinder head in this order.
Name
1. Thermostat

13. Connect the water outlet pipe.


• Tighten the water outlet pipe to the specified
torque.

• Tighten it up together with the fan shroud bracket.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-93
6HK1

WSHK0014
Name • Install the heat protector.
1. Distance Tube
2. Conical Spring
Tightening torque: 10 N⋅m (1.0 kg⋅m/89 lb in)
3. Nut
16. Install the inlet cover.
• Tighten the exhaust manifold in the order • Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207C or
described in the drawing. equivalent) in accordance with the groove of the
inlet cover, with the bead diameter of φ2.5 mm
Tightening torque: 34 N⋅m (3.5 kg⋅m/25 lb ft) (0.0984 in) – 5.5 mm (0.2165 in).
Caution:
Do not tighten it too much so that it hinders extraction
and contraction of the manifold due to heat.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


• Tighten in the order described in the drawing.

• Tighten the stud bolts (6) and (9) jointly with the
common rail.

Tightening torque: 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft)


1A-94 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6HK1
Installation
1. Install the cylinder head gasket.
• Select the cylinder head gasket. (4HK1 only)

• Clean the head of the piston and the upper surface


of the cylinder block.
13 9 5 4 3 8 12
• Use a dial gauge to measure the extrusion of the
piston. Measure at two points of each cylinder.

• The following drawing shows the measurement


14 10 6 1 2 7 11
points and the standard point of the cylinder block.

WSHK0026

17. Install the inlet pipe.


Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

Measurement Head of the piston (2) and (3)


points:
Standard point: Upper surface of the (1)
cylinder block
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-95
Caution: 4HK1 only
Note that there are three options for the head gasket
according to the amount of extrusion of piston shown in
the following table. (4HK1 only)
• Calculate the average piston extrusion amount of
each cylinder. (4HK1 only)

• Calculate the maximum amount of the average


amount of each cylinder. (4HK1 only)

• Select a gasket of an appropriate grade based on


the maximum protrusion amount. (4HK1 only)

Name
1. Grade Recognition Hole

• Apply liquid gasket

• Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or


equivalent) on the joint (1) of the cylinder block and
the flywheel housing with the bead diameter of
3 mm (0.118 in).

• Install the cylinder head within seven minutes after


applying liquid gasket.
Gasket Recognized Piston protrusion mm (in)
Grade amount
0.539 (0.2122) –
A (no hole)
0.618 (0.02433)
0.619 (0.02437) –
B (1 hole)
0.698 (0.02748)
0.699 (0.02752) –
C (2 holes)
0.779 (0.03067)
(4HK1 only)

• Install the cylinder head gasket.

• Install the cylinder head gasket with the parts


number upside, along with the cylinder head rear
gear case and knock pin.
1A-96 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Tightening torque:
M14 bolt (4HK1: 1 – 18, 6HK1: 1 – 26)
1st step = 98 N⋅m (10.0 kg⋅m/72 lb ft)
2nd step = 147 N⋅m (15.0 kg⋅m/108 lb ft)
3rd step = 30° – 60°
M10 bolt (4HK1: 19, 20; 6HK1: 27, 28)
4th step = 38 N⋅m (3.9 kg⋅m/28 lb ft)
Use a stud bolt for (4HK1: 16).

Special tool
Angle gauge: 380000304
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Install the cylinder head ASM.
• Install the cylinder head, adjusting the knock pin of
the cylinder block.

Caution:
Be sure not to hurt the head gasket when installing it.

6HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


• Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
setting face of the head bolt of M14, and apply
engine oil on the screw part and setting face of the
head bolt of M10.

• Use a torque wrench and angle gauge to tighten WSHK0027


the head bolts in the order described in the 3. Install the fuel injector on the cylinder head.
drawing.
4. Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
setting face of the fuel injector tighten bolt and
tighten it tentatively.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-97
Important:
Reinstall each fuel injector to the original cylinder from
which it was removed during the disassembly
procedure.

Name
1. Fuel Injector ASM
2. Fuel Injector Tighten Bolt

5. Install the common rail.


Tightening torque: 19 N⋅m (1.9 kg⋅m/14 lb ft) * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

• Install the common rail pressure sensor. Name


1. Fuel Injection Pipe
6. Install the injection pipe. 2. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip
• Apply a thin coat of engine oil on the outer
diameter of the sleeve nut on the side of the fuel 7. Final tighten the injection clamp bolts to the
injector and install the injection pipe. specified torque.
Tightening torque: 30 N⋅m (3.1 kg⋅m/22 lb ft)
• Use a spanner to tighten the sleeve nut until it
completely contacts both on the fuel injector and 8. Tighten the injection pipes to the specified torque.
common rail. Tightening torque: 44 N⋅m (4.5 kg⋅m/32 lb ft)
• Tighten the injection pipe clip with the designated
torque.

Tightening torque: 6 N⋅m (0.6 kg⋅m/53 lb in)


1A-98 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
Name 1. Bridge Cap
1. Injection Clamp Bolt 2. Bridge
2. Injection Pipe Sleeve Nut
13. Install the camshaft ASM.
9. Install the glow plug. Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
Tightening torque: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft) 14. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
10. Install and tighten the glow connector with the
15. Install and tighten the camshaft speed sensor with
designated torque.
the designated torque.
Tightening torque: 1.2 N⋅m (0.1 kg⋅m/10.6 lb in)
Tightening torque: 8 N⋅m (0.8 kg⋅m/71 lb in)
11. Apply engine oil over the bridge and install it.

Caution:
Move it up and down to check if it moves smoothly.
12. Apply a thin coat of engine oil inside the bridge
cap, install it.

16. Connect the water bypass hose.


• Install the engine coolant temperature sensor on
the thermostat housing.

17. Install the leak off pipe.


Leak off pipe tightening torque:
Tightening torque: 12 N⋅m (1.2 kg⋅m/106 lb in)
18. Install the fuel leak-off hose.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-99
• Install the fuel leak-off hose on the fuel leak-off 4HK1
pipe and fix it with a clip.

19. Clip a new gasket to the fuel nozzle leak-off pipe


and install the fuel leak-off pipe.
Tightening torque: 12 N⋅m (1.2 kg⋅m/106 lb in)

6HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

WSHK0028
21. Install the terminal nuts on the fuel injector.
Tightening torque: 2 N⋅m (0.2 kg⋅m/18 lb in)

Caution:
• Tighten the terminal nuts alternately in order to
prevent imbalance in tightening because they are
20. Install the fuel injector harness connector from
unified.
inside, tighten the harness bracket with the
designated torque. • Do not tighten the nuts too tightly because it leads
to damage to the terminal stud.
Tightening torque: 48 N⋅m (4.9 kg⋅m/35 lb ft)
1A-100 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
26. Connect the exhaust pipe.
• Connect the front exhaust pipe and tighten to the
specified torque.

Exhaust manifold side


Tightening torque: 67 N⋅m (6.8 kg⋅m/49 lb ft)

Exhaust brake side


Tightening torque: 17 N⋅m (1.7 kg⋅m/13 lb ft)
27. Install the engine harness.
28. Replenish the coolant.

Name
1. Fuel Injector
2. Fuel Injector Harness
3. Fuel Injector Terminal Nut

22. Install the cylinder head cover.


Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
23. Connect the radiator upper hose.
24. Install the EGR valve & EGR cooler.
For details of installation, refer to “EGR Valve and
EGR Cooler” of the section of exhaust system.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Water Return Pipe
3. EGR Cooler
4. EGR Pipe
5. Water Feed Pipe

25. Install the oil level gauge and guide tube.


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-101
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.602
Sliding hammer
1A-102 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Illustration Tool Number/Description
Illustration Tool Number/Description

380000304 380.002.604
Angle gauge Sealing cup installer

380.001.721
Nozzle sleeve installer

380.001.722
Bridge guide installer

380.001.719
Oil seal installer

380.001.720
Nozzle sleeve remover

380.002.601
Fuel injector remover
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-103

Piston, Connecting Rod


Components

2
6

WSHK0184

Name
1. Snap Ring 5. Connecting Rod
2. Piston 6. Piston Pin
3. Bearing 7. Piston Ring
4. Connecting Rod Cap

Removal
1. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
2. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
3. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
4. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
5. Remove the cylinder head.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
6. Remove the connecting rod cap.

Caution:
Sort the removed bearings according to cylinders by
using tags.

7. Remove the piston and connecting rod.


1A-104 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
• Remove carbon on the upper side of the cylinder
liner with a scraper.

• Pull out the piston and connecting rod towards the


cylinder head.

Caution:
Be sure not to damage the oil jet and cylinder liner
when pushing out the connecting rod.

2. Remove the snap ring.


3. Remove the piston pin.

Caution:
Sort the disassembled piston pins, pistons and
connecting rods together in the order of cylinders.

8. Remove the connecting rod bearing.

Caution:
Sort the bearings in the order of cylinders when reusing
them so that they will not be confused with the bearing
of other cylinders.

Disassembly
1. Remove the piston ring.
• Use ring pliers to remove the piston ring.

Caution:
Sort the piston rings in the order of cylinders when
reusing them so that they will not be confused with the
pistons and piston rings of other cylinders.
4. Remove the connecting rod from the piston.
5. Piston
• Clean carbon carefully that is adhered to the head
of the piston and the groove of the piston ring.

Caution:
Do not use wire brush to clean the piston because it
scratches the piston.
Inspect the piston with eyes for cracks, burns and other
excessive wear, and replace it if there is any
abnormality.
6. Measure the gap between the piston and the inner
diameter of the cylinder liner.
Cylinder liner inner diameter liner inner diameter both in the thrust and radial
• Use a cylinder bore dial indicator to measure the directions in the designated position.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-105
• Measurement position (from the upper surface of 6HK1
the cylinder block)
1. 20 mm (0.79 in) 2. 110 mm (4.33 in) Piston diameter mm (in)
3. 190 mm (7.48 in) Standard 114.974 – 114.989
• Measure the liner inner diameter based on the (4.52652 – 4.52711)
average value of the actual measurement values
on 6 positions.
Gap between the piston and the inner mm (in)
diameter of the cylinder liner
Cylinder liner inner diameter mm (in)
Standard 0.042 – 0.066
115.021 – 115.050 (4.52838 – 4.52952) (0.00165 – 0.00259)

Caution:
If it is found that the gap between the cylinder liner
inner diameter and the piston exceeds the standard
value, replace the piston or cylinder liner.

Name
1. 20 mm (0.79 in)
2. 110 mm (4.33 in)
3. 190 mm (7.48 in) 7. Piston replacement
Piston outside diameter • You do not need to select grades because there is
• Use a micrometer to measure the outside diameter only one grade for each of the piston and the
of the piston in the right angle to the piston pin in cylinder liner inner diameter.
the designated position. If you replace the cylinder liner, you must select
the cylinder block (1, 2, 3) because there are two
• Measurement position (from the upper surface of types of the liner outer diameter.
the piston) 82 mm (3.2 in). • Refer to “Cylinder Block” if you replace the cylinder
liner.
4HK1
Caution:
Piston diameter mm (in) The head of piston has a marking of grade B or C when
Standard 114.920 – 114.949 it is shipped from the factory.
(4.52440 – 4.52554)

Gap between the piston and the inner mm (in)


diameter of the cylinder liner
Standard 0.082 – 0.130
(0.0032 – 0.0051)
1A-106 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

• If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the


Name piston ring.
1. Front Mark Cut

8. Inspect the piston ring. Piston ring gap mm (in)


Measure the joint of the piston ring (remove carbon
on the ring joint) Standard Limit
• Insert the piston ring into the cylinder liner. Top ring 0.18 – 0.28 1.2
(0.0071 – 0.0110) (0.047)
• Use the piston to push the ring to reach the under
Second ring 0.35 – 0.50 1.2
edge of the cylinder liner.
Third ring (0.0138 – 0.0197) (0.047)
Oil ring 0.15 – 0.35 1.2
(0.0059 – 0.0138) (0.047)

Measure the clearance between the piston ring


groove and the piston.
• Remove carbon on the piston ring groove
completely.

• Put the piston ring in the piston ring groove, use a


sickness gauge to measure the gap between
them.

• If the clearance between the piston ring groove


and the piston exceeds the limit, replace the piston
and the piston ring.

Piston ring and piston ring groove mm (in)


• Use a sickness gauge to measure the gap of the clearance
ring joint.
Piston ring Standard Limit
Top ring 0.057 – 0.097 0.20
(0.0022 – 0.0038) (0.0079)
Second ring 0.085 – 0.120 0.20
Third ring (0.0033 – 0.0047) (0.0079)
Oil ring 0.020 – 0.060 0.20
(0.0008 – 0.0024) (0.0079)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-107

Expansion force N (kgf/lbf)


Standard Limit
Top ring 22.7 – 30.7 11.8
(2.31 – 3.13/5.10 – 6.90) (1.2/2.7)
Second ring 16.7 – 22.6 5.9
(1.70 – 2.30/3.75 – 5.08) (0.6/1.3)
Third ring 20.8 – 28.2 4.9
(2.12 – 2.88/4.68 – 6.34) (0.5/1.1)
Oil ring 43.0 – 58.1 41.2
(4.38 – 5.92/9.67 – 13.06) (4.2/9.3)

• Inspect to make sure that there is a resistance to


the extent which the piston can push the piston pin
lightly in normal temperatures.

• If it feels a large looseness or instability in normal


temperatures, replace the piston or piston pin.

9. Inspect the piston pin.


• Inspect the piston pin with eyes for cracks,
scratches and other damages, replace it if
necessary.

• Use a micrometer to measure the outer diameter


of the piston pin. If the measured value exceeds
the limit, replace the piston pin.

4HK1
• Measure the bush of the small edge of the
Piston pin outer diameter mm (in)
connecting rod. If the clearance between the
Standard 35.995 – 36.000 (1.4171 – 1.4173) bushing inner diameter and the pin diameter
exceeds the limit, replace the bushing or
Limit 35.970 (1.4161)
connecting rod ASM, and the pin.

6HK1
Piston pin and connecting rod small end mm (in)
Piston pin outer diameter mm (in) bushing clearance
Standard 40.0 (1.5748) Standard 0.012 – 0.027
(0.0005 – 0.0011)
Limit 39.95 (1.5728)
Limit 0.05(0.0020)
1A-108 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

10. Measure the clearance between the piston and the


piston pin. Name
1. Setting Bar
• Apply engine oil on the piston pin. Use your finger 2. Connecting Rod
to push it in the piston hole and rotate it. If the pin 3. Nut
smoothly rotates without instability, the clearance 4. Collar
is normal. If there is instability, measure the 5. Bushing
clearance. If the clearance exceeds the limit, 6. Collar
replace the piston and the piston pin.
• Place the connecting rod bushing replacer base on
Piston pin and piston pin hole clearance mm (in) the bench press, tighten the fixation bolt.

Standard 0.004 – 0.017 (0.00016 – 0.00067) • Use the bench press to replace the bush.
Limit 0.04 (0.0016)
Special tool
Connecting rod bushing replacer: 5-8840-2340-0
11. Remove the bushing. (EN-47682)
• Set the collar, connecting rod and collar on the
setting bar as shown in the drawing.

• Tighten the nut.

Name
1. Bolt
2. Connecting Rod Bushing Replacer

12. Measure the connecting rod alignment.


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-109
• Use a connecting rod aligner to measure the
torsion and parallel level of the big end hole and
the small end hole. If the measured value exceeds
the limit, replace it.

Connecting rod alignment mm (in)


(per length of 100 mm {3.94 in})
Standard Limit
Distortion and 0.05 (0.002) 0.20 (0.008)
Parallelism

– Remove the cap.


– Measure the largest width of the plastigauge to
calculate the oil clearance. If the clearance
exceeds the limit, replace the bearing ASM.

Crank pin and bearing clearance mm (in)


Standard 0.036 – 0.077 (0.0014 – 0.0030)
Limit 0.10 (0.0039)

– Remove the plastigauge from the bearing and


crank pin.
13. Measure the bearing oil clearance.
• Measure the oil clearance between the connecting
rod bearing and the crank pin with the following
method.

– Remove the connecting rod cap. Sort the


removed caps according to the cylinder
number.
– Clean the bearing and the shaft pin.
– Check the bearing. If it is damaged or worn
seriously, replace the bearing ASM.
• Place the plastigauge on the crankshaft pin.

• Install the bearing cap and tighten the bolt with the
designated torque.
Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
the bearing surface.

Connecting rod bearing cap bolt torque: N⋅m 14. Select the connecting rod bearing.
(kg⋅m/lb ft) • Refer to the bearing selection table when installing
1st step 39 (4.0/29) a new connecting rod or replacing bearings in use.
2nd step 60° • Select and install the bearing, paying attention to
3rd step 30° the large edge hole diameter of the connecting rod.

Caution:
Do not rotate the crankshaft.
1A-110 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Reassembly
1. Install the bush
• Place the connecting rod bushing replacer base on
the bench press, set the connecting rod and
tighten the fixation bolt.

Special tool
Connecting rod bushing replacer: 5-8840-2340-0
(EN-47682)

Name
1. Top And Back Recognition Boss
2. Big End Diameter Grade Mark
3. Cylinder Number

Bearing selection table


Big end hole Bearing Oil clearance
diameter recognition
mm (in)
Grade color
Name
A Green 0.036 – 0.077 1. Bolt
(0.0014 – 0.0030) 2. Connecting Rod Bushing Replacer
B Yellow 0.036 – 0.077
(0.0014 – 0.0030) • Set the collar, new bushing and collar on the
setting bar as shown in the drawing.

• Tighten the nut.

• Adjust the oil hole of the connecting rod and the oil
hole of the bush, and use the bench press to install
the bush.

Name
1. Grade Identification Color
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-111

Name Name
1. Setting Bar 1. Snap Ring
2. Connecting Rod 2. Front Mark
3. Nut 3. Forging Mark (Projecting)
4. Collar
5. Bushing 4. Apply enough engine oil on the piston pin, push it
6. Collar in the piston and the connecting rod small edge.
5. Use snap ring pliers to install the snap ring.
• After installing the new bush, use a grinder to
machine the pin hole so that the pin clearance Caution:
equals the standard value. Make sure that the snap ring is installed in the ring
groove properly. Make sure that the connecting rod
moves smoothly.

2. Install the piston.


3. Install the connecting rod.
• Install it so that the front mark of the head of the 6. Use piston ring setting tool to install the piston ring.
piston and the connecting rod forging mark • Install the oil ring so that the joint angle of the ring
(projecting) on the connecting rod face the same and coil expander is in the opposite 180° direction.
direction.
• Install the piston ring so that the marks “N” face
• Use snap ring pliers to install the snap ring of one upward.
side.
1A-112 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Special tool 2. Install pistons and connecting rod ASM.
Piston ring setting tool: 1-8522-1029-0 • Apply enough engine oil on the piston ring, ring
groove and piston side surface.

• Dislocate the piston ring joint so that (1) is top ring,


(3) is 2nd ring, (2) is 3rd ring and (4) is oil ring, as
shown in the drawing.

• Face the piston front mark cut to forward, use the


piston ring compressor to insert the piston in the
cylinder liner.

Caution:
• Be sure not to make the connecting rod touch the
oil jet when pushing in the piston.
• Be sure not to hurt the inside of the liner when
pushing in the piston.

Special tool
Piston ring compressor: 5-8840-9018-0 (J-8037)

Name
1. Top Ring
2. Second Ring
3. Third Ring
4. Oil ring

Caution:
Note that the shapes are different for each piston ring.
Make sure that there is not gap in the position indicated
in the drawing when the oil ring coil expander was
installed.

3. Install the connecting rod cap.


• Install the bearing on the connecting rod cap and
apply engine oil.

• Install the cap, matching the numbers (1, 2, 3, 4) of


the caps and connecting rods.

Installation
1. Install the connecting rod bearing.
• Install the bearing on the connecting rod, apply
engine oil on the bearing.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-113
5. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
6. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
7. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
8. Install the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.

Name
1. Top And Back Recognition Boss
2. Big End Diameter Grade Mark
3. Cylinder Number

• Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and


the setting face of the tightening bolt and tighten it
with the designated torque.

Tightening torque:
1st step = 39 N⋅m (4.0 kg⋅m/29 lb ft)
2nd step = 60°
3rd step = 30°
Special tool
Angle gauge: 380000304

Caution:
Make sure that the crankshaft rotates smoothly.

4. Install the cylinder head.


Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
1A-114 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Torque Specifications

Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description Illustration Tool Number/Description

5-8840-2340-0
EN-47682 1-8522-1029-0
Connecting rod bushing Piston ring setting tool
replacer

380000304
5-8840-9018-0
J-8037
Piston ring compressor
Angle gauge
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-115

Flywheel
Components

Name
1. Flywheel Housing 3. Washer
2. Flywheel ASM 4. Crankshaft Position Sensor

Removal 4HK1
1. Remove the starter motor.
• Remove the ground cable of the starter motor.

• Remove the two nuts on the upper side and lower


side that fix the starter, remove the starter from the
fly wheel housing.
1A-116 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1 Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: 380.002.628

WSHK0030
2. Remove the crankshaft position sensor.
• Remove to prevent contact damage when the • Gradually loosen the flywheel installation bolts in
flywheel is removed. the order shown in the drawing so that the flywheel
does not rotate.
• Do not throw or drop because it is vulnerable to
shock. • After loosening all the bolts, remove the stopper to
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. remove the flywheel.

3. Remove the washer and flywheel. 4. Take out the ring gear.
• Install the crankshaft stopper to the starter • Put a bar on the ring gear and hit it with a hammer
installing portion of the flywheel housing. to remove it.

Caution:
Make sure that the stopper is properly fitted and
engaged with the ring gear.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-117

Inspection Installation
1. Visual check 1. Install the ring gear.
• Inspect the flywheel friction surface for cracks and • After heating the ring gear with a gas burner
damages, and replace it if it has abnormality. equally, install it in the flywheel.

• Inspect the tooth part of the ring gear, replace the • In the case of shrinkage cooling of the ring gear,
ring gear if it has damage or serious wear. maintain the flatness by applying weight of 68.6 kN
(15,400 lbf).
2. Measurement of the friction surface
• Measure the depth of the flywheel friction surface. Caution:
• Install the ring gear so that the side with a pattern
• Adjust it if the measured value is within the faces forward.
standard value and the limit. • Shrink fit the ring gear to the flywheel.
Make sure that flywheel and ring gear adhesion is
• If the measured value exceeds the limit, replace
complete.
the flywheel.

Depth of the friction surface of the flywheel mm (in)


Standard 19 (0.75)
Limit 20 (0.79)

Depth = From the pressure installation surface to the


friction surface.

2. Install the flywheel.


3. Install the washer.
• Install the flywheel to match with the knock pins of
the crankshaft, tighten them in the order shown in
the illustration.
1A-118 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
• Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and 4HK1
setting face of the bolt.

• Install the crankshaft stopper to the starter


installing portion of the flywheel housing.

Tightening torque:
1st step = 78 N⋅m (8.0 kg⋅m/58 lb ft)
2nd step = 120° – 150°
Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: 380.002.628
Angle gauge: 380000304

6HK1

WSHK0030
• Install the ground cable of the starter motor.

4. Install and tighten the crankshaft position sensor


with the designated torque.
Tightening torque: 8 N⋅m (0.8 kg⋅m/71 lb in)
5. Install the starter motor on the flywheel housing
with nuts and tighten them with the designated
torque.
Tightening torque: 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 lb ft)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-119
Torque Specifications

N m{kg m/lb ft}

78 {8 / 58} 60 60

8 {0.8 / 5.9}

WSHK0067

Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.628
Crankshaft stopper

380000304

Angle gauge
1A-120 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Front Cover
Components
4HK1
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-121
6HK1

10 9 8

5
11

12 7 6

WSHK0171

Name
1. Adjusting Plate 7. Crankshaft Pulley
2. Generator 8. Water Pump ASM
3. Front Cover 9. Fan Belt
4. Oil Pan Gasket 10. Water Pump Pulley
5. Oil Pan 11. Spacer
6. Front Oil Seal 12. Fan ASM

Removal
1. Remove the front oil seal.
Refer to “Crankshaft Front Oil Seal”.
2. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
3. Remove the water pump.
Refer to the “Water Pump” in the cooling system
section.
4. Remove the front cover.
• Remove the generator adjust plate.
1A-122 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
• Install within seven minutes after applying liquid
gasket.

Caution:
Apply liquid gasket so that it does not adhere to the O-
ring.
4HK1

• Remove the oil relief valve (arrow), loosen the front


cover installation bolts and remove the front cover.

Name
1. O-Ring

6HK1

Installation
1. Install the front cover.
• Clean the cylinder block front surface. In particular,
remove liquid gasket leaked during installation of
the crankcase.

• Install two O-rings and apply liquid gasket 020EY00062


(ThreeBond 1207B or equivalent), or each
equivalent along with the groove of the front cover Name
installation surface. 1. O-Ring

• Align with the knock pin of the cylinder block and


Beat width 1.5 – 5mm (0.059 – 0.20 in) install the front cover.
Beat height 0.3 mm – 1.5 mm
(0.012 – 0.059 in) from the joint Caution:
surface Along with the front cover, install the water pump ASM
(before liquid gasket hardens).
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-123
4HK1
Tightening torque
Front cover bolt: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
• Tighten bolt with (*) mark together with the adjust
plate of the generator.

• Tighten the oil relief valve (5) to the specified


1
torque.

Tightening torque
Oil relief valve: 39 N⋅m (4.0 kg⋅m/29 lb ft)

WSHK0032

2. Install the water pump.


Refer to the “Water Pump” of the section of the
“Cooling System”
3. Install the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
4. Install the front oil seal.
Refer to “Crankshaft Front Oil Seal”.

Name
1. Bolt: L = 35
2. Bolt: L = 25
3. Bolt: L = 65
4. Bolt: L = 30
5. Oil Relief Valve

6HK1
Tightening torque
Front cover bolts (13 bolts): 18 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13
lb ft)
• Tighten bolt with (*) mark together with the adjust
plate of the generator.

• When you remove the stud bolt (1), install in


original position.

Tightening torque
Stud bolt for water pump: 12.7 N⋅m (1.3 kg⋅m/9.4
lb ft)
1A-124 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Torque Specifications
4HK1

N m{kg m/lb ft}

39 {4 / 29}

39 {4 / 29}

24 {2.4 / 18}

WSHK0037
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-125
6HK1

N m(kg m/lb ft)

39 (4 / 29)

20 (2 / 14)

39 (4 / 29)

18 (1.8 / 13)

WSHK0164
1A-126 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Crankshaft Front Oil Seal


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley 2. Crankshaft Front Oil Seal

Removal 4HK1
1. Drain coolant.
2. Remove the starter.
• Disconnect the starter ground cable.

• Unscrew two mounting nuts, upper and lower, from


the starter to dismount the starter from the flywheel
housing.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-127
6HK1 Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: 380.002.628

WSHK0030
3. Disconnect the upper radiator hose on the engine
side. 10. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal.
4. Disconnect the coolant reserve tank hose on the • Remove the oil seal off with a screwdriver or the
radiator side. like avoiding damage to the oil seal contact surface
5. Disconnect the lower radiator hose on the engine on the front cover and the shaft.
side.
6. Remove the radiator (with the fan guide) detaching
right and left brackets.
7. Remove the fan ASM.
• Remove the fan ASM unscrewing four mounting
bolts.

8. Remove the fan belt.


9. Remove the crankshaft pulley.
• Loosen the pulley nut blocking the crankshaft from
turning by placing a crankshaft stopper on the
starter mounting position on the flywheel housing.

Caution:
Make sure that the stopper is properly fitted and
engaged with the ring gear.

Name
1. Felt
2. Slinger
3. Oil Seal

Caution:
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
11. Remove the front slinger.
• Use the slinger remover to remove the front
slinger.

Special tool 5-8840-2360-0 (For 4HK1)


Slinger remover: 380.001.712 (For 6HK1)
380.002.608 (For 4HK1 and 6HK1)
1A-128 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

5
3
2

• After pressing in the slinger, make sure that the


distance between crankshaft end surface and the
Installation slinger is A as specified.
1. Install the front slinger using installer, setting tool. 4HK1
Special tool
4HK1
Use acceptable: Oil seal installer kit:
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 380.001.712
• Install the slinger (1) to the end of adapter (2).
Install the adapter to the crankshaft (3).
• Install the slinger sleeve (4) to the adapter. Tighten
the center bolt (5) until the sleeve comes in contact
with the adapter stopper.

Distance (A): 40.5±0.3 mm (1.6±0.01 in)


Distance (B): 34±0.1 mm (1.3±0.004 in)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-129
6HK1 Special tool
4HK1
Use acceptable: Oil seal installer kit:
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 380.001.712
(Use the parts listed below for the front oil seal.)

No. Part Name Oil seal


1 Sleeve (front) {
A
2 Adapter (front) {
3 Adapter ring (front) {
4 Washer (front) {
5 Center bolt {
6 Fixing bolt {

• Mount the adapter onto the crankshaft with fixing


bolts.
Distance (A): 18±0.3 mm (0.7±0.01 in)

Caution:
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
2. Install the crankshaft front oil seal.
• Press fit the oil seal using an oil seal installer,
setting tool.

Name
1. Adapter

• Apply engine oil to the lip of the oil seal and place it
on the front side adapter.

• Put the front side adapter ring in the sleeve and fix
the sleeve on the adapter with the center bolt and
Name a washer.
1. Oil Seal
2. Adapter (Front) • Tighten the bolt until the sleeve touches the
3. Adapter Ring (Front) adapter to press fit the front oil seal.
4. Fixing Bolt
5. Sleeve (Front)
6. Washer (Front)
7. Center Bolt
1A-130 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

Name
1. Oil Seal Name
2. Adapter Ring 1. Adapter Ring
3. Sleeve 2. Sleeve
4. Bolt and Washer 3. Adapter
4. Oil Seal

6HK1

• After you have press-fitted the front oil seal,


confirm the measurement shown (depth from the
end surface of the crankshaft to the oil seal) and
check for deflection of the oil seal. Distance (B): 8.5±0.15 mm (0.33±0.006 in)
3. Install the damper to the crankshaft pulley. (6HK1)
• Tighten in the sequence shown.

Tightening torque: 48 N⋅m (4.9 kg⋅m/35 lb ft)


ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-131

WSHK0033

4. Install the crankshaft pulley.


Name
• Apply engine oil to the threads of the fastening 1. Crankshaft Pulley
bolts. 2. Generator
3. Fan Pulley
• Install the crankshaft pulley aligning with the knock
pins on the crankshaft.
b. Fan belt adjustment
• Tighten in the sequence shown. • Loosen the adjustment bolt (1) of the AC
generator and adjust the fan belt moving the
Tightening torque: 200 N⋅m (20.4 kg⋅m/148 lb ft) generator.
Tightening torque: (2) = 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
(3) = 40 N⋅m (4.1 kg⋅m/30 lb ft)

5. Install the fan belt.


a. Inspection of fan belt deflection
• Check with a scale if the belt deflection is within Name
the specified limits when pressure of 98 N 1. Adjusting Bolt
(22 lb) is applied mid-way along the belt’s 2. Fixing Bolt
longest run. Also check the belt for damage. 3. Fixing Bolt
Amount of fan belt deflection mm (in)
6. Tighten the fan ASM to the specified torque.
for new belt 5.0 – 5.8 (0.19 – 0.23)
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
for reused belt 6.1 – 6.9 (0.24 – 0.27)
7. Install the radiator.
1A-132 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
8. Connect the lower radiator hose.
9. Connect the coolant reserve tank hose.
10. Connect the upper radiator hose.
11. Install the starter in the flywheel housing with nuts
and tighten to the specified tightening torque.
Tightening torque: 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 lb ft)
• Connect the starter ground cable.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


12. Fill the radiator with coolant.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-133
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.001.712
380.002.628
Oil seal setting tool
Crankshaft stopper
(6HK1)

380.002.608
Slinger remover
1A-134 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal


Components

Name
1. Flywheel 2. Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal

Removal
1. Remove the flywheel.
Refer to the “Flywheel”.
2. Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal.
• Remove the oil seal off with a screwdriver or the
like avoiding damage to the oil seal contact surface
on the flywheel housing and the shaft.

Name
1. Felt
2. Slinger
3. Oil Seal
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-135
3. Use the slinger remover to remove the slinger.

Caution:
If the oil seal has been removed, both the oil seal and
slinger must be replaced as a set.

Special tool
Slinger remover:
380.002.608 (For 4HK1 and 6HK1)
5-8840-2360-0 (For 4HK1)
380.001.712 (For 6HK1)

5
3
2

Installation
1. Install the front slinger using installer, setting tool.

Special tool
4HK1
Use acceptable: Oil seal installer kit:
6HK1 • After pressing in the slinger, make sure that the
Oil seal setting tool: 380.001.712 distance between crankshaft end surface and the
• Install the slinger (1) to the end of adapter (2). slinger is A as specified.
Install the adapter to the crankshaft (3).
• Install the slinger sleeve (4) to the adapter. Tighten
the center bolt (5) until the sleeve comes in contact
with the adapter stopper.
1A-136 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

Name
Distance (A): 17.3±0.3 mm (0.7±0.01 in) 1. Adapter (Rear)
Distance (B): 10.8±0.1 mm (0.4±0.004 in) 2. Fixing Bolt
6HK1 3. Center Bolt
4. Sleeve (Rear)
5. Collar (Rear)
6. Adapter Ring (Rear)
7. Oil Seal

Special tool
4HK1
Use acceptable: Oil seal installer kit:
6HK1
A
Oil seal setting tool: 380.001.712

No. Part Name Oil seal


1 Sleeve (rear) {
2 Adapter (rear) {
3 Collar (rear) {
4 Adapter ring (rear) {
5 Center bolt {
Distance (A): 17±0.3 mm (0.7±0.01 in) 6 Fixing bolt {

Caution:
• Put a collar on the fixing bolt and mount the
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
adaptor onto the crankshaft.
2. Install the crankshaft rear oil seal.
• Press-fit the rear oil seal using an oil seal installer,
setting tool.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-137

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


• After you have pressed in the rear oil seal, confirm
Name
the measurement shown (depth from the end
1. Collar
surface of the crankshaft to the oil seal).
2. Fixing Bolt
3. Adapter

• Apply engine oil to the lip of the oil seal and place it
in the rear side adapter.

• Put the rear side adapter ring in the sleeve and put
the sleeve on the adapter and fix with the center
bolt.

Name
1. Rear Part of The Crankshaft
2. Oil Seal
3. 4HK1: 7.8 ± 0.3 mm (0.31 ± 0.012 in),
6HK1: 7.5 ± 0.15 mm (0.3 ± 0.006 in)
4. Collar
5. Adapter Ring
6. Sleeve
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. 7. Adapter
Name
3. Install the flywheel.
1. Sleeve
Refer to the “Flywheel”.
2. Adapter Ring

• Tightening the center bolt until the sleeve touches


the adapter to press fit the oil seal.
1A-138 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.608
Slinger remover

380.001.712
Oil seal setting tool
(6HK1)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-139

Crankshaft
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Upper Bearing 5. Lower Bearing
2. Upper Thrust Bearing 6. Lower Thrust Bearing
3. Gear 7. Crankcase
4. Crankshaft

Removal 4. Remove the cylinder head.


Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”. 5. Remove the fuel supply pump.
Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the fuel system
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft.
section.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
6. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal.
3. Remove the camshaft.
Refer to “Crankshaft Front Oil Seal”.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
1A-140 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
7. Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal. 6HK1
Refer to the “Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal”.
8. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
9. Remove the water pump.
Refer to the “Water Pump” in the Cooling System 3 7 11 15 19 23 24 20 16 12 8 4 1
Section.
10. Remove the front cover.
Refer to the “Front Cover”.
26 30 34 38 37 33 29
11. Remove the timing gear train.
Refer to the “Timing Gear Train”. 27 31 35 39 36 32 28

12. Remove the oil pump.


Refer to the “Oil Pump”.
13. Remove the piston and connecting rod. 2 6 10 14 18 22 25 21 17 13 9 5
Refer to the “Pistons and Connecting Rod”.
14. Remove the crankcase.
• Gradually loosen crankcase mounting bolts in the
sequence shown and remove the crankcase using WSHK0034

the replacer holes (arrowed holes in the figure). 15. Remove the lower thrust bearing.
4HK1 16. Remove the lower crankshaft bearings.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


17. Remove the crankshaft ASM.
18. Remove the upper thrust bearing.
19. Remove the upper crankshaft bearings.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-141

Special tool
Crankshaft gear puller: 380.002.613

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Disassembly
Name
1. Remove the gear.
1. Alignment Mark
• Remove the gear using a gear puller.

Special tool
Use acceptable: Crankshaft gear puller: Inspection
1. Thrust clearance
• Set a dial gauge as shown and measure the
crankshaft thrust clearance.

• If the thrust clearance exceeds the limit, replace


the thrust bearings in a pair.

Axial play of the crankshaft mm (in)


Standard 0.104 – 0.205 (0.0041 – 0.0081)
Limit 0.35 (0.0138)

Caution:
Measure the thrust clearance before dismounting.

Reassembly
1. Install the gear.
• Heat the gear to 170 – 250°C (338 – 482°F) and
install it aligning the groove on the gear with the
pin on the crankshaft.

• Insert the gear at one push into the flange with its
end side with the alignment mark “S” facing
outward. If you are fitting the gear while it is cold,
beat the gear in until it impinges on the end using
the installer.
1A-142 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Main bearing clearance • Place Plastigauge on the crankshaft journal as
• Remove the crankcase. shown.
Set out disassembled main bearings in the order of
the numbers. • Place the lower bearings at original positions on
the crankcase.
• Remove the crankshaft. Remove the main bearing.

• Clean the crankshaft journal and the upper and


lower bearings.

• Check the bearings for damage or excessive wear.

If you find damage or excessive wear in the check,


replace the bearings in pairs.

• Place the upper bearings and the crankshaft on


the cylinder block. Install the crankshaft so that it
becomes horizontal.

Caution:
Turn the crankshaft about 30° to allow the bearings to
settle in.

• Install the crankcase and tighten bolts to the


specified tightening torque.

• Tighten the crankcase in the sequence shown


using a torque wrench and an angle gauge.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-143

Tightening torque:
M14 bolt 4HK1: (1 – 10), 6HK1: (1 – 14)
1st step = 98 N⋅m (10.0 kg⋅m/72 lb ft)
2nd step = 132 N⋅m (13.5 kg⋅m/97 lb ft)
3rd step = 30° – 60°
M10 bolt 4HK1: (11 – 27), 6HK1: 15 – 39)
4th step = 37 N⋅m (3.8 kg⋅m/27 lb ft)
• Tighten bolts from 1 to 10 (M14) and confirm that
they are tightened to a torque of 142 N⋅m (14.5
kg⋅m/105 lb ft) or more.

Special tool
Angle gauge: 380000304

Caution:
Do not rotate the crankshaft after tightening the
crankcase.
• Loosen the bolts and gently remove the
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
crankcase.
4HK1
• Measure the widest part of the Plastigauge
flattened by tightening the crankcase to determine
the clearance.

4HK1

Journal oil clearance mm (in)


Standard Limit
No.1, 2, 4, 5 0.037 – 0.072 0.11
(0.0015 – 0.0028) (0.0043)
No.3 0.051 – 0.086 0.11
(0.0020 – 0.0034) (0.0043)

6HK1

Journal oil clearance mm (in)


Standard Limit
6HK1 No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 0.063 – 0.094 0.14
7 (0.0025 – 0.0037) (0.0055)
No. 4 0.093 – 0.124 0.14
(0.0037 – 0.0049) (0.0055)

37 33 29 25 21 17 16 20 24 28 32 3639

14 10 6 2 3 7 11

13 9 5 1 4 8 12

38 34 30 26 22 18 15 19 23 27 31 35

WSHK0035
1A-144 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

• If the journal oil clearance exceeds the limit, 4. Measure the journal and the crank pin diameters
replace the main bearings altogether or the and uneven wear.
crankshaft. • Measure outer diameters of the journal and the pin
and calculate differences between the maximum
• Remove the plastigauge from the bearing and and the minimum values. Take measurements at
crank pin. four positions for both the journal and the pin.

Inspection of crankshaft
• Check the crankshaft journal and crank pin
surfaces for wear and damage. Check the oil seal
contact surface for excessive wear and damage.

• Check the oil port for clogging.

3. Crankshaft run-out
Carefully set the crankshaft on the V block. Slowly
turn the crankshaft to measure the run-out. If the
crankshaft run-out exceeds the limit, replace the
crankshaft.
4HK1

Crankshaft run-out mm (in)


Standard 0.05 or less (0.0020 or less)
Limit 0.30 (0.012)
4HK1

6HK1 Crankshaft outside diameter mm (in)

Crankshaft run-out mm (in) Standard Limit

Standard 0.06 or less (0.0024 or less) Journal #1, 2, 4, 5 81.905 – 81.925 81.85
(3.22460 – 3.22538) (3.222)
Limit 0.45 (0.018)
Journal #3 81.891 – 81.911 81.85
(3.22408 – 3.22483) (3.222)
Pin 65.902 – 65.922 65.850
(2.59456 – 2.59535) (2.5925)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-145
6HK1

Crankshaft outside diameter mm (in)


Standard Limit
Journal No. 1, 2, 3, 81.905 – 81.925 81.85
5, 6, 7 (3.22460 – 3.22538) (3.222)
Journal No. 4 81.875 – 81.895 81.85
(3.22341 – 3.22421) (3.222)
Pin 72.902 – 72.922 72.850
(2.87015 – 2.87093) (2.8681)

Caution:
Tufftriding (soft nitriding treatment) is applied to
enhance strength of the crankshaft. Therefore, you
shall not polish the surface of the crankshaft.

Selection of crankshaft bearing


• When installing new crankshaft bearings or Caution:
replacing bearings in use, make reference to the Be careful about difference in the shape of the bearings
Bearing Selection Table. when installing them.
• Select and install new bearings paying close
attention to the cylinder block journal internal
diameter grade and the crankshaft journal
diameter grade.
• Journals are numbered from 1 to 5 (4HK1) or 1 to
7 (6HK1) from left to right when viewed so that the
numbers are in normal reading orientation.

Name
1. Upper Bearing
2. Oil Gallery
3. Grade Identification Color
4. Oil Groove
5. Lower Bearing
6. Grade Identification Color
1A-146 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Bearing selection table
4HK1

Combination of grades Oil clearance mm (in)


Cylinder block Crank journal Bearing identification #1, 2, 4, 5 #3
Grade Grade color
1 1 Black 0.039 – 0.070 0.053 – 0.084
(0.00154 – 0.00276) (0.00209 – 0.00331)
1 2 Brown 0.037 – 0.068 0.051 – 0.082
(0.00146 – 0.00267) (0.00201 – 0.00323)
2 1 Blue 0.041 – 0.072 0.055 – 0.086
(0.00161 – 0.00283) (0.00217 – 0.00339)
2 2 Black 0.039 – 0.070 0.053 – 0.084
(0.00154 – 0.00276) (0.00209 – 0.00331)

6HK1

Combination of grades Oil clearance mm (in)


Cylinder block Crank journal Bearing identification #1, 2, 3, 5, 6 #4
Grade Grade color
1 1 Black 0.065 – 0.092 0.095 – 0.122
(0.00256 – 0.00362) (0.00374 – 0.00480)
1 2 Brown 0.063 – 0.089 0.093 – 0.119
(0.00248 – 0.00350) (0.00366 – 0.00469)
2 1 Blue 0.067 – 0.094 0.097 – 0.124
(0.00264 – 0.00370) (0.00382 – 0.00488)
2 2 Black 0.065 – 0.091 0.095 – 0.121
(0.00256 – 0.00358) (0.00374 – 0.00476)

Installation
1. Install the crankshaft upper bearing.
• Install the upper bearing in the cylinder block and
apply oil.

Caution:
When replacing the crankshaft bearings, select grades
referring to the Crankshaft Bearing Grade Selection.
Do not apply oil to the bearing installation surface on
the cylinder block and external surface of the bearing.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Install the upper thrust bearing.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-147
• Install the upper thrust bearing in the front side of 5. Install the lower thrust bearing.
the cylinder block journal No.5 (4HK1) or No.7 • Install the lower thrust bearing in the rear side of
(6HK1). In doing this, you may attach the upper the crankcase journal No.5 (4HK1) or No.7
thrust bearing to the cylinder block with grease. (6HK1).
Then, be sure to wipe up excess grease.
• Install the thrust bearing so that the oil groove
Caution: contacts the crankshaft.
Install the thrust bearing so that the oil groove contacts
the crankshaft.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6. Install the crankcase.
3. Install the crankshaft ASM.
• Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or
• Apply engine oil to the crankshaft journal and
equivalent) to the crankcase forming beads with
gently place the crankshaft on the cylinder block.
diameters of 3 – 4 mm (0.12 – 0.16 in).
• Press the crankshaft to the rear and insert the
• Install the crankcase within 7 minutes after you
upper thrust bearing in the rear side of the cylinder
have applied the liquid gasket.
block journal No.5 (4HK1) or No.7 (6HK1).
• Gently place the crankcase on the cylinder block.
Caution:
Install the thrust bearing so that the oil groove contacts
the crankshaft.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


4. Install the lower crankshaft bearing.
1A-148 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

6HK1
mm(in)
12(0.47)
10
(0

2(0.08)
.4
)

2.5(0.1)
15
(0

10(
8(0.31)

0.4
59

)
5(0.2)

)
8(0.31)

8(0.31)

2.5(0.1) 2.5(0.1)

WSHK0036
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-149
• Apply Molybdenum Disulfide to M14 bolts’ threads 6HK1
and setting faces and tighten them to the specified
tightening torque in the sequence shown.

• You need not apply engine oil to M10 bolts.


37 33 29 25 21 17 16 20 24 28 32 3639
Tightening torque:
M14 bolt 4HK1: (1 – 10), 6HK1: (1 – 14)
1st step = 98 N⋅m (10.0 kg⋅m/72 lb ft)
2nd step = 132 N⋅m (13.5 kg⋅m/97 lb ft) 14 10 6 2 3 7 11

3rd step = 30° – 60°


13 9 5 1 4 8 12
M10 bolt 4HK1: (11 – 27), 6HK1: (15 – 39)
4th step = 37 N⋅m (3.8 kg⋅m/27 lb ft)
• Tighten the bolts (M14) from 1 to 10 (4HK1) or 1 to
14 (6HK1) and confirm that they are tightened to a 38 34 30 26 22 18 15 19 23 27 31 35

torque of 142 N⋅m (14.5 kg⋅m/105 lb ft) or more.

Special tool
Angle gauge: 380000304 WSHK0035

7. Install pistons and connecting rods.


Caution: Refer to the “Pistons and Connecting Rod”.
Confirm that the crankshaft turns smoothly. 8. Install the oil pump.
4HK1 Refer to the “Oil Pump”.
9. Install the timing gear train.
Refer to the “Timing Gear Train”.
10. Install the front cover.
Refer to the “Front Cover”.
11. Install the water pump.
Refer to the “Water Pump” in the Cooling System
Section.
12. Install the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
13. Install the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Refer to the “Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal”.
14. Install the crankshaft front oil seal.
Refer to “Crankshaft Front Oil Seal”.
15. Install the fuel supply pump.
Refer to the “Fuel Supply Pump”.
16. Install the cylinder head.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
17. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
18. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
19. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
1A-150 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.613
Crankshaft gear installer
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-151

Illustration Tool Number/Description

380000304

Angle gauge
1A-152 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Cylinder Block
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Cylinder Liner 2. Cylinder Block

Removal 5. Remove the fuel supply pump.


Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the fuel system
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
section.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
6. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Crankshaft Front Oil Seal”.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
7. Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal.
3. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to the “Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal”.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
8. Remove the oil pan.
4. Remove the cylinder head.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-153
9. Remove the water pump. If the cylinder liner cannot be pulled free by hand,
Refer to the “Water Pump” in the Cooling System tap around the lower side of the liner with a
Section. hammer grip or similar object loosen it.
10. Remove the front cover.
Refer to the “Front Cover”.
Inspection
11. Remove the timing gear train.
Refer to the “Timing Gear Train”. 1. Carefully remove water stains or other foreign
matters on the surface of the cylinder block.
12. Remove the oil pump.
Refer to the “Oil Pump”. • Be careful not to damage the cylinder block.
13. Remove the piston and connecting rod. 2. Carefully remove the liquid gasket on the
Refer to the “Pistons and Connecting Rod”. crankcase mounting surface.
14. Remove the crankshaft. 3. Clean up the cylinder block.
Refer to the “Crankshaft”.
4. Visually inspect the cylinder block.
15. Remove the piston oil jet
• Conduct color check and hydraulic (or pneumatic)
test and if you find crack or other damage, replace
the cylinder block.

5. Cylinder liner wear measurement


• Check the internal surface of the liner for flaw or
damage.

• Measure the liner bore diameter at the most worn


part (it wears more in the rotation direction) at 15 –
20 mm (0.59 – 0.79 in) from the top end of the liner
with the liner installed in the cylinder block. If the
wear is over the application limit, replace it.

16. Remove the cylinder liner.


1A-154 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Cylinder liner bore diameter mm (in)
Standard 115.021 – 115.050
(4.52837 – 4.52952)
Limit 115.20 (4.5354)

Caution:
You need not select cylinder liner bore grade since the
liners are only available in one size.
6. Cylinder block upper face warpage
• Pull out the cylinder liners and remove water stains
on the cylinder block.

• Measure four sides and two diagonals of the top


surface of the cylinder block using a straight edge
(1) and a thickness gauge (2).

• Replace the cylinder block if the measurements


exceed limit values.

Cylinder block upper face warpage mm (in) Installation


Standard 0.05 or less (0.002 or less) 1. Cylinder liner grade selection
• Select liner outer diameter grades according to the
Limit 0.20 (0.079)
cylinder block bore grades stamped on the cylinder
block at arrowed positions in the figure.

• The cylinder liner grade is stamped on the outside


of the cylinder liner (1).

• Matching the grades of the cylinder block and the


liner outer diameter

Cylinder block (stamp) 1, 2 3


Liner outside diameter 1X 3X
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-155

Cylinder block bore and liner grade mm (in)


(Reference)
Grade (1, 2) / (1X) (3) / (3X)
Cylinder 118.001 – 118.020 118.021 – 118.030
block (4.64699 – 4.64654) (4.64649 – 4.64684)
Bore
diameter
Liner 117.991 – 118.000 118.001 – 118.010
outside (4.64531 – 4.64566) (4.64570 – 4.64605)
diameter
1
(Reference)
When replacing liners, a “liner set” let you obtain a
piston of proper grade for a given liner bore
012EY00065 diameter only by specifying a liner outside
diameter grade.
4HK1 2. Install the cylinder liners.
• Install the cylinder liners perpendicular to the
cylinder block.

• Do not hammer the liner or apply excessive forth to


insert it.

Caution:
Clean up and blow with compressed air the cylinder
block and the cylinder liners before installing them.

6HK1

3. Amount of the cylinder liner extrusion


Measure the amount of the cylinder liner extrusion
using a dial gauge.
Difference of the amount of the extrusion between
adjacent two cylinders should be within 0.03 mm
(0.0012 in).

Amount of the cylinder liner extrusion mm (in)


Standard 0.05 – 0.10 (0.0020 – 0.0039)
1A-156 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Caution:
Be sure to measure the cylinder liner extrusion
whenever you have replaced cylinder liners.

5. Install the crankshaft.


Refer to the “Crankshaft”.
6. Install pistons and connecting rods.
4. Install the piston oil jet. Refer to the “Pistons and Connecting Rod”.
• Align the knock pin of the oil jet with the pin hole of 7. Install the oil pump.
the cylinder block and tighten with the check valve. Refer to “Oil Pump”.
8. Install the timing gear train.
Tightening torque: 21 N⋅m (2.1 kg⋅m/15 lb ft) Refer to the “Timing Gear Train”.
Caution: 9. Install the front cover.
Be careful not to deform or damage the oil jet nozzle. Refer to the “Front Cover”.
10. Install the water pump.
Refer to the “Water Pump” in the Cooling System
Section.
11. Install the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
12. Install the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Refer to the “Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal”.
13. Install the crankshaft front oil seal.
Refer to “Crankshaft Front Oil Seal”.
14. Install the fuel supply pump.
Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the Fuel System
section.
15. Install the cylinder head.
Refer to the “Cylinder Head”.
16. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
17. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
18. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-157

Lubrication System
Precautions on Service Work • Avoid excessive or insufficient coating volume.
Note that seizure may occur in case of excessive
• During each disassembly, remove the old gasket
coating due to clogging of the oil gallery and oil jet,
adhering to each part and mating part completely
and oil and water leakage may occur if the coating
using a scraper at the location, where the fluid
is insufficient.
gasket is to be used, clean the traces of oil,
moisture, and dirt completely using waste cotton • Always, the start and end of the application should
and apply the specified new fluid gasket at each be overlapped.
location.
Explanations on functions and operation
The lubrication system uses the filter element
combined with a full flow bypass, water-cooled oil
cooler, and oil jet for piston cooling.
Lubricating system diagram
1A-158 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
Function Check 7. Stop the engine.
Oil pressure check 8. Remove the oil pressure gauge.
1. Check whether the engine oil is contaminated with 9. Install the oil pressure switch.
dirt, light oil, or water. If contaminated with dirt, 10. Start the engine and check for oil leakage.
light oil, or water (after examining the cause and
taking the appropriate measures for light oil or Engine oil
water contamination), replace the oil. • Ensure the engine is at a level ground. Before
2. Check the engine oil level. The oil level should be starting the engine or when 5 minutes or more
between the two holes of the level gauge. If the oil have elapsed after stopping the engine, check the
level is insufficient, replenish it. engine oil volume using the level gauge. The
3. Remove the oil pressure switch on the oil filter volume is appropriate if the engine oil is between
body. the upper and lower limits of the level gauge.
Replenish the engine oil, if level is below the lower
4. Install the oil pressure gauge on the oil filter body.
limit. Also, check for contamination of the engine
oil.
Special tool
Oil pressure gauge: J43620-20
Hose: J43630
Connector (4HK1 only): J43630-14
Oil pressure testing adapter (4HK1 only): EN-46333

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Oil Pressure Testing Adapter (4HK1 only)
2. Connector (4HK1 only)
3. Hose
4. Oil Pressure Gauge
Name
5. Warm the engine. 1. Upper Limit
6. Measure the oil pressure, to check whether it is 2. Lower Limit
more than 343 kPa (50 psi) at 2000 rpm.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-159
Engine oil leakage
• In the lift up condition, confirm that there are no
leaks from the cylinder head cover and oil pan.
1A-160 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Port Cover ASM


Components

Name
1. Oil Pressure Switch 3. O-Ring
2. Oil Port Cover

Removal
1. Remove the oil pressure switch.
2. Remove the oil port cover.
3. Remove the O-ring.

Installation
1. Install the O-ring on the oil port cover.

Name
1. O-Ring
2. O-Ring
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-161
2. Install the oil port cover on the cylinder block and
tighten it to the specified torque.
Tightening torque:
4HK1 48 N⋅m (4.9 kg⋅m/35 lb ft)
6HK1 39.2 N⋅m (4.0 kg⋅m/29 lb ft)

Name
1. Bolt M10X L = 80
2. Bolt M10X L = 25

3. Install the oil pressure switch to the oil port cover.


• Apply the liquid gasket (Loctite 262) on 2 to 3
peaks from the tip of the threaded part of the oil
pressure switch and install it at the position shown
in the figure.

Tightening torque: 41.2 N⋅m (4.2 kg⋅m/30 lb in)


1A-162 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Cooler
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Bypass Hose 5. Fuel Supply Pump
2. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe 6. EGR Cooler Water Feed Pipe
3. Oil Cooler 7. Suction Pipe
4. Common Rail
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-163
6HK1

5 1 2 3 4

WSHK0038
Name
1. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe 4. Fuel Supply Pump
2. Oil Cooler 5. Suction Pipe
3. Common Rail

Removal
1. Remove the common rail.
Refer to the “Common Rail” in the fuel system
section.
2. Remove the fuel supply pump.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


3. Remove the EGR cooler water return pipe.
• Remove the brackets to the water pipe at two
locations to make the pipe unsupported.
1A-164 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4. Remove the EGR cooler water feed pipe. (4HK1) • Screw the removed fixing bolt of the oil cooler into
5. Remove the clip on the head side of the water the replacer hole at the location 1 of the figure and
bypass hose (4HK1) and remove the hose from remove the oil cooler.
the suction pipe ASM.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


7. Remove the O-ring.

Name
1. Bypass Hose Disassembly
2. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe 1. Remove the element mounting bolts.
3. EGR Cooler Water Feed Pipe
2. Remove the element.
4. Suction Pipe
3. Remove the O-ring.
6HK1

1 2
WSHK0039 * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name Name
1. Suction Pipe 1. Element
2. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe 2. O-Ring

6. Remove the oil cooler ASM with glow plug


controller bracket (4HK1 only). Reassembly
1. Install the O-ring on the oil cooler case.
2. Install the element.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-165
3. Tighten the element fixing bolts using the specified
torque.
Tightening torque: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. O-Ring
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. 2. O-Ring
3. Liquid Gasket
Name
1. Element – Align the oil cooler holes with the cylinder block
2. O-Ring studs.
– Install the oil cooler and glow plug controller
bracket to the cylinder block.
Installation – Tighten the bolts to the specified torque in the
1. Install the oil cooler ASM. order shown in the illustration.
• Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
equivalent) to the flange surface groove (cylinder • Liquid gasket quickly hardens.
block). Bead diameter must be between 2 and 4 Make it complete within 7 minutes after
mm (0.08 and 0.16 in). applying the liquid gasket.
Refer to the illustration for the offset position (no
more than 1 mm {0.04 in}). 4HK1
• Install the O-rings (1) and (2) to the oil passage
inlet and outlet. Do not allow the liquid gasket to
contact the O-ring.
1A-166 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
6HK1 6HK1

WSHK0040 WSHK0041
2. Connect the water suction pipe.
Name
• Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B) to the 1. Gasket
flange of the water suction pipe. Bead diameter 2. Suction Pipe
must be between 2 and 5 mm (0.08 and 0.20 in).
Refer to the illustration for the offset position (no
more than 1 mm {0.04 in}). (4HK1) Caution:
The water suction pipe must be installed immediately
• Install the water suction pipe to the oil cooler. Refer after the oil cooler (the pipe and cooler use the same
to the illustration. liquid gasket).
4HK1
• Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 4HK1: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


6HK1: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)
4HK1

3. Install the EGR cooler water feed pipe. (4HK1)


• Install the O-ring on the EGR cooler water feed
pipe.

• Install at the position shown in the figure and


tighten using the specified torque.
Name
1. Liquid Gasket
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-167
4HK1

4. Install the EGR cooler water pipe.


(4HK1)
5. Install the body cover ASM LH on the surface of
the oil cooler and cylinder block and tighten it using
the specified torque. (4HK1)
Tightening torque: 19 N⋅m (1.9 kg⋅m/14 lb ft)
6. Remove the oil drain adapter. (4HK1)
7. Install the fuel supply pump.
• Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the fuel system
section.

8. Install the common rail.


• Refer to the “Common Rail” in the fuel system
section.
1A-168 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Pan
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Pan Gasket 2. Oil Pan

Removal
1. Drain engine oil.
2. Remove the oil pan.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-169
3. Remove the Oil strainer. 4HK1

WSHK0180

4. Remove the O-ring. 6HK1

Installation
1. Install the oil strainer with new O-ring to the crank
case.
Tightening torque:
M8 Bolt (4HK1): 32 N⋅m (3.3 kg⋅m/24 lb ft)
M8 Bolt (6HK1): 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
M10 Bolt: 48 N⋅m (4.9 kg⋅m/35 lb ft)

• Install the gasket using the studs of the crankcase,


flywheel housing, and front cover as guide and
mount the oil pan.
Install the rubber ASM on the oil pan and secure it
using nuts and bolts.

WSHK0181

2. Install the oil pan.


• At the seam between the cylinder block and the
front cover with the flywheel housing, apply the
liquid gasket (4H: ThreeBond 1207B or 6H:
1207C) to a bead diameter of 3 mm (0.12 in).

• Apply the liquid gasket and install the oil pan within
7 minutes.
1A-170 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

6HK1
6HK1 • Fastening the oil pan from the part of A or B in
clock wise order.
• It tightens again by specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24.5 N⋅m (2.5 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

Name
1. Oil Pan
2. Gasket

4HK1
• Tighten the locations (1), (2), (3), and (4) as shown
in the figure and then tighten others. (In any
sequence)
Tightening torque: 30 N⋅m (3.1 kg⋅m/22 lb ft)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-171

Oil Pump

Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Pump ASM 5. Driven Gear And Shaft
2. Spring 6. Oil Pump Body
3. Ball 7. Gasket
4. Split Pin

Removal 9. Remove the rear oil seal of the crankshaft.


Refer to “Rear oil seal of Crankshaft”.
1. Drain engine oil.
10. Remove the oil pan.
2. Drain out the cooling water.
3. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
4. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
5. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
6. Remove the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
7. Remove the fuel supply pump ASM.
Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the Fuel System
section.
8. Remove the flywheel.
Refer to the “Flywheel”.
1A-172 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
11. Remove the flywheel housing.
• Make sure you remove the bolts shown in the
figure.

Disassembly
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. 1. Remove the driven gear and shaft.
12. Remove the idle gear A. 2. Remove the split pin.
3. Remove the spring.
4. Remove the ball.

Reassembly
1. Install the ball.
2. Install the spring.
3. Install the split pin and fold it according to (1).

13. Remove the oil pump ASM and gasket.

4. Apply engine oil on the driven gear and shaft and


mount them on the oil pump body.
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-173
• Measure the clearance between the gear surface
and the upper surface of the oil pump body using
the thickness gauge and square.

• If the gap between the gear and the body inner


wall exceeds the limit, replace the gear ASM or the
driven gear ASM.

Clearance between the gear side surface mm (in)


and the upper surface of the oil pump body
Standard 0.064 – 0.109 (0.0025 – 0.0043)
Limit 0.20 (0.0079)

Inspection
1. Measure the clearance between the gear and the
inner wall of the oil pump body.
• Measure the clearance between the gear and oil
pump body using a thickness gauge.

• If the gap between the gear and the body inner


wall exceeds the limit, replace the gear ASM or the
driven gear ASM.

Clearance between the gear and inner mm (in)


wall of the body
3. Measure the clearance between the driven gear
Standard 0.125 – 0.220 (0.0049 – 0.0087)
shaft and the bush.
Limit 0.30 (0.0118) • Measure the outside diameter of the driven gear
shaft using a micrometer.

Outside diameter of the driven gear shaft mm (in)


Standard 15.989 – 16.000 (0.62949 – 0.62992)
Limit 15.900 (0.62598)

2. Measure the clearance between the gear side


surface and the upper surface of the oil pump
body.
1A-174 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
3. Install the idling gear A.
• Install the idling gear shaft at the position shown in
the figure and apply engine oil on the shaft.

• Rotate the crankshaft clockwise and bring the


piston of the No.1 cylinder to the top dead center.

• Measure the inside diameter of the bushes of the


oil pump body and cylinder block using the dial
gauge.

• If the clearance between the driven gear shaft and


bushing exceeds the limit, replace the driven gear
ASM. * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
• Match the alignment marks of the crankshaft gear
Clearance between the driven gear shaft mm (in) and the idle gear A, and install them on the
and bush cylinder block.

Standard 0.04 – 0.07 (0.0016 – 0.0028)


Limit 0.20 (0.0079)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


• Tighten the mounting bolts using the specified
torque.

Tightening torque: 133 N⋅m (13.6 kg⋅m/98 lb ft)


Installation 4. Install the flywheel housing.
1. Install the gasket. • Clean the rear side of the cylinder block. Remove
the protruding fluid gasket thoroughly, especially,
2. Install the oil pump ASM.
when mounting the crankcase.
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-175
• Apply the liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B) Tightening torque: (6HK1)
uniformly on the inside surface of the bolt holes
Bolt holes marked with “1” =
(excluding the bolt holes indicated by arrows) as
96 N⋅m (9.8 kg⋅m/71 lb ft)
shown in the figure.
Bolt holes marked with “2” =
• After applying the liquid gasket, quickly install it. 86 N⋅m (8.8 kg⋅m/63 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with “3” =
4HK1
119 N⋅m (12.1 kg⋅m/88 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with “4” =
53 N⋅m (5.4 kg⋅m/39 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with “5” =
73 N⋅m (7.4 kg⋅m/54 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with “6” =
26 N⋅m (2.7 kg⋅m/19 lb ft)
• The seal is tightened from the cylinder block side.

6HK1

WSHK0043
• Align with the knock pin of the cylinder block and
install the flywheel housing.

Tightening torque: (4HK1)


Bolt holes marked with “1” =
96 N⋅m (9.8 kg⋅m/71 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with “2” =
77 N⋅m (7.9 kg⋅m/57 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with “3” =
38 N⋅m (3.9 kg⋅m/28 lb ft)
1A-176 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
4HK1

6HK1

1
1 2

5
1

3
6

1
3

4
1

WSHK0044
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-177
5. Install the oil pan.
Refer to “Oil Pan”.
6. Install the rear seal of the crankshaft.
Refer to “Rear Oil Seal of Crankshaft”.
7. Install the flywheel.
Refer to the “Flywheel”.
8. Install the fuel supply pump ASM.
Refer to “Fuel Supply Pump” in the Fuel System
section.
9. Install the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
10. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to “Camshaft ASM”.
11. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to “Rocker Arm Shaft ASM”.
12. Tighten the cylinder head cover.
Refer to “Cylinder Head Cover”.
1A-178 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Pressure Switch


Inspection
Check the continuity between the switch terminal and
the body grounding in the no-load condition.
If there is no connectivity, replace with normal parts.

Circuit check
1. Turn the starter switch to ON.
2. Disconnect the oil pressure switch connector, and
confirm that the oil pressure-warning lamp lights
when the connector on the harness side is
grounded.
If the warning lamp does not light up, check the
circuit between the meter and the oil pressure
switch, and repair the disconnected locations.
Cooling System 1B-1

ENGINE
Cooling System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-2
Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-2
Function Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-5
A List of Defective Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-7
Main Data and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-7
Water Pump (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-8
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-8
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-8
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-9
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-10
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-11
Water Pump (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-12
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-12
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-14
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-16
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-17
Inspection and Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-18
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-19
Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-22
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-22
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-22
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-22
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-23
Drive Belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-24
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-24
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-24
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-26
1B-2 Cooling System

Cooling System
Precautions on Service Work Explanations on functions and operation
WARNING: Cooling water system
Do not remove the radiator cap when the cooling water The cooling water system, which is the forced
is at high temperature. Steam or boiling water will gush circulation system, consists of a water pump,
out and you may be burnt. To open the radiator cap, thermostat, and radiator as its main components. The
cover the cap with a thick cloth when the cooling water oil in automatic transmission is cooled due to the
is cool, release the pressure by slowly turning the cap, cooling water in the radiator.
and then remove the cap.
4HK1

Name
1. Water Jacket 10. Reservoir Tank
2. Drain Plug 11. Air Bleeding Plug
3. Oil Cooler 12. Water Outlet Pipe
4. Water Pump 13. Thermostat (2 units)
5. Drain Cock 14. Thermometer Unit
6. Radiator 15. Bypass Route
7. Cooling Fan 16. Turbocharger
8. Radiator Cap 17. EGR Cooler
9. Heater Core
Cooling System 1B-3
6HK1

10
8 9
11 14

12

13
7

6 1

3 2
5

WSHK0045
Name
1. Water Jacket 8. Radiator Cap
2. Drain Plug 9. Reservoir Tank
3. Oil Cooler 10. Water Outlet Pipe
4. Water Pump 11. Thermostat (2 units)
5. Drain Cock 12. Thermometer Unit
6. Radiator 13. Bypass Route
7. Cooling Fan 14. EGR Cooler
1B-4 Cooling System
Water pump
The water pump, which uses the centrifugal impeller
system, is driven by the engine fan belt.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fan Center 3. Impeller
2. Bearing 4. Seal Unit
Cooling System 1B-5
Thermostat
The thermostat is a wax pellet type and consists of two
units, in which one unit (bottom bypass type) has an
valve initial opening temperature of 82 °C (180 °F) and
the second (inline type) has an valve initial opening
temperature of 85 °C (185 °F). It is designed such that
the water temperature can be adjusted finely and it is
mounted within the thermostat-housing unit.

Name
1. Jiggle Valve 4. Gasket
2. Stamp Mark (Valve Initial Opening Temperature) 5. Piston
3. Valve

Function Check 6HK1


Cooling water level check Standard value
• Check the cooling water level within the reserve Cooling water 14.5 L (15.3 qts)
tank and the level is appropriate when the cooling level (Engine only)
water level is within the MAX (upper limit) and MIN
(lower limit) range. In case the volume of the Inspection
cooling water is deficient, remove the reserve tank
cap and replenish with a mixture of tap water and Cooling water leak check
engine coolant in the ratio of 1:1 until the level • Use the radiator cap tester and apply a pressure of
comes close to the MAX line. 200 kPa (29.0 psi) and check for leaks in the
4HK1 locations given below. Check that the radiator hose
and heater hose are not damaged or degraded
Standard value and the hose clamp is not loose.
Cooling water 14 L (14.8 qts)
level (between MIN and MAX levels)
1B-6 Cooling System
Inspection location
• Radiator ASM, water pump ASM, radiator hose,
heater hose

Coolant
1. About the engine coolant concentration
• Take the concentration corresponding to the
minimum temperature because the freezing
temperature varies according to the
concentration of the engine coolant.
• Use only genuine Isuzu engine coolant.
• Use engine coolant with a mix ratio in the range
of 30 to 60% because over heating is likely to
occur if the ratio is greater than 60% and
corrosion prevention is inadequate if the ratio is
less than 30%.

Name
1. Antifreeze Hydrometer
2. Radiator

• Fix the temperature of the cooling water being


measured in the range of 0 to 50 °C (32 to 122 °F).
• Measure the temperature and specific gravity and
determine the concentration from the table given
below.

Freezing Mix ratio Concentration


temperature Liter (qts) of engine
guideline coolant
Engine Tap
coolant water
-18°C (-0.4°F) 4.2 (4.4) 7.8 (8.2) 35%
-25°C (-13°F) 5.0 (5.3) 7.0 (7.4) 42%
-35°C (-31°F) 6.0 (6.3) 6.0 (6.3) 50%
-40°C (-40°F) 6.4 (6.8) 5.6 (5.9) 53%

2. Engine coolant density measurement


Methods for measuring specific gravity
• Measure the specific gravity and the temperature
of the cooling water using an anti-freeze specific
gravity meter and thermometer.
Take precautionary measures as the boiled cooling
water may gush out at high temperatures if the cap
is removed.
• Use a deep container to suit the height of the Coolant scooping method
specific gravity meter. • Measure the concentration using the coolant scoop.
Cooling System 1B-7
A List of Defective Phenomena
• Engine overheats
• Engine overcools

Engine overheats

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Engine overheats Cooling water volume is deficit. Replenish.
Thermometer unit is defective. Replace.
Thermostat is defective. Replace.
Radiator pump is defective. Replace.
Radiator is clogging. Clean or replace.
Radiator cap is defective. Replace.
Engine oil volume is deficient or Replenish or change the engine oil.
incorrect engine oil is used.
Cylinder head gasket is defective. Replace.
The fan belt is loose. Adjust.
Exhaust system is clogging. Clean or replace.
The fuel injection quantity is in surplus. Diagnose the engine control system.
Fuel injection timing is incorrect. Diagnose the engine control system.
Starting pressure of fuel injection is Diagnose the engine control system.
low.

Engine overcools

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Engine overcools Thermostat is defective. Replace.

Main Data and Specifications

Water pump Centrifugal impeller system


Pulley ratio 0.950
Thermostat Wax pellet system
Valve opening temperature °C (°F) With jiggle valve 85 (185)
Without jiggle valve 82 (180)
Temperature when fully open °C (°F) With jiggle valve 100 (212)
Without jiggle valve 95 (203)
1B-8 Cooling System

Water Pump (4HK1)


Components

Name
1. Fan 4. Fan Belt
2. Spacer 5. Water Pump ASM
3. Water Pump Pulley 6. Gasket

Removal
1. Drain the coolant.
2. Remove the four mounting bolts and then the fan
ASM and spacer, water pump pulley.
Cooling System 1B-9

Name Name
1. Fan 1. Water Pump
2. Spacer
3. Water Pump Pulley 5. Remove the gasket.
4. Bolt

3. (2) and (3) that tighten the setting plate and water Inspection
pump together. Loosen the adjusting bolts (1) in 1. Appearance check
the generator and remove the fan belt. • Check for cracks or damage in the pump body.
• Check for cracks and corrosion in the impeller.
• Check for water leakage from the seal unit.
• If you find abnormalities, replace with the water
pump ASM.
2. Bearing nut check
• Rotate the fan center while pushing it along the
radial direction. Confirm that there is no
abnormal noise and no excessive play.
• If you find abnormalities, replace with the water
pump ASM.

Name
1. Adjusting Bolt
2. Lock Nut
3. Bolt

4. Remove the water pump ASM while inserting and


scraping with the driver at the position shown in
the figure.
1B-10 Cooling System
Installation
1. Install the gasket.
2. Install the water pump ASM.
• Mount the water pump to match with the studs
of the front cover.
3. Temporarily fit the bolts until the water pump pulley
and the spacer and fan are properly seated in the
water pump ASM.
4. Mount the fan belt, tighten the adjusting bolts of
the generator, and adjust the tension.
• Refer to the “Drive Belt”.
5. After fan belt adjustments, tighten the generator
using the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 lb ft)

Name
1. Fan ASM
2. Spacer
3. Water Pump Pulley
4. Bolt

7. Pour coolant.

Name
1. Adjusting Bolt
2. Lock Nut
3. Bolt

6. After the fan belt adjustments, tighten the


temporarily fitted fan pulley and spacer and fan
using the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
Cooling System 1B-11
Torque Specifications
1B-12 Cooling System

Water Pump (6HK1)

Removal • Loosen the mounting bolt (2) and the sliding


piece nut (1).
1. Loosen the fan fixing nuts to remove the cooling
fan. • Pivot the alternator at the mounting bolt toward
the center of the engine.

3
1

2. Remove the fan guide.

3
2
1

Name
1. Bolt
2. Washer
3. Rubber mount
4. Rubber mount
5. Guide tube
6. Fan guide

3. Loosen the fan pulley fixing bolts.


4. Remove the fan belt.
Cooling System 1B-13
5. Remove the adapter and fan pulley.

1 6

Name
1. Adapter 4. Bypass hose
2. Fan pulley 5. Water duct
3. Water pump 6. Water duct

6. Disconnect the bypass hose.


7. Loosen the fixing nuts and bolts from the water
pump.
8. Remove the water pump from the front plate.
9. Discard the gaskets.
1B-14 Cooling System
Installation 6. Clamp the bypass hose.
1. Install the water pump with new gaskets to the 7. Install the fan pulley and adaptor to the water
front plate. Use the locating pin. pump.
Tighten the fixing bolts to the specified torque.
2. Tighten the fixing nuts and bolts to the specified
torque. Tightening torque: 52 N⋅m (5.3 kg⋅m/38 lb ft)
Tightening torque:
Nut A: 39 N⋅m (4.0 kg⋅m/29 lb ft)
Bolt: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)

8. Install the fan belt.


9. Adjust the fan belt tension.
• Depress the drive belt midway between the
3. Install the water duct with new gasket to the alternator and fan pulley.
cylinder head.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque. Drive Belt Deflection: 8 - 11 mm (0.31 - 0.43 in)

Tightening torque:
Bolt (1) : 221.6 N⋅m (22.6 kg⋅m/163 lb ft)
Bolt (2) : 24.5 N⋅m (2.5 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

Water pump
Alternator

1 Crankshaft

4. Install the water duct with new gasket to the oil


cooler and water pump.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)
5. Connect the bypass hose.
Cooling System 1B-15
10. Install the cooling fan.
Tighten the fixing nuts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 52 N⋅m (5.3 kg⋅m/38 lb ft)

11. Install the fan guide.


Tighten the fixing bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 30 N⋅m (3.1 kg⋅m/22 lb ft)

3
2
1

Name
1. Bolt
2. Washer
3. Rubber mount
4. Rubber mount
5. Guide tube
6. Fan guide
1B-16 Cooling System
Torque Specifications

N m(kg m/lb ft)

39(4 /29)

20(2 / 14)
221.6(22.6 / 163)

20(2 / 14)

20(2 / 14) 24.5(2.5 / 18)

52(5.3 / 38)

F06E100076
Cooling System 1B-17
Disassembly

15

14

13
11
12
16
10

8
7

6
5

3
2
1

Name
1. Center 9. Shaft
2. Dust cover 10. Water pump body
3. Snap ring 11. Dowel pin
4. Bearing 12. Seal unit
5. Bearing 13. Impeller
6. Spacer 14. Gasket
7. Bearing 15. Cover
8. Washer 16. Bolt
1B-18 Cooling System
1. Remove the rear cover from the water pump body. Inspection and Repair
2. Use a remover to remove the impeller Make the necessary adjustments, repairs and part
from the water pump. replacements if excessive wear or damage is
3. Use a puller to remove the water pump center. discovered during inspection.
4. Remove the dust cover and snap ring.
Water pump impeller
5. Remove the water pump shaft with ball bearings.
• Use a plastic hammer to lightly tap on the water 1. Check the impeller for corrosion.
pump shaft from the impeller side.

Water pump shaft


6. Use a bench press to remove the bearing from the
shaft. 1. Measure the water pump shaft and center or
impeller interference.
If the measured interference is less than the
specified limit, the pump shaft and / or the center
and impeller must be replaced.
Pump shaft and center interference:
Limit: 0.048 – 0.078 mm (0.0019 – 0.0031 in)
Pump shaft and impeller interference:
Limit: 0.022 – 0.062 mm (0.0009 – 0.0024 in)

7. Remove the seal unit.


Cooling System 1B-19
2. Carefully wipe away any bearing grease. • Use a bench press to gradually press the water
3. Listen for excessive bearing operating noise. pump shaft down until the bearings are seated
correctly.

Excessive bearing operating noise indicates


severe bearing wear. 2. Install the water pump shaft with bearings to the
water pump body.
• Repack the bearings with multipurpose grease.
Reassembly
1. Install the ball bearing to the water pump shaft.
• Apply engine oil to the water pump shaft.
• Place the water pump shaft and the bearings
on the base plates.
• Install the washer (4), ball bearing (3), spacer
(2), and bearings (1).

• Place the water pump body on bench press


4 base plate.

NOTE :
2 To prevent damage to the water pump shaft, place soft
brass or copper sheets between the base plates and
the water pump shaft.
1B-20 Cooling System
• Position the pump shaft with bearings to the 4. Install the seal unit to the water pump body.
water pump body. • Press in the seal unit to the specified position
• Use a bench press to gradually press the water using a bench press and installer.
pump shaft into the water pump body. .
Seal unit installation position A:
NOTE :
11.0 – 11.6 mm (0.433 – 0.457 in)
Do not drive the bearing into position with a hammer or
similar object. Bearing damage will result.

5. Install the water pump impeller to the water pump


3. Install the snap ring and dust cover. shaft.
• Use pliers to install the snap ring into water • Use a bench press to press in the impeller.
pump body groove. • The impeller must be flush with the water pump
• Install the dust cover with the flange facing out. shaft end.
6. Use a bench press to gradually press the water
pump center onto the water pump shaft to the
specified dimension.

Dimension A: 202.9 mm (7.988 in)


7. Install the rear cover with new gasket to the water
pump body.
Cooling System 1B-21
1B-22 Cooling System

Thermostat
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Water Outlet Pipe 3. Gasket
2. Thermostat

Removal
1. Drain the coolant. Prepare the container for
discharging and use it for replenishment when
mounting the thermostat. Set the discharge of
cooling water such that the water does not flow out
of the thermostat housing.
2. Disconnect the water outlet pipe.
3. Remove the thermostat.
4. Remove the gasket from the thermostat.

Inspection
• Place the thermostat in water and increase the
temperature while stirring it sufficiently.
• Measure the temperature when the valve is just
opened and when it is fully open.
Cooling System 1B-23
Installation 6HK1
1. Mount the gasket on the thermostat and mount it at
the position shown in the figure.
• The thermostat with the jiggle valve (A) is
installed to the left side of the engine. The jiggle
valve faces the rear of engine.
• Fit the thermostat gasket ensuring that it does
not come out of and on top of the external
housing on the cylinder head side.

WSHK0024

Name
1. Thermostat

A 2. Connect the water outlet pipe.


Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

031EY00026

4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


3. Replenish the cooling water stored during the
discharge, and check the volume of the cooling
water.
Name
1. Thermostat
2. Cylinder Head
1B-24 Cooling System

Drive Belt
Components

Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley 5. Adjusting Bolt
2. Generator Drive Belt 6. Lock Nut
3. Bolt 7. Adjusting Plate
4. Generator 8. Water Pump Pulley

Inspection Drive Belts Adjustment


Check for the presence of wear or damage in the drive Adjustment procedure
belt and renew the parts if necessary. Adjust simultaneously the generator drive belt for
Check the tension of the belt and adjust if necessary. adjustment of belt.
Inspection procedure 1. Loosen the adjusting plate lock nuts and the
Apply a pressure of 98 N (22 lb) at the center of the mounting bolts of generator on the underside of
long span of each belt and check the deflection of the the generator.
belt. 2. Rotate the adjusting bolts of generator and adjust
the belt (remove and fit).
Deflection of generator drive belt
• When replacing the belt, you must always
When the belt is new replace both the belts.
8 to 12 mm (0.315 to 0.472 in) 3. After adjustments, tighten the adjusting plate lock
When the belt is reused nuts and the mounting bolts of generator on the
10 to 14 mm (0.394 to 0.551 in) underside of the generator using the specified
torque.

Tightening torque: 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 kg ft)


Cooling System 1B-25

Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley
2. Bolt
3. Generator
4. Adjusting Bolt
5. Lock Nut
6. Water Pump Pulley
7. Generator Drive Belt
1B-26 Cooling System
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Fuel System 1C-1

ENGINE
Fuel System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-2
Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-2
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-9
Fuel Filter ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-10
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-10
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-10
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-10
Fuel Filter Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-11
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-11
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-11
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-11
Fuel Injector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-12
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-12
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-13
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-16
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-20
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-21
Fuel Supply Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-22
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-22
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-23
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-24
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-27
Common Rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-28
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-28
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-29
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-31
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-32
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-32
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-35
1C-2 Fuel System

Fuel System
Precautions on Service Work • Immediately after removing the fuel hose and/or
fuel pipe, carefully tape vinyl bags over the
Parts of the fuel system such as the internal part of the
exposed ends of the hose or pipe.
fuel injector, holes and clearances that form passages
for fuel are finished to a very high degree of accuracy. • If parts are to be replaced (fuel hose, fuel pipe,
They are therefore highly sensitive to foreign matter etc.) do not open the new part packaging until
and the entry of foreign matter could cause damage to installation.
the fuel passage. Therefore, effective measures should Discard gaskets and O-rings and replace them with
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign matter. new ones.
If water removal agent is used in the fuel then it will Work procedure
absorb moisture in the light oil and may cause rust. • The fuel opening must be quickly sealed when
Therefore, do not use water removal agent in the fuel removing the fuel pipe, injection pipe, fuel injector,
tank. fuel supply pump, and common rail.
When servicing the fuel system, every precaution must
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign material into the • The eyebolts and gasket must be stored in a clean
system. parts box with a lid to prevent adhesion of foreign
matter.
• Before beginning the service procedure, wash the
fuel line and the surrounding area. • Fuel leakage could cause fires. Therefore, after
finishing the work, wipe off the fuel that has leaked
• Perform the service procedures with clean hands. out and make sure there is no fuel leakage after
Do not wear work gloves. starting the engine.

Explanations on functions and operation


Fuel system diagram

2 4HK1

3
1

6
7

5 6HK1

6 8

WSHK0068

Name
1. Common Rail 5. Fuel Tank
2. Fuel Filter 6. Supply Pump
3. Electromagnetic Pump 7. Fuel Injector
4. Pre-fuel Filter 8. Leak-Off Pipe
Fuel System 1C-3
Caution:
• Be careful foreign material does not into the fuel
system, because the precise fuel system is used.

Common rail
4HK1

Name
1. Flow Damper 3. Pressure Sensor
2. Pressure Limiter
1C-4 Fuel System
6HK1

MFW41DMF000201

Name
1. Flow Damper 3. Fuel Inlet
2. Pressure Limiter 4. Pressure Sensor
Fuel System 1C-5
Fuel supply pump
4HK1

Name
1. Fuel Temperature Sensor 4. Camshaft Key
2. Suction Control Valve 5. Camshaft Nut
3. High Pressure Pipe
1C-6 Fuel System
6HK1

1 3

WSHK0046
Name
1. Fuel Temperature Sensor 3. High Pressure Pipe
2. Suction Control Valve 4. Camshaft Key
Fuel System 1C-7
Fuel injector Fuel filter

Name Name
1. Terminal Stud 1. Priming Pump
2. Part for Mounting Leak Off Pipe 2. Air Bleed
3. O-ring 3. Case
4. Part for Mounting Injection Pipe 4. Drain Plug
5. Parts Number
6. ID Code Plate
Function check
Air bleeding
1. Before starting the engine
a. Fit a tray below the fuel filter (below the air
bleed plug).
b. Loosen the plug adequately and operate the
priming pump more than 20 times until the fuel
near the plug overflows.
c. Tighten the plug, and operate the priming pump
more than 10 times until it is filled with fuel.
After waiting for approximately a minute, loosen
the plug and bleed out the air in the fuel filter.
(This work must be repeated a minimum of
three times until no more air comes out from the
plug.)
d. Tighten the plug firmly and wipe the fuel in the
surrounding area. Operate the priming pump
(10 to 15 times) till it is filled with fuel and then
send fuel to the engine.
1C-8 Fuel System
2. After starting the engine
a. Start the engine by rotating the starter without
depressing the accelerator pedal.
b. After starting, maintain the idling rotation for 5
seconds.
c. Slowly rotate the idling control knob clockwise
and maintain it for 3 minutes.
d. Fully depress the accelerator pedal and
increase the rotations to maximum. (Repeat
this operation several times)
e. Rotate the idling knob counterclockwise and
return to idling mode.

Caution:
If the air bleeding work is insufficient then it could lead
to faults in the engine. Therefore, the procedures after
starting the engine should always be implemented.

Water drain
It is designed that the float inside of the water
sedimenter floats when water accumulates.
When the float level goes up to the aluminum body
section, be sure to drain the water.

Water draining procedure


Loosen the air bleed plug at the top of the water
sedimenter. Then loosen the drain plug to drain the
water inside of it. After draining, tighten each plug
Name
securely. Then bleed air from the fuel.
1. Fuel Pressure/Vacuum Gauge ASM
2. Fuel Pipe (Discharge Side)
Fuel system vacuum check
3. Fuel Pressure/Vacuum Gauge Adapter (4HK1
Use this procedure to measure the vacuum (negative only)
pressure) discharge side the fuel system.
4. Loosen the air bleeding plug on the supply pump.
Important:
5. Use your hand to operate the fuel filter priming
The fuel pressure/vacuum gauge ASM (gauge (1)) and
pump. Operate the pump until all the air has been
the fuel pressure/vacuum gauge adapter (adapter (3))
bled from the system.
must be cleaned before connecting to the fuel line.
Otherwise, foreign material adherent to the tools may 6. Start the engine and allow it to idle.
damage the fuel supply pump. 7. Note the gauge (1) reading. If the reading is
normal, go to Step 8. If the fuel vacuum is greater
1. Disconnect the fuel hose from the fuel filter than the specified value, there is a problem in the
housing. (fuel supply pump side). fuel system. Perform the procedures outlined
below.
2. Install the adapter.
Standard fuel vacuum Less than 17 kPa (170 mbar)
Special tool • Replace the cartridge fuel filter element.
Fuel pressure/vacuum gauge adapter (4HK1 only):
Use acceptable tools: • Check the fuel delivery pipe. If it is clogged, it must
be replaced.
3. Connect the gauge (1) with hose to the adapter
(3). • Remove the fuel pipe at the fuel filter inlet. Use
high-pressure air forced through the fuel pipe to
Special tool clean the fuel system.
Fuel pressure/vacuum gauge ASM:
Caution:
Use acceptable tools:
• Remove the fuel filler cap before applying high-
pressure air.
Fuel System 1C-9
• Do not perform this procedure if the fuel tank is
nearly full (fuel approaching or flowing into the fuel
filler neck). The forced air will spray fuel from the
fuel filler neck.
8. Remove the gauge (1) and hose from the adapter
(3).
9. Remove the adapter (3).
10. Connect the fuel hose.
11. Use your hand to operate the fuel filter priming
pump. Operate the pump until all the air has been
bled from the system.
12. Start the engine and allow it to idle.
13. Inspect the fuel system for fuel leakage.
1C-10 Fuel System

Fuel Filter ASM


Components

Name
1. Priming Pump
2. Air Bleed
3. Case
4. Drain Plug

Removal
1. Remove the feed hose and the return hose from
the fuel filter and plug it so that the fuel does not
flow out.
2. Remove the bolts for mounting the fuel filter.
3. Remove the fuel filter ASM.

Installation
1. Install the fuel filter ASM.
2. Install the bolts for mounting the fuel filter.
3. Install the feed hose and the return hose.
4. Bleed out the air.
• Refer to “Fuel System”.
Fuel System 1C-11

Fuel Filter Element


Removal Special tool
Main filter wrench: 380.002.630
1. Remove the case using the filter wrench.

Special tool Special Tool


Main filter wrench: 380.002.630
2. Remove the Fuel Filter element. Illustration Tool Number/Description

380.002.630
Main filter wrench

Name
1. Priming Pump
2. Air Bleed
3. Case
4. Drain Plug

Installation
1. Assemble the Fuel Filter element.
2. To simplify air bleed, fill light oil in the case.
3. Tighten the case by hand. During this process take
adequate care that the light oil that is inside does
not flow out.
4. Use the filter wrench and tighten rotating by 1/3 to
2/3.
1C-12 Fuel System

Fuel Injector
Components
4HK1
Fuel System 1C-13
6HK1

11
8

7
10
12

5 3

1
2

WSHK0162

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip 7. EGR Adapter
2. Fuel Injection Pipe 8. EGR Cooler
3. Fuel Injector Leak-Off Pipe 9. EGR Valve
4. Fuel Injector 10. Cylinder Head Cover
5. Fuel Injector Clamp 11. Fuel Injector Harness Bracket
6. Fuel Injector Clamp Bolt 12. Fuel Injector Terminal

The fuel system consists of many tiny holes and Caution:


spaces that allow the movement of fuel from one place To avoid electric shock;
to another. These holes and spaces are milled to Set the switch to the ‘OFF’ position and disconnect
extremely high precision. This is especially true of the battery negative cable before checking or repairing the
fuel injectors. fuel injector, wiring or/and connectors.
The fuel injector is very sensitive to foreign material. Removal
Foreign material will result in fuel system breakdown.
1. Remove the engine harness, the EGR valve, the
Exercise great care not to allow the entry of foreign
pressure sensor, and all of the fuel injector
material into the fuel system or fuel injectors during the
connectors.
removal and installation procedure.
2. Remove the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.
1C-14 Fuel System
3. Tape the EGR case holes shut to prevent the entry
of foreign material.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
6HK1 1. Cylinder Head Cover

5. Alternately loosen the fuel injector terminal nuts a


2
little at a time in sequence. Several loosening
cycles should be required before the nuts are
loose.
6. Loosen the fuel injector harness bracket bolts.
Remove the inside connector and the harness
bracket.
7. Remove the fuel injector leak-off pipe.
1 8. Remove the lower cover.

WSHK0163

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve

4. Remove the cylinder head cover.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Harness Bracket
2. Harness Connector
3. Fuel Injector Terminal
4. Fuel Leak Off Pipe
Fuel System 1C-15
9. Remove the fuel injection pipe clips and the
injection pipes.
4HK1

6HK1

Name
1. Sliding Hammer
2. Remover
3. Fuel Injector ASM

11. Mark each fuel injector with the number of the


cylinder from which it was removed. Store the fuel
injectors in a safe place. Position the fuel injector
so that the nozzle is protected.

Caution:
WSHK0021
• Do not tamper with the electromagnetic portion of
the fuel injector. Reduced electromagnetic function
Name will result in injector failure.
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Pipe Clip Recording Fuel Injector Flow Rate Information from
the QR plate on the replaced injector housing;
10. Loosen the fuel injector clamp fixing bolts and Record all numbers of replaced fuel injector's from QR
remove the fuel injectors. plate.
If the fuel injectors are difficult to remove, use the fuel
injector remover. Install the fuel injector remover to the
leak-off pipe attachment part on the fuel injector. Use a
sliding hammer to force the fuel injector clamp off the
fuel injector.

Caution:
Do not remove the fuel injector sleeve.

Special tool
Fuel injector remover: 380.002.601
Sliding hammer: 5-8840-0019 (J-23907)
1C-16 Fuel System
3. Install the fuel injector clamps to the cylinder head.
4. Temporarily tighten the clamp bolts.
5. Apply a thin coat of engine oil to the outer surface
of the fuel injector side sleeve nuts.
6. Install the fuel injector pipes to the position shown
in the illustration.
7. Use a spanner to carefully the sleeve nuts until the
fuel injector pipes contact the fuel injector and
common rail.
8. Tighten the fuel injection pipe clips to the specified
torque.

Tightening torque: 6 N⋅m (0.6 kg⋅m/53 lb in)

Name
1. QR Plate
2. Fuel Injector Flow Rate
3. Fuel Injector

Installation
Important:
Install each of the fuel injectors on its original position.
(the cylinder from which it was removed)
1. Install a new gasket and O-ring to each of the fuel
injector clamps. Refer to the illustration.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Pipe Clip

9. Final tighten the injection clamp bolts to the


specified torque.

Tightening torque: 30 N⋅m (3.1 kg⋅m/22 lb ft)


10. Tighten the injection pipes to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 44 N⋅m (4.5 kg⋅m/32 lb ft)

Name
1. Gasket
2. Fuel Injector
3. Bolt
4. Fuel Injector Clamp

2. Apply molybdenum to the threads and seating


surfaces of the clamp bolts.
Fuel System 1C-17
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6HK1
Name
1. Clamp Bolt
2. Sleeve Nut

11. Install the nozzle leak off pipes together with the
new gaskets. Tighten the pipes to the specified
torque.

Tightening torque: 12 N⋅m (1.2 kg⋅m/106 lb in)

WSHK0028
14. Install the fuel injector terminal nuts to the injector.
15. Alternately tighten each nut 2 or 3 turns at a time
until the specified torque is reached.

Tightening torque: 2 N⋅m (0.2 kg⋅m/18 lb in)

Caution:
Do not overtighten the nuts. Damage to the terminal
studs will result.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
12. Install the fuel injector harness connectors. Work
from the inside out.
13. Install the harness bracket and tighten the bolts to
the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 48 N⋅m (4.9 kg⋅m/35 lb ft)
6HK1: 22 N⋅m (2.2 kg⋅m/16 lb ft)
1C-18 Fuel System
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

Name
1. Fuel Injector * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
2. Harness
Name
3. Terminal Nut
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve
16. Install the gasket to the cylinder head cover.
17. Install the cylinder head cover and tighten the bolts 20. Attach the engine harness connectors. Each
to the specified torque. composite connector should make a loud click
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 18 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13 lb ft) when it is securely attached.
6HK1: 13 N⋅m (1.3 kg⋅m/9.6 lb ft) Before Programming the Fuel Injector Flow Rate
Important:
DO NOT program the fuel injector flow rate unless you
are directed by a service procedure or you are directed
by a service bulletin. Programming the fuel injector at
any other time will not permanently correct a customers
concern.
Ensure the following conditions are met before
programming the ECM.
• System voltage for machine
– There is no charging system concern. All
charging system concerns must be repaired
before programming the ECM.
– Battery voltage is greater than 12 volts but less
than 16 volts. The battery must be charged
before programming the ECM if the battery
voltage is low.
– A battery charger is NOT connected to the
machine’s battery. Incorrect system voltage or
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. voltage fluctuations from a battery charger may
cause programming failure or ECM damage.
Name
1. Cylinder Head Cover – Turn OFF or disable and system that may put a
load on the machine’s battery.
18. Install the gasket to the EGR valve and tighten the • The ignition switch is in the proper position. DO
bolts to the specified torque. NOT change the position of the ignition switch
during the programming procedure, unless
Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft) instructed to do so.
19. Install the gasket to the EGR adapter and tighten • All tool connections are secure.
the bolts to the specified torque. – RS-232
Fuel System 1C-19
– The connection at the data link connector
(DLC) is secure.
– Voltage supply circuit
• DO NOT disturb the tool harness while
programming. If an interruption occurs during the
programming procedure, programming failure or
ECM damage may occur.
• Surrounding environment
– Surrounding temperature must be between 0
and 50°C (32 and 122°F) during the
programming procedure. Excessively low or
high temperature may cause the programming
failure or ECM damage.
– Electromagnetic interference (EMI) on the tool
harness and ECM may cause the programming
failure or ECM damage.
Fuel Injector Flow Rate Programming Procedure
1. Connect the scan tool to the data link connector.
2. Connect the RS-232 to the scan tool and PC.
3. Start TIS 2000 and select the Service
Programming System (SPS).
4. In the "Select Diagnostic Tool and Programming
Process" screen, select the following menu.
• Diagnostic tool "Pass-Thru".
• Select Programming Process "Reprogram
ECU".
• ECU Location on the “Machine”.
Then, follow the SPS screen instructions.
5. Ensure that ALL programming contents are
entered correctly and were programmed
successfully by turning OFF the ignition for 30
seconds.
6. Using the scan tool to check each programmed
fuel injector flow rate.
7. Start the engine and let idle.
8. Inspect for a proper engine running condition and
for no DTCs. Refer to the “Diagnostic System
Check − Engine Control” if needed.
1C-20 Fuel System
Torque Specifications

4HK1 : 48 (4.9 / 35) N m(kg m/lb ft)


6HK1 : 22 (2.2 / 16)

2 (0.2 / 1.5)

4HK1 : 18 (1.8 / 13)


6HK1 : 13 (1.3 / 9.6)

12 (1.2 / 8.9)
30 (3.0 / 22)

24 (2.4 / 17)

6 (0.6 / 4.4)
44 (4.5 / 32)
WSHK0047

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Fuel System 1C-21
Special Tool
Illustration Tool Number/Description

5-8840-0019-0
J-23907
Sliding hammer

380.002.601
Fuel injector remover
1C-22 Fuel System

Fuel Supply Pump


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe 5. Bracket
2. Fuel Pipe 6. Bracket O-ring
3. Fuel Supply Pump 7. Drive Gear
4. O-ring 8. Oil Drain Adapter

The fuel system consists of many tiny holes and


spaces that allow the movement of fuel from one place
to another. These holes and spaces are milled to
extremely high precision. This is especially true of the
fuel injectors.
The fuel injector is very sensitive to foreign material.
Foreign material will result in fuel system breakdown.
Exercise great care not to allow the entry of foreign
material into the fuel system or fuel injectors during the
removal and installation procedure.
Fuel System 1C-23
Removal
1. Remove the intake pipe and case ASM.
2. Remove the fuel pipe and fuel leak-off pipe.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6. Use a gear puller to remove the fuel supply pump
gear and the bracket O-ring.

6HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

WSHK0048 7. Loosen the 3 bolts holding the fuel supply pump


bracket. Remove the bracket and the O-ring.
3. Disconnect the fuel feed hose.
4. Disconnect the connector of fuel temperature Caution:
sensor and the common rail pressure regulator • Do not hold the high pressure pipe, during the
from the fuel supply pump. supply pump removal procedure.
5. Remove the fuel supply pump. • Do not grasp the high pressure pipe, when moving
the supply pump form one location to another.
Note:
A single bolt (1) secures the pump and the flywheel
housing.
1C-24 Fuel System

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. * 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name Name
1. Fuel Supply Pump 1. Fuel Supply Pump
2. O-ring 2. O-ring
3. Fuel Supply Pump Bracket 3. Fuel Supply Pump Bracket

3. Align the fuel supply pump shaft key and gear.


Install the gear and tighten the nut to the specified
Installation torque.
1. Install the O-ring to the fuel supply pump. There is a round alignment mark on the gear (white
2. Install the pump to the bracket and tighten the 3 paint).
bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 64 N⋅m (6.5 kg⋅m/47 lb ft)
Tightening torque: 19 N⋅m (1.9 kg⋅m/14 lb ft)

Caution:
Take care not to twist the O-ring.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Fuel Supply Pump
2. Fuel Supply Pump Gear
3. Nut
Fuel System 1C-25
4. Apply white paint to the top of the fuel supply pump 6HK1
gear tooth directly above the stamped ‘O’ mark.
Refer to the illustration.

WSHK0049
6. Remove the oil drain adapter.
7. Install the O-ring to the fuel supply pump.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
8. Align the slits as shown in the illustration.
5. Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of
9. Insert the stud bolts into the guides and
engine rotation until the No. 1 or No. 4 cylinder is
temporarily tighten them.
at TDC on the compression stroke.
Refer to the illustration. Caution:
4HK1 • If the stud bolts (cylinder block side) have been
loosened or replaced, apply Loctite 262 to the
recessed portion of the bolts.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


• Check that the round alignment mark (white paint)
is positioned as shown in the illustration when
viewed from the plug hole. If necessary, reposition
the gear.
• Tighten the stud bolts and the nuts to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque Nut: 50 N⋅m (5.1 kg⋅m/37 lb ft)
Bolt: 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 lb ft)
1C-26 Fuel System
14. Install the case ASM.
• Apply the liquid gasket and mount within 7
minutes.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Plug Hole
2. Alignment Mark

10. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the O-ring.


6HK1
11. Install the oil drain adapter to the plug hole.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 8 N⋅m (0.8 kg⋅m/71 lb in)

WSHK0050
15. Install the fuel pipe and fuel leak-off pipe.
16. Start and idle the engine.

Important:
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
In order to make the fuel supply pump characteristic
Name learn into the ECM, let the engine idle until warm-up. If
1. Oil Drain Adapter the fuel system DTC' stored in the meantime, once
2. O-ring clear DTD and warm-up the engine again.

12. Connect the fuel temperature sensor and the


suction control valve connectors to the fuel supply
pump.
13. Connect the fuel feed hose.
Fuel System 1C-27
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


1C-28 Fuel System

Common Rail
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe 6. Injection Pipe Clip
2. Fuel Pipe 7. Injection Pipe (#1 to #4)
3. EGR Valve 8. Common Rail
4. EGR Cooler 9. Common Rail Bracket
5. EGR Adapter
Fuel System 1C-29
6HK1

WSHK0165

Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe 5. EGR Adapter
2. Fuel Pipe 6. Injection Pipe Clip
3. EGR Valve 7. Injection Pipe (#1 to #6)
4. EGR Cooler 8. Common Rail

Parts of the fuel system such as the internal part of the • Cover the removed fuel hose with a lid, keep it
fuel injector, holes and clearances that form passages facing upward and secure it using wire, etc.
for fuel are finished to a very high degree of accuracy.
They are therefore highly sensitive to foreign matter Note:
and the entry of foreign matter could cause damage to Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
the fuel passage. Therefore, effective measures should prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign matter. system.
3. Disconnect the connected of common rail pressure
sensor, and all the connectors.
Removal
4. Remove the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.
1. Remove the air intake pipe. 5. Tape the EGR case holes shut to prevent the entry
• Disconnect the connector for the intake air of foreign material.
temperature sensor.
2. Remove the fuel leak off hose from the leak off
pipe.
1C-30 Fuel System
4HK1 4HK1

6HK1 6HK1

2 1
2

WSHK0166 WSHK0167

Name Name
1. EGR Adapter 1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. EGR Valve 2. Pipe Clip

6. Remove the injection pipe clip and remove the 7. Remove the fuel pipe.
injection pipes.
Note:
Note: Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
Cover the areas exposed during part removal to prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel system.
system. 8. Remove the clip and the fuel leak off pipe.

Note:
Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
system.
Fuel System 1C-31
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe 1. Common Rail Bracket (4HK1)
2. Common Rail
6HK1

Disassembly
1. Remove the fuel pressure limiter.
4HK1

WSHK0051
Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe

9. Remove the common rail and the common rail


bracket.

Caution:
• Do not grasp the pressure sensor, during the
common rail removal procedure.
• Take care not to damage the connector unit of the
pressure sensor.
1C-32 Fuel System
6HK1 6HK1

3 3

1 1

2 2

WSHK0168 WSHK0168

Name Name
1. Common Rail 1. Common Rail
2. Pressure Sensor 2. Pressure Sensor
3. Pressure Limiter 3. Pressure Limiter

Reassembly Installation
1. Install the fuel pressure limiter. 1. Tighten the common rail bracket to the specified
Tightening torque: 172 N⋅m (17.5 kg⋅m/127 lb ft) torque. (4HK1)
Tightening torque: 19 N⋅m (1.9 kg⋅m/14 lb ft)
4HK1
2. Tighten the common rail to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 19 N⋅m (1.9 kg⋅m/14 lb ft)
6HK1: 25 N⋅m (2.5 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

Caution:
• Do not grasp the pressure sensor, during the
common rail removal procedure.
• Take care not to damage the connector unit of the
pressure sensor.
Fuel System 1C-33
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6HK1
Name
1. Common Rail Bracket (4HK1)
2. Common Rail

3. Tighten the fuel leak off pipe (1) using the


mounting eyebolt and the clip using the specified
torque. 3

Tightening torque 7
4HK1 (2): 18 N⋅m (1.8 kg⋅m/13 lb ft)
6HK1 (2): 10 N⋅m (1.0 kg⋅m/7.4 lb ft)
4HK1 (3): 12 N⋅m (1.2 kg⋅m/106 lb in) 1
6HK1 (3): 14.2 N⋅m (1.4 kg⋅m/126 lb in) 6
4HK1 (4): 8 N⋅m (0.8 kg⋅m/71 lb in)
4HK1 (7): 6 N⋅m (0.6 kg⋅m/53 lb in)
6HK1 (7): 8.8 N⋅m (0.9 kg⋅m/78 lb in)
8 5
2
4. Tighten the fuel pipe (5) using the mounting sleeve
nut and the specified torque.
WSHK0169
Tightening torque (6): 44 N⋅m (4.5 kg⋅m/32 lb ft)
5. Tighten the injection pipe and the clip using the
(8): 44 N⋅m (4.5 kg⋅m/32 lb ft)
specified mounting torque.
Injection pipe sleeve nut
Tightening torque: 44 N⋅m (4.5 kg⋅m/32 lb ft)

Injection pipe clip


Tightening torque: 6 N⋅m (0.6 kg⋅m/53 lb in)
• Apply a thin coat of engine oil on the periphery of
the sleeve nut on the fuel injector side and
assemble.
1C-34 Fuel System
4HK1 4HK1

6HK1 6HK1

1 2
2

WSHK0167 WSHK0166

Name Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe 1. EGR Adapter
2. Pipe Clip 2. EGR Valve

6. Install the gasket to the EGR valve and tighten the


bolts to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


7. Install the gasket to the EGR adapter and tighten
the bolts to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)


Fuel System 1C-35
Torque Specifications
4HK1
1C-36 Fuel System
6HK1

N.m
N m(kg m/lb
(lb ft)

39 (4.0 / 29)

6 (0.6 / 4) 24 (2.4 / 17)


44 (4.5 / 33)

24 {17}
(2.4 / 17)

25 (2.5 / 18.4)

8.8 (0.9 / 6.5)

19.6 (2.0 / 14.5)

44 (4.5
{33} / 33)

10 (1.0 / 7.4)

WSHK0172
Engine Electrical 1D-1

ENGINE
Engine Electrical
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Service Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-2
General Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-2
Charging System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-3
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-3
Generator (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-5
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-5
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-6
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-6
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-7
Starting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-14
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-14
On-vehicle Service: Starting System . . . . . . . .1D-15
Starter (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-16
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-16
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-17
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-17
Main Data and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-18
Preheating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-26
Glow Plug Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-26
Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-27
A List of Defective Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-27
Main Data and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-28
Starter (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-29
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-29
Sectional view (reference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-30
Output Characteristic (reference). . . . . . . . . . .1D-31
Disassembly and Inspection of Starter. . . . . . .1D-32
Assembly of Starter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-38
No Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-42
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-42
Generator (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-43
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-43
Charging Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-43
Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-44
Disassembly and Inspection of Generator . . . .1D-45
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-49
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-51
Bench Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-52
Trouble Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-53
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-53
1D-2 Engine Electrical

Service Precautions
General Procedure
When fasteners are removed, always reinstall them at
the same location from which they were removed. If a
fastener needs to be replaced, use the correct part
number fastener for that application. If the correct part
number fastener is not available, a fastener of equal
size and strength (or stronger) may be used. Fasteners
that are not reused, and those requiring thread locking
compound will be called out. The correct torque value
must be used when installing fasteners that require it. If
the above conditions are not followed, parts or system
damage could result.
Engine Electrical 1D-3

Charging System
General Description
The main charging system components are the
batteries, the generator and the battery discharge
indicator light circuit. The generator is a 120-amp,
selfrectifying type with a built-in regulator. The battery
discharge indicator light is mounted in the instrument
panel.

ACG
11

10

12 13

5
4
2

WSHK0053
Name
1. Generator 8. Plate
2. Lower Mount Bolt 9. Bolt
3. Nut 10. ACG Adjust Bolt
4. Spring Washer 11. Sliding Piece
5. Washer 12. Washer
6. Bracket 13. Adjust Nut
7. Bracket Mount Bolt
1D-4 Engine Electrical
Maintenance Electrical Tests
The most common indication of charging system Before performing the following generator electrical
troubles is an undercharged or overcharged battery. tests on the vehicle, be certain that the system wiring is
Since the battery itself may be defective, the first step not defective and generator belts are not slipping. Also,
should be to check its condition as described under the battery must be fully charged for a valid test of the
“Diagnosis of Battery.” In the case of an undercharged charging system.
battery, check for battery drain caused by grounds or Notice:
by accessories left turned on. To avoid damage to the vehicle electrical system,
Keep the generator and all other electrical system always observe the following precautions:
terminals clean and tight. A loose or badly corroded • Do not polarize the generator.
terminal connection will create excessive resistance in
• Do not short across or ground any of the terminals
the system and result in hard starting, dim lights etc.
in the charging circuit except as specifically
Inspect the generator system at regular intervals and
instructed herein.
correct any potential causes of trouble before machine
performance is affected. • NEVER operate the generator with the output
terminal open-circuited.
Diagnosis of Charging System
• Be sure the generator and battery have the same
Trouble in the charging system will be evidenced as ground polarity.
one or more of the following three conditions:
• When connecting a charger or booster battery to
1. The battery discharge warning light will stay on. the vehicle battery, connect negative to negative
2. An undercharged battery as evidenced by slow and positive to positive.
cranking. 1. With the engine control switch “ON” and engine not
3. An overcharge, or overvoltage, condition. running, connect a voltmeter from terminal “E” to
ground. The voltmeter should show 0 volts.
Undercharged Battery 2. With the engine control switch “ON,” and engine
Inspection not running, connect a voltmeter from terminal “B”
1. Accessories to be sure none were left on for to ground. The voltmeter should read at least 24
extended periods. volts.
2. Drive belt for proper tension. Refer to “Generator 3. With the engine control switch “ON” and the engine
Drive Belt” later in this section. not running, connect a voltmeter from white wire
side of the connector to ground. The voltmeter
3. The ECM main relay has been ON stuck at the should show 24 volts.
ignition switch OFF position. (Battery voltage is
consumed.) 4. With the engine control switch “ON” and the engine
not running, the “charge” light should be on. This
4. Refer to “Diagnosis of Battery” earlier in this shows that the other circuit in the connection is
section. working.
5. Wiring and connections for corrosion or looseness. 5. With the engine running and the headlight high
Overcharge (or Overvoltage) condition beams turned on, read the voltage at the “B” post
A charging rate in excess of 29.5-volts for a prolonged on the generator. The voltmeter should read at
period may cause early electrical system failure. least 24 volts.
Blown fuses. light bulbs burned out, and even battery 6. If steps 1 through 4 are not OK, check connectors
failure may result. If this condition exists, test the in the harness for looseness or corrosion and
generator as described under “Generator Output Test” retest.
later in this section. 7. If step 5 voltage is low, substitute a known good
regulator and test again. If the voltage is still low,
Noisy Generator bench test the generator.
Inspection
1. Drive pulley for looseness.
2. Mounting bolts for looseness.
3. Bearings for dirt, damage, or wear.
• Generator noise may also be caused by worn or
damaged diodes and/or starter.
Engine Electrical 1D-5

Generator (4HK1)

Removal
• Battery negative cable.
1. Electrical wiring at the generator.
2. Loosen the adjust nut.
3. Loosen the ACG adjust bolt.
4. Loosen the lower mount bolt.
5. Drive belt
1D-6 Engine Electrical
6. Generator. 2. ACG Adjust bolt.
3. Adjust nut.
Installation Tightening torque:
Lower Mount Bolt 76 N⋅m (7.7 kg⋅m/56 lb ft)
1. Generator.
Tightening torque: 4. Electrical wiring at the generator.
Lower Mount Bolt 127 N⋅m (13.0 kg⋅m/94 lb ft) • Battery negative cable.

Torque Specifications

N m(kg m/lb ft)

52(5.3 / 38)

ACG

68(6.9 / 50)

127(13 / 94)

52(5.3 / 38)

WSHK0054
Engine Electrical 1D-7
Specifications Connector terminal

Isuzu Part No. 8973750170 Wire


Terminal symbol Lead wire color
specifications
Nominal output (V-A) 24-50
R R AEX 0.75f
Rated speed (rpm) 5000
L L AEX 0.75f
Regulator-type IC type
Regulated voltage (V) 28.5±1
Weight (kg) 9.5

1 2

WSHK0101
Name
1. R Terminal
2. L Terminal

Internal connections

SG L

IC
REGULATOR

WSHK0102
1D-8 Engine Electrical
Disassembly of generator

5
6
12
7
8 3

11
10 9
13
18
15
14

19

23
21
20
2
1

17

16
22

WSHK0103
Disassembly Procedure
1. Screw 13. Collar
2. Cover 14. Ball Bearing
3. Through Bolt 15. Rotor Assembly
4. Rotor, Front Bracket Assembly 16. Screw
5. Nut, Washer 17. Field Coil Assembly
6. Pulley 18. Stator Assembly
7. Fan 19. Holder
8. Collar 20. Regulator Assembly
9. Screw 21. Bolt (B terminal)
10. Retainer 22. Condenser
11. Ball Bearing 23. Rectifier Assembly
12. Front Bracket Assembly is the reverse order of disassembly.
Engine Electrical 1D-9
Inspection and repair of generator 3. Diode for initiating excitation, Resistor
Check the continuity between connector terminals
1. Diode
R and L with a tester (at Ω × 100 range). Normal
Check the continuity of forward and inverse
diodes and resistors show low resistance in
directions with a tester. Normal diodes show low
forward direction and high resistance in inverse
resistance in forward direction and high resistance
one.
in inverse one.
Judge that they are faulty other than those above.
Judge that they are faulty other than those above.

WSHK0106
WSHK0104
4. Field coil
2. Condenser
Charge the condenser with a tester (at Ω × 1000 • To judge the insulating condition of field coil,
range), and connect a tester lead inversely. Judge measure between the protrusion portions and core
it as normal if the needle on a meter deflects a little of the coil with a tester (at Ω × 1000 range). Judge
and returns to the original position. as faulty if it has continuity.
Judge that they are faulty other than those above.

WSHK0107
WSHK0105
1D-10 Engine Electrical
• Measure between the protrusion portions of field • Judge as normal if there is continuity between N
coil with a tester, and judge as normal if the lead of stator coil and three leads.
resistance is about 6.7Ω (20°C {68°F}).

WSHK0110
WSHK0108 6. Bearing
5. Stator coil • Check if the bearing rotates smoothly or has no
• To judge the insulating condition of stator coil, noise.
measure between the stator coil and core with a If the result of the inspection is unsatisfactory,
tester (at Ω × 1000 range). Judge as faulty if it has replace the bearing.
continuity.

WSHK0111
WSHK0109
Engine Electrical 1D-11
Performance test
In the performance test of generator, connect as
follows and measure the regulated voltage and output
current.
Actual wiring diagram for performance test of IC regulator built-in generator

2 3 SW 1 SW 2

1 V E 6 7

WSHK0112
Disassembly Procedure
1. Voltmeter 5. Clamp Tester Ammeter
2. R Terminal 6. Battery 24 V
3. L Terminal 7. Variable Resistor
4. Charging Lamp 24 V-3 W

Regulated voltage measurement of regulator Measurement of the output current


Close SW1 switch, and warm-up five to ten minutes at Close SW1 and SW2 switches, and raise the generator
approx. 1500 rpm in generator until an ammeter shows speed to 5000 rpm. While keeping the voltmeter
6 A or less. showing 27 V, measure the maximum value of output
After confirming that an ammeter shows between 2 and current with a variable resistor.
6 A, set the generator between approx. 3000 to 4000 In this time, judge as normal if the output current is 50
rpm. If an voltmeter shows between 27.5 and 29.5 V, A or more.
the regulated voltage of regulator is normal.
If the ammeter shows 6 A or more, charge the battery Caution:
for a while or replace it with full-charged battery. • Do not cut off battery circuit during generator
Replace the regulator if the voltmeter shows out of rotating.
range between 27.5 and 29.5 V. • Do not connect to L terminal if the charging lamp
(24 V-3 W) is not used.
Specified value of regulated voltage
Never connect L terminal and B circuit directly.
27.5 V — 29.5 V (+25°C {77°F}) Diode for excitation may be broken.
1D-12 Engine Electrical
Handling of generator
Be careful with the following when handling a
generator.
• Connecting the polarities of battery inversely
causes generator diode to be broken.
• While the engine runs, NEVER disconnect the
wiring of battery terminal and charging circuit.
• Wiring connection to terminal must be performed
properly according to terminal symbol.
• Do not perform megger test on semiconductor
device.
• Be sure to disconnect the battery terminal (−)
before inspection on equipment.
• Do not open/close the battery relay switch while
the engine runs.
• Disconnect the battery terminal when charging
from external source such as quick charge.
• Do not pour steam cleaner or water directly on it.
• After connecting to B terminal and E terminal,
tighten them to the following torque.
B terminal 4.9 N⋅m {50 kgf⋅cm/43 lb in}
E terminal 4.9 N⋅m {50 kgf⋅cm/43 lb in}
• Refer to “Belt Adjustment” for tension adjustment
of V-belt.
Engine Electrical 1D-13
Trouble and Action

Action to be
Trouble symptom Trouble location Trouble cause
taken
Charging is Wiring and Open or short circuit, disconnection
Repair
impossible. ammeter
Generator. Open circuit, short to ground, short circuit in each coil Replace
Broken diode Replace
Regulator Defective regulator. Replace
Poor contact in terminal of regulator Repair
Insufficient Wiring Open or short circuit, looseness in connection Repair
charging
Generator. Looseness of generator driven belt Repair
Layer or short circuit in field coil Replace
Layer or short circuit in stator coil Replace
Defective diode Replace
Poor contact in each terminal Repair
Regulator Defective regulator. Replace
Poor contact in terminal of regulator Repair
Excessive Regulator Defective regulator.
Replace
charging
Unstable charging Wiring Intermittent contact or nearly disconnected connection
Repair
current in wiring
Generator. Looseness of generator driven belt Repair
Short circuit or nearly disconnected connection in field
Repair
coil
Short circuit or nearly disconnected connection in stator
Repair
coil
Poor contact in each terminal Repair
Regulator Defective regulator. Replace
Poor contact in terminal of regulator Repair
Noisy generator Generator. Improper installation of generator Repair
Defective bearing Replace
Contact of rotor core and stator core Repair
Defective diode Replace
Short circuit in stator coil Replace
1D-14 Engine Electrical

Starting System
General Description

Starter and Glow Plug Relays


The starter is a 5 kilowatt, non-reduction drive model. The starter circuit starts at the batteries. The battery
The gear housing and armature end bearing housings cable goes to the large terminal on the starter.
are aluminum. The brush ASM has replaceable From that terminal wires lead to the engine control
brushes. The commutator bars are mica insulated and switch and the starter relay.
are undercut.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Starter 3. Ground Cable
2. Nut 4. Bolt

Maintenance
Keep the starter’s exterior clean. Remove corrosion
from the terminals, leads, and connectors.
Tighten the starter to engine mounting bolts and the
electrical cable retaining nuts.
Engine Electrical 1D-15
Diagnosis of Starting System If the voltage is less than 0.5 volt, measure the voltage
at the battery cable terminal on the starter. If the
No Cranking, No Sound voltage is 18 volts or more, repair the starter. If the
• Discharged batteries. Turn on the headlights and voltage is less than 18 volts, clean and tighten the
check the brightness. If the headlights are dim, positive cable connections. If the voltage is still less
charge the batteries. Check for the cause of the than 18 volts, replace the positive cable.
discharged batteries.
• Sulfated battery terminals. Turn on the headlights. On-vehicle Service: Starting System
The headlights will be bright. Attempt to start the
engine. The headlights will be very dim or go out. Maintenance
Clean all the battery terminals and cable ends.
Keep starter terminals and all other terminals in the
• A starter that draws too much current. electrical system clean tight. A loose or corroded
• Starter relay won’t work. Attempt to start and listen connection or terminal will cause excessive resistance
for a “click” at the starter relay. If there is no “click,” in the system that will result in hard starting. At regular
check the starter relay control terminals with a test intervals, inspect the starting system to locate and
light. If the test light shows that power is getting to correct potential causes of trouble before the system
the starter relay, check the ground circuit with the performance is affected. Starting motors do not require
test light. If the ground circuit is OK, replace the lubrication.
starter relay.
• Engine control switch start circuit won’t close.
With the engine control switch turned to start,
check the starter relay with a test light. If the test
light doesn’t come on, check the starter circuit at
the engine control switch with the test light. If the
test light comes on, check the harness for an open
and repair. If the test light does not come on,
replace the engine control switch.
• Starter relay power circuit isn’t closing. Attempt to
start. The starter relay “clicks.” Check the
secondary terminals with a test light. If the test light
lights on the battery side only, replace the starter
relay. If the test light lights on both terminals, check
for an open at the starter.
• Starter clicks when start is attempted. Check all
power connections for corrosion. Clean
connections if corrosion is present. Terminal on
starter should have at least 18 volts on it when
cranking the engine. If voltage is OK, replace the
starter.

Slow Cranking, Solenoid Clicks or Chatters


• Discharged batteries. Turn on the headlights and
check the brightness. If the headlights are dim,
charge the batteries. Check for cause of
discharged batteries.
• Check the battery terminal for corrosion. Hint: Test
for warm terminals. Clean all the battery terminals
and connectors.
• Loose or dirty connections. Measure the cranking
voltage at the battery terminals. If the voltage is
less than 18 volts, load test the battery. If the
battery is bad, replace the battery. If the battery is
good, repair the starter.
If the voltage is 18 volts or more, measure the voltage
from the battery NEGATIVE terminal to the engine
block. If the voltage is 0.5 volt or more, repair the
ground cable and connections.
1D-16 Engine Electrical

Starter (4HK1)

Removal
1. Battery negative cable from the battery.
2. Cables and electrical leads from the starter.
3. Two mount nuts.
4. Starter.
Engine Electrical 1D-17
Installation 3. Cables and electrical leads to the starter.
1. Starter 4. Battery negative cable to the battery.
2. Two mount nuts.
Tightening torque:
Mount nuts 82.4 N⋅m (8.4 kg⋅m/61 lb ft)

Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


1D-18 Engine Electrical
Main Data and Specifications

Model (Manufacturer) Nikko Electric Industry Co., Ltd


Rating Voltage V 24
Power output kw 5
Time Sec. 30
Number of pinion teeth 11
Revolution direction (viewed from pinion side) Clockwise
Weight (approx.) N {kg} 78.4 {8}
No load Current/Voltage A/V 85 or less/24
characteristic
Speed rpm 3300 or more
Load characteristic Current/Voltage A/V 500 or less/18.5
Torque N⋅m {kgf⋅m} 28.4 {2.9} or more
Speed rpm 1250 or more
Locking Current/Voltage A/V 1400 or less/9
characteristic
Torque N⋅m {kgf⋅m} 88.2 {9.0} or more
Engine Electrical 1D-19
Connections (Nikko Electric Industry Co., Ltd)

S.S
S

B
P1

C3 C

P2
B

C2 C1
M

Fc

Ar

1 4 3

WSHK0113
Name
1. Starter Relay 3. Motor
2. Battery 4. Magnetic Switch

S.S Starter switch


Ar Armature
Fc Field coil
C1 Pressure coil
C2 Holding coil
C3 Starter relay coil
P1 Sub contactor
P2 Main contactor
1D-20 Engine Electrical
Disassembly of starter
24 V 5.0KW (Nikko Electric Industry Co., Ltd)

19

16
17 12
18
27 20 13
21 15
14
4 26
2
1 25
24
22
23
3
7

6
8
9

10

11
WSHK0114
Name
1. Clip Ring 15. Ball
2. Pinion Stopper, Pinion, Spring 16. Rubber Bushing
3. Lead Wire 17. Plate
4. Bolt 18. Spring
5. Magnetic Switch 19. Pin
6. Screw 20. Holder
7. Bolt 21. Shift Lever
8. Rear Bracket 22. E Clip
9. Brush Holder ASM 23. Overrunning Clutch ASM
10. Yoke ASM 24. Internal Gear
11. Armature 25. Washer
12. Cover 26. Drive Shaft ASM
13. Packing 27. Front Bracket ASM
14. Idle Gear Assembly is the reverse order of disassembly.
Engine Electrical 1D-21
Inspection and repair of starter Contact Point Check
Service limit of contact point is judged by damaged
1. Magnetic switch
condition on contact surface in the following procedure.
Never perform operational check on magnetic
Measure the load current on starter. Replace it if
switch as single unit.
voltage drop between terminals B and M is 0.3 V or
Inspection of coil more per 100 A.
• Check the pressure coil C1 and holding coil C2 for
open circuit using a tester. Caution:
Check the continuity between magnetic switch and Use a digital voltmeter to measure voltage drop. Using
M terminal. It has open circuit if no continuity. an analog voltmeter may damage itself.
(Resistance approx. 1.6Ω)

WSHK0117
WSHK0115 2. Armature
• Supply 24 V between M terminal of magnetic Bentness measurement of shaft
switch and case, push the plunger by hand, and Measure with a dial gauge, and repair or replace if
then release it. It is normal if it is not sucked. Coil is bentness is 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) or more.
defective if it is sucked.

Caution:
Perform this while the magnetic switch is set up.

WSHK0118

WSHK0116
1D-22 Engine Electrical
Inspection of commutator Inspection of armature coil
• Check the surface of commutator. File the • Using a growler tester, put probe on a armature
surface smooth with No.400 to 600 sand paper core. It is normal if probe does not vibrates.
if it is rough. Repair with a lathe if deflection is • Check with a tester. It is normal if there is no
0.1 mm (0.004 in) or more. continuity between commutator and shaft.

WSHK0119 WSHK0121
• Measure the depth of undercut and repair if it is 3. Field Coil
0.2 mm (0.008 in) or less.
• Check the field coil for open circuit with a tester. It
mm(in) is open circuit if there is no continuity between M
terminal in field coil and lead wire on brush side.
• Check between field coil and yoke with a tester. It
is normal if there is no continuity between them.
2

3
1

0.5-0.8
(0.02-0.03)

WSHK0120

Name
1. Repair is needed
2. Improper repair
3. Good WSHK0122
4. Overrunning clutch
Outside diameter of commutator
Measure the outside diameter of commutator with • Rotate the pinion by hand. It is normal if it is
a slide-caliper. If the measured value is less than rotated smoothly in one direction only.
the limit, replace it. Check the pinion tooth surface. Replace if it has
worn or damage.
mm (in)
Caution:
Standard Limit If the entire overrunning clutch is soaked in liquid when
32.4 (1.276) 31.4 (1.236) washing it, internal grease flows out, causing seizure.
Engine Electrical 1D-23
6. Bearing
• Check if the bearing outer race rotates smoothly by
hand.

WSHK0123
5. Reduction gear
• Check the reduction gear. It is normal if it has no
wear. WSHK0125
7. Brush height
• Measure the brush height. If it is less than the limit,
replace the brush.

mm (in)
Standard Limit
17 — 18 (0.669 — 0.709) 10 (0.394)

WSHK0124
1D-24 Engine Electrical
Handling of starter
1. Precautions on handling
• Improper gap between pinion and ring gear causes
faulty mesh. (Gap 2 — 5 mm {0.079 — 0.197 in})
• Also, the front bracket is installed on the engine
side securely.
• Be sure to turn off the battery switch before
removal/installation of stater.
• Tightening/inserting wiring must be performed
properly. Improper work causes starting trouble
due to high contact resistance.
2. Precautions on starting
• Be careful with charging status of battery.
Insufficiently-charged battery causes starting
trouble.
• After checking engine starting, turn off the stater
switch immediately.
• One continuous use should be less than 10
seconds. If re-starting is needed, wait until the
pinion stops completely.
• If the starter does not stop rotating when the starter
switch is turned off, turn off the battery switch
immediately. In this case, check the wiring, switch,
etc.
Engine Electrical 1D-25
Trouble countermeasure

Trouble symptom Trouble cause


Starter does not operate when 1. Full discharge of battery
starter switch is turned on. 2. Open circuit, poor contact
3. Poor contact in starter switch or improper tightening of terminal
4. Poor contact in starter relay or plug terminal
5. Short or open circuit in magnetic switch coil
Pinion moves forward but it does not 1. Insufficient capacity of battery
engage with ring gear. 2. Improper gap of pinion and ring gear
3. Wear of pinion or ring gear tooth edge
4. Dust on pinion shaft
5. Insufficient auxiliary rotation of armature due to insufficient thrust gap
of motor
Pinion engages and rotates motor 1. Slippage of clutch
but it does not run engine. 2. Breakage of reduction gear
Pinion engages but it does not run 1. Insufficient capacity of battery
engine. 2. Too high rotational resistance of engine
3. Improper tightening of wiring circuit terminal
4. Short circuit of armature or field coil
5. Contamination of commutator
6. Fatigue or wear of brush spring
7. Locking of bearing
8. Poor contact in magnetic switch
When turning starter switch off, 1. Retuning failure of starter switch contact
starter does not stop after engine 2. Retuning failure of starter relay contact
starts.
3. Short circuit in magnetic switch coil
1D-26 Engine Electrical

Preheating System
Glow Plug Replacement

Precautions during maintenance


Adequate care should be taken as over-tightening the
glow plug could lead to damage.
Removal Procedure
1. Remove the engine harness, the EGR valve, the
pressure sensor, and all of the fuel injector
connectors.
2. Remove the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.
3. Tape the EGR case holes shut to prevent the entry
of foreign material.

Installation Procedure
1. Install the glow plug.
Tightening torque: 20 N⋅m (2.0 kg⋅m/15 lb ft)
2. Install and tighten the glow connector with the
designated torque.
Tightening torque: 1.2 N⋅m (0.1 kg⋅m/11 lb in)
3. Install the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.

Tightening torque: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve

4. Remove the glow plug connector.


5. Remove the glow plug.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve

4. Attach the engine harness connectors. Each


composite connector should make a loud click
when it is securely attached.
Engine Electrical 1D-27
Precautions on Service Work
Adequate care should be taken as over-tightening the
glow plug could lead to damage.
Explanations on functions and operation
The preheating system consists the ECM, the glow
relay, glow plugs and the glow indicator lamp. The
preheating system is operated when the engine coolant
temperature is low, and make the engine easy to start.
Function check
Refer to the 6E section (Glow control system check).
Except the glow plug.
Glow plug check
• Use the circuit tester and measure the resistance
of the glow plug.
• If the measured value deviates from the specified
value, then replace the glow plug.
• Resistance value of glow plug is approximately
less than 5Ω.

Caution:
Use a set of four glow plugs from the same
manufacturer.

A List of Defective Phenomena


• The glow indicator lamp does not light up.
• Preheating does not work.
• Preheating time is too long or too short.
1D-28 Engine Electrical
Trouble Shooting

The glow indicator lamp does not light up.

Condition Possible Cause Correction


The glow indicator lamp does not Slow blow fuse has blown. Replace the slow blow fuse.
light up. Fuse is unavailable. Replace the fuse.
Indicator valve is burnt out. Replace the indicator valve.
Engine control system is faulty. Refer to the “6E” section.

Preheating does not work.

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Preheating does not work. Slow blow fuse has blown. Replace the slow blow fuse.
Defective or faulty glow plug relay Re-mount or replace the glow plug
connector contact. relay.
Engine control system is faulty. Refer to the “6E” section.

Preheating time is too long or too short.

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Preheating time is too long or too Thermo-sensor fault and break in Replace the thermo-sensor. Repair
short. circuit or short circuit. the circuit.
Fault in glow plug. Replace or tighten the glow plug.
Engine control system is faulty. Refer to the “6E” section.

Main Data and Specifications

Item Model
Preheating device model Glow plug
Glow plug rated voltage/ current (V-A) 23 – 3.5
Engine Electrical 1D-29

Starter (6HK1)
Specifications

Manufacturer Mitsubishi Electric Co.


Isuzu Part No. 181100-4140
Manufacturer code No. M008T60971
Power output (V-kw) 24-5.0
Rating (Sec) 30
Outside diameter of yoke (mm/in) 85/3.346
Revolution direction Right
Protection Dust-proof, drip-proof
Reduction mechanism Internal gear
Weight (kg) 7.2
Pinion Module 3
Pressure angle 14.5
The number of teeth 11
Gear ratio {ring gear/pinion gear} 12.8 {129/11}
No load Voltage (V) 23
Current (A) 85 or less
Revolution speed (rpm) 3,300 or more
Restraint Voltage (V) 9
Current (A) 1,400 or less
Torque N⋅m {kgf⋅m} 88 {9} or more
Pinion engagement voltage (V) 16.0 or less
1D-30 Engine Electrical
Sectional view (reference)

4 7
8
3

1 13 12 11
10

WSHK0069
Name
1. Through Bolt 8. Pinion
2. Bearing 9. Bearing
3. Rear Bracket 10. Front Bracket
4. Brush Holder 11. Gear
5. Magnetic Switch 12. Yoke
6. Shift Lever 13. Armature
7. Gear Shaft
Engine Electrical 1D-31
Output Characteristic (reference)

Rotation Rotation Output Terminal


speed force voltage

r/min N.m kW V

6000 120 6 24

Output Rotation force


5000 100 5 20
Rotation
speed
4000 80 4 16

3000 60 3 12

2000 40 2 8
Terminal voltage

1000 20 1 4

0 0 0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1500
Current (A)

WSHK0070
1D-32 Engine Electrical

Disassembly and Inspection of Starter


Disassembly diagram: disassemble in the order of the numbers.

18
19
27 21
9

6
28
29

14

16
17
15 5
20
4 26 8
3
2 22 10
1 25
24 13

23 12
30

11

12

WSHK0071
Disassembly Procedure
1. Snap Ring 16. Plate
2. Stop Ring 17. Packing
3. Pinion 18. Packing
4. Pinion Spring 19. Plate
5. Lead Wire with Terminal 20. Planetary Gear
6. Screw 21. Lever
7. Magnetic Switch 22. E-shaped Retaining Ring
8. Screw 23. Overrunning Clutch
9. Through Bolt 24. Internal Gear
10. Rear Bracket 25. Washer
11. Yoke Assembly 26. Gear Shaft
12. O-Ring 27. Front Bracket
13. Brush Holder 28. Bearing
14. Armature 29. Washer
15. Ball 30. Brush
Engine Electrical 1D-33
Disassembly
Caution:
• Before disassembling the starter, put alignment 5
marks on each magnet switch, yoke front bracket
and rear bracket to facilitate re-assembly. 4

• In normal condition, if tap the pinion or stop ring 3


6
toward the front bracket side, the front bracket will 2
be broken. Therefore, tap the stop ring when the
1
pinion come out to cranking position.
1. Connect the starter to battery as shown in the
illustration.
When closing the switches SW1 and SW2, the
pinion move forward to the cranking position and
the armature rotates.
Then, open the switch SW2 to stop the armature
rotating.
WSHK0073
Caution:
Remove the pinion within 10seconds since heat is Name
generated during electric discharge. 1. Pinion
2. Clutch Shaft
3. Snap Ring
4. Stop Ring
5. Pipe
SW 1
6. Pinion Spring
B
S SW 2
3. Remove the nut on M terminal of magnet switch
Battery
M and remove the lead wire with terminal.
24V
Disconnect the lead wire Caution:
(attached with terminal) Tightening screw is tight. Use a shock driver to loosen.
from the M terminal.
4. Remove the brush holder-tightening screw and
through bolt.
Then, remove the rear bracket and O-ring
Wiring diagram to move pinion forward
together.

Caution:
Do not reuse the removed O-ring.
WSHK0072 Also, do not reuse also O-ring on tightening screw.
2. Apply the pipe, which just fits the stop ring, on the 5. Apply a socket (outside diameter 32 mm
ring and tap the pipe with a hammer to remove the {1.260 in}) on a commutator of armature.
stop ring toward the pinion side once. Then, slide the brush on the socket to yoke
Then, remove the snap ring and remove the stop assembly and O-ring.
ring, pinion and pinion spring. This facilitates to re-assemble.

Caution: Caution:
Do not reuse the snap ring. Do not reuse the removed O-ring.
6. Remove the brush from brush holder by pulling up
the brush spring, and then remove the brush
holder.
7. Remove the armature.
Remove a bearing using a general puller.
8. Remove the plate in planetary gear and remove
the packing.
Then, remove the packing and plate on the lever
support.
9. Remove the internal gear, gearshift, overrunning
clutch and lever as a unit from front bracket.
1D-34 Engine Electrical
10. Remove the lever. • Check the armature coil for grounding (faulty
insulating) with a circuit tester.
Caution: Replace the armature if grounding is present.
Remember the direction of lever.
11. Remove the two E-shaped retaining ring.
To remove the overrunning clutch, rotate the spline
by one tooth to remove it from gearshift assembly.

Caution:
Do not reuse removed E-shaped retaining ring.
12. Remove the internal gear.
In this time, take out one washer which adjusts
axial play of gearshift.

Inspection and maintenance


1. Armature
• Check the armature coil for internal short circuit
with a growler tester.
Replace the armature if internal circuit is present.
WSHK0075
• Check the outside of commutator for wear.
Replace the armature if wear exceeds limit.

WSHK0074

WSHK0076
Engine Electrical 1D-35
• Check the depth (undercut) of insulating mold of • Check the coil for grounding (faulty insulating) with
commutator. a circuit tester.
Remove abrasion powder on brush, and repair if Repair or replace the yoke assembly if grounding
faulty. is present.

2
3

WSHK0077 WSHK0079
3. Brush
Name
1. Good • Measure the length of the brush.
2. Insulating If it is worn to the limit, replace the brush holder
3. Commutator Segment assembly on the brush holder as a unit and only
4. Defective brush on the yoke assembly side.
• Make sure the brush moves smoothly in the brush
• Check the gears for wear or damage. holder. Also, check the brush spring pressure.
Replace the armature if fault is present.
• Check the bearings for noise, rattle or grease
leakage.
2. Field coil
• Check the coil for open circuit with a circuit tester.
Replace the yoke assembly if open circuit is
present.

WSHK0078
1D-36 Engine Electrical
• Check the brush holder for grounding (faulty
insulating) with a circuit tester.
Clean the brush holder before checking.
Replace the brush holder assembly if the
continuity is present when putting one probe of
circuit tester to brush holder plate (metal part) and
another one to insulated holder.

WSHK0081
5. Front bracket
Check the bearing and oil seal, and replace the
front bracket assembly (including bearing, oil seal)
if faulty.
6. Internal gear and planetary gear
Check the internal gear and planetary gear, and
WSHK0080 replace them if excessive wear or damage is
Name present.
1. Brush Length 7. Lever
2. Insulated Holder It the portion which contacts the overrunning
switch is worn, the protruded position of pinion will
4. Overrunning clutch and pinion be faulty.
Hold the housing of overrunning clutch by hand. (Refer to “4. Assembly” section to adjust the
Make sure that the pinion can be rotated by hand protruded position of pinion.)
with a light resistance in one direction and cannot
be in the opposite direction. Replace the
overrunning clutch if faulty.
Check the pinion, and replace it if wear or scratch
is present.

Caution:
Grease is present in overrunning clutch. Do not use
wash oil or cleaning agent for cleaning.
Wipe off stain on overrunning clutch with a cloth.

WSHK0082
Name
1. Worn Part
Engine Electrical 1D-37
8. Magnetic switch
Check the continuity between the M terminal and
the body, and replace the magnet switch if no
continuity is present.
Then, make sure that no continuity is present
between B terminal and M terminal. Replace the
magnet switch if continuity is present.

1 3

WSHK0083
Name
1. M Terminal
2. S Terminal
3. B Terminal
1D-38 Engine Electrical

Assembly of Starter
Assembly diagram: Assemble in the order of the numbers.

24

13
12
4 10
22

25
3
2

17

15
14
16 5
11
27 5 23
28
29 9 21
30 6
7 18

8 19
1

20

19

WSHK0084
Assembly Procedure
1. Brush 16. Ball
2. Washer 17. Armature
3. Bearing 18. Brush Holder
4. Front Bracket 19. O-Ring
5. Gear Shaft 20. Yoke Assembly
6. Washer 21. Rear Bracket
7. Internal Gear 22. Through Bolt
8. Overrunning Clutch 23. Screw
9. E-shaped Retaining Ring 24. Magnetic Switch
10. Lever 25. Screw
11. Planetary Gear 26. Lead Wire with Terminal
12. Plate 27. Pinion Spring
13. Packing 28. Pinion
14. Packing 29. Stop Ring
15. Plate 30. Snap Ring
Engine Electrical 1D-39
1. Lubricant locations and tightening torque

N m(kg m/lb ft)

I 4.9~8.8
19.6~25.5
(0.5~0.9 / 3.6~6.5)
(2.0~2.6 / 14.4~18.8)

C B

H F

2.4~4.4
(0.25~0.45 / 1.8~3.2)

7.8~12.7 E A D
(0.8~1.3 / 5.8~9.4)

WSHK0085

Lubricant locations

Shown in
the Lubricant locations Lubricant agent
illustration
A Sleeve bearing and ball Molycote AG650
B Clutch shaft sliding surface MULTEMP 6129
C Spline portion and sliding portion of gearshift MULTEMP 6129
D Sliding portion of lever and overrunning clutch Molycote AG650
E Armature shift gear, planetary gear, internal gear Molycote AG650
F Under pinion MULTEMP 6129
G Outer surface of armature bearing (tiny amount) MULTEMP 6129
H Oil seal MULTEMP 6129
I Surface of plunger (tiny amount) MULTEMP 6129

2. Axial play of armature shift Pass the gear shaft through washer, internal gear
Adjustment is unnecessary (assemble the ball into and overrunning clutch. Then move the
a tip of shaft.) overrunning clutch by one tooth of spline to make
3. Axial play of gear shaft sure that the clutch cannot be pulled out.
Adjustment is unnecessary Assemble the E-shaped retaining ring.
Appropriate gap will be obtained automatically
when one washer (removed in step 12 of Caution:
disassembly procedure) is inserted between • Do not reuse removed E-shaped retaining ring.
internal gear and gearshift.
4. Assembly of gearshift
1D-40 Engine Electrical
• If assembling the E-shaped retaining ring prior to
the overrunning clutch, the clutch cannot be
assembled. Be careful with it.

3
3
2
2 5
1

WSHK0087
1
Name
WSHK0086 1. Pinion
2. Clutch Shaft
Name 3. Snap Ring
1. Overrunning Clutch 4. Stop Ring
2. Washer 5. Pinion Spring
3. Gear Shaft
4. E-shaped Retaining Ring 6. Check of the pinion protruded position
5. Internal Gear After assembling the starter, check the protruded
position of pinion.
5. Assembly of pinion How to measure and adjust
Assemble the pinion spring, pinion and stop ring to • Connect the starter to battery.
clutch shaft in this order, then assemble the snap When closing the switches SW1 and SW2, the
ring to the groove of clutch shaft at the end. pinion move forward to the cranking position
Then, pull strongly the stop ring toward the snap and the armature rotates.
ring side with a gear puller and fix both of them. Then, open the switch SW2 to stop the
armature rotating.
Caution:
• Assemble the pinion before assembling the
magnet switch to front bracket.
• Do not reuse the removed snap ring.
Engine Electrical 1D-41
• Push into or pull back a tip of the crankshaft
lightly by hand and measure the moving
distance of it.
Adjust by using one or two packings (0.5 mm
{0.020 in}) of magnet switch and front bracket
so that this measurement value is between 0.5
— 2.0 mm (0.020 — 0.079 in).
If this adjustment cannot be done, replace the
lever.

SW 1 B
S SW 2
M
1

WSHK0088
Name
1. Battery 24 V

Amount of shaft moved

Push back the clutch


shaft lightly by hand.

Check of pinion moving out position

WSHK0089
1D-42 Engine Electrical
No Load Test
1. After adjusting the protruded position of pinion,
connect the starter as shown in the illustration
above.

Caution:
Use a thick electric wire and tighten the connected 2 A SW B
portion securely. S
2. Close the switch and read the speed, current and M
voltage.
1 V 3

If the measured values are out of specified value,


disassemble and inspect again.

WSHK0090
Name
1. Battery 24 V
2. Ammeter
3. Voltmeter

Specifications

Item Standard value or limit


No load Voltage (V) 23
characteristic
Current (A) 85 or less
Speed (rpm) 3,300 or more
Commutator Outside diameter (mm/in) 32/1.260
Limit (mm/in) 31.4/1.236
Commutator Undercut (mm/in) 0.5/0.020
Limit (mm/in) 0.2/0.008
Brush Length (mm/in) 18/0.709
Limit (mm/in) 11/0.433
Brush spring Pressure (N) 29 — 39
Limit (N) 13.7
Protruded position of pinion (mm/in) 0.5 — 2.0/0.020 — 0.079
Engine Electrical 1D-43

Generator (6HK1)
Specifications

Manufacturer Mitsubishi Electric Co.


Isuzu Part No. 1-81200-633-0 1-81200-603-2
Model by manufacturer A009TU3782 A004TU6285
Nominal voltage (V) 24
Output current (A) 90 50
Rated speed (rpm) 5000
Output current/Voltage (A/V/rpm) 114/27/5000 50/27/5000
No load voltage (V/rpm) 24/900
Revolution direction Clockwise
Polarity (−)
Pulley diameter (P. C. D) (mm/in) 90/3.543 80/3.150

Charging Circuit

B
3 4 5
L
2 L

R R

E 6

1
7
E

WSHK0091
Name
1. Field Coil 5. Key Switch
2. Stator Coil 6. Battery 24 V
3. Diode Trio 7. IC Regulator
4. Charging Lamp 8. Generator

Charging circuit and internal circuit are shown in the illustration above.
Charging system consists of IC regulator built-in generator, battery, charging lamp and wires to connect them.
1D-44 Engine Electrical
Structure

5 6
4

7
8

1
9

10

WSHK0092
Name
1. Rear Bracket 6. Rotor
2. IC Regulator 7. Bearing
3. Bearing 8. Pulley
4. Rectifier 9. Front Bracket
5. Stator 10. Coil Assembly (Field Coil)

This generator has no brush. terminal (for direct current output), L terminal and R
Main parts are a rotor, stator, rectifier assembly, front terminal.
bracket, rear bracket, IC regulator, bearing, pulley and The L terminal is connected to field coil. Therefore, as
so on. well as R terminal, it becomes input terminal for
Moving parts are a rotor and pulley. A field coil is initiating excitation current until the generator starts to
secured to rear bracket. generate electric power.
Six main diodes and two additional diodes are used to It also provides function as output terminal. (Current
convert three-phase alternating current, generated in capacity is 1 A.)
stator coil, into direct current. Among six main diodes, The charging lamp will be off if the voltage on L
there are three positive diodes and three negative terminal reaches battery voltage.
diodes. Both bearings are sealed, therefore periodic lubricant is
In addition, three tiny diodes, called trio diode, are used not necessary.
to supply field current. IC regulator cannot be disassembled. Handle it as
This generator has three terminals, which are B assembly.
Engine Electrical 1D-45

Disassembly and Inspection of Generator

10
5 7
6
4

1 3

11

12
13

14

15
WSHK0160
Name
1. Nut Washer 9. Ball Bearing
2. Pulley, Fan 10. Screw
3. Collar 11. Cover
4. Through Bolt 12. Rectifier Assembly
5. Front Bracket 13. Regulator Assembly
6. Ball Bearing 14. Stator Assembly
7. Retainer 15. Field Coil Assembly
8. Rotor Assembly
1D-46 Engine Electrical

11
10

6 8
7
5
3
2

1 4

12

13

14

15

16

17

18
WSHK0161
Name
1. Nut Washer 10. Ball Bearing
2. Pulley, Fan 11. Field Coil Assembly
3. Key 12. Connector Set
4. Collar 13. Screw
5. Through Bolt 14. Terminal Set
6. Front Bracket 15. Cover
7. Ball Bearing 16. Rectifier Assembly
8. Retainer 17. Regulator Assembly
9. Rotor Assembly 18. Stator Assembly

Disassembly 2. Hold the rotor with a vise without deforming the


rotor ball.
Caution: Remove the nut which fixes pulley, and remove the
To facilitate re-assembly, put alignment marks on front pulley, fan, spacer and front bracket.
bracket and rear bracket before disassembly.
1. Remove out the four through-bolts. Caution:
Pry between stator and front bracket with a tip of Do not lose a half-moon key when removing the pulley.
flathead screwdriver and separate the front bracket
Caution:
pulley rotor assembly from stator rear bracket
To hold the rotor with a vise, grip the portion A. Portion
assembly carefully.
B is not strong enough to be gripped.
Caution:
Take care not to damage the stator coil.
Engine Electrical 1D-47
5. To remove the coil assembly from rear bracket,
firstly remove the screw A (which fixes coil terminal
portion to IC regulator).
Removing a screw B (which fixes the coil assembly
to rear bracket) prior to screw A may cause
B
damage to terminal portion.
Hold the coil assembly by hand not to damage to
terminal portion.
Then, remove the screw B and remove the coil
assembly.

A A
1
1

A
WSHK0093
Name
1. Ball

3. If the front bearing needs to be removed, remove


the screw which fixes retainer, and push out the
bearing using appropriate socket.
B
Caution:
Do not remove it if not necessary. Do not reuse the
WSHK0094
removed bearing.
4. If the rotor bearing needs to be removed, it can be Name
done by a general bearing puller. 1. Connector

Caution: 6. Disconnect the connector.


Do not remove it if not necessary. Do not reuse the 7. Remove the cap and nut from terminal bolt of
removed bearing. rectifier.
Pry between rear bracket and B terminal assembly
to remove the B terminal. A tube remains on rear
bracket.

Caution:
Do not lose the tube.
1D-48 Engine Electrical

2 4

12
7

8
13

11
9
1

10

WSHK0095
Name
1. IC Regulator 8. Cap
2. Rectifier 9. Nut
3. B terminal 10. Terminal Bolt
4. Terminal Bolt 11. Terminal Bolt
5. B terminal 12. Terminal Bolt
6. Cap 13. Rectifier
7. Nut
Engine Electrical 1D-49

5
1

N
6

WSHK0159
Name
1. IC Regulator 4. B terminal
2. Terminal Bolt 5. Tube
3. Nut 6. Rectifier

8. Remove two screws which fix rectifier and two


screws which fix regulator.
Remove the stator and rectifier assembly from rear
bracket as a unit.
Then, remove the IC regulator.
9. Disconnect four lead wires of stator coil and
remove the stator from rectifier.
1
Caution:
Lead wires of stator coil are soldered (melting point:
230°C {446°F}) on rectifier terminal.
Disconnect them quickly (within five seconds) not to
heat the rectifier causing damage to diode.

Inspection
1. Stator
Check visually for damage, loose connection and
discoloration of coil.
WSHK0096
• Check the continuity between two lead wires of Name
stator coil with a circuit tester. Replace the stator if 1. Stator Coil Lead
no continuity is present.
• Check the continuity between lead wire of stator
coil and core with a circuit tester. Replace the
stator if continuity is present.
1D-50 Engine Electrical
2. Rotor 4. Rectifier assembly
• Check the bearings for noise, rattle or grease • Check the continuity between positive diode,
leakage (wipe off if tiny amount of grease). additional diode positive heat sink on positive side
Replace it if faulty. It is easier to check for noise and four diode terminals with a circuit tester.
and rattle when it is press-fitted into shaft than The positive diode has short circuit if continuity is
when it is a single unit. present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
The positive diode has open circuit if no continuity
is present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
• Negative diode and additional diode on negative
side
1
Check the continuity between negative heat sink
and four diode terminals with a circuit tester.
The negative diode has short circuit if continuity is
present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
The negative diode has open circuit if no continuity
is present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
2
• Diode trio (three tiny diodes)
Check the continuity in both directions with a circuit
tester.
WSHK0097 The diode is faulty if continuity is present in both
directions or no continuity is in both directions.
Name Replace the rectifier assembly.
1. Stator Coil Lead
2. Core

3. Coil assembly
Measure the resistance between terminal portions 2
with a circuit tester.
Replace the coil assembly if the value is out of
specified value.

1 3
1

WSHK0099
Name
2
1. Diode Terminal Portion
2. Positive Diode
3. A Part of Negative Diode

5. Front bearing
WSHK0098 Check the bearings for noise, rattle or grease
leakage (wipe off if tiny amount of grease).
Name Replace them if faulty. It is easier to check for
1. Terminal noise and rattle when the bearing is press-fitted
2. Terminal Portion into bracket than when it is a single unit.
Engine Electrical 1D-51
6. Regulator
The regulator cannot be checked with a circuit
tester. After re-assembling the generator, check it
to make sure that regulator controls the voltage for
generator.

Assembly
Assembly can be performed in the reverse order of
disassembly. However, be careful with the following.
1. Lubrication is not necessary. Bearing is filled with
grease and is sealed.

Caution:
Keep a bearing with resin band for rotor shaft away
from oil. Wipe off oil on bearing box area of rear
bracket. Oil may cause creep.
2. Use a high temperature solder (melting point:
230°C {446°F}).
Using a soldering iron (with 180 — 270 watt),
soldering must be performed quickly (within five
seconds) not to heat the rectifier.
3. Tightening torque
• Pulley fixing nut:
132 — 162 N⋅m {13.5 — 16.5 kg⋅m/97 — 119 lb
ft}
• Through bolt:
12.8 — 18.6 N⋅m {1.3 — 1.9 kg⋅m/9 — 14 lb ft}
• Bearing retainer fixing screw:
2 — 5.3 N⋅m {20 — 54 kgf⋅cm/18 — 47 lb in}
• Coil assembly fixing screw:
2 — 5.3 N⋅m {20 — 54 kgf⋅cm/18 — 47 lb in}
• Rectifier fixing screw:
2 — 5.3 N⋅m {20 — 54 kgf⋅cm/18 — 47 lb in}
• Regulator fixing screw:
2 — 5.3 N⋅m {20 — 54 kgf⋅cm/18 — 47 lb in}
• Nut for B terminal bolt:
4.9 — 8.7 N⋅m {50 — 88 kgf⋅cm/43 — 77 lb in}
4. Assembly of rear bracket to stator assembly and
front bracket to rotor assembly
• The rotor bearing and rear bracket are engaged
tightly. Heat the bearing box area of rear bracket to
50 — 60°C (122 — 140°F) prior to assembly.
• After re-assembling the generator, rotate the pulley
to confirm that the rotor rotates smoothly.
1D-52 Engine Electrical
Bench Testing 4. Set the generator speed to approx. 5000 rpm and
read an ammeter. If the value is 5 A or less, read
Bench testing is performed as follows.
indication on a voltmeter. This is regulated voltage.
If an ammeter shows 5 A or more, keep charging
Regulated voltage check
for a while until it shows below 5 A or replace the
1. Wire as shown in the illustration. battery with full-charged one.
Use an ammeter with 100 A rating and a voltmeter If regulated voltage is out of specified value,
with 30 V rating. replace the regulator.

Output current test


Output current test is performed to check if the
generator generates rated output.
2 4
1. After checking regulated voltage, decrease the
generator speed until it stops.
A 2. Close the switch 1. The lamp should come on.
3 6 3. Set the value of no load resistance to maximum
B
L (minimum current) and close the switch 2.
1 V 8
R 4. Increase the generator speed to 5000 rpm and
5 7
keep it. Adjust the load resistance so that output
current becomes maximum.
Keep this condition 15 minutes and increase in
temperature of the generator.
15 minutes later, set the generator speed to the
specified speed (2500 and 5000 rpm) and then
WSHK0100 adjust the load resistance so that output current
becomes maximum in this condition.
Name In this time, if indication of ammeter is within
1. Voltmeter specified value, the generator is normal.
2. Ammeter If it is less than specified value, check the
3. Lamp (24 V, 3 W or less) generator again according to “Inspection” on page
4. Key Switch 1 4.
5. Battery (24 V)
6. Key Switch 2
7. Load Resistance

2. Close the switch 1. Leave the switch 2 open.


In this time, the lamp comes on.
If it does not, check the voltage on L terminal.
If the voltage is almost the same as battery
voltage, check the generator.
If the voltage is low, lamp or the circuit is open.
3. Increase the generator speed gradually.
Make sure that the lamp goes off before the speed
reaches approx. 1300 rpm.
Notice the voltage. If the voltage is not controlled
and exceeds 30 V, the IC regulator may be faulty.
If the voltage does not exceed battery voltage, the
generator does not generate electric power.
Check the generator again.
If the lamp does not go off, check the generator
again.
Engine Electrical 1D-53
Trouble Diagnosis

Symptom Trouble cause


No generation of a. Defective IC regulator
electric power b. Open circuit in field coil
Low output a. Defective diode
b. Defective stator coil
c. Defective rectifier
d. Internal short circuit in field coil
Too high regulated a. Defective IC regulator
voltage
Noise a. Defective bearing
b. Defective rectifier
c. Foreign material in generator

Specifications

Item Standard value and limit


Isuzu Part No. 1-81200-633-0 1-81200-603-2
Manufacturer code No. A009TU3782 A004TU6285
Rated output (V-A) 24-90 24-50
Output Voltage (V) 27 27
characteristic (hot)
Current (A) 105 or more 42 or more
Revolution speed (r/min) 2,500 2,500
Voltage (V) 27 27
Current (A) 114 or more 50 or more
Revolution speed (r/min) 5,000 5,000
Field coil resistance (Ω: at 20°C) 4.3-5.0 4.4-5.1
Regulated voltage by regulator (V) 28-29 28-29
Revolution direction (viewed from pulley side) Clockwise Clockwise
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-1

ENGINE
Exhaust System and Turbocharger
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EGR System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-2
Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-2
Explanations on Functions and Operation . . . . . 1F-2
EGR Valve and EGR Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-3
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-3
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-3
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-4
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-4
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-5
Exhaust System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-6
A List of Defective Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-6
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-6
Turbocharger (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-7
Table of Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-7
Turbocharger Structured Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-8
Disassembly and Inspection of Turbocharger . . 1F-9
Assembly of Turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-15
Turbocharger (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-21
Measurement Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-22
Other Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-22
1F-2 Exhaust System and Turbocharger

EGR System
Precautions on Service Work Explanations on Functions and Operation
Perform EGR related assembly according to the usual Re-circulate a part of the exhaust gas of the EGR
procedure of temporarily fitting and then permanently system in the intake manifold. Reduce the combustion
tightening the parts so that unnecessary stresses are temperature and inhibit NOx generation since inert
not applied on the parts. gases may be mixed up in the intake air.
An electronic control system is used in this EGR to
balance the requirements of operability and low
emissions. A DC motor is operated using the control
current of the Engine Control Module (ECM) to control
the EGR.
Refer to the chapter on Engine Control System for
details on fault diagnosis of the EGR system.

Name
1. EGR Cooler 3. EGR Valve DC Motor
2. Engine Control Module (ECM)
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-3

EGR Valve and EGR Cooler


Components

Name
1. EGR Adapter 4. EGR Pipe
2. Cooling Water Pipe (out) 5. Cooling Water Pipe (in)
3. EGR Cooler 6. EGR Valve

Removal
1. Drain the coolant.
2. Disconnect the EGR valve connector.
3. Remove the EGR pipe.
1F-4 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
2. Install the EGR cooler.
• Temporarily fit the EGR cooler to the bracket.

Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.
3. Install the EGR adapter.
• Temporarily fit the EGR adapter between the EGR
cooler and exhaust manifold.

Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.
4. Install the EGR pipe.
• Insert the gasket between the two ends of the EGR
pipe and temporarily fit it.

Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.
During temporary assembly, tighten the nuts
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration. and bolts to the specified torque in the order
shown in the illustration.
Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Cooling Water Pipe (out)
3. EGR Cooler
4. EGR Pipe
5. Cooling Water Pipe (in)

4. Remove the cooling water pipes.


5. Remove the EGR adapter.
6. Remove the EGR cooler.
7. Remove the EGR valve.

Caution:
After removing the EGR valve and EGR adapter, seal
so that foreign matter does not enter.

Inspection

Gas leak check


• Check for gas leak in various parts of the EGR gas
line.
If the results of the check show abnormalities, repair or
replace the defective parts.

EGR valve check


• Refer to the chapter on Engine Control System for
details on the method of checking the EGR valve.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Installation Name

1. Mount the EGR valve. 1 ~ 9 Show the Order of Tighten Bolts and Nuts.
• Insert the gasket and temporarily fit the EGR valve. Tightening torque
Notice: 1, 2: 28 N⋅m (2.9 kg⋅m/21 lb ft)
Temporarily tighten the bolts. 3, 4, 5, 6: 24 N⋅m (2.4 kg⋅m/18 lb ft)
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-5
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


1F-6 Exhaust System and Turbocharger

Exhaust System
A List of Defective Phenomena
• Vibration or rattling noise from the exhaust system
• Clogging of exhaust system
• Exhaust leakage or noise

Troubleshooting
Vibration or rattling noise from the exhaust system

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Vibration or rattling noise Loose or misaligned components Match the joints and then re-tighten.
from the exhaust system Or, check for damage in the hanger,
mounting brackets and clamps.

Clogging of exhaust system

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Clogging of exhaust system Clogging or deformation of the exhaust Repair or replace the exhaust piping.
piping

Exhaust leakage or noise

Condition Possible Cause Correction


Exhaust leakage or noise Defect or misalignment in mounting Match the joints and then re-tighten.
Damage or burn-out of exhaust piping Replace the damaged part.
or silencer
Defective components in the exhaust Replace the defective part.
system (clamps, pipes, silencer)
Internal damage to silencer Replace the silencer
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-7

Turbocharger (6HK1)

Table of Specifications

Assembly
Item Service limit
specifications
Turbine shaft Axial play mm (in) 0.06 — 0.09
0.11 (0.00433)
(0.00236 — 0.00354)
Radial play mm (in) 0.10 — 0.17
0.205 (0.00807)
(0.00394 — 0.00669)
Journal outside diameter (A) mm (in) — φ 11.380 (0.44803)
Sealing groove width (B) mm (in) — 1.33 (0.05236)
Runout mm (in) — 0.11 (0.00433)
Sealing Turbine side (bearing housing) (F) mm (in) — 17.03 (0.67047)
insertion part Compressor side (seal plate) (H) mm (in) — 14.05 (0.55315)
Oil thrower Sealing groove width (G) mm (in) — 1.52 (0.05984)
Bearing Bearing housing inner diameter (B) mm (in) — φ 16.11 (0.63425)
housing Thrust bearing inside diameter for (L) mm (in)
— φ 23.020 (0.90630)
press-fit portion
Thrust Bearing pad height at compressor side (J) mm (in) 0.0 — 0.060

bearing (0.0 — 0.00236)
Thrust collar thickness (K) mm (in) — 2.950 (0.11614)

H
F L

B A
K

E G

WSHK0126
1F-8 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
Turbocharger Structured Diagram

4 5

2 3

10 9
1 8
WSHK0127
Name
1. Turbine Housing 6. Seal Plate
2. Heat Protector 7. Compressor Impeller
3. Floating Metal 8. Seal Ring
4. Oil Thrower 9. Seal Ring
5. Compressor Housing 10. Turbine Shaft
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-9
Disassembly and Inspection of Turbocharger
Disassembly diagram: disassemble in the order of the numbers.

4 2
3

6
5
13
14
17
16
16

15

8
18

7
11
12
10
9

WSHK0128

Disassembly Procedure
1. Compressor Housing 10. Seal Ring
2. Nut 11. Gasket
3. Compressor Impeller 12. Heat Protector
4. Seal Plate 13. Thrust Bearing
5. Oil Thrower 14. Thrust Collar
6. Seal Ring 15. Snap Ring
7. G Coupling 16. Floating Metal
8. Turbine Housing 17. Thrust Bearing
9. Turbine Shaft 18. Bearing Housing
1F-10 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
Disassembly 1. Compressor housing
• Put alignment marks between the compressor
Inspection Prior to Disassembly housing and the seal plate, and tap the
• Measurement of axial play of turbine shaft compressor housing to drive it out.
• Liquid gasket is applied to the mating surfaces of
Axial play mm (in) the compressor and the seal plate.
0.06 — 0.09
Assembly specifications Caution:
(0.0024 — 0.0035)
Take care not to damage the impeller during removal of
Service limit 0.11 (0.0043)
the compressor housing.
If it exceeds the service limit, check the thrust
metal, the thrust bushing, and the oil thrower.

WSHK0131
Name
WSHK0129 1. Alignment Mark
• Measurement of radial play of turbine shaft
2. Nut
Radial play mm (in)
• The nut is left-hand screw.
0.10 — 0.17 3. Compressor impeller
Assembly specifications
(0.00394 — 0.00669)
• Attach the box spanner to the turbine-side shaft
Service limit 0.205 (0.00807) end of the turbine shaft, and remove the nut.
• Remove the impeller from the turbine shaft.
If it exceeds the service limit, check the floating
• Washing of impeller
metal.
Soak in the cleaning solvent until the foreign
matters soften, and clean it with a plastic scraper
or hard brush.

Caution:
Do not use a wire brush.

WSHK0130
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-11
• Washing of turbine housing
Soak in the cleaning solvent to remove the foreign
matters.

WSHK0132
Name
1. Left-hand Thread WSHK0134
9. Turbine shaft
4. Seal plate
• Hold the heat protector lightly by hand, and take
• Loosen the pot small screw.
out the turbine shaft.
• Lightly tap the bearing housing in the seal plate
• If it is hard to remove, lightly tap the compressor-
with a wooden hammer.
side shaft end with a wooden hammer.
• Liquid gasket is applied to the mating surfaces of
• Washing of turbine shaft
the seal plate and the bearing housing.
Soak in the cleaning solvent until the foreign
matters soften, and clean it with a plastic scraper
or hard brush.

Caution:
• Do not use a wire brush.
• Foreign matters remaining on the surface causes
the unbalance of weight. Therefore, wash it
thoroughly.
• Take care not to damage the floating metal contact
surface of the shaft and the seal ring groove.

WSHK0133
5. Oil thrower
• Remove the oil thrower from the seal plate.
6. Seal ring; oil thrower
7. G coupling
• Loosen the nut and remove the G coupling from
the turbine housing and the center housing.
8. Turbine housing
• Remove the center housing from the turbine
housing.
WSHK0135
1F-12 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
10. Seal ring Impeller
• Remove the seal ring from the turbine shaft. • Check the impeller for scratch, dent or crack.
11. Gasket
12. Heat protector
• Remove the heat protector from the bearing
housing.
13. Thrust bearing (compressor side)
• Loosen the Plate small screw with a screwdriver,
and remove the thrust bearing and the thrust collar.
14. Thrust collar
15. Snap ring
• Remove the turbine-side snap ring with snap ring
pliers.
16. Floating metal
• Draw out the floating metal from the bearing
housing.
17. Thrust bearing (turbine side)
• Using a brass bar, push out the compressor-side WSHK0137
floating metal from the turbine-side bearing
housing, together with the thrust bearing. Heat protector
• Check the heat protector for damage, thermal
Caution: deformation or corrosion.
• while pushing out with a bar, take care that they do
not run on to damage the snap ring.
Removal of snap ring (also to be done after step
17.)
• Remove the 2 snap rings from the bearing housing
with snap ring pliers.
18. Bearing housing

Inspection
Compressor housing
• Check the compressor housing for crack or
damage, and replace if defective.

WSHK0138
Turbine shaft
• Measure the journal outer diameter of the turbine
shaft, and the groove width of the seal ring
insertion part.

Journal outer diameter mm (in)


Service limit φ 11.38 (0.4480)

Groove width of the seal mm (in)


ring insertion part
Service limit 1.33 (0.0524)
WSHK0136
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-13

WSHK0139 WSHK0141
Name Oil thrower
1. Journal outer diameter • Inspection of damage on the oil thrower sliding
2. Ring groove width surface, measurement of the seal ring groove
width
• Measurement of turbine shaft runout
Seal ring groove width G mm (in)
Turbine shaft runout mm (in)
Service limit
Service limit 0.011 (0.00043)
G 1.52 (0.0598)

Thrust collar
• Measure the thrust collar thickness (K), and
replace with new one if it exceeds the service limit.

WSHK0140
Seal plate
• Inspection of damage on the seal plate,
measurement of inner diameter of the seal ring WSHK0142
insertion part
Thrust bearing
Inner diameter of the seal mm (in) • Replace the compressor-side and the turbine-side
ring insertion part thrust bearings with new ones.
Service limit
Floating metal
H φ 14.05 (0.5531)
• Replace the floating metal with new one.
1F-14 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
Bearing housing
• Check the casting surface for peeling from
oxidation-deterioration, dent or crack. Replace with
new one if faulty.

mm (in)
Location Service limit
Bearing housing inner diameter (B) 16.11
(0.6343)
Turbine-side seal ring insertion (F) 17.03
part (0.6705)
Turbine-side thrust bearing (L) 23.02
press-fit part inner diameter (0.9063)

F B L

WSHK0143
G coupling
• Replace with new one.

Seal ring
• Replace with new one.

Others
• Check the bolts for deformation, and replace with
new ones if faulty. Also, replace the Plate small
screw with new one.
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-15
Assembly of Turbocharger
Assembly diagram: Assemble in the order of the numbers.

18

15 17
16

13
14
9
8
4
3
3

11
1

12
10
6
5
7

WSHK0144

Assembly Procedure
1. Bearing Housing 10. Gasket
2. Snap Ring 11. Turbine Housing
3. Floating Metal 12. G Coupling
4. Thrust Bearing 13. Seal Ring
5. Seal Ring 14. Oil Thrower
6. Heat Protector 15. Seal Plate
7. Turbine Shaft 16. Compressor Impeller
8. Thrust Collar 17. Nut
9. Thrust Bearing 18. Compressor Housing
1F-16 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
Assembly
1. Bearing housing
• Check that the bearing housing is free of damage
and foreign matters.
2. Snap ring
• Install the 2 snap rings to the bearing housing with
snap ring pliers.
• After assembling the floating metal (turbine side),
install the snap ring at the position shown in the 1
figure.

WSHK0146
Name
1. Apply Oil.

4. Thrust bearing
a. Press-fitting of turbine-side thrust bearing
1
• Press-fit the turbine-side thrust bearing into the
bearing housing.
• Position the pawl of the turbine-side thrust
bearing for more than 2 mm (0.0787 in) apart
WSHK0145 from the existing press-fitting part.
• Do not press the thrust bearing pad surface
Name
during press-fitting.
1. Turbine-Side Floating Metal
• The press-fit pressure must be between 215.6
3. Floating metal N {22.0 kgf} and 1862 N {190 kgf}.
• Apply oil to the floating metal, and assemble it to • After press-fitting, remove the dust powder
the bearing housing. using vacuum.
After securing it with a snap ring, assemble the
compressor-side floating metal.

Caution:
• Place the snap ring with its rounded-side facing to
the floating metal.
• Assemble the inner snap ring with its end gap
facing to the oil outlet-direction of the housing, to
prevent it from blocking the oil path.
• Assemble the turbine-side snap ring to the housing
with its end gap facing to the direction as shown in
the illustration.
• Apply oil to the floating metal before assembly.

Besco super engine oil


Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-17
b. After press-fitting, check the depth and flatness
of the turbine-side thrust bearing.
(Depth 3.08±0.02 mm {0.1213±0.0008 in},
Flatness is below 0.01 mm {0.0004 in}: See
illustration)
mm(in)
3.08 0.02
(0.1213 0.0008)

1
0
12

WSHK0148
8. Thrust collar
120
• Apply engine oil to the thrust collar, and install ti to
the turbine shaft.
WSHK0147

Name
1. Common Tolerance

5.Seal ring
•Insert the seal ring to the turbine shaft.
1
•Use new seal ring.
6.Heat protector
•Install the heat protector to the bearing housing.
7.Turbine shaft
•Apply engine oil to the journal portion of the turbine
shaft, and insert it from the turbine side of the
bearing housing.
• Take care not to damage the floating metal with the
turbine shaft. Also, insert with the end gap of the
seal ring facing to the oil inlet side so that its core WSHK0149
matches with the turbine shaft.
Name
1. Apply Oil.

9. Thrust bearing
• Apply engine oil to the metal portion of the thrust
bearing, and insert it to the bearing housing.
• Apply Loctite to the Plate small screw threads, and
install it using torque screwdriver.
Tightening torque: 3.7 N⋅m (0.38 kgf⋅m/33 lb in)
1F-18 Exhaust System and Turbocharger
d. Tighten to the specified torque using a torque
wrench.
Tightening torque: 83 N⋅m (8.5 kgf⋅m/61 lb ft)
e. Perform (c) and (d) of the above step again.

1 2

1 A 3

1 2

4 6
WSHK0150
Name 5
1. Apply Oil.

10. Gasket WSHK0152


• Set the gasket to the turbine housing, and install it
to the bearing housing. Name
1. Approx. 60°
11. Turbine housing
2. Approx. 60°
• Assemble by aligning the phase of the turbine 3. Torque Wrench
housing and the bearing housing with the turbine
housing positioning pin and the bearing housing Hammering procedure
hole. 1) Using a metal hammer (Approx. 250g in
weight), lightly tap 2 to 3 times (same place),
from the outer portion toward the center.
2) Do not hammer the G coupling directly. Place
brass bar between as shown in the illustration.

WSHK0151
12. G coupling
a. Check that it does not run on the turbine
housing or the bearing housing.
b. Tighten temporarily to the specified torque
using a torque wrench.
Tightening torque: 83 N⋅m (8.5 kgf⋅m/61 lb ft)
c. Hammering: Perform the hammering of (1) to
(6) in the numerical order, using the following
procedure.
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-19

B
A
150 ~ 200 mm
2 (6 ~ 8 in) 3 4

7 6

WSHK0153 WSHK0154
16. Compressor impeller
Name
1. Approx. φ 13 mm (0.5 in) • Insert the compressor impeller to the turbine shaft.
2. Hammer
3. G Coupling
4. Bearing Housing
5. Gasket
6. Heat Shield Plate
7. Turbine Housing

13. Seal ring


• Install the seal ring to the oil thrower.
• Use new one.
14. Oil thrower
• Insert the oil thrower into the seal plate.
• Insert with the end gap of the seal ring facing to the
oil inlet side.
15. Seal plate
• Apply liquid gasket to the turbine-side flange
surface. Application thickness 0.1 — 0.2 mm WSHK0155
(0.004 — 0.008 in) (B) 17. Nut
• Attach the box spanner to the turbine-side shaft
ThreeBond No. 1207
end of the turbine shaft, and tighten the nut.
• The nut is left-hand thread. Make sure the turning
• Install the seal plate to the bearing housing.
direction.
• Apply Loctite (B) to the Pot small screw threads,
and install it using torque screwdriver. Tightening torque: 7.8 N⋅m (0.80 kgf⋅m/69 lb in)

Tightening torque: 23 N⋅m (2.3 kgf⋅m/17 lb ft) 18. Compressor housing


• Apply liquid gasket to the compressor-side flange
surface of the seal plate. Illustration shown in the
previous page (A)
Application thickness 0.1 — 0.2 mm (0.004 —
0.008 in)

ThreeBond No. 1207

• Align the alignment marks that marked during the


disassembly, and assemble the compressor
housing to the seal plate.
1F-20 Exhaust System and Turbocharger

Tightening torque: 7.9 N⋅m (0.81 kgf⋅m/70 lb in)

WSHK0156
Exhaust System and Turbocharger 1F-21

Turbocharger (4HK1)

Inspection of Turbocharger
Inspection
Caution:
Turbocharger on 4HK1 engine cannot be overhauled
structurally.

Perform only the following inspection.


• Measurement of axial play of turbine shaft

Axial play mm (in)


Service limit 0.11 (0.004)

WSHK0129
• Inspection of radial play of turbine shaft
Insert a thickness gauge into the gap between the
compressor impeller and housing, and measure
the clearance.
The thickness gauge to be inserted must be 0.2
mm (0.0078 in) or less.
1F-22 Exhaust System and Turbocharger

Measurement Tool

Shape Name Part number Usage


Caliper Measurement of the seal ring groove width
Measurement of inner diameter of the seal ring
insertion part
Measurement of turbine shaft journal outer
diameter
Measurement of thrust bushing groove

clearance
WSHK0157 Measurement of thrust bearing thickness
Measurement of floating metal inner/outer
diameter
Measurement of inner diameters of the center
housing metal portion and ring portion
Dial gauge Measurement of turbine shaft axial gap, radial
gap and runout

WSHK0158

Other Material

Name Usage
Besco super engine oil Floating metal sliding portion
Thrust bushing sliding portion
Thrust bearing sliding portion
Turbine shaft journal portion
ThreeBond No. 1207 Housing installing surface of the seal plate
Flange of the compressor housing
Loctite No. 242 Seal plate tightening screw thread