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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DISSERTATION

GREEN OFFICE BUILDING


A Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
For the Award of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE
(2003-2008)

BY
D.E.V.S.Kiran Kumar
642320010

Under esteemed guidance of


Ar. Shabnam Patel

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
ANDHRA UNIVERSITY
VISAKHAPATNAM
2007-2008
Dedicated to
My parents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very glad to offer my sincere gratitude to my guide, Ar .Shabnam Patel for


her active guidance and valuable suggestions at regular intervals.

I am also thankful to my internal jury member Ar. P.Gurunadh Rao for his
blessings at all the time.

I sincerely thank for Assoc.Prof.G.Viswandh Kumar, Head of the department of


Architecture, AU College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam for having
extended all kinds of facilities in carrying out this project.

I like to thank all my classmates for their support and cooperation throughout my
study.
I like to thank Ar. Ramatheerdha, Urban planner, VUDA, Mr. Srinivasa Rao ,Prof.
in Env. Engg., Mr.Vijayaramaraju,District Manager NEDCAP, Mr. B. Satish,
V.V.archiects, chennai, , Mr. Jai kumar, Grundfos, Chennai, Mr.Chandu ,
Mr.vignesh , students of architecture, Chennai., Mr. Sibasis Mahapatra CII- GBC,
Ar.. Ramana koti LEED AP, USA, Ar. Karan Grovar, KGA, Baroda.

And my wishes to my party members- Yimesh, Siva Prasad, Dheeraj, Raghu


ram, Joshi, Nagesh varma , Kavitha, Naveen.

D.E.V.S.Kiran Kumar
Preface

The global scenario towards sustainable development needs to build the


spaces in which the human can live comfortably without causing any
disturbance to the nature. Of course green building concept came for the
sustainable built environment in which human leads his life happily.
Respecting nature laws and being contextual will appear in this
sustainable development.

In this I want to tell you my interest towards sustainable development


and design of an office building where we are seeing an absence of nature
in more situations especially in cities. The people living in the villages also
losing their relation to nature due to urbanization and migration to urban
areas.
Contents-
General introduction- global
scenario
Synopsis
Literature- data
Case studies
Comparison
Climatic study
Site analysis
Design- concept and drawings
Introduction

Global scenario- areas are struggling to meet the existing


demands of water and energy to sustain
life and its foundations, and are
producing “waste” at quantities that
cannot be dealt with adequately. Further
there is the problem not only of scarcity,
but also of pollution of natural resources
such as air and water. Urban areas are
the biggest consumers of fossil fuels,
and the biggest emitters of Green
House Gases.

The Green House Gas emissions are


currently greatest in the industrialized
countries, although estimates suggest
that developing countries will
Since the industrial revolution, the world increasingly contribute to this factor in
has witnessed incalculable the coming decade.
technological achievements, economic
and population growth and ever In India the construction industry is
increasing use of natural resources. growing at a rate of 9.2 percent per
Increased urbanization seen today is a annum as against the world average 5.5
result of this overall growth. The green percent per annum. It is one of the
cover, ground water resources have largest in terms of economic
been forced to give way to these rapidly expenditure, use of raw materials
developing urban structures. (natural resources) and environmental
impacts. For example, the growing
In US, buildings account for about 36 urban metropolis of Delhi, it lost its
percent of its total energy use, 65 green buffer to give way to the growth of
percent of electricity consumption, 30 satellite towns of Noida and Gurgaon,
percent of total raw material use, 12 resulting in sudden weather changes.
percent of potable water consumption,
35 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, The construction industry is booming in
and 49 percent of sulphur dioxide several metropolitan areas like
emissions. Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Gurgaon,
Noida, Vadodara, Bombay, Pune, and
According to a report of department of Hyderabad. And growing noticeably
communities and local government of even in smaller cities and towns.
the UK government Building a
greenerfuture: Towards zero carbon International Institute of Environment
development, “The UK emitted more Development recently reveals in their
than 150 million tones of carbon dioxide report ‘The transition to a predominant
emissions, and more than a quarter urban world’ that the Visakhapatnam
came from the energy(used) to heat, city is one of the fastest growing cities in
light and run homes. The UK the world. The city has day to day
government has now set a target for increase in construction activity
moving to zero carbon housing in the because of emerging new industries,
next 10 years. (Source: Down to Earth- townships, and government housing
August’07) policies. So, it is necessary for a
development that meets the needs of
Already today, even without having to the present without compromising the
cater to the growing future demands of ability of future generations to meet their
an exploding urban population across own needs even for the cities like
the world, the municipalities of these Visakhapatnam.
Introduction

Pre-20th Century structures were situated and what their climatic


designed and built by builders, context is?
architects who had an ability to
understand the entire building from Need- Sustainable development:
design through construction and lifetime
operations. They incorporated enduring Globally accepted definition of
passive design and simple mechanical sustainable development is
systems to heat, cool and light ‘development that meets the needs of
buildings. the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet
Before the wide spread dependencies their own needs’. (Brundtland
on electricity for heating cooling and Commission Report (1987).
illumination, buildings were naturally
more climate responsive and architects A large number of us spend most of
were familiar with excelled in what are our lives inside the controlled
today termed “passive” techniques in environment of buildings. A building and
combination with mechanical devices to its infrastructure displaces natural
illuminate and ventilate the interior habitat existing at the site. It requires
spaces of complex buildings, whether enormous amounts of resources to build
high rise or long span. The early and even bigger resources to operate.
skyscrapers of Europe and America or Construction materials are extracted
the long span train stations and from nature; water and energy are used
exhibition spaces, provide endless to process these materials and run the
examples of how architects respond the building.
need for taller and larger buildings while
also meeting the comfort levels of the Buildings account for one- sixth of the
users and providing for the necessary world’s fresh water withdrawals, one-
light and ventilation. quarter of its wood harvest and two-
fifths of its material and energy flows.
In1930s new building technologies .(Source: Internet)
began to transform urban landscape.
Advent of air conditioning, low-wattage Most of us spend more than 90% of our
fluorescent lighting, structural steel, and time indoors. Our indoor air is up to 10
reflective glass made possible enclosed times more polluted than outdoors due
glass and steel structures that could be to inadequate ventilation and off-
heated and cooled with massive HVAC gassing of chemicals found in many
systems. These technologies began a building material
sadly regressive movement in
architecture in which architects began to --By addressing these issues when
ignore climate issues and their effect on designing, constructing buildings, we
buildings and occupants. can minimize a variety of environmental
impacts, improve human health and
While architecture has managed to productivity.
reach such low levels of total
disconnection with the natural world and In 1970s, A small group of forward-
environment, human beings are being thinking architects, environmentalists,
subject to living and working in and ecologists inspired by work of Victor
environments that even may not be Olgyay (Design with Climate), Ralph
provided with natural illumination, in Knowles (Form and Stability), and
spite of acknowledged consequences Rachel Carson (Silent Spring), began to
such as “sick building syndrome”. question the advisability of building in
Modern buildings world wide seen to this manner. Architects in the
look alike regardless of where they are 21stCentury will look upon these ideas.
Synopsis

The green concepts should be Case studies:


incorporated in every building. But to
begin with, it is important to take up a 1.Corporate office – Grundfos pumps
building where the effectiveness can be ltd., Chennai. Designed by Ar.
actually felt. Vineetha Badawe.

The statistics show that the commercial


office buildings are the biggest culprits.
So there is every need to make the
office buildings green.

Aim:
2.CII- Godrej Green Business Centre,
Design a Green Office building in Hyderabad. Designed by Ar. Karan
Visakhapatnam which will be a Grovar.
showcase for the future generations.

Objectives:

•Design a green building for warm-


humid climate.
•Incorporate passive cooling techniques
in the building.

Scope: Proposal:

Not to lose the holistic approach of There is a proposal for Non-


green design the building should abide conventional Energy Development
the aspects of national or international Corporation of Andhra Pradesh(
rating systems for green buildings. NEDCAP) for its office in
Visakhapatnam in which office space,
Sustainable development workshop, exhibition hall , seminar
hall, library, guest rooms, gymnasium
Human and environmental health and a cafeteria are to be designed as
a green building .
Energy efficiency
Visakhapatnam Urban Development
Water conservation Authority(VUDA) has suggested a site
for this proposal at a highest point in
Selection of materials and indoor air the center of the city and which a
quality. redevelopment site..

Limitations:

•Incorporate the suitable construction


techniques taken from case studies and
also from green building seminars.

•Technical details and calculations for


different systems involved in the design
will not be given.
Literature

Literature – data
Green building: is the Indian Green Building Council’s
Green building or bioclimatic building is development of LEED suited to Indian
the practice of increasing the efficiency requirements. And we have TERI
with which the buildings and their sites GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated
use and harvest energy, water and habitat Assessment). It is applicable to
materials and reducing building impacts commercial, residential and institutional
on human health and the environment, buildings.
through better siting, design,
construction, operation and India has no comprehensive legislation
maintenance. (Source: Wikipedia.org ) or code for green buildings. After much
dithering, the Bureau of Energy
Efficiency (BEE), set up under the
A green building is a holistic
Energy Conservation Act, 2001,
approach towards sustainability. It
released the Energy Conservation
takes care of site, water efficiency,
Building Code (ECBC) in June this year.
energy efficiency, materials and
But it is incomplete and also not
indoor environmental quality and all
mandatory.
these together without
compromising one other.
The ECBC sets minimum energy
efficiency standards for design and
construction of non residential buildings.
A green rating system which we are It covers only new large commercial
seeing today is some thing which buildings such as hotels, hospitals.
certifies it. It is like to write an exam Energy standards for the following
after you study a course. building systems are included in the
ECBC: building envelope; lighting;
heating, ventilation and air
Green building rating systems: conditioning service; water heating
and electric power and distribution.
Voluntary building rating systems such
as LEED (Leadership in Energy and The ECBC encourages energy efficient
Environmental Design) as developed by design or retrofit of commercial
the United States and BREEAM buildings so that they are designed in a
(Building Research Establishment manner that reduces the use of energy
Environmental Assessment Method) as without affecting the building function or
developed by the United Kingdom have comfort, health and productivity of the
been instrumental in raising awareness occupants, and with appropriate regard
and popularizing green design towards for economic factors. The code
protection of the environment. In fact eliminates design practices that lead to
the ‘Green building’ term is popularized unnecessarily high use of energy and
after the USGBC (United States Green associated costs. Besides reducing
Building Council) was founded in 1993. costs at large, compliance with the code
Other countries have also their own improves comfort (both thermal and
rating system according to their visual).
environmental needs. Australia has
Energy star rating, Hong Kong has LEED rating:
BEAM (Building Environment
Assessment Method), Japan has The USGBC gave a larger meaning to
developed CASBEE (Comprehensive the word ‘green’ by recognizing that
Assessment System for Building buildings also have an impact on
Environmental Efficiency), etc. people- the constructions, workers the
building users, the larger community
As of now India has LEED-India, which and by asserting that these impacts.
Literature

should be favorable. The original LEED efficiency, material selection and


rating system was designed as a indoor air quality. LEED recognizes
response to these Concerns to achievement and promotes expertise
influence change in the fastest growing in Green building through a
sector in US office buildings. comprehensive system offering project
LEED, though innovate and useful, is certification, professional accreditation,
far from perfect. The USGBC continues training and practical resources.
to modify it. It has been customized for
other building types and eventually LEED Green building rating
being customized to reflect the systems:
environmental realities and building
practices for different regions of the US. Under development-
LEED is in fact, a market transformation LEED- CS (Core & Shell)
tool and therefore must respond to its LEED- H (Homes)
market if it is to truly transform it. LEED LEED- ND (Neighborhood
provides a complete frame work for Developments)
assessing building performance and
meeting sustainable goals Available-
LEED- NC (New Construction)
Based on well founded LEED- CI (Commercial Interiors)
standards, LEED emphasizes state of LEED- EB (Existing Buildings,
the art strategies for sustainable site Operations and Maintenance)
development, water savings, energy

Table-1 : Credits for individual features & Certification levels by USGBC for
LEED rating.

Features New Existing Commercial


Building Building Interiors

Energy and Atmosphere 17 23 12

Indoor Environmental quality 15 22 17

Water efficiency 5 5 2

Sustainable Sites 14 14 7

Materials and Resources 13 16 14

Innovation and Accredited 5 5 5


Professional points

Total 69 85 57

LEED Certified 26-32 32-39 21-26

LEED Certified Silver level 33-38 40-47 27-31

LEED Certified Gold Level 39-51 48-63 32-41

LEED Certified Platinum Level 52+ 64-85 42-57


Literature

An Example:

Lewis and Clark State Office Building, US

Lewis and Clark State Office Building is The building is oriented on an east-
a LEED platinum rated green building west axis to maximize day lighting of
by USGBC. The 120,000 square-foot employee workspaces and shading of
building consists of the department’s direct sunlight during the summer. It
Director's Office, Field Services maximizes south and north glazing
Division, Division of Administrative opportunities and minimizes east and
Services, and some programs of the west exposures. The building
Division of Environmental Quality.. It is configuration allows communal and
located on the bluffs above the Missouri enclosed rooms to be placed at the
River in Jefferson City, USA. The site core of the building, leaving the
which was taken for it was a perimeter spaces for open work zones
redevelopment site in the core city, and circulation.
would help anchor redevelopment of the
prison site and provide a linchpin The atrium was designed to give
between the redeveloped site and the access to views and daylight for its
natural area to the east. Both these occupants. The building also takes
priorities were given by the department advantage of passive solar heating in
while choosing the site. the winter without direct sunlight
penetrating the building. Light shelves
The building was designed, and built to and sunshades protrude from the front
minimize its impact on the environment. of the building and perform two
It has the mission of preserving, functions: reflecting sunlight deeper
protecting, restoring and enhancing into the building’s interior and shading
Missouri’s natural, cultural and energy external windows during the most
resources. extreme summer sun angles.

A system of drain tiles, bio swales and


detention ponds hold rainwater to
eliminate storm water runoff damage.
They conserve native species by
reducing site disturbance during site
planning.

Pool parking is provided for car pooling


which conserves energy.

Influenced by the native rock


outcroppings upon which the building
is sited, these exterior “striations”
reflect sunlight deep into the floor plate
while producing sufficient shade to
reduce both glare and heat gain. This
daylight minimizes electric lighting.
Literature

The external light shelves are then features Missouri’s native plants,
combined with internal light-weight light which require less watering during
shelves designed to extend lighting into hot summers. They also filter &
the building. This automatically adjusts clean water as it absorbed.
lighting levels, using ceiling mounted
sensors, which eliminates higher lighting Materials with a high recycled
levels than necessary, especially on content have been used wherever
sunny days. The ambient lighting possible, from the concrete to the
decreases glare and associated eye carpet. The old prison, which is
strain for employees. And it is also located on the site, was
increasing employees productivity. deconstructed, with The bricks

There are floor diffusers which allow being reused in construction of the
employees to adjust air flow direction new facility. Selected materials were
and fan speed into workstations. used hat contained no Volatile Organic
Raised flooring minimizes Compounds (VOCs) in order to
heating/cooling waste. One hundred improve indoor air quality.
and sixty-eight photovoltaic panels
produce 21.5 kilowatts of power which Walkways, benches and landscaping
meet 2.5 percent of total building elements were made from reused
energy consumption. demolished building brick. Builders
followed a construction waste
Roof forms are sloped in order to management plan to reuse materials
harvest rainwater for gray water reuse on site and eliminate landfill disposal.
throughout the building. Rainwater
from the roof is captured and routed These are some features incorporated
via pipes to a below-ground gray water for the green design of lewis and clark
cistern (using a sand and UV filtering state office building to get LEED rating.
system) for flushing toilets. Water- There are many such buildings in US
saving fixtures such as waterless where the sustainable development is
urinals were installed to improve water an immediate necessary.
efficiency. The site’s landscaping
Literature

Green in Indian history:


also performing the ventilation stack
Man has always existed with nature, effect as there was a ventilator
respecting its laws. Concern for incorporated with the roof.
resources and conservation of energy
was always reflected in all rituals, Havelis are balconies and verandahs
social actions and very clearly in the designed for semi-outdoor seating in
physical planning. rich merchant houses in Rajasthan,
Highly ornate pillars and stone trellis
The compactness of town planning, work keeps the sun out whilst
evolution of courtyard houses in providing natural ventilation.
Jaisalmer, Jaipur and old Delhi,
suitable use of locally available Hawa Mahal in Jaipur is an example in
materials, rational hierarchy of open which the façade was designed such
spaces and the climatic response to that it draughts the wind and provide
design is clearly seen in the handling natural ventilation and the materials
of material and design details of used for that building are also climatic
narrow lanes, thick walls with niches responsive of that region.
and a variety of in-between elements
like decorative jarokha balconies and Akbar’s house in Fatepur Sikri is
jails. In traditional Indian Architecture. another example in which evaporative
A few such examples are… cooling has provided by locating a
water body beside his room which is
The roofs in the Kerala houses were - most responsive for that climate.
Literature

many answers. For example, the Goan


Here, are some explanations of some of
house had a courtyard that drew the hot
the Indian architects about Green
air out and there was always draught.
Architecture.
But again in the olden days, houses
were built on much larger plots, which
Arvind Krishnan- is an architect,
don’t exist anymore and so something
planner and a professor at the School of
like a courtyard becomes very difficult to
Planning and Architecture, Delhi.
incorporate in the design.
- Largely it has been assumed that
The windows in Goan houses started
tradition is green and even more
from the floor level because in hot and
important is its sustainability in its
humid climate it is very important to
It is important to understand the process
have air passing over the body. Another
that go behind- the process of design,
important climatic feature was a
building and the use of the traditional
cowered tile on the roof that used to
platform as compared with the process
always take the hot air out and not let it
of contemporary building.
remain trapped. Also at the top of the
wall, there was a hole that used to pull
The inevitability of the situation is that
the hot air out. These are the kinds of
maximum buildings are being built for
things that are important to imbibe from
the sector that demands artificial
the tradition.
controls. For example, the so-called IT
parks are the buildings that have
Therefore one can take some
become very prevalent and it is a
practices from tradition but one
contained building. But the reality is that
should not replicate it. In fact, if one
a building is situated in a certain place
were to build a traditional Goan house
in time, form but it always interactive
today , there would be a lot of wastage
within that place.
of money and resources.
So how do we join these opposite ends
When one designs a house today the
of the spectrum and try and respond
most important thing is to make the
them? He thinks one of the tasks that
least impact on the resources of the
we must set ourselves is to find a
fragile earth and that depends on the
method of interpreting tradition and
choice of materials; for instance, one
translating it in modern context. The
must not try to get jodhpur sandstone
way about is translate this process into
for a house in Goa or marble from Italy,
modern context in the holistic way.
instead we should try and use the
locally available materials as far as
Gerard da Cunha- is a well
possible. Another thing is to be sensitive
established architect practicing in Goa.
to the site, do not cut, instead try to
follow the contours of the site, try to
He is giving an example of Goan house,
save a tree. This sensitivity is not
which he presumes to be traditional
traditional but today one needs to play a
houses in different parts of the country.
proactive role.
The starting point is material, we use a
The other issue is recycling. Like he
local stone that is quarried nearby and
uses a lot of recycled stuff in his work,
he sees no harm in using even today .
for instance, old bottles, for fillers he
The design used to be lavish and
uses on old walls and roofs. In addition,
formal, meant for a large family where
he sees the importance of the use of
privacy was not important. He does not
new scientific principles in the climatic
see this design being replicated today
design to be greener. For example, the
because nobody wants this kind of
shaded wall is a concept that was not
house anymore
used earlier.
But in terms of climatic design, there are
Literature

Table:2 – An integrated climatic responsive approach at site planning level.


Literature

Table:2 – An integrated climatic responsive approach at site planning level.


Literature

As it was mentioned in the previous • Acacia arabica (Babul)


chapter that a green design takes care • Citrus species
of site, water efficiency, energy • Dyospyros species
efficiency, materials and indoor • Ficus bengalensis (Banyan)
environmental quality and all these • Ficus religiosa (Peepal)
together without compromising one • Lillium spp. (Lily)
other, let us mention with the detail • Polyathia lotigifolia (Ashok)
approach in each parameter. • Tamarindus indica (Imli)
• Thuja occidentallis (Cedar)
Sustainable site development: • Prospis Juliflora (Mesquite)
• Zizypus jujuba (jujuba ), etc
Site selection: Rehabilitate damaged
sites where development is Soil preservation: Human activities
complicated by real or perceived during construction can accelerate
environmental contamination, reducing erosion by removing vegetation,
pressure on undeveloped land. compacting or disturbing the soil,
changing natural drainage patterns,
Location should be with in ½ mile of a and by covering the ground with
residential zone or neighborhood with impermeable surfaces (pavement,
a average density of 10 units per acre concrete, buildings). When the land
and within ½ mile of at least 10 basic surface is developed or “hardened “in
services with pedestrian access this manner, storm water and
between building and the services. snowmelt cannot seep into or
“infiltrate” the ground. This results in
Site planning: limit site disturbance larger amounts of water moving more
i.e., earth work and cleaning quickly across a site which can carry
vegetation. more sediment and other pollutants to
40’ beyond building perimeter streams and rivers. Disruption to the
10’ beyond surface walkways and natural hydrology of the site could be
parking minimized by reducing impervious
15’ beyond perimeter roadways and cover, increasing on site infiltration
utility branch trenches and managing storm water run off.
25’ beyond constructed areas with
permeable surfaces Landscaping:
Evergreen trees for:
Reduce the building foot print to i. places requiring shade throughout
exceed the local zoning open space the year
requirement for the site by 25%. ii. Strong visual screening
Open space = site area- development iii. Part of windbreak or shelter planting
foot print (building, access roads, iv. Areas where leaf litter is to be
parking, utilities etc.) discouraged

Leave vegetated open space Deciduous trees for:


equivalent of building foot print. i. greater visual variety
ii. Partial visual barrier
It should be ensured that the iii. Areas where under-planting is to be
development would not further encouraged (e.g. grass)
deteriorate the air quality and noise iv. Emphasis on branching and
Vegetation buffers can minimize the flowering pattern.
build-up of pollution levels in urban v. areas where shade is not required
areas by acting as pollution sinks. The throughout the year.
following species may be examined for
their likely potential for pollution
control.
Literature

Table:3– Run off coefficient of various surfaces.


.
Surface type Run off coefficient

Roofs conventional 0.95

Turf slopes 0% to 1% 0.25


1% to 3% 0.35
Slope 3% to 10% 0.4

>Slope 10% 0.45


Concrete/ Kota Paving 0.95
Gravel 0.75
Brick paving 0.85

Vegetation Slope 0-1% 0.10

Slope 1% to 3% 0.2
Slope 3% to 10% 0.25

>Slope 10% 0.3

Table 4: Technologies for controlling Erosion & Sedimentation

Control Description
technology
Stabilization

Temporary seeding Plant fast- growing grasses to temporarily stabilize soils.

Permanent seeding Plant grass, trees and shrubs to permanently stabilize soil.

Mulching Place hay, grass, woodchips, straw, or gravel on the soil


(slopes>33%) surface to cover and hold soils.
Structural controls

Earth dike (slopes Construct a mound of stabilized soil to divert surface runoff
greater than 10%) volumes from disturbed areas or into sediment basins or
sediment traps.
Silt fence Construct posts with a filter fabric media to remove sediment
from storm water volumes flowing through the fence.
Sediment trap Excavate a pond area or construct earthen embankments to
allow for setting of sediment from storm water volumes.
Sediment basin Construct a pond with a controlled water release structure to
allow for settling of sediment from storm water volumes.

( Source: LEED V2.1)


Literature

Mulching

Sediment trap
Silt fence

Permanent seeding Earth dike

Transportation:
Paving materials Solar Reflective
Locate building within 0.8km of railway Index (SRI ≥29). To reduce light
line or within 0.4km of two or more bus pollution, minimize light trespass
lines. from the building and site, reduce
sky- glow to increase night sky
Use low emitting & fuel efficient vehicles access, improve night time visibility
for 3% of FTE occupants and provide- through glare reduction and reduce
AFV- refueling stations, electric development impact on nocturnal
charging, liquid or gaseous fueling environments. Exterior lighting not
facilities. exceed ASHRAE/IESNA90.1 2004

Provide preferred parking for car/ van 80% of LPD (Light Power Density)
pool serving 10% of building occupants. allowed for exteriors ie., parking
areas: 0.15W/sft, walkways:
Carpool: An arrangement in which two 1W/linear foot (<10 feet width), walk
or more people share a vehicle for ways : 0.2 W/ sft(>10 feet width).
transportation is known a s carpooling. 50%of LPD allowed for façade and
Parking: landscape ie., 0.2 W/sft or 5 W/linear
foot (ASHRAE).
To reduce heat islands minimum of 50%
of parking spaces should be under Light pollution: Light pollution can
cover substantially limit visual access to the
night sky and stray light that enters
Shade(within 5 years) for parking lots, the atmosphere doesnot increase
walk waysOpen grid pavement system night time safety or security and
for minimum of 50% of the parking lot needlessly consumes energy and
area. needlessly consumes energy and
natural resources.
Literature

Table 5: Area standards for parking

Vehicle type Area required for parking (m) Clear height(m)

Car 2.5 x 5 2.2

Scooter 3 x 1.4 2.2

Trucks 3.75 x 10 4.75

Parking requirement per car space is as per the floor type

Basement 35sqm

Stilts 30sqm

Open 25sqm
( Source: NBC)

To reduce heat island effect use roofing Heat island effect: it occurs when
materials having a Solar Reflexive Index warmer temperatures are experienced
(SRI) equal to or greater than the values in urban landscapes compared to
given below for a minimum of 75% of adjacent rural areas as a result of
the roof surface. solar energy retention on constructed
surfaces. Principal surfaces that
For low sloped roof(slope≤2:12) SRI is contribute to the heat island effect
78, for step sloped roof(slope≥29) SRI include streets, sidewalks, parking lots
is 29 and buildings.

Table 6: Surface Reflective Index for different surfaces

Generic roofing materials Solar reflective Index (SRI)


Gray EPDM 21
Gray Asphalt Shingle 22
Unpainted cement tile 25
White Granular Surface bitumen 28
Red clay tile 36
Light gravel on built up roof 37
Aluminum 56
White coated gravel on built up roof 79
White coating on metal roof 82
White EPDM 84
White cement tile 90
White coating- 1 coat, 8 mils 100
PVC white 104
White coating- 2 coats, 20 mils 107
( Source: LEED V2.1)
Literature

Water efficiency: Types of reed bed species-


•Phragmites australis
Water requirement for office buildings = •Phragmites karka
45 litres per day per head. (Source :NBC •Arundo donax
2005) •Typha latifolia
•Typha angustifolia
Reduce the generation of waste water •Juncus(bulrush)
and potable demand, while increasing •Iris pseudacorus
the local aquifer recharge. Schoeenoplectus lacustris

Reduce the use of municipally provided The distance should be such that it
potable water for building sewage does not affect the drinking water
conveyance by a minimum of 50% or sources.
treat 100% waste water on site to The site should not be a flood prone
tertiary standards. area.
There should be availability of
Capture and treat 90% average rain fall, space for disposal of the treated
construct site storm water treatment effluent after meeting standards.
system to remove 80% TSS ( Total The site should have a natural slope
Suspended Solids). to avoid pumping requirements.
The site should be accessible for
Collection (in Kilolitres) = rainfall (in maintenance.
metres) x catchment area (in square
metres)

Waste water treatment: Root zone


treatment. Catchment area
Sewage is passed horizontally through
a bed of soil or gravel media, species Gutter
like ‘Phragmites australis’ are grown in
the bed. Sewerage inlet has normal
BOD, 200-250 mg/l and normal COD
450mg/l.
Filter
The roots of the plants create
conditions for existence of dense Storage
bacteria settlement on roots. And also
absorbs toxic concentrations in waste Recharge pit
water to a large extent
Roof top rain water harvesting

Screening
chamber

Setting tank

Treated sump

Root zone treatment


For irrigation
Literature

Waterless urinals: The water less larger trees like banana and mango.
urinal saves much water. It includes But for small plants, it is diluted in the
strong ceramic or PVC pans with a ratio of 1:5 or 1:10 depending on the
ceramic siphon( a tube that flushes out plants.”
the liquid from the urinal pan), which
does not need to be replaced, unlike a Faeces are collected in tin cans lined
plastic siphon. The siphon is filled with with thick paper and once a tin is full,
a non- water – soluble liquid, having a its top is also covered with thick paper
specific gravity lighter than that of and left out in the sun for about two
urine. The urine therefore seeps weeks to get rid of extra moisture. It is
through the sealing liquid and out to then emptied into a compost bin. The
the sewage system. The sealing liquid decomposition takes about 6-8
contains colouring agents and months.
perfumed oil that keeps the bad
odours at bay. The liquid by itself is These are all some practices to make
environment- friendly since it is water efficient toilets in a building.
reusable and bio degradable, and
does not require an outside catalyst to Table 7:Efficient water usage
begin breaking down harmful bacteria.
Waterless urinals are contact free and Fixture Flow
hence hygienic. Installation costs of requirement
pipes and flushing system are also
Water 1.6
eliminated. Water poured in to the pan
closets(GPF)
from time to time, ensures a thorough
cleaning. Urinals (GPF) 1.0
Showerheads 2.5
(GPM)
Faucets (GPF) 2.5

GPF (Gallons per Flush) ( Source: LEED V2.1)


GPM (Gallons per Minute)

Landscaping: Use high efficiency


irrigation systems (Sprinkler: 0.63
Drip: 0.9).Native vegetation is
original to a particular place,
including trees, shrubs, and other
plants. These generally require less
water and less maintenance
Dual flush toilets: These systems
save water by letting you to choose Table 8:savings in water usage
between a three litre flush or a six litre
flush. This saves five litres for every Options Savings in
urinal flush and two litres for every water(%)
waste flush 100% Lawn

Dry toilets:In this system both the 50% lawn: 50% 32


solid and liquid waste from the toilets shrubs
are collected separately and used as
50%lawn: 42
fertilizer in the garden. “the squatting
25%shrubs:
pan has two holes for collecting urine
25%native
and faeces separately . The urine
goes in one section of the pot, which is 100% native 64
then used directly on
Literature

Energy efficiency:
We Can conserve some amount of Sharing of walls between adjoining
buildings not only reduces
energy by climate responsive design.
consumption of construction material
Climate is the main factor governing
but also cut down the surface
architectural design for comfort
exposure, making the building less
conditions inside the buildings. It is the
susceptible to the external climate.
intense solar radiation of summer
Splitting the total built-up area in
incident on the external surface of the
several floors is also does the same.
building, infiltrated to internal
Varying levels and volumes in a space
environment, which causes thermal
bring down the energy consumption by
discomfort in unconditioned buildings
nearly 10 percent. The addition of a
and contributes 40-60 percent cooling
floor cuts it down to the order of 20
load on air conditioned buildings as
percent while sharing further two
solar heat gain. If the total building
sidewalls, reduces it to nearly half.
envelope could be designed to have
minimum exposure to external
environment, there will be minimum
solar heat gain per unit floor area
(W/m2) and building will prove thermally Volume:
efficient through architectural control at
the sketch design stage itself. Based on
this concept, a relation ship between
external surface area and enclosed floor
area of the building envelope has been
evolved, in the form of surface area to
floor area ratio (SA/FA). It is to exercise
the right option of size and shape of the
building, which will give minimum solar
heat gain in a given situation without
going through complex heat transfer
calculations. Such buildings would
prove thermally efficient whether
conditioned or unconditioned.

Shape:

Greater the perimeter to area


radito(P/A) of the plan form the greater
the radiative heat gain during the day
and the greater the heat loss at night.
Similarly, smaller the P/A ratio, the
lesser the heat gain be during the day
and lesser the loss at night.
Literature

Plan form:
Heat transmittance value(U) of the
material used in the building is also
effects the internal conditions.

In warm humid climates heat storage


is undesirable The walls and roofs
should therefore be light, probably
having high u-values and low heat
capacities.

Other structural elements effecting


internal conditions:

Double skin façade:


Glass on the external surface is also
effects internal conditions of the
building If you take equal areas of
walls, glass and roof exposed to
solar heat, the curves given below
indicate what is most harmful and at
what time.

Solar chimney:
There are different glass materials
available which can reduce some Air on becoming hot also becomes
amount of heat . lighter due to reduction in density.
This lighter air has a natural tendency
Table 9 : Heat reduction by different of rising upwards.
materials. If one creates and maintains a higher
temperature in a duct than the
ambient, then the warm air in the duct
Type of Heat rises upwards.
material reduction in % If suitable openings are provided for
exit of warm air into atmosphere and
Heat absorbing 25 entry of room cooler into the duct
glass The concept can be utilized for
creating ventilation in buildings
Double pane 10-20
glass
Stained glass 30-50

Awnings 70

Inside venetian 35
blinds
Reflecting films 40-60
Literature

Building skins: Natural ventilation:


To remove excess heat from room ,to
pass the air over human body and to
decrease humidity levels and
continuous high air exchange rate,
ventilation throughout the day is
required. To adequately cross ventilate
the occupied areas of a building,
They use the wind to cool the wall openings should be provided on both
and defend it by half shade windward and leeward sides of the
building. Ventilation of roof
construction would further enhance
heat loss through the building
structure. In certain months where
comfort conditions are impossible,
dehumidifiers and desiccant cooling
would be desired.

Radiant cooling:
The heat dissipation from a building is
to take place by long wave radiation.
The radiating surface must be in contact
either with a heat store acting as the
building interim heat sink. A number of
alternative constructional variants are
thus possible. A heavyweight concrete
roof may be used as the heat store and
radiator, use of movable insulation with
a reflective external finish above the
concrete slab will protect from day time
solar gains

Inlet placed low causes airflow to


sweep the floor.
Another set of variants is based on
using a metallic roof finish to act as
radiator, over a cavity with insulation
placed at ceiling level.

Inlet placed low directs flow downward.


The location of the outlet has no effect
on the internal flow pattern.
Literature

Energy efficient lighting:


Day lighting: Some more examples of lighting
Day light is free, artificial light consumes systems using natural light (daylight)
electricity. A further benefit of daylight is Light pipes- It constitutes a top dome,
that it usually implies a good visual link pipe, light diffuser and accessories.
between indoors and out doors. There The top dome exposed to the sun to
is increasing evidence that this quality is collect light and pipes it down. The
essential for well being occupants with highly reflective interior surface of the
the interplay of natural light and building pipe, conducts light to desired location,
form. with minimal loss. The diffuser
installed inside, distributes the
The window opening plus shading incoming light evenly through the area.
device is an option for this. It regulates
the proportion of light entering into the
room to avoid direct sun, and the
distribution of light within the room.
The quantitative parameter which
describes a building’s day lighting is
Daylight Factor (DF).

The ratio of the illumination to the


simultaneous out-door illumination can
be taken as constant. This constant
ratio, expressed as a percentage is the Reflective guides-
Daylight Factor (DF). Using modern highly reflective silvered
polyester semi-collimated mirrors light
The success of day lighting design is can be transmitted over 100 feet with
not just a matter of the quantity of light. only small losses.
There is important aspect of visual
comfort. In overheated climates where
occupants are near to conditions of
stress, there may be psychological
association between glare and thermal
discomfort. Hence glare control
becomes doubly important.

Three guidelines offered for this are..


Permit view of sky and ground near to
horizon only within 150 above and below
horizon.
Exclude view of bright ground and
sunlit louvers or surfaces of shading
devices.
Daylight should preferably be reflected
from the ground and louver surfaces on Light shelves-
to the ceiling which itself should be of Much of the interest in light shelves is
light color. it springs from their ability to project
daylight deep into the building core,
beyond the normal day lighting
perimeter of the building and beyond
the normal penetration from the shelf
less apertures. In addition light shelves
can reduce cooling loads caused by
solar gains and can improve visual
comfort in a space
Literature

Interior lighting: lighting systems:

300 lux- the bare essential illuminance


level specific to task lighting for work.
If it is applied throughout the office
irrespective of the functions, it is not
only imprudent employment of lighting,
but also makes the office a drab and
monotonous space. It is advisable to
lower lighting in non-task spaces such
Sky light- as passages.
By using pyramid or triangular form
over the skylight aperture high elevation Lamp selection is based on luminous
light is deflected back upwards to the efficacy (lumen per watt), color
sky and low elevation light is deflected temperature, color rendering index, life
down through the skylight aperture and lumen maintenance, availability,
switching and dimming capability and
cost.T8 and T5 linear fluorescent
lamps are excellent choices for today’s
building because they are energy
efficient, great at color rendering and
easily controllable. They are also
readily available and affordable.

High- frequency electronic ballasts


are important to visual performance
because they reduce eye strain and
fatigue. Frequencies in the 20 k Hz
Optical day lighting- range or higher, provide smooth,
It meets the criteria of manipulatively flicker- free lamp operation. Electronic
applying existing natural energy, ballasts are responsible for better lamp
sunlight by employing a sophisticated performance, lamp life extension and
freznel lens material, combined with improved color character. When
architectural design to deliver reliable, selecting a luminaire, things like
even daylight to building interiors. It can lighting effectiveness(which includes
also direct diffuse light from the distribution characteristics), reflector
brightest part of a cloudy sky to a efficiency, aesthetics, economics and
predetermined destination, creating quality of construction must be looked
brighter daylight in a concentrated into.
target area than the natural light form a
cloudy sky. The use of LEDs and optical fibres
would be the ideal for illuminating the
advertising billboards.

T5(T16) lamp: Tubular linear


fluorescent lamps with diameter of
5/8th of an inch(16mm) mostly
available in 14W, 28W and 54W.
T8(T26) lamps: Tubular linear
fluorescent lamps with diameter of 1
inch(26mm) mostly available in 18W
and 36W.
Literature

Table 9: lighting level requirement of different spaces in an office building

Type of interior activity Range of service Illuminance( in Lux)

General offices 300-500-700

Computer work stations 300-500-750

Conference rooms, executive 300-500-750


offfices
Auditorium 50-100-150

Corridors 100-150-200

Day, screened from bays 150-200-300

Day, open to natural light 150-200-300

Morning / evening 100-150-200

Night 5-10

Reception/enquiry 200-300-500

Waiting rooms 100-150-200

Exhibits insensitive to lights 200-300-500

Exhibit sensitive to light 50-150

Seminar rooms 300-500-750

Libraries 200-300-500

Entrance halls, lobbies, waiting 150-200-300


rooms
Enquiry desks 300-500-750

Corridors, passage ways, stairs 50-100-150

Canteens, cafeterias 150-200-300

Store rooms 50-100-150

Outdoor car parks 5-150

( Source: NBC)
Literature
HVAC:
For an office building internal equipment are most preferred because
conditions should be maintained as of low operating costs. Where heat
shown below- source such as steam or hot water is
In summer-DB 23 to 260c, RH 50-60%, available as a by product or
In winter- DB 21 to 230c, RH is not economically, absorption type units
less than 40% are good energy save choice.
Occupancy sensors can also save
It is advisable to go in for equipment energy when there is no occupancy.
with the best Energy Efficiency Ratio And there are photo sensors available
(EER). Though initial capital may be to monitor the levels of the lighting in
higher the user will save energy the indoors so, as to reduce power
continuously thereby saving expenses consumption
in the long run. Window ACs using
rotary compressors are more energy
efficient than those with reciprocating
compressors. Packaged air
conditioners/ducted splits are available
with reciprocating compressors as well
as scroll compressors. Scroll
compressors are capable of higher
EER and hence save on energy. For
higher tonnages screw and centrifugal

Table 10: Requirements of COP for Efficient Air- conditioning

Equipment Type Size Category Minimum Efficiency

Air cooled, with condenser <150 tons 2.80 COP


electrically operated 3.05 IPLV
>=150 tons .

Air cooled, without condenser, All capacities 3.10 COP


electrically operated 3.45 IPLV

Water cooled, electrically All capacities 4.20 COP


operated, positive 5.05 IPLV
displacement(reciprocating)
Water cooled, electrically <150 tons 4.45 COP
operated, positive 5.20 IPLV
displacement(rotary screw
and scroll) >=150 tons and 4.90 COP
<300 tons 5.60 IPLV
>=300 tons 5.50 COP
6.15 IPLV
Water cooled, electrically <150 tons 5.00 COP
operated, centrifugal 5.25 IPLV
>=150 tons and 5.55 COP
<300 tons 5.90 IPLV
>=300 tons 6.10 COP
6.40 IPLV

( Source: LEED V2.1)


Literature

Building Management System

Building Management System (BMS) is Arrays of photovoltaic cells arranged


basically a solution which is put into a into panels (or windows, roofing tiles,
facility to ensure an environment that is wall panels) convert solar light rays
safe, secure, comfortable and energy into electricity. Photovoltaic panels
efficient. It optimizes operational energy convert 10-25% (efficiency) of the light
consumption and monitor to control that reaches the panel. Electricity
indoor comfort conditions. generated by photovoltaic panels is
direct current (DC) electricity although
Renewable energy: panels are available with inverters built
Solar energy: into the system that provide alternating
Heat and light from the sun is one of the current (AC). Photovoltaic systems
most reliable events in our daily lives. can be optimized by orienting the
Civilization One method to reduce our panels to an optimum angle
reliance on non-renewable energy perpendicular to the sun. This
sources is to convert sunlight into optimum angle can be determined by
electricity with solar panels. knowing the latitude of the location.
BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaics)
The main requirement for solar Wind energy:
photovoltaics is collector area and angle It is the fastest growing energy source
to the sun. Considering the amount of on the planet. Technological advances
wall and roof area available on every have made wind power competitive
building, it is no surprise that with fossil-fuel generation. A wind
photovoltaics are being employed on turbine converts the kinetic energy of
building surfaces to both generate the wind’s motion to mechanical
electricity and provide other services energy transmitted by the shaft. A
such as weather protection. There are generator further converts into
partially transparent PV panels for use electricity. The axis of rotation is
as window-shading devices. horizontal and the aero turbine plane
is vertical facing the wind.
Literature

Energy simulation: Apart from thermal analysis, day-


When designed holistically to be energy lighting analysis forms significant
efficient, buildings can save huge component of energy efficiency in
amounts of energy since the physical interior spaces. There are simulation
and system and user based programs specifically tailored to
components are designed for simulate lighting conditions within a
interaction. space, which can then be appropriated
to the space planning and vice-versa.
Interior environment forms the most Simulation tools are software that
important component of a built form. So model and calculate the building
achieving sustainability and energy performance using simulation. A wide
efficiency in buildings today depends in range of such tools is available, some
a large measure on the designing of of them free, that can perform whole
interior spaces. In the current ‘glass- building simulation as well as a
clad’ scenario, the implications of specific component of building
energy efficient interior design’ could performance, like material and its life
have far reaching impact. This is a field cycle cost, HVAC equipment, other
yet unexplored. mechanical systems, its environmental
impact and cost, and even the user
Experiments have established that component. Few of these tools provide
furniture plays an important role in a refined visual interface for easy
internal thermal environments; and comprehension and visual analysis.
since the air temperature is one of the
most important components of human There are some tools available like
comfort, furniture can also have Radiance, Energy plus, Ecotect etc..
significant impact on the user comfort in for lighting simulation.
inside spaces. This means, it is possible
to moderate or improve the internal
environments with respect to the user
comfort using furniture placement and
design. In fact, furniture can almost
become one of the most significant
passive strategies for designing of
interior spaces. Material of furniture is
also significant part of its influence on
the temperature conditions.

Similarly materials and surface finishes


of other interior louvers are important
areas of study. The ‘user’ is an
important component of interiors. The
relationship of the number of users to
the comfort conditions and active
measures like lighting, cooling and
heating in spaces can be studied. The
concept like ‘task lighting’ and more
importantly, the ability of user to control
his environment- in terms of
temperature, humidity, air draft and
lumen levels – with the help of
intelligent furniture and lighting systems,
are important research areas.
Literature

Materials:

Before selecting materials for a green and the checklist given below helps us
building construction we must consider in selection of materials.
various characteristics of those materials

Table 11: Checklist for material selection

Characteristic Checklist

Regional availability Local extraction/ manufacture of raw material

Recyclability How many times the material can be recycled and retain
their viability

Reusability/salvaged Use as a secondary resource material for alternative


building materials

Durability and life span Durable, useful life

Life cycle cost impact Financial impact on the life cycle cost of building operations

Energy efficiency Low energy content

Resource efficiency Low consumption of resources like water

Certified wood Manufactured (in parts or whole) from wood (from well
managed forests) that has been certified by the forest
council standards.
Non-toxic emissions Relatively low levels of toxic emissions irritating or
hazardous substances that can have an adverse impact on
human health
Material cost Relative cost to equivalent products that are not sustainable

Savings Savings on energy and on other materials that might not be


used in the life cycle of the building owing to the use of
sustainably managed material

Material reduction Serving the functional purpose with minimal use of materials
at each stage of life cycle than typically used
Literature

Until recently, it was thought that the This includes the mining manufacturing
embodied energy content of a building of materials and equipment, the
was a small compared to energy used transport of materials and the
in operating the building over its life. But administrative functions.
recent research shows that embodied
energy is equivalent to many years of For example, Similarly reinforced
operational energy. cement concrete slab consumes over
four times the energy consumed by
Embodied energy is the energy stabilized mud blocks and SMB filler
consumed by all the process associated slab roof is highly energy efficient and
with the production of a product from consumes very less energy. So,
the acquisition of natural resources to consider the embodied energy while
the product delivery. choosing a material.

Table 11: Materials and their embodied energy


Primary energy Material Embodied energy (GJ per
requirement tone)
Very high energy Aluminum 200-250
Stainless steel 50-100
Plastic 100+
copper 100+
Steel 30-60
Lead 25+
Synthetic carpets 148
PVC 70
Zinc 51
paint 93.3
High energy Glass 12-25
Cement 5-8
Plaster board 8-10
Lime 3-5
Ply wood 10.4
Medium energy Clay bricks and tiles 2-7
Gypsum plaster 1-4
Concrete in-situ 0.8-1.5
Concrete blocks 0.8-3.5
Stone(local) 0.79
Pre- cast concrete 0.1-5
Low energy sand., aggregate <0.5
Fly ash <0.5
Blast furnace slag <0.5
Literature

Recycled materials: impacts associated with the extraction


As per LEED about one percent area and processing of virgin resources.
of the total building area should
provide for storage and collection of Increase demand for building products
recyclables like paper, plastics and that incorporate/ have incorporated
glass. recycled content materials, therefore
reducing the impacts resulting from
Minimize the generation of waste. extraction and processing of new virgin
Divert construction, demolition and materials.
landfill disposal. Redirect recyclable
recovered resources back to the Regional materials:
manufacturing process. Redirect Minimum of 20% of building materials
reusable materials to appropriate sites. by value to be manufactured regionally
within the radius of 500miles.Of these
For example, we can use waste above materials, minimum of 50% are
concrete for road laying. There are extracted, harvested, or recovered
some more examples of these types within 500 miles.
like broken bricks, scrap steel, packing
wooden material, broken glass, Renewable materials:
cement bags, paint containers for Encourage use of rapidly renewable
reuse, aluminum, AAC blocks, etc... materials. Eucalyptus, bamboo, rubber
wood, cork trees are some examples of
Reused materials: trees which are renewable (they can
Reuse building materials and products planted and replenished in less than 10
in order to demand for virgin materials years cycle). Bamboo products, MDF
and to reduce waste, thereby reducing wood, composite wood, woolen carpet
are some of the examples of rapidly
renewable materials.

Table 12: Building materials from agricultural wastes

Name of the Building material


agricultural waste

Bagasse from sugar Insulation boards, wall panels etc…


industries
Coconut waste and husk Coir for reinforcement in corrugated sheets, bonded with
cashew nut glue that is used for making coconut fibred
boards.
Rice husk As a fuel in making building blocks acoustic boards etc…

Saw mill waste – Sawdust with magnetism oxychloride, cement binder to


strands, shavings, bark produce door and window frames, to make blocks
and powder boards and insulation boards.
Banana leaves/stalk Fire resistant fibre board

Groundnut shell Building panels, building blocks, roofing sheets


Literature
Table 13: Building materials from industrial wastes
Name of the Industrial Possible construction material
waste
Blast furnace slag(Steel Manufacture of cement, used as substitute for sand,
plants) making foamed slag concrete blocks used for load
bearing and non load bearing walls.

Cinder(Thermal power To make lime cinder mortars and making concrete


plants) building blocks.
City garbage As a fuel for cement manufacture, producing pressed
blocks, generating electricity, land filling.
Building demolition wastes As an aggregate for concrete
Fly ash(Thermal power Manufacture of Portland cement bricks and lime fly ash
plants) bricks can be used for making light weight concrete as
pozzolana cement..
Paper waste Making fiber pipes for low- pressure gas mains, making
wrapping paper, making asphalt corrugation sheets.

Waste glass Making glass tiles and glass bricks.


Slates and laterite stone Manufacture of lato block also can be used as
wastes pozzalona
Wastes strewn about sites For making flooring tiles, asbestos, reinforced light
surrounding asbestos cement weight heat insulation and fire resistant products.
industries
Phosphogypsum (fertilizer Gypsum plaster, fibrous gypsum boards and blocks,
industries) cement clinker
Red mud(Aluminum Bricks and tiles, light weight structural blocks, roofing
extraction plant) sheets and as additive to concrete
Limestone waste(limestone Masonry cement and activated lime pozzolana mixture
quarry)
Lime sludge(Sugar, fertilizer, Portland cement, masonry cement, sand lime bricks.
calcium carbide paper
industries)

Table 14: Typical materials with high recycled content

Materials impacts associated with the % of recycled content


extraction and processing of virgin
resources.
Fly ash bricks 30-40

Glass 10-15
Ceramic tiles 20-30
MDF wood 15
Steel 20-25

False roof 25-30


Carpet(fibre) 70
Literature

Indoor Air Quality : Provide a high level of comfort controls


system by individual occupants or
"Indoor Air Quality" (IAQ) refers to the specific groups in multi occupant
nature of air within an inhabited, spaces. For this there should be
enclosed space with particular individual lighting controls for 90% of
relevance to suspended particulate the building occupants. For example,
matter, dust, harmful biological operable windows can be used for
contaminants, chemical vapours and occupants within 20’ inside and 10’ of
odours present in it. In many large either side of operable part. Indoor air
commercial conditioned spaces, the quality should be monitor through
occupants have virtually no control over sensors for long-term occupant health
their environment, i.e. they cannot open and comfort and well being. CO2
windows if the room feels stuffy and sensors should be located between 3’
unaired, turn on the exhaust fans, or and 6’ above the floor
leave the room, if the space is filled with
dust, tobacco smoke, chemical vapour In a completely naturally ventilated
from paints, pesticide sprays, fine building, users control windows to suit
carbon dust from copying machines, their comfort level and/or there can be
etc. Actually because of the above dampers controlled by CO2 sensors.
pollutants, it has been observed that
indoor air in a conditioned space can be Increase ventilation rates to all
upto 10 times more polluted than occupied spaces by at least 30%
outdoor air and may pose a health risk above the minimum rate required by
due to their high concentration. ASHRAE 62.1 2004 for 90% of
Therefore, IAQ assumes importance in spaces. Avoid exposure due to use of
conditioned places where we work (or potentially hazardous particulates and
live). Nowadays, most corporate offices chemical pollutants.
are housed in elegant buildings, with a
predominant use of glass, and have For an office space ASHRAE
centralized air-conditioning systems. standards for fresh air – cfm per
Such architecture gives the offices a person is 5+, cfm per sq.ft is 0.06
bright, attractive look. But the indoor air
circulation is often far from perfect, and Comfortable thermal environment
could be harmful to the health of the supports wellbeing and productivity.
people working in such buildings. So, provide a high level of thermal
comfort system control for individual
People all over the world have major occupants or specific groups in multi
health problems due to poor indoor air occupant spaces. Individual thermal
quality. These problems are associated controls should be there for at least
with symptoms that are particularly 50% of the occupants.
brought about by contamination of the
indoor environment, by the growth Room temperature should be
bacteria, fungi, mold, viruses and maintained from 20-230c in winter and
mildew (collectively termed micro- 22.8-26.2 in summers. RH should be
organisms) spread through the maintained between 50-60%
circulation of air exhaled, as well as
from food material, etc. Therefore, the Provide for the building occupants a
focus today is not only on our connection between indoor spaces
"Environment", but also our and the outdoors through the
"Invironment". introduction of daylight and views into
the regularly occupied areas of the
building.
Case study

Case study -1 Grundfos pumps corporate office, Chennai

Grundfos pumps India pvt. Ltd has its The architect of this buiding is
corporate office and production plant in Vineetha Badawe V V Architects pvt.
Chennai. It is one of the first three green Ltd, Chennai
buildings certified by USGBC - LEED
rating in India. This gold rated office Location:
building consists a training room and It is located near Todaibakkam, on Old
work space for office employees, Mamallapuram road and is connected
administrative staff, canteen, gym and by two bus stops with in ¼ mile
indoor games. It was constructed in serving two different lines, one is
2004. towards Thiruvanmayur and another
one is towards Shoingulur which are
usable by building occupants.

India Chennai

Grundfos building

Bus stop
Case study

Site: the landscape by sprinkler system to


The rectangular flat site is taken for the reduce solar heat reflection in to the
building which is approved by building. But this can increase humidity
Chennai metropolitan development of the surroundings.
authority. In the surroundings there is
the development of IT corridor and Parking:
corporate companies. There is the provision for 50 two
wheelers and 18cars. But the average
Total area- 28,636 sq.m capacity of parking there is 40 two
Ground coverage- 4,577 sq.m wheelers and 14cars and the remaining
Built-uparea- 3,430 sq.m(Administrative are using public transportation.
office only)(G+1)
Landscaped area- 11,224 sq. m With in the site the people are using
bicycle and hence the shower is also
Site planning: provided for them. Also grundfos is a
Open space is provided around the factory. So the factory people have
building equal to the building shower after their work. And there is the
footprint. There are two courtyards in provision of pool parking for 3 cars
between the administrative and factory serving 5% of the building occupants
building. Impervious surfaces around which reduces land development
the building are shaded by the impacts from single occupancy vehicle
vegetation in the site to reduce heat use.
island effect. And even in the mid day
when the temperature is high they water
Case study

Climatic consideration in building Passive Cooling techniques


design: ( building envelope, windows):
Chennai’s Warm humid climate has Double skin brick wall with 25mm air
high relative humidity and temperatures. cavity(230mm fly ash brisk
Lighting and energy conservation work+25mm aircavity+115mm wire
was given the primary importance by cut brick work) improves the
the architect in the building design. insulation to the building. East and
And also modern technologies and west facing windows are designed to
systems. allow the natural light during day
time. Double glazed parasol green
The building is oriented towards north- glass (tinted glass + toughened
south and facing the east, which is not a glass) which has low U value is used
suitable orientation. The form of the in the building for windows and roof
building is in H-shape which can sky lights to reduce heat ingress into
conserves some amount of solar heat the building.
gain into the building. The area of the
wall exposed on the south side is less Day light:
and also the blank wall given reduces Two strips of windows (daylight
heat transfer into the building. window, view window) are given in
the first floor allows more daylight.
Court yards are given. Landscape in the And the canopy is designed in such
courtyard adds shadows so as the cool away that it directs the sunlight in to
atmosphere to the occupants and the indoor.
shadow on the office building by factory
prevents west radiation on the building. To avoid the excessive bright view in
And the series of trees prevents solar the training room there is a provision
heat radiation on the factory wall. The of vertical strip window in the corner
conference room, which is being used of the room. This will throw the light
rarely, is located at the south end of the into the wall surface, thus it is
wall and it has the view from all three providing a larger apparent source of
sides. Pergolas are covered by climbing a lesser luminance.
plants provided quite cheaply which are
very effective for this climate.

.
Case study

Day light

And also they often use blinds and temperature and thus the cooling load
curtains to control solar radiation. i.e., energy consumption in A.C
systems. And they are using to putdown
In the roof, sky light is given which curtains in the afternoon which control
allows sunlight but not all the heat to the west radiation and the solar heat
both the floors which is made up of gain can not controlled by these
void glass with 9% UV transmission, curtains especially in sunny days.
48% light transmission.
There is another sky light above the
In the entrance lobby and the stair case in the entrance lobby. There
reception they provide glass screen on is another sky light above the stair case
both sides (East and West) which in the entrance lobby.
provides more natural light into that
double height space and also view of And the roof is also insulated with
the landscape in the exterior. But it glass wool and an insulated coating
can not control the west radiation in a on it, which are Energy Star certified
better way. That much of glass curtain materials and are not economy.
may causes to increase in indoor

Floor area: 650 sq. m(approx.)


Roof light area: 45sq. m i.e. 7% of the
sky light
floor area
Case study

Energy saving systems: concepts but they have incorporated


Coming to the artificial lighting they some energy efficient systems like
provide CFL lamps to almost all places Thermal Energy Storage system for
which is an efficient lighting system. A.C.
The central air conditioning system is
with thermal energy storage
manufactured by blue star on the
requirement saving energy.

In a Thermal Energy Storage


system, a storage medium is chilled
during periods of low cooling demand
(during nights), and the stored cooling Thermal Energy Storage system
is used later to meet air-conditioning
load or cooling loads And the chillers
with R407crefrigerant is used which
has no CFC, hence it does not cause
to ozone depletion

Thus they optimize energy


performance and therefore the
building would consume 28% less
energy, compared to conventional building load
building. discharging
warm
It is a fully air conditioned building
there were no much passive concepts distribution storage
incorporated by the architect in the pump
building design. And they haven’t charging chiller Primary pump
implemented any traditional
Case study

Materials(reuse/recycle/renewable/
regional):
Reused furniture:
More than 10% of the building
materials are Refurbished /salvaged
from old offices (staff workstations) to
minimize the use of virgin materials.
They reused the furniture from their
Danish office.

Rapidly renewable materials:


Building uses MDF wood, which is
made of rapidly renewable materials
like eucalyptus and others.
Reused furniture
Recycled materials:
More than 60% of materials used in
the building has got high % recycled
content e.g., Al, Steel, Glass, Brick, Fly
ash cement, MDF wood.

Regional materials:
More than 60% of the building
materials are sourced within 500
miles from the project site to support
the local economy and minimize the
transportation leading to automobile Recycled materials
pollution.

Construction waste material:


98.77% construction waste materials
were diverted during the
construction.

Water efficiency:
Toilets:
Water efficient fittings are there like low
flow fixtures (dual flush toilets, sensor
urinals), waterless urinals. Therefore
they reduce by 40% in usage.

In landscaping water consumption is


reduced by using a special gel below Waterless urinals
the gardens and lawns.
Native plants like coconut, neem are
planted to minimize water requirement
for irrigation.

Water efficiency irrigation systems like


sprinklers for lawn and drip irrigation for
trees and shrubs

Dual flush toilets


Case study

Rain water harvesting:


Waste water treatment:
100% rain water is harvesting in sump
Sewage treatment plant treats 100%
wells which acts as a filtration media for
waste water through fixed filter
both TSS & phosphorous. Around the
aeration and dissolved air flotation
building there are rain water collectors
system. And its capacity is 20 cum/day
to collect water from roof top which are
i.e., it treats 2000lph (20kl/day
connected to the drain leads to the
considered in 10 hours operation).
sump well

Construction IAQ management plan: Fresh Air:


After the construction process was ARI [ American Institute For
completed, all the systems and the Refrigeration Standards ] "Ventilation
spaces were flushed out in a 15 days for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality"
period. This ensured all the specifies the minimum and
contaminants were removed totally, recommended fresh air quantities
and the indoor air was absolutely necessary to obtain acceptable indoor
clean. For this Minimum Efficiency air quality for a variety of indoor
Reporting Value (MERV) 13 filters were. spaces is an average fresh air intake
erson]. of 20 CFM [Cubic Feet per Min per p
Case study

And here in the building they environment in the indoors that


continuously monitor and maintain fresh supports the productivity and well-
air in all occupied areas (around 15-20 being of building occupants is also an
CFM/person). They provide air turbines important factor.
above the roof for ventilation in the
factory building. So, a permanent temperature and
humidity monitoring system is
Indoor chemical and pollutant source configured to provide operators
control: control over thermal comfort
Dirt control mats are used in all main performance.
entry ways. Air tight impermeable doors
provided. They provided Access control Controllability of systems:
system in which the building occupant Since the building systems are
can only enter in to their space with a integrated with the building
card given by the management. Efficient automation system, the occupants
exhaust outlets are there. And they have minimumcontrol. Hence
used eco-friendly housekeeping regularly occupied areas have some
chemicals. operable windows and lights. So,
here all regularly occupied areas
Low Emitting Materials: were provided with operating
Low VOC Sealant /carpets / composite windows and lighting controls.
woods / paints have been used to
maintain the indoor environmental Day light & Views:
quality and also reduce the quantity of The building design also provides a
indoor air contaminants. connection between indoor spaces
and the outdoors through the
Low VOC water- based paints (VOC introduction of daylight and views into
content <50g/l) including top coats and the regularly occupied areas of the
primers. building

Carpet used is compiled with Carpet Smoke Control:


and Rug Institute CRI green label No smoking is allowed in the entire
program (VOC contents < 50g/l). building complex.

Composite wood used do not contain CO2 Monitoring System:


urea formaldehyde. Phenol Sensors at various locations were
formaldehyde is used in MDF wood installed to monitor CO2 levels in all
product. occupied areas. The system is set
with differential of 530ppm above
Providing a thermally comfortable ambient.

Day light & Views Fresh Air CO2 Monitoring


Case study

Fire safety: And the management doesn’t get any


They have taken the fire safety complaint regarding occupant health
measures for the entire building till now due to the building or its indoor
complex and gave a safe assembly air
point during fire accident but here the quality. And the management says
access control system does not work that the working efficiency is increased
efficiently when a fire accident occurs. because of this green building and so
the productivity automatically
The occupants are feeling well with the increases.
comfortable indoor environment and The employees are getting a good
they like to stay in their office than in courtyard view when they are coming
their home. There should be a very hard for refreshment, where the canteen,
case for them to put leave for their job. toilets and a staircase located centrally
in the building.

LEED Evaluation :

Rating : LEED NC V2 Gold


Year : 2005

Points achieved in each category

Category Total possible Achieved points


points
Sustainable Sites 14 9

Water efficiency 5 3

Energy & Atmosphere 17 5

Materials & Resource 13 9

Indoor environmental quality 15 12

Innovation & Design process 5 4

Total Points 69 42
Case study

Case study -2 CII –Green Business Centre, Hyderabad

CII-Green business Centre is the first cafeteria. It was constructed in the


platinum rated green building outside year of 2003. The architect is Karan
US. The idea for the centre was mooted Grovar, Karan Grovar & Associates,
in 2000, when US President Bill Clinton, Baroda, India. His concept behind
during his visit to Hyderabad, which was taking circular form of the building is
about the future of the world in being as it minimizes the surface of the
green and sustainable construction walls, which are exposed to enormous
practices. heat and has maximum retention of
open and green areas. He also
The building was built to be a thought about the orientation of the
showcase for energy-efficient, eco- building to get more natural light and
friendly architecture and an not solar radiation. He has gone with
integration of centuries-old practices some traditional passive techniques
of sustainability with modern along with the modern systems
technologies. It was intended as an
attractive advertisement for the green Location:
movement which was slowly gaining a It is located next to Shilparamam, near
holding in India at the time of its Kothaguda cross roads, Hyderabad.
construction. Later it brought much The building location is connected
awareness throughout the India within a by two bus stops with in ¼ mile
short period of time through the serving two different lines, one is
conferences and seminars. towards Kothaguda and another one is
towards HI-tech City which are more
It consists of exhibition spaces, seminar accessible to the building occupants.
halls, offices, meeting rooms, and a

India Hyderabad
Case study

Site: A natural sculptural feature, the


The site is approved by Hyderabad existence of rock in the subsoil
Urban Development Authority. In the became an attractive component near
surroundings there is the development the entrance of the building.
IT and corporate companies. It is a
contoured site looking like a triangle The building footprint was kept to a
with its boundaries. The type of soil is minimum to avoid disturbing the site
rocky brown baron. features. A ‘no access’ zone was
demarcated around the building
Total area - 23,562sq.m footprint, so the construction
Ground coverage -1,175 sq.m process did not harm the rest of the
Built- up area (G+1) - 1,900 sq.m site. Paved area is kept to a minimum
Landscaped area - 19,107 sq.m

Site planning: (hard surface = 1,150 sq.m including


As it is a contoured site prevention of roads paths and parking), so as to
soil erosion is taken into consideration. reduce heat island effect. All paved
And for this, measures like contour areas are supplemented by tree
trenching, planting vegetation, and plantings, which will ensure that they
retaining valuable soil have been are shaded with in five years.
taken. Thus local flora and fauna were
retained. Impervious surfaces are kept Parking:
to a minimum, so as to prevent soil There is the provision of surface parking
erosion by water run-off. for 20 two wheelers and 11cars.
Pool parking is for 3 cars which
Sedimentation chambers and grass meets 5% of the building occupants.
swales ensures that the storm water The administration also issued a
run off does not remove the soil circular among the regular staff,
beyond the site limits. indicating that vehicles used for car
pooling shall have preferred parking.
Case study

The campus has also one electric car small green courtyards often shaded
for the use of its occupants. And they by jaali walls, thus cutting down the
provide electric charging station near direct sunlight, and yet providing
the parking which encourages electric more natural light The courtyard acts
cars usage. And they use the cars that as light well to the adjacent work
run on LPG a low polluting alternative area through the windows looking in
gasoline and diesel. to the courtyard. The use of semi-
open walkway and the foyer, coupled
There is a provision for bicycle with smaller courtyards, provides
parking and so shower facilities but opportunity to take indirect light.
only some of the workers are using Store, toilets are placed on the east
those shower facilities end of the building which acts as
thermal barriers. The screen wall or
Climatic consideration in building jaali is effectively used to cut down
design: the harsh sun, yet allow the flow of
The climate of Hyderabad is Hot-dry wind.
climate. The compact circular form of
the building reduces the total wall And in the exhibition area they are
exposed to the sun which is the most getting north light from roof which
suitable for this climate. Larger have better light transmission and
dimensions of a building are mostly low solar control properties
facing north and south, as these parts compared to other orientations. The
receive the lowest heat loads from solar location and size of fenestration were
radiations. determined by solar orientation.

Each and every space looks out into -

N
Ground floor:
Case study

Passive cooling techniques: the tower. In earlier times, the cooler air
230mm insulated aerated concrete would then enter the living areas.
blocks have been used for wall Here wind towers with indirect
construction. And the slate cladding on evaporative cooling systems have been
the walls also reduces the heat intake. integrated with the HVAC system for pre
cooling fresh air and so as to reduce
Roof gardens: energy consumption
Roof gardens are also provided. It
creates an aesthetic delight in the There are the facility's two wind towers
campus. The lawn is grown in 2 inch of 50’ height. Wind tower itself made of
deep plastic trays filled with good hollow masonry, and acts as a thermal
earth. Compared to a conventional mass. At the intermediate levels hollow
terrace garden that has 6-12 inch deep grid was constructed with fly ash brick.
soil, the load on the structure reduced It is cooled periodically (mostly during
tremendously. nights when the temperature is low) by
It acts as roof insulation to ingress of trickling water from the top of the tower.
solar heat. And it also prevents The air, now cooled by up to 14 degrees
formation of heat islands on the

roof and acts as insulation to ingress of Fahrenheit (8 degrees Centigrade), is


solar heat. Vegetation that was lost to supplied to the air handling units
the built area was replaced by these (AHUs), substantially reducing the
roof gardens on 55 percent of the roof load on the air conditioning system.
area.
These wind towers also giving
Wind towers: identification to the building from the
Wind tower is one of the traditional distance.
passive cooling techniques. These
traditional architectural elements that
"catch" air and cool it as it passes down
Case study

Daylight:
Photo voltaic panels:
Two strips of windows (day light
Renewable energy is also generated
window, strip window) are there. During
with in the site. Photo Voltaic panels
day time they use natural light only in
have been installed on the roof of the
their work areas. And they provided a
exhibition space. The roof orientation
sky light in the roof which acts as a light
and inclination have been designed
well and allows natural light to the office
considering the efficiency of the PV
in the first floor and also to the stair
panels.
case. They often use blinds to control
excess solar radiation.
The power grid provides about 24
kilowatts, or about 16 percent of the
Gas filled glazing: to improve the
building's electricity needs. i.e., about
thermal performance of the glazing the
17% of the total energy costs are
space between the glass panes is filled
supplied by on-site photo voltaic
with inert gas. Because these gases
system. And it also reduces the load on
have a higher resistance to heat flow
the local electricity grid.
than air they are sealed between the
window panes to decrease the glazing’s
U-factor.
Case study

According to Bureau of Energy


No CFC chillers are there which
Efficiency the average energy use of a
does not cause to ozone depletion.
typical commercial office building is
200kwh/sq.m/year.
Thus they optimize energy
performance and therefore the
Here in the case of CII-GBC the
building reduces energy by 55%.
annual power consumption for the
year 2006 is 1,33,831 kwh ( each
month electricity consumption is taken
and added the total). Then it will
comes 70.43 kwh/sq.m/year.
So, it saves the electricity 65%.

250 energy
consumption
200 for a typical
commercial
150
office
100 building
for CII_GBC
50
Materials
0 (recycled/reused/regional):

Construction materials with all


Energy saving systems:
their embodied energy are crucial
in design of the green building. A
Indoor light is crucial in the perception
large amount of energy and
of space and the performance of
pollution will also reduced through
occupants in a workspace.
choices in the production and
transportation of building
The building has different kinds of
materials.
space with different lighting needs. The
exhibition area, meeting room seminal
Selecting materials that are
hall, library, office, all have lighting
produced and manufactured
designed according to the nature of the
regionally saves a lot of energy
activity being carried out inside.
that might be used for long
Day light sensors are installed in all
distance transportation. It also
spaces to dim or switch off lights (with
contributes to the local
dimmable ballasts) when daylight is
economy and improves the
adequate for a task.
socio-economic sustainability
of the region.
Occupancy sensors also help in
monitoring the lighting consumption,
Recycled: Here, the masonry
such that they can be switched off when
construction had considerable
the room is not occupied.
content of fly ash, an industrial
waste.
Efficient chillers with primary and
secondary pumping, variable volume air
The Nitco tiles used for flooring
handling systems, and efficient cooling
had used recycled glass, broken
towers are some components of the
tiles etc..
efficient conditioning system.
Case study

Reused:The furniture in the cafeteria is extracted and manufactured within the


also a reused one. radius of 500 miles from the project
site. And they also used the scrap
The door frames are all made up of steel for the construction.
recycled wood. Instead of conventional
wood or ply they have used a All of the new wood was sustainably
composite agro-board manufactured harvested, as certified by the forest
from bagasse (sugar cane waste) stewardship council

The false ceiling panels are made of Indoor Air quality:


paper and mineral fibre extracted from
industrial waste. Construction IAQ management plan:
During construction, barricades were
All fillings in toilets, roof gardens and installed to prevent contaminants from
inverted slabs are done by lightweight spreading to surrounding areas.
cinder, a waste product.
After the construction process was
The roof lawn trays are made completed, all the systems and the
entirely of recycled plastic. spaces were flushed out in a 15 day
period. This ensured that all the
contaminants were removed totally,
Hand rails are salvaged. They used and the indoor air was absolutely
the materials salvaged from other sites clean.
or from scrap vendors.
Low emitting materials: The paints,
The china mosaic finishing on columns carpets used are almost zero
around the central courtyard was from emissions of VOCs. So they are not
broken glazed tiles at other sites and harmful to occupants.
from factory waste.
The sealants and adhesives used
Regional: Almost 95% of the materials were checked to see tat they are met
used in the project were harvested/
Case study

the limits for emissions from VOCs. The roof gardens also providing a
Composite wood products do not soothing view from inside the office.
contain urea formaldehyde which is The occupants spend their time for
a polluting material. Formaldehyde recreation and gaming in the
free binders such as 4, 4'- surrounding open space after their
methylenebis (phenyl isocyanate) working time. But the view point
("MDI") may be used. given at the highest point on the site
is hardly using by the occupants as it
is located distant from the building
and the view is blocked by the dense
vegetation.

Construction waste material:


The amount of waste generated
during construction is directly related
to energy consumed by the project. Waste water treatment:
Besides it also raises the crucial
question of how the waste should be All waste water produced in the
disposed. building is recycled and used for
Here the waste is treated in three irrigation of the campus.
ways. It was reused on site, sold to
scrap vendors, and diverted to other This is done by root zone treatment
construction sites for use. plant. It is a natural process to treat
waste water using biological process.
Controllability of systems: It is a type of purification technique
Since the main building systems are that uses specially selected plants
integrated with the building automation (Australis phragmatis) and weeds as
system, the occupants have minimum filters. Filtered water will be collected
control. Hence regularly occupied in a water body.
areas have some operable windows
and lights. And then it is re used to water the
landscape in the campus and also for
Indoor chemical and pollutant source domestic purposes. It is constructed
control: at the lowest part of the site to drain
They used only non-toxic and eco the water easily by using natural
friendly house keeping materials. slope. Its depth is about 1.3m.
Physical pollutants like dirt and soil are
avoided by placing wipe off mats at all Rain water harvesting:
entrances.
Rain water is also collected into
Day lights and views: the soak pits with in the site the
Of all the regularly occupied drains were designed by using the
areas, 95% are day lit and over 90% of natural slope of the site and so the
the regularly occupied areas have soak pits located in the lower
direct view to the outside. location.
Case study

Landscape:Water efficient landscape of low-flush toilets and waterless


is also plays an important role in water urinals.
conservation. Native species of trees
and shrubs that have been used on site, There are many features to say
consume very little amount of water. about green in the building but the
construction cost of this 20,000sq ft
Toilets: building was constructed at a cost
They provided waterless urinals and low of rs. 10 crore in 2003, which is
flush systems in the toilets. The building around 18 times the cost of a
achieves a 35 percent reduction of conventional building with same
municipally supplied potable water, in area..
part through the use

Category Total Achieved


LEED Evaluation :
possible points
points
Rating : LEED NC V2
platinum Sustainable Sites 14 12
Year : 2003
Points achieved in Water efficiency 5 5
each category:
Energy & Atmosphere 17 1

Materials & Resource 13 9


Indoor environmental 15 12
quality
Innovation & Design 5 4
process
Total Points 69 52
Comparison

Comparison:

Table 15: LEED evaluation- Grundfos corporate office


Comparison
Table 16: LEED evaluation checklist- CII green business centre
Comparison

From the LEED evaluation for both the CII GBC have implemented some
projects the major difference in the traditional concepts to achieve
credits they have achieved in ‘Energy energy efficiency like..
&Atmosphere, category.
From the LEED reference Guide Jaali wall/ screen wall which
(LEED-NC) version 2 reduces heat radiation
Wind tower to inlet cool air for A.C
Reduce design energy cost compared Root zone treatment for waste
to the energy cost budget for regulated water treatment
energy components described in the External stone cladding to wall
requirements of ASHRAE/IESNA which improves heat induction in to
Standard 90.1-1999, as demonstrated the rooms
by a whole building simulation using the And other techniques like..
Energy Cost Budget Method described Roof gardens for roof induction and
in Section 11: to reduce heat island effect.
Solar P. V panels to produce
New Buildings Points renewable energy.

20% The building is therefore an


2 integration of centuries-old
30% practices of sustainability with
4 modern technologies
40%
6 In the case of Grundfos building they
50% designed the building in
8 contemporary style. They have given
60% more importance to provide natural
10 lighting. They provided sky lights
and also double skin wall, double
So, here CII Business Centre achieved glazed glass to reduce heat ingress.
9 points in EA Credit 1 (optimize It could not achieve more points in
energy performance) and Grundfos energy conservation. than CII GBC.
pumps corporate office achieved 2
points in EA credit 1(optimize energy
performance)
Climatic study

Climatic study:
Place: Visakhapatnam .
Latitude: 170 42’N
Longitude: 83018’E
Mean Sea Level: 38mts.
Climate: Warm-Humid

The measurement of climatic effects


has been investigated in many ways,
here two methods of evaluation may
be mentioned. One method describes
the negative effects of climate on man,
expressed as stress, pain, disease or
death. The second defines the
conditions in which man’s productivity,
health and mental and physical energy
are at their highest efficiency.

The comfort zone is defined as the


temperature a condition where the
most of human’s energy is freed for
productivity. The shelter is the main
instrument for fulfilling the
requirements of comfort. It modifies
the natural environment to approach
optimum conditions of livability.

Visakhapatnam is a major city in


Andhra Pradesh. It is one of the fastest
developing cities in India. It is located
on the Eastern shore of India, nestled
among the Eastern Ghats hill ranges
and faces Bay of Bengal on the East.

The city is home to several heavy


industries and it has one of the
country’s largest ports, shipyard. It has
the only natural harbor on the Eastern
coast of India.

Average rain fall: 95cm


Summer mid day 300 – 350C
Summer night 250- 300 C
The bulk of rain coming from North –
Winter midday 250 – 300 C
East monsoon.
Winter night 200 – 250 C
Diurnal variations 50 - 80 C
During the period between September
and November, storms and
In recent years, the temperature
depressions originating in Bay of
recorded has been common for the
Bengal cross the East coast in the
day temperature to exceed 430 C
neighborhood causing heavy rains
during May
.
So, we can make a provision for
collection of rain water and reuse it.
Climatic study

Average High Temperature (in 0 C):

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

27 28 30 32 33 31 31 31 31 31 28 27

Average Low Temperature (in 0 C):

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

19 21 23 25 27 27 26 25 25 25 22 20

Wind speed (m/s):

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

2 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 3

Relative Humidity (in %):

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

70 70 74 72 73 80 81 81 80 71 71 75

Average Humidity varies from 40 to


70% and sometimes is high as 90%.

Humidity varies from 72% along the


coast to 60% towards interior places

Prevailing wind direction: From SW to


NE
Sea breeze direction: From East and
some times from West also

The below graph shows that for the


climatic conditions of Visakhapatnam it
needs wind and shading due to high
temperature and humidity.
Climatic study
Site Analysis
Site analysis:

The purpose of site analysis is to


determine the site characteristics so that Existing Transportation:
proper drainage systems, circulation 60’ wide approach road is abutting
patterns, landscape design and other west side of the site. There is a bus
site development features can be stop, 0.6 km away from the site
considered in relation to building design connecting major parts of the city
parameters, such as building which can make easy for the people
form, solar orientation, shape etc… to use public transportation.

Location of the site: Topography:


Dasapalla hills, and the site is located at Topography of the site is contoured
the highest point of the hill. with a level difference 10m from lowest
It is an unfilled urban area. Presently it is to highest point.
an open space and at foot of the hill North side there is less slope which
residential land use is there can suit to take entries to the site
The site is approved by Visakhapatnam from the 60’ wide road
Urban Development Authority (VUDA).

commercial land

residential land
Site Analysis

More slopes are towards south and


By planting vegetation on the south
west directions. So that it is easy to
west side where there is more slope
make Gravity fed sewer lines and it
we can reduce the solar radiation to
is a natural feature for rain/ storm
the building, shade the places and
water drainage.
also retain the soil erosion.
Type of soil: sandy clay soil

By adopting contour trenching,


planting vegetation and to retain
valuable topsoil can do with this
type of the soil as it is a contoured
site.

Orientation:
Site shape is irregular. Longer axis of
the site is on East – West axis

Solar access:
Usually diffuse radiation due to cloud
cover or vapour content of the air and
there is intense radiation on clear days
in this climate. Southern slopes
receive the most while north slopes
receives the least direction radiation.

As site is oriented on East – West


axis
It is suitable to reduce the east &
west radiation to the built form.

And as the slopes are more in


South and West directions there is
a chance to shade the places on
East and North.

Air movement:
Air speed increases up in the wind
ward slope and is maximum at the
crest and minimum on the leeward
side.

The site is oriented in such away


that it can more south - west winds
though it. And so the built form is
also can orient in East – west
direction.

And we can orient in the direction


such that it will get the cool sea
breezes from East and West sides.

Vegetation:
There are some plants and shrubs
present in the site and those heights
are not more than 2m. But there are
no trees.
Site Analysis
Site Analysis

Geology:
Native plants (Flora) of
The sub surface of the soil is rocky and
Visakhapatnam:
the surface is sandy clay soil. It consists
A variety of forest types including,
of gravel- 0%,sand- 35%, fines 65% and
tropical moist mixed deciduous and
it has liquid limit. Vegetation grows
dry evergreen species are found here.
quickly due to frequent rains and high
Bamboos are common in this region
temperatures and it is difficult to control.
and cashew ,gulmohar, neem,
The sub soil water table is usually high
coconut, badam etc..
and the ground may be water logged.

Existing infrastructure:
There is a municipal water reservoir Vernacular Architecture of the
opposite to the site. And also the region:
electricity facility, BSNL tower is present
near to the site. Most of the buildings have elongated
But the municipal drainage system is plan with centre and side courtyards.
yet to be constructed from the site. Generally the buildings are in east-
west orientation, the best
Views: orientation for the tropical warm and
As it is located in the highest point it has humid climate which has been
beautiful sea view on one side and the governed by the orientation of the
city view on other side. streets.
The proposed building will enhance
and preserve these views. Front and side open spaces are used
for the garden. The height of the
room is up to 3.8 m and the
buildings are either single or two
floors. A.

Air quality:
wooden staircase leads to upper
To avoid local climate changes due to
floors. The roofs are generally madras
urbanization and pollutants the new
terrace roof with a compulsion of
urban developments should be
sloped roof on the top to drain out the
interspersed by green areas or water
draining rain. And also with heavy walls
bodies to mitigate the excessive heat
and large openings
and increasing temperature as well as
pollutants.

The implementation of the integrated


transportation system would have
affected to reduce the air pollution
levels.

At present air quality is monitored only


at three places in Panchayat office
Mindi, industrial Estate, Marripalem and
Police barrack.
Site Analysis

Table 16: some types of plants which can use in landscape for warm- humid climate
Site Analysis

Table 16: some types of plants which can use in landscape for warm- humid climate
Concept
Design development:
Concept: To develop a structure which will get north light as well as south shading and
make use of rain fall conditions to collect and reuse of rain water from the roof top. And
the building integrated with open spaces which will be usable by the occupants in a
linear plan form which get the benefit of winds on the site. It would be modern structure
which suits the vernacular form.
.
Bibliography:
Magazines:
ARCHITECTURE+ DESIGN OCTOBER, 2007
ARCHITECTURE+ DESIGN NOVEMBER ,2006
ARCHITECTURE+ DESIGN JULY – AUGUST 1992
ARCHTECTURE TIME SPACE & PEOPLE NOVEMBER, 2006
FRONT LINE JUNE, 2007
SOCIETY INTERIORS OCTOBER ,2004
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE & BUILDER JULY, 2005
DOWN TO THE EARTH AUGUST, 2007
BETTER INTERIORS MAY, 2007

References:
GREEN OFFICE BULIDING DESIGN
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING DESIGN MANUAL (VOLUME 2)
LEED – INDIA
LEED REFERENCE GUIDE nc V2.1
CLAMATOLOGICAL AND SOLAR DATA FOR INDIA (CBRI)
THE CLIMATIC DATA HAND BOOK (CBRI)
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE BY Arvind Krishnan
MANUAL OF TROPICAL HOUSING AND BUILDING By Koenigsberger
DESIG WITH CLIMATE by Victor Olgay
MANUAL ON NORMS AND STANDARDS FOR LARGE SCALE
ENVIRONMENT CLEARENCE PROJECTS

Websites:
www.wikipedia.org/wiki/green_building
www.usgbc.org
www. igbc.in
www. green building.com