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INTRODUCERE

ÌQ FRQWH[WXO HGXFDLRQDO DFWXDO SUREOHPDWLFD HYDOXULL FDSW R


LPSRUWDQ GLQ FH vQ FH PDL PDUH vQ DFWLYLWDWHD IDFWRULORU GH GHFL]LH D
VSHFLDOLúWLORU úL PDL DOHV D SUDFWLFLHQLORU ,QIOXHQD HYDOXULL vQ VSHFLDO SULQ
LQWHUPHGLXOH[DPHQHORUVHIDFHWRWPDLPXOWUHVLPLWDWkWDVXSUDDFWLYLWLLGH
SUHGDUHFkWúLDVXSUDFHOHLGHvQYDUH3URIHVRUXOFkWúLHOHYXOVXQWFHLGLQWkL
LQWHUHVDL vQ UHDOL]DUHD XQHL HYDOXUL RELHFWLYH ED]DW SH FULWHULL XQLWDUH
FXQRVFXWHúLDSOLFDWHvQSUDFWLFDúFRODUFXUHQW
'LQ DFHDVW SHUVSHFWLY SUH]HQWXO JKLG FRQVWLWXLH XQ LPSRUWDQW SXQFW
de sprijin pentru cadrele didactice de specialitate în realizarea cu succes a
DFWLYLWLORU SUHVXSXVH GH GHVIúXUDUHD SURFHVXOXL GH HYDOXDUH D
SHUIRUPDQHORUHOHYLORUvQSUDFWLFDúFRODUFXUHQW8WLOLWDWHDDFHVWXLJKLGHVWH
VXVLQXWúLGHscopurile SHFDUHDFHVWDúLOHSURSXQH
• VIDPLOLDUL]H]H cadrele didactice de specialitate cu problemele specifice
HYDOXULLvQSUDFWLFDúFRODUFXUHQWFkWúLvQVLWXDLHGHH[DPHQ
• V GHVFULH PHWRGH úL LQVWUXPHQWH GH HYDOXDUH XWLOL]DELOH vQ SUDFWLFD
úFRODUFXUHQW
• VH[SOLFHPHWRGRORJLDSURLHFWULLGLIHULWHORUWLSXULGHLWHPL
• V SUH]LQWH H[HPSOH de WLSXUL GH LWHPL WHVWH úL EDUHPH GH FRUHFWDUH D
acestora;
• V LQIRUPH]H SH WRL FHL LQWHUHVDL SURIHVRUL HOHYL SULQL HWF  DVXSUD
SUREOHPDWLFLL JHQHUDOH D HYDOXULL SHUIRUPDQHORU HOHYLORU DVXSUD
LPSRUWDQHLúLLPSDFWXOXLDFHVWHLDDVXSUDVLVWHPXOXLGHvQYPkQW
&XPSXWHLIRORVLDFHVWJKLG"
*KLGXOVHFRQFHQWUHD]vQSULQFLSDODVXSUDXQRUDVSHFWHFRQFUHWHFDUH
YL]HD] PHWRGH úL LQVWUXPHQWH GH HYDOXDUH FDOLWLOH DFHVWRUD SURLHFWDUHD
GLIHULWHORU WLSXUL GH LWHPL GHVFULHUHD úL H[HPSOLILFDUHD PHWRGHORU
FRPSOHPHQWDUH GH HYDOXDUH vQ IXQFLH GH VSHFLILFXO GLVFLSOLQHL SUH]HQWDUHD
XQRUWHVWHPRGHOSUHFXPúLDEDUHPHORUGHFRUHFWDUHa acestora.
6SHUPFILHFDUHFDGUXGLGDFWLFYDUHJVLvQWHPDWLFDSURSXVSXQFWH
GH LQWHUHV VXJHVWLL úL REVHUYDLL XWLOH SH ED]D FURUD vúL SRDWH FRQFHSH
DFLXQLOH HYDOXDWLYH YLLWRDUH 'H DVHPHQHD UHFRPDQGP FD SDUFXUJHUHD
JKLGXOXL V ILH IFXW XUPkQG vQ RUGLQH FDSLWROHOH SUH]HQWDWH SULQ FXSULQV
DVWIHO vQFkW FLWLWRUXO V DLE DWkW YL]LXQHD GH DQVDPEOX DVXSUD SUREOHPDWLFLL
JHQHUDOH SUH]HQWDWH FkW úL vQHOHJHUHD ORJLF a elementelor concrete care
decurg din aceasta.

4
CAPITOLUL 1
,1752'8&(5(Ì1352%/(0$7,&$*(1(5$/
$(9$/85,,

3UREOHPHVSHFLILFHDOHHYDOXULL
ÌQFDGUXOSURFHVXOXLGHvQYPkQWDFWLYLWLOHGHSUHGDUHvQYDUHúLHYDOXDUH
FRQVWLWXLH HOHPHQWH LPSRUWDQWH FDUH VH DIO vQWUR VWUkQV OHJWXU 2ULFH
VFKLPEDUH SURGXV OD QLYHOXO XQHLD GLQWUH DFHVWH DFWLYLWL LQIOXHQHD]
PRGDOLWLOH GH UHDOL]DUH D FHORUODOWH JHQHUkQG R DGHYUDW UHDFLH vQ ODQ
FDUHLPSXQHUHYHQLULOHúLUHYL]XLULOHQHFHVDUH'HDFHHDSUHGDUHDvQYDUHD
HYDOXDUHDWUHEXLHSURLHFWDWHvQDFHODúLWLPS.

Evaluarea, ca activitate în sine, cuprinde trei etape principale:


• PVXUDUHD UH]XOWDWHORU úFRODUH SULQ SURFHGHH VSHFLILFH
XWLOL]kQG LQVWUXPHQWH DGHFYDWH VFRSXOXL XUPULW SUREH
scrise/orale/practice, proiecte, portofolii etc.);
• aprecierea acestor rezultate pe baza unor criterii unitare
EDUHPH GH FRUHFWDUH úL QRWDUH GHVFULSWRUL GH SHUIRUPDQ
etc.);
• formularea concluziilor GHVSULQVH vQ XUPD LQWHUSUHWULL
UH]XOWDWHORU RELQXWH vQ YHGHUHD DGRSWULL GHFL]LHL
HGXFDLRQDOHDGHFYDWH

Deci,
HYDOXDUHDUHSUH]LQW«

WRWDOLWDWHD DFWLYLWLORU SULQ FDUH VH FROHFWHD] RUJDQL]HD] úL LQWHUSUHWHD]


GDWHOHRELQXWHvQXUPDDSOLFULLXQRULQVWUXPHQWHGHPVXUDUH

în scopul…

HPLWHULLXQHLMXGHFLGHYDORDUHSHFDUHVHED]HD]RDQXPLWGHFL]LHvQSODQ
HGXFDLRQDO

5
ÌQJHQHUDOHYDOXDUHDSHUIRUPDQHORUHOHYLORUDUHXUPWRarele IXQFLL:
¾GLDJQRVWLFvQVHQVXOGHDIDFHFXQRVFXWHVLWXDLLOHúLIDFWRULLFDUHFRQGXF
OD RELQHUHD DQXPLWRU UH]XOWDWH DOH HOHYLORU SHQWUX D VWDELOL HYHQWXDOHOH
proceduri de remediere a punctelor critice.
¾ SURJQRVWLF vQ VHQVXO DQWLFLSULL SHUIRUPDQHORU YLLWRDUH DOH HOHYLORU SH
ED]D UH]XOWDWHORU vQUHJLVWUDWH úL DO SODQLILFULL VHFYHQHORU XUPWRDUH DOH
DFWLYLWLLGHvQYDUH'HRELFHLDFHDVWIXQFLHDHYDOXULLVHDVRFLD]FHOHL
GHGLDJQR]ILLQGFRPSOHPHQWDUH
¾ de certificareDQLYHOXOXLGHFXQRúWLQHúLDELOLWLDOHOHYLORUODVIkUúLWXOXQHL
SHULRDGHOXQJLGHLQVWUXLUH FLFOXGHvQYPkQWvQYPkQWREOLJDWRULXHWF 
¾ GH VHOHFLH D HOHYLORU SHQWUX DFFHVXO vQWUR WUHDSW VXSHULRDU GH
vQYPkQW VDX vQWUXQ SURJUDP VSHFLILF GH LQVWUXLUH JLPQD]LX OLFHX
vQYPkQW VXSHULRU FXUVXUL SRVWXQLYHUVLWDUH FXUVXUL VSHFLDOH vQ GRPHQLL
DUWLVWLFH HWF  5HDOL]DUHD DFHVWHL IXQFLL SHUPLWH FODVLILFDUHDLHUDUKL]DUHD
HOHYLORUvQXUPDUH]XOWDWHORURELQXWHvQFRQGLLLOHH[LVWHQHLGHRELFHLDXQXL
QXPU OLPLWDW GH ORFXUL SHQWUX IUHFYHQWDUHD FXUVXULORUIRUPHL GH vQYPkQW
respective.
ÌQDIDUDIXQFLLORUJHQHUDOHPHQLRQDWHDQWHULRUHYDOXDUHDPDLvQGHSOLQHúWHúL
o serie de IXQFLLVSHFLILFHGLQWUHFDUHPHQLRQP
¾ IXQFLD PRWLYDLRQDO GH QDWXU V VWLPXOH]H DFWLYLWDWHD GH vQYDUH D
HOHYLORUSULQYDORULILFDUHDRSWLPDODIHHGEDFNXOXLSR]LWLYRIHULWGHFWUHDFWXO
evaluativ în sine;
¾ IXQFLD GH RULHQWDUH úFRODU úL SURIHVLRQDO SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO FUHLD
HYDOXDUHDSHUIRUPDQHORUHOHYLORUIXUQL]HD]LQIRUPDLLXWLOHHOHYLORUvQYHGHUHD
DOHJHULLIRUPHLFRUHVSXQ]WRDUHGHvQYPkQW
7HRULD úL SUDFWLFD SHGDJRJLF RSHUHD] FX PDL PXOWH FODVLILFUL DOH tipurilor
de evaluare vQ IXQFLH GH GLIHULWH FULWHULL GRPHQLXO vQ FDUH VH UHDOL]HD]
PRPHQWXOPRGXOvQFDUHVHLQWHUSUHWHD]UH]XOWDWHOHHWF &kWHYDGLQWUHFHOH
PDLX]XDOHFODVLILFULVXQWSUH]HQWDWHvQFRQWLQXDUH
'XS PRGXO vQ FDUH VH LQWHJUHD] vQ GHVIúXUDUHD SURFHVXOXL GLGDFWLF,
evaluarea poate fi de trei tipuri:
a) HYDOXDUH LQLLDO FDUH VH UHDOL]HD] OD vQFHSXWXO XQXL QRX FLFOX GH
vQYDUH VDX SURJUDP GH LQVWUXLUH vQ VFRSXO VWDELOLULL QLYHOXOXL GH SUHJWLUH
DO HOHYLORU 3ULQ LQWHUPHGLXOHYDOXULL LQLLDOH VH LGHQWLILF QLYHOXO DFKL]LLLORU
HOHYLORU vQ WHUPHQL GH FXQRúWLQH FRPSHWHQH úL DELOLWL vQ VFRSXO
DVLJXUULL SUHPLVHORU DWLQJHULL RELHFWLYHORU SURSXVH SHQWUX HWDSD GH

6
vQYPkQWUHVSHFWLY,QIRUPDLOHRELQXWHvQXUPDUHDOL]ULLXQHLHYDOXri
LQLLDOH VSULMLQ SODQLILFDUHD DFWLYLWLORU YLLWRDUH DOH SURIHVRUXOXL GLQ
SHUVSHFWLYD DGHFYULL DFHVWRUD OD SRVLELOLWLOH HOHYLORU VDX D LQLLHULL GDF
este cazul, a unor programe de recuperare.
b) HYDOXDUHDIRUPDWLYvQVRHúWHvQWUHJXOSDUFXUVGLGDFWLFUHDOL]kQGXVHSULQ
YHULILFUL VLVWHPDWLFH DOH WXWXURU HOHYLORU DVXSUD vQWUHJLL PDWHULL 'LQ DFHVW
PRWLY HIHFWHOH VDOH DPHOLRUDWLYH DVXSUD DFWLYLWLL GH vQYDUH VXQW
considerabile, oferind permanent posibilitatea de raportare la obiectivele
RSHUDLRQDOH SURSXVH úL GH HYLGHQLHUH D SURJUHVXOXL vQUHJLVWUDW GH OD R
VHFYHQ OD DOWD D LQVWUXLULL ÌQ FD]XO HYDOXULL IRUPDWLYH IHHGEDFNXO
RELQXWHVWHPXOWPDLXWLOúLHILFLHQWDMXWkQGDWkWHOHYXOFkWúLSURIHVRUXOV
vúLDGDSWH]HDFWLYLWDWHDYLLWRDUHODVSHFLILFXOVLWXDLHL
c) HYDOXDUHD VXPDWLY VH UHDOL]HD] GH RELFHL OD VIkUúLWXO XQHL SHULRDGH
PDL OXQJL GH LQVWUXLUH GH H[HPSOX FDSLWRO VHPHVWUX DQ úFRODU FLFOX GH
vQYPkQWHWF RIHULQGLQIRUPDLLXWLOHDVXSUDQLYHOXOXLGHSHUIRUPDQDO
HOHYLORU vQ UDSRUW FX RELHFWLYHOH GH LQVWUXLUH SURSXVH (YDOXDUHD VXPDWLY
VHFRQFHQWUHD]PDLDOHVDVXSUDHOHPHQWHORUGHSHUPDQHQDOHDSOLFULL
XQRU FXQRúWLQH GH ED] DOH GHPRQVWUULL XQRU DELOLWL LPSRUWDQWH
GREkQGLWH GH HOHYL vQWUR SHULRDG PDL OXQJ GH LQVWUXLUH &DUDFWHUXO
DPHOLRUDWLYDOHYDOXULLVXPDWLYHHVWHUHODWLYUHGXVHIHFWHOHUHVLPLQGXVH
GXSRSHULRDGPDLvQGHOXQJDWGHUHJXOSHQWUXVHULLOHYLLWRDUHGHHOHYL

'DFVHXUPUHúte drept criteriu cine UHDOL]HD] HYDOXDUHDDFHDVWD SRDWHIL


de trei tipuri:
a) HYDOXUL LQWHUQH DWXQFL FkQG DFLXQHD HYDOXDWLY HVWH HIHFWXDW GH
FWUH DFHHDúL SHUVRDQLQVWLWXLH FDUH HVWH LPSOLFDW GLUHFW úL vQ
DFWLYLWDWHDGHLQVWUXLUH GHH[HPSOXSURIHVRUXOGHODFODV 
b) HYDOXUL H[WHUQH vQ FDUH VH LPSOLF R SHUVRDQLQVWLWXLH DOWD GHFkW
cea care a asigurat realizarea procesului didactic.

1.2. 5HODLDHYDOXDUHFXUHQWH[DPHQH
(YDOXDUHDFXSULQGHGRX SULLPSRUWDQWH
• HYDOXDUHDFXUHQW
• examenele
7RWXúL vQWUH FHOH GRX SUL H[LVW R OHJWXU VWUkQV GH FRQGLLRQDUH
UHFLSURF
În mod normal, HYDOXDUHDFXUHQWWUHEXLHVVSULMLQHH[DPHQHOH prin:

7
Î PRGDOLWLOH GH HYDOXDUH (strategii, tehnici, instrumente) care sunt
XWLOL]DWHvQSUDFWLFDúFRODUODFODV
Î SUHJWLUHD SURIHVRULORU vQ GRPHQLXO HYDOXULL vQ VHQVXO DELOLWULL
DFHVWRUDvQDSOLFDUHDGLIHULWHORULQVWUXPHQWHúLPHWRGH
Î familiarizarea elevilor FX WLSXUL GH LWHPL VDUFLQL GH OXFUX GXS
PRGHOXO FHORU FDUH YRU IL GDWH OD H[DPHQ SUHFXP úL FX EDUHPXO GH
corectare a acestora;
Î utilizarea rezultatelor sale SDULDO VDX vQ WRWDOLWDWH  vQ FDGUXO
examenelor.

'LQ DFHDVW XOWLP SHUVSHFWLY UHODLD HYDOXULL FXUHQWHFRQWLQXH FX


examenele poate urma trei modele posibile (A. Stoica, 2000, pg. 60):
MODELUL I
ÌQ FD]XO DFHVWXL PRGHO H[LVW R ]RQ FRPXQ DWkW HYDOXULL FRQWLQXH FkW úL
H[DPHQHORU FHHD FH vQVHDPQ F UH]XOWDWHOH HYDOXULL FRQWLQXH DX R
DQXPLW SRQGHUH vQ VWDELOLUHD QRWHL ILQDOH OD H[DPHQ $FHDVW ]RQ
FRPXQLDvQFRQVLGHUDUHXWLOL]DUHDDFHORUPHWRGHúLLQVWUXPHQWHGHHYDOXDUH
FDUH SRW IL DSOLFDWH OD FODV QHFHVLWkQG XQ WLPS PDL OXQJ GH HODERUDUH úL GH
OXFUX úL FDUH WHVWHD] FDSDFLWL LPSRUWDQWH DOH HOHYLORU GDU JUHX GH
GHPRQVWUDW vQ VLWXDLD GH H[DPHQ H[HPSOX VLVWHPXO GH vQYPvQW GLQ
Anglia).

EVALUARE

EXAMENE
&217,18

MODELUL II
ÌQ DFHVW FD] HYDOXDUHD FRQWLQX QX VH DIO vQ QLFL XQ IHO GH UHODLH FX
examenele, UH]XOWDWHOH HYDOXULL FRQWLQXH QHILLQG OXDWH vQ FRQVLGHUDUH vQ

8
cadrul examenelor H[HPSOH VLVWHPHOH GH vQYPkQW GLQ 5RPkQLD
Moldova).

EVALUARE
EXAMENE
&217,18

MODELUL III
În acest caz, UH]XOWDWHOH HYDOXULL FRQWLQXH VXQW vQ WRWDOLWDWH OXDWH vQ
considerare în cadrul examenelor GH H[HPSOX VLVWHPHOH GH vQYPkQW
GLQ6SDQLDúL3RUWXJDOLD 

EVALUARE
&217,18
EXAMENE

'LQDFHDVWSHUVSHFWLYSHQWUXLQWHJUDUHDHYDOXULLFXUHQWHFXH[DPHQHOHVH
pot aplica GRXVWUDWHJLL
a) XQD SURYLQH GLQVSUH H[DPHQH úL VH UHIHU OD GLYHUVLILFDUHD IRUPHORU úL
PHWRGHORUGHWHVWDUHvQFDGUXODFHVWRUDvQDúDIHOvQFkWXQHOHWHKQLFLFDUH
VHXWLOL]HD]vQHYDOXDUHDFXUHQWVILHWUDQVIHUDWHH[DPHQHORU
b) FHD GHD GRXD SRUQHúWH GLQVSUH SDUWHD HYDOXULL FXUHQWH SULQ YDORUL]DUHD
rezultatelor acesteia în cadrul examenelor.

1.3. Metode de evaluare


7HRULDúLSUDFWLFDHYDOXULLGLVFULPLQHD]vQWUHPHWRGHOHWUDGLLRQDOHGHHYDOXDUH
úLFHOHFRPSOHPHQWDUH
Metodele WUDGLLRQDOH GH HYDOXDUH DX FSWDW DFHDVW GHQXPLUH GDWRULW
FRQVDFUULLORUvQWLPSFDILLQGFHOHPDLGHVXWLOL]DWH'LQDFHDVWFDWHJRULHIDF
parte:

9
• probele orale;
• probele scrise;
• probele practice.
Pentru asigurarea unui consens din punct de vedere conceptual vom adopta în
FRQWLQXDUHXUPWRDUHDGHILQLLHGHOXFUX1.
3URE = orice LQVWUXPHQWGHHYDOXDUHSURLHFWDWDGPLQLVWUDWúLFRUHFWDWGH
FWUHSURIHVRU

Probele orale UHSUH]LQW PHWRGD GH HYDOXDUH FHO PDL GHV XWLOL]DW OD FODV
'DWRULWILGHOLWLLúLYDOLGLWLLORUVF]XWHDFHVWHSUREHQXVXQWUHFRPDQGDELOHvQ
VLWXDLL GH H[DPHQ ÌQV vQ HYDOXDUHD OD FODV DFHVWHD vúL GHPRQVWUHD]
valoarea mai ales în cazul disciplinelor care presupun demonstrarea unor
FDSDFLWL úL DELOLWL GLILFLO GH VXUSULQV SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO SUREHORU VFULVH GH
H[HPSOXFDSDFLWDWHDGHFRPXQLFDUHYHUEDO 
AvantajeleXWLOL]ULLSUREHORURUDOHYL]HD]
- IOH[LELOLWDWHD úL DGHFYDUHD LQGLYLGXDO D PRGXOXL GH HYDOXDUH SULQ
SRVLELOLWDWHDGHDDOWHUQDWLSXOvQWUHEULORUúLJUDGXOORUGHGLILFXOWDWHvQIXQFLHGH
FDOLWDWHDUVSXQVXULORURIHULWHGHFWUHHOHY
- SRVLELOLWDWHD GH D FODULILFD úL FRUHFWD LPHGLDW HYHQWXDOHOH HURUL VDX
QHvQHOHJHULDOHHOHYXOXLvQUDSRUWGHXQFRQLQXWVSHFLILF
- IRUPXODUHDUVSXQVXULORUXUPUHúWHORJLFDúLGLQDPLFDXQXLGLVFXUVRUDO
FHHD FH RIHU PDL PXOW OLEHUWDWH GH PDQLIHVWDUH D RULJLQDOLWLL HOHYXOXL D
FDSDFLWLLVDOHGHDUJXPHQWDUHHWF
- QXvQXOWLPXOUkQGWLSXOGHLQWHUDFLXQHGLUHFWFUHDWvQWUHHYDOXDWRUúL
HYDOXDW SURIHVRU úL HOHY  HVWH GH QDWXU V VWLPXOH]H PRGXO GH VWUXFWXUDUH D
UVSXQVXULORU GH FWUH HOHY vQFXUDMkQG úL PDQLIHVWUL FH SHUPLW HYDOXDUHD
comportamentului afectiv-atitudinal.
(VWHQHFHVDUvQVVILHDYXWHvQYHGHUHúLlimitele acestor probe, dintre care
PHQLRQP
- GLYHUVHOH FLUFXPVWDQH FDUH SRW LQIOXHQD RELHFWLYLWDWHD HYDOXULL GH
H[HPSOXJUDGXOGLIHULWGHGLILFXOWDWHDOvQWUHEULORUGHODXQHOHYODDOWXOYDULDLD
FRPSRUWDPHQWXOXLHYDOXDWRUXOXLHWF FHHDFHJHQHUHD]RSXWHUQLF YDULHWDWH
LQWHULQGLYLGXDOúLLQWUDLQGLYLGXDOvQWUHSHUVRDQHOHFDUHHYDOXHD]VDXODDFHODúL
evaluator în momente diferite;

1
 vQ OXFUDUHD ´(YDOXDUHD UH]XOWDWHORU úFRODUH´ FRRUG $ 6WRLFD 
'HILQL LD HVWH SURSXV

10
- QLYHOXOVF]XWGHYDOLGLWDWHúLILGHOLWDWH
- FRQVXPXO PDUH GH WLPS DYkQG vQ YHGHUH F HOHYLL VXQW HYDOXDL
individual.
'HFL]LD SURIHVRUXOXL GH D XWLOL]D SUREHOH RUDOH vQ DQXPLWH VLWXDLL DOH SUDFWLFLL
úFRODUHFXUHQWHWUHEXLHVVHvQWHPHLH]HSHUDLXQLFDUHLQGH
• RELHFWLYHOHHYDOXULLvQVLWXDLDFRQFUHW
• tipul de evaluare promovat;
• QXPUXOHOHYLORU
• timpul disponibil;
• resursele materiale alocate;
• WLSXO GH LQIRUPDLH SH FDUH SURIHVRUXO GRUHúWH V R RELQ SULQ
UVSXQVXULOHHOHYLORU
• QDWXUDúLVSHFLILFXOGLVFLSOLQHL

Probele scrise VXQW SUDFWLFDWH úL XQHRUL FKLDU SUHIHUDWH GDWRULW XQRUD GLQWUH
avantajeleORULPSRVLELOGHLJQRUDWvQFRQGLLLOHvQFDUHVHGRUHúWHHILFLHQWL]DUHD
SURFHVXOXLGHLQVWUXLUHúLFUHúWHUHDJUDGXOXLGHRELHFWLYLWDWHvQDSUHFLHUH'LQWUH
DFHVWHDPHQLRQP
- HFRQRPLDGHWLPSSHFDUHRUHDOL]HD]vQFDGUXOEXJHWXOXLDORFDWUHODLHL
SUHGDUHvQYDUHHYDOXDUH3UREHOHVFULVHSHUPLWHYDOXDUHDXQXLQXPUPDUHGH
elevi într-un timp relativ scurt.
- DFRSHULUHDXQLWDUFDYROXPúLSURIXQ]LPHSHFDUHRDVLJXUODQLYHOXO
FRQLQXWXOXLHYDOXDW3UREHOHVFULVHIDFSRVLELOHYDOXDUHDWXWXURUHOHYLORUDVXSUD
DFHOHLDúLVHFYHQHFXUULFXODUHFHHDce face comparabile rezultatele elevilor, iar
HYDOXDUHDvQVLQHPDLRELHFWLY
- SRVLELOLWDWHD SURIHVRUXOXL GH D HPLWH MXGHFL GH YDORDUH PXOW PDL
RELHFWLYH vQWHPHLDWH SH H[LVWHQD XQRU FULWHULL GH HYDOXDUH FODU VSHFLILFDWH úL
prestabilite;
- SRVLELOLWDWHDHOHYLORUGHDúLHODERUDUVSXQVXOLQGHSHQGHQWIUQLFLXQ
IHOGHLQWHUYHQLHGLQDIDUUHIOHFWkQGFXQRúWLQHúLFDSDFLWLGHPRQVWUDWHvQWU
un ritm propriu;
- GLPLQXDUHD VWULORU WHQVLRQDOH GH VWUHVV FDUH SRW DYHD XQ LPSDFW
QHJDWLYDVXSUDSHUIRUPDQHLHOHYLORUWLPL]LVDXFXDOWHSUREOHPHHPRLRQDOH

11
Dezavantajul major este presupus de relativa întârziere în timp a momentului
vQ FDUH VH UHDOL]HD] FRUHFWDUHD XQRU JUHúHOL VDX FRPSOHWDUHD XQRU ODFXQH
identificate.

Probele practice VXQW XWLOL]DWH vQ YHGHUHD HYDOXULL FDSDFLWLL HOHYLORU GH a
DSOLFD DQXPLWH FXQRúWLQH WHRUHWLFH SUHFXP úL D JUDGXOXL GH VWSkQLUH D
SULFHSHULORUúLGHSULQGHULORUGHRUGLQSUDFWLF&XWRDWHFDFWLYLWLOHSUDFWLFHRIHU
SRVLELOLWDWHD HOHYXOXL GHDúL GH]YROWD DWkW FRPSHWHQHOH JHQHUDOH FRPXQLFDUH
DQDOL] VLQWH] HYDOXDUH  FkW úL SH FHOH VSHFLILFH DSOLFDWLYH PDQLSXODUHD
datelor, instrumentelor de lucru, interpretarea rezultatelor), evaluarea elevilor
SULQ SUREH SUDFWLFH DWkW vQ VLWXDLL GH H[DPLQDUH FXUHQW FkW úL vQ VLWXDLL GH
H[DPHQHVWHIRDUWHSXLQSXVvQYDORDUH
3HQWUXUHDOL]DUHDFXVXFFHVDXQHLDFWLYLWLSUDFWLFHHVWHQRUPDOFDvQFGHOD
vQFHSXWXODQXOXLúFRODUHOHYLLVILHDYL]DLDVXSUD ,1HDFúX$6WRLFD(coord.)
1996, p.76):
• WHPDWLFLLOXFUULORUSUDFWLFH
• modului în care ele vor fi evaluate (baremele de notare);
• FRQGLLLORU FDUH OH VXQW RIHULWH SHQWUX D UHDOL]D DFHVWH DFWLYLWL
DSDUDWHXQHOWHVOLGHVSRUWHWF 

$úDFXPPHQLRQDPDQWHULRUPHWRGHOHWUDGLLRQDOHGHHYDOXDUHFRQFHSXWHFD
UHDOL]kQG XQ HFKLOLEUX vQWUH SUREHOH RUDOH VFULVH úL FHOH SUDFWLFH FRQVWLWXLH OD
PRPHQWXO DFWXDO HOHPHQWHOH SULQFLSDOH úL GRPLQDQWH vQ GHVIúXUDUHD DFWXOXL
evaluativ. 3RUQLQG GH OD DFHDVW UHDOLWDWH RELHFWLY VWUDWHJLLOH PRGHUQH GH
HYDOXDUH FDXW V DFFHQWXH]H DFHD GLPHQVLXQH D DFLXQLL HYDOXDWLYH FDUH V
RIHUH HOHYLORU VXILFLHQWH úL YDULDWH SRVLELOLWL GH D GHPRQVWUD FHHD FH úWLX FD
DQVDPEOX GH FXQRúWLQH  GDU PDL DOHV FHHD FH SRW V IDF SULFHSHUL
GHSULQGHUL DELOLWL  Acest lucru se poate realiza prin utilizarea metodelor
complementare de evaluare.

Principalele metode complementare de evaluare DO FURU SRWHQLDO IRUPDWLY


VXVLQHLQGLYLGXDOL]DUHDDFWXOXLHGXFDLRQDOSULQVSULMLQXODFRUGDWHOHYXOXLVXQW
• REVHUYDUHDVLVWHPDWLFDDFWLYLWLLúLDFRPSRUWDPHQWXOXLHOHYLORU
• LQYHVWLJDLD
• proiectul;
• portofoliul;

12
• autoevaluarea.

2EVHUYDUHD VLVWHPDWLF D DFWLYLWLL úL D FRPSRUWDPHQWXOXL HOHYLORU


IXUQL]HD]SURIHVRUXOXLLQIRUPDLLUHOHYDQWHDVXSUDSHUIRUPDQHORUHOHYLORUVLGLQ
SHUVSHFWLYDFDSDFLWLLORUGHDFLXQHúLUHODLRQDUHDFRPSHWHQHORUúLDELOLWLORU
GH FDUH GLVSXQ DFHúWLD 3HQWUX D DWLQJH DFHVW VFRS SURIHVRUXO WUHEXLH V
XWLOL]H]HXQLQVWUXPHQWDUDGHFYDWRELHFWXOXLREVHUYULLÌQPRGSUDFWLFSURIHVRUXO
DUHODGLVSR]LLHWUHLPRGDOLWLGHvQUHJLVWUDUHDDFHVWRULQIRUPDLL YH]LúL1
Gronlund, 1981, pg. 434-450):
• ILúDGHHYDOXDUH
• scara de clasificare
• lista de control/verificare
(VWH LPSRUWDQW GH VXEOLQLDW vQ OHJWXU FX DFHVWH PRGDOLWL GH vQUHJLVWUDUH D
LQIRUPDLLORU IDSWXO F SRW IL XWLOL]DWH DWkW SHQWUX HYDOXDUHD SURFHVXOXL FkW úL D
SURGXVHORU UHDOL]DWH GH HOHYL VXUSULQ]kQG DWkW RELHFWLYri comportamentale ale
GRPHQLXOXLFRJQLWLYFkWúLDOHGRPHQLLDIHFWLYúLSVLKRPRWRU

z )LúD GH HYDOXDUH HVWH FRPSOHWDW GH FWUH SURIHVRU vQ HD


înregistrându-se date factuale despre evenimentele cele mai importante pe
FDUH SURIHVRUXO OH LGHQWLILF vQ FRPSRUWDPHQWXO VDX PRGXO GH DFLXQH DO
HOHYLORUVL IDSWHUHPDUFDELOHSUREOHPHFRPSRUWDPHQWDOHHYLGHQLHUHDXQRU
DSWLWXGLQL GHRVHELWH vQWUXQ GRPHQLX VDX DOWXO HWF  /D DFHVWHD VH DGDXJ
LQWHUSUHWULOH SURIHVRUXOXL DVXSUD FHORU vQWkPSODWH SHUPLkQGXL DFHVWXLD V
VXUSULQGPRGHOXOFRPSRUWDPHQWDODOHOHYLORUVL
'HFL SURIHVRUXO vQWUR SULP LQVWDQ este cel care decide ce comportament
YD IL REVHUYDW úL vQUHJLVWUDW FRQILJXUkQG DULD FRPSRUWDPHQWDO HYHQWXDOHOH
OLPLWH DOH REVHUYDLLORU vQUHJLVWUDWH JUDGXO GH H[WLQGHUH vQ XWLOL]DUH DO DFHVWRU
REVHUYDLL
Un avantajLPSRUWDQWDODFHVWRUILúHGHHYDOXDUHHVWHDFHODFQXGHSLQGHGH
capacitatea de comunicare a elevului cu profesorul, profesorul fiind cel care
vQUHJLVWUHD] úL LQWHUSUHWHD] FRPSRUWDPHQWXO WLSLF VDX DOWH SURGXVH úL
SHUIRUPDQHDOHHOHYXOXL
Un dezavantaj GHFDUHWUHEXLHLQXWVHDPHVWHDFHODDOPDUHOXLconsum de
timp SH FDUH vO LPSOLF WLPSXO QHFHVDU SURIHVRUXOXL VSUH H[HPSOX SHQWUX D
QRWDGHVFULHULOHYHUEDOHDOHFRPSRUWDPHQWXOXLHOHYLORUVL ODFDUHVHDGDXJ
IDSWXO F DFHVWH QRWUL QX DX R FRW ULGLFDW GH obiectivitate, ceea ce are
UHSHUFXUVLXQLDVXSUDILGHOLWLLDFHVWRUvQUHJLVWUUL

13
z Scara de clasificare vQVXPHD] un set de caracteristici
FRPSRUWDPHQWH  FH WUHEXLH VXSXVH HYDOXULL vQVRLW GH XQ DQXPLW WLS GH
VFDU GH RELFHL scara Likert 3RWULYLW DFHVWXL WLS GH VFDU HOHYXOXL vL VXQW
prezentate XQ QXPU GH HQXQXUL vQ UDSRUW GH FDUH DFHVWD WUHEXLH VúL
manifeste acordul sau dezacordul, discriminând între cinci trepte: puternic
acord; acord; indecis (neutru); dezacord; puternic dezacord.

Exemplu:

1. Particip cu SOFHUHODDFWLYLWLOHGHOXFUXvQHFKLS
† puternic dezacord † dezacord † neutru † acord † puternic acord
2. Îmi DVXPLPHGLDWUHVSRQVDELOLWLOHFDUHvPLVXQWVWDELOLWHvQFDGUXOHFKLSHL
† puternic dezacord † dezacord † neutru † acord † puternic acord
8Q HOHPHQW HVHQLDO vQ FRQVWUXLUHD XQHL VFri de clasificare îl constituie
UHGDFWDUHDXQXLEXQHQXQODFDUHHOHYXOVSRDWUVSXQGH3ULQXUPDUH
D  )LHFDUH HQXQ WUHEXLH V FXSULQG FXYLQWH IDPLOLDUH VXELHFWXOXL XWLOL]kQG
OLPEDMXODFHVWXLDúLQXXQXOSXWHUQLFVSHFLDOL]DWVDXWHKQLF'HFLHQXQXULFXR
VWUXFWXUVLPSO
E  )LHFDUH HQXQ V ILH H[SULPDW clar pozitiv sau clar negativ V UHSUH]LQWH
SR]LLLFODUSR]LWLYHVDXQHJDWLYH (VWHELQHFDHQXQXULOHVILHH[SHULPHQWDWH
înainte de introducerea lor în instrument.
F  /LVWD ILQDO GH HQXQXUL WUHEXLH V FRQLQ XQ QXPU DSUR[LPDWLY HJDO GH
HQXQXULSR]LWLYHúLQHJDWLYH.
G )LHFDUHHQXQWUHEXLHVSURGXFLQIRUPDLDQHFHVDU. Nu se introduce un
HQXQ GRDU SHQWUX F ³HVWH LQWHUHVDQW GH Y]XW FH UVSXQG VXELHFLL OD HO´
(QXQXO WUHEXLH V IDF UHIHULUH FODU OD DWLWXGLQHD VDX RSLQLD GHVSUH FDUH
GRULPVDIOPLQIRUPDLL

z Lista de control/verificare GHúL SDUH DVHPQWRDUH FX VFDUD GH


FODVLILFDUH FD PDQLHU GH VWUXFWXUDUH XQ VHW GH HQXQXUL FDUDFWHULVWLFL
FRPSRUWDPHQWHHWF VHGHRVHEHúWHGHDFHDVWDSULQIDSWXOFSULQLQWHUPHGLXO
HL GRDU VH FRQVWDW SUH]HQD VDX DEVHQD unei caracteristici, comportament
HWFIUDHPLWHRMXGHFDWGHYDORDUHRULFkWGHVLPSO

Exemplu GHVIúXUDUHDXQHLDFWLYLWLH[SHULPHQWDOHvQODERUDWRU
Elevul:
- DXUPDWLQVWUXFLXQLOHVSHFLILFHDFWLYLWLL †Da †Nu

14
- a cerut ajutor atunci când a avut nevoie. †Da †Nu
- DFRRSHUDWFXFHLODOLFROHJLSHQWUXDUHDOL]D
produsul final. †Da †Nu
- a finalizat sarcina de lucru. †Da †Nu
- DIFXWFXUDWODPDVDGHOXFUX †Da †Nu

Un avantaj al listei de control HVWHDFHOD F VH HODERUHD] UHODWLY XúRU, fiind
RELHFWLY vQ HYDOXDUHD DELOLWLORU FDUH SRW IL vQ PRG FODU GLYL]DWH vQ SDúL
specifici.
8Q WLS VSHFLDO GH REVHUYDLH este REVHUYDLD SDUWLFLSDWLY FX LPSOLFDLL
VHPQLILFDWLYH DVXSUD UHODLHL SURIHVRUHOHY GLQ FODV $FHVW WLS GH REVHUYDLH
SUDFWLFDW GH FWUH SURIHVRUXO HVWH vQ HVHQ VXELHFWLY GDU SRDWH VúL
VSRUHDVF SURFHQWXO GH RELHFWLYLWDWH GDF DWHQLD YD IL FRQFHQWUDW DVXSUD
FRQVWUXFLHLúLXWLOL]ULLLQVWUXPHQWHORU
În ceea FH SULYHúWH FRVWXULOH LPSOLFDWH GH DFHDVW PHWRG HD HVWH LHIWLQ GDU
mare consumatoare de timp.

,QYHVWLJDia,FDPHWRGFRPSOHPHQWDUGHHYDOXDUHRIHUSRVLELOLWDWHDHOHYXOXL
GH D DSOLFD vQ PRG FUHDWLY FXQRúWLQHOH vQVXúLWH vQ VLWXDLL QRL úL YDULDWH SH
parcursul unei ore sau unei succesiuni de ore de curs.
ÌQ FDGUXO XQHL LQYHVWLJDLL RELHFWLYHOH HYDOXDWH GH H[HPSOX GHILQLUHD úL
vQHOHJHUHD SUREOHPHL LGHQWLILFDUHD SURFHGHHORU GH RELQHUH D LQIRUPDLLORU
FROHFWDUHD úL RUJDQL]DUHD GDWHORU IRUPXODUHD úL WHVWDUHD LSRWH]HORU GHVFULHUHD
PHWRGHORU GH LQYHVWLJDLH D SUREOHPHL HODERUDUHD XQXL VFXUW UDSRUW GHVSUH
UH]XOWDWHOH LQYHVWLJDLHL  FDSW VHPQLILFDLL GLIHULWH FRUHODWH FX JUDGXO GH
FRPSOH[LWDWH DO VDUFLQLL GH OXFUX úL FX QDWXUD GLVFLSOLQHL OD FDUH VH DSOLF 8Q
HOHPHQW LPSRUWDQW vQ GHVIúXUDUHD XQHL LQYHVWLJDLL GXS SURLHFWDUHD HL vO
constituie preexperimentarea, ceea FH DVLJXU XQ SOXV GH YDOLGLWDWH
LQVWUXPHQWXOXLGHHYDOXDUHSHFDUHSURIHVRUXOLQWHQLRQHD]VOSURSXQHOHYLORU
VL
$FWLYLWDWHD GLGDFWLF GHVIúXUDW SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO DFHVWHL SUDFWLFL HYDOXDWLYH
SRDWHVILHRUJDQL]DWLQGLYLGXDOVDXSHJUXSXULGHOXFUXLDUDSUHFLHUHDPRGXOXL
de realizare DLQYHVWLJDLHLHVWHGHRELFHLGHWLSKROLVWLF
$SRUWXODFHVWXLWLSGHDFWLYLWDWHDVXSUDGH]YROWULLFDSDFLWLORUGHRUGLQDSOLFDWLY
ale elevilor HVWHFRQVLGHUDELO PDLDOHVvQFD]XOUH]ROYULLSUREOHPHORUGH]YROWULL
FDSDFLWLGHDUJXPHQWDUHJkQGLULLORJLFHHWF 

15
Proiectul UHSUH]LQW R DFWLYLWDWH GH HYDOXDUH PDL DPSO GHFkW LQYHVWLJDia.
3URLHFWXOvQFHSHvQFODVSULQGHILQLUHDúLvQHOHJHUHDVDUFLQLLGHOXFUXHYHQWXDO
úLSULQvQFHSHUHDUH]ROYULLDFHVWHLDVHFRQWLQXDFDVSHSDUFXUVXODFkWRUYD
]LOHVDXVSWPkQLWLPSvQFDUHHOHYXODUHSHUPDQHQWHFRQVXOWULFXSURIHVRUXO
úLVHvQFKHLHWRWvQFODVSULQSUH]HQWDUHDvQIDDFROHJLORUDXQXLUDSRUWDVXSUD
UH]XOWDWHORURELQXWHúLGDFHVWHFD]XODSURGXVXOXLUHDOL]DW&DúLLQYHVWLJDia,
SURLHFWXODUHPDLPXOWHHWDSHúLSRDWHILUHDOL]DWLQGLYLGXDOVDXvQJUXS
(WDSHOH SURLHFWXOXL SUHVXSXQ GLUHFLRQDUHD HIRUWXULORU HOHYLORU vQ GRX GLUHFLL OD
IHOGHLPSRUWDQWHGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHPHWRGRORJLFúLSUDFWLFFROHFWDUHDGDWHORU
úL UHDOL]DUHD SURGXVXOXL )LHFDUH GLUHFLH FRQLQH HOHPHQWH FDUH FRQIHU
VSHFLILFLWDWHSURLHFWXOXLvQIXQFLHGHGLVFLSOLQDSHFDUHRYL]HD]
3ULQWUHFDSDFLWLOHHOHYLORUSRVLELOGHHYDOXDWSULQLQWHUPHGLXODFHVWHLPHWRGHVH
SRWHQXPHUD $6WRLFD60XVWHD,1997, p.115):
• DGHFYDUHD PHWRGHORU GH OXFUX úL D LQVWUXPHQWDUXOXL DOHV OD RELHFWLYHOH
propuse prin proiect;
• IRORVLUHDFRUHVSXQ]WRDUHDPDWHULDOHORUúLHFKLSDPHQWHORUGLQGRWDUH
• RIHULUHDXQHLVROXLLFRUHFWH UH]ROYDUHDGHSUREOHPH 
• UHDOL]DUHDFXDFXUDWHHDSURGXVXOXLGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHWHKQLF
• SRVLELOLWDWHDJHQHUDOL]ULLSUREOHPHLVROXLHL
• prezentarea proiectului.
Strategia de evaluare a proiectului, care este una de tip holistic, trebuie, la
UkQGXOHLVILHFODUGHILQLWSULQFULWHULLQHJRFLDWHVDXQXFXHOHYLLDVWIHOvQFkWV
HYLGHQLH]HHIRUWXOH[FOXVLYDOHOHYXOXLvQUHDOL]DUHDSURLHFWXOXL

Utilizarea portofoliului FD PHWRG FRPSOHPHQWDU GH HYDOXDUH vQ SUDFWLFD


úFRODU FXUHQW VH LPSXQH GLQ FH vQ FH PDL PXOW DWHQLHL úL LQWHUHVXOXL
SURIHVRULORU 3RUWRIROLXO LQFOXGH UH]XOWDWHOH UHOHYDQWH RELQXWH SULQ FHOHODOWH
PHWRGH úL WHKQLFL GH HYDOXDUH SUREH RUDOH VFULVH SUDFWLFH REVHUYDUHD
VLVWHPDWLF D FRPSRUWDPHQWXOXL HOHYXOXL SURLHFWXO DXWRHYDOXDUHD  SUHFXP úL
VDUFLQLVSHFLILFHILHFUHLGLVFLSOLQH
3RUWRIROLXOUHSUH]LQWFDUWHDGHYL]LWDHOHYXOXLXUPULQGXLSURJUHVXOGHODXQ
VHPHVWUXODDOWXOGHODXQDQúFRODUODDOWXOúLFKLDUGHODXQFLFOXGHvQYPkQW
la altul.
,PSRUWDQW UPkQH VFRSXO SHQWUX FDUH este proiectat portofoliul, ceea ce va
GHWHUPLQDúLVWUXFWXUDVD$OWXULGHVFRSvQGHILQLUHDXQXLSRUWRIROLXVXQWODIHO
GHUHOHYDQWHFRQWH[WXOúLPRGXOGHSURLHFWDUHDSRUWRIROLXOXL

16
2 IXQFLH LPSRUWDQW SH FDUH R SUHLD SRUWRIROLXO HVWH DFHHD GH LQYHVWLJDUH D
PDMRULWLL SURGXVHORU HOHYLORU FDUH GH RELFHL UPkQ QHLQYHVWLJDWH vQ DFWXO
HYDOXDWLYUHSUH]HQWkQGvQDFHODúLWLPSXQVWLPXOHQWSHQWUXGHVIúXUDUHDvQWUHJLL
JDPH GH DFWLYLWL GLGDFWLFH QX GRDU SUHJWLUHD VWHUHRWLS SHQWUX WHVWH GH
FXQRúWLQH ÌQDFHODúLWLPSVDUFLQDHYDOXULLFRQWLQXHHVWHSUHOXDWFXVXFFHVúL
IU WHQVLXQHD SH FDUH DU SXWHDR JHQHUD PHWRGHOH WUDGLLRQDOH GH HYDOXDUH
aplicate frecvent.
3ULQ FRPSOH[LWDWHD úL ERJLD LQIRUPDLHL SH FDUH R IXUQL]HD] VLQWHWL]kQG
DFWLYLWDWHD HOHYXOXL GHD OXQJXO WLPSXOXL XQ VHPHVWUX DQ úFRODU VDX FLFOX GH
vQYPkQW SRUWRIROLXOSRDWHFRQVWLWXLSDUWHLQWHJUDQWDXQHLHYDOXULVXPDWLYH
VDXDXQHLH[DPLQUL

Autoevaluarea SULQ LQIRUPDLLOH SH FDUH OH IXUQL]HD] DUH XQ URO HVHQLDO vQ
vQWUHJLUHDLPDJLQLLHOHYXOXLGLQSHUVSHFWLYDMXGHFLLGHYDORDUHSHFDUHRHPLWH
profesorul.
3HQWUX FD HYDOXDUHD V ILH UHVLPLW GH FWUH HOHY FD DYkQG HIHFW IRUPDWLY
UDSRUWkQGXVHODGLIHULWHFDSDFLWLDOHVDOHvQIXQFLHGHSURJUHVXOUHDOL]DWúLGH
GLILFXOWLOHSHFDUHOHDUHGHGHSúLWHVWHIRDUWHXWLOIRUPDUHDúLH[HUVDUHDOD
HOHYLDFDSDFLWLLGHDXWRHYDOXDUH(OHYLLDXQHYRLHVVHDXWRFXQRDVF$FHVW
IDSWDUHPXOWLSOHLPSOLFDLLvQSODQPRWLYDLRQDOúLDWLWXGLQDO
&DúLSURIHVRUXOFDUHFRQGXFHDFWLYLWDWHDHOHYXODIODWvQVLWXDLDGHvQYDUHDUH
QHYRLHGHDQXPLWHSXQFWHGHUHIHULQFDUHVLGHILQHDVFUROXOVDUFLQDQDWXUD
úL GLUHFLLOH DFWLYLWLL VDOH DMXWkQGXO V FRQúWLHQWL]H]H SURJUHVHOH úL DFKL]LLLOH
IFXWH VúL HODERUH]H VWLOXO SURSULX GH OXFUX V VH SRDW VLWXD SHUVRQDO vQ
UDSRUWFXH[LJHQHOHGHvQYDUH
Un ORF DSDUWH vQ DFHDVW VIHU vO RFXS DXWRHYDOXDUHD FRPSRUWDPHQWHORU GLQ
GRPHQLXO DIHFWLY DO GH]YROWULL SHUVRQDOH $FHVW OXFUX VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ
LQWHUPHGLXOFKHVWLRQDUHORUVFULORUGHFODVLILFDUHHWF

7RDWH DFHVWH PHWRGH FRPSOHPHQWDUH GH HYDOXDUH DVLJXU R DOWHUQDWLY OD


IRUPXOHOHWUDGLLRQDOHDFURUSUH]HQHVWHSUHSRQGHUHQWRIHULQGDOWHRSLXQL
PHWRGRORJLFHúLLQVWUXPHQWDOHFDUHvPERJHVFSUDFWLFDHYDOXDWLY9DOHQHOHORU
IRUPDWLYH OH UHFRPDQG VXVLQXW vQ DFHVW sens. Este cazul, în special, al
LQYHVWLJDLHL SURLHFWXOXL úL SRUWRIROLXOXL FDUH vQ DIDUD IDSWXOXL F UHSUH]LQW
importante instrumente de evaluare, constituie în primul rând sarcini de lucru a
FURUUH]ROYDUHVWLPXOHD]vQYDUHDGHWLSHXULVWLF

17
Dintre YDOHQHOH IRUPDWLYH ale metodelor complementare de evaluare pot fi
PHQLRQDWH
- RSRUWXQLWDWHD FUHDW SURIHVRUXOXL GH D RELQH QRL úL LPSRUWDQWH
LQIRUPDLL DVXSUD QLYHOXOXL GH SUHJWLUH DO HOHYLORU VL Pe baza
DFHVWRU LQIRUPDLL SURIHVRUXO vúL IXQGDPHQWHD] MXGHFDWD GH
YDORDUH SH FDUH R H[SULP vQWUR DSUHFLHUH FkW PDL RELHFWLY D
SHUIRUPDQHORU HOHYLORU úL D SURJUHVHORU vQUHJLVWUDWH GH FWUH
DFHúWLD
- SRVLELOLWDWHDHOHYXOXLGHDDUWDFHHDFHúWLHúLPDLDOHVFHHDFH
úWLHVIDFvQWURYDULHWDWHGHFRQWH[WHúLVLWXDLL
- RIHULUHD XQHL LPDJLQL SHUPDQHQW DFWXDOL]DWH DVXSUD SHUIRUPDQHORU
HOHYLORUvQUDSRUWFXDELOLWLOHúLFDSDFLWLOHSHFDUHDFHúWLDOHGHLQ
SUHFXPúLDXQHLLPDJLQLFkWPDLFRPSOHWHDVXSUDSURILOXOXLJHQHUDO
DOQLYHOXOXLGHDFKL]LLLDOHOHYXOXLDPEHOHvQVSULMLQXOSURIHVRUXOXL
- DVLJXUDUHD XQXL GHPHUV LQWHUDFWLY DO DFWXOXL GH SUHGDUHvQYDUH
adaptat nevoilor de individualizare a sarcinilor de lucru pentru fiecare
HOHY YDORULILFkQG úL VWLPXOkQG SRWHQLDOXO FUHDWLY úL RULJLQDOLWDWHD
acestuia;
- H[HUVDUHD DELOLWLORU SUDFWLFDSOLFDWLYH DOH HOHYLORU DVLJXUkQG R PDL
EXQ FODULILFDUH FRQFHSWXDO úL LQWHJUDUH vQ VLVWHPXO QRLRQDO D
FXQRúWLQHORUDVLPLODWHFDUHDVWIHOGHYLQRSHUDLRQDOH
În termeni generali, metoda HVWH FHD FDUH FRQWXUHD] vQWUHJXO GHPHUV GH
SURLHFWDUH úL UHDOL]DUH D DFLXQLL HYDOXDWLYH GH OD VWDELOLUHD RELHFWLYHORU GH
HYDOXDUHúLSkQODFRQVWUXLUHDúLDSOLFDUHDLQVWUXPHQWXOXLGHHYDOXDUHSULQFDUH
LQWHQLRQP V RELQHP LQIRUPDLLOH QHFHVDUH úL UHOHYDQWH SHQWUX VFRSXULOH
SURSXVH 'LQ DFHDVW SHUVSHFWLY instrumentul de evaluare este parte
LQWHJUDQW D PHWRGHL ILLQG FHO FDUH FRQFUHWL]HD] OD QLYHO GH SURGXV RSLXQHD
PHWRGRORJLF D SURIHVRUXOXL SHQWUX PVXUDUHD úL DSUHFLHUHD FXQRúWLQHORU úL
FRPSHWHQHORUHOHYXOXLvQWURVLWXDLHHGXFDLRQDOELQHGHILQLW

&DOLWLOHLQVWUXPHQWHORUGHHYDOXDUH

8WLOL]DUHD WHVWHORU FD SULQFLSDO LQVWUXPHQW GH HYDOXDUH vQ SUDFWLFD úFRODU
FXUHQWVDXvQVLWXDLHGHH[DPHQSRDWHLQFOXGHXQSRWHQLDOULVFvQPRPHQWXO
vQ FDUH vQ SURLHFWDUHD DFHVWRUD QX VH LQH FRQW GH FDOLWLOH DFHVWXLD FDOLWL
LQGLVSHQVDELOH vQ FRQGLLLOH vQ FDUH VH GRUHúWH UHDOL]DUHD XQHL FRQVLVWHQH D
PVXUULLvQHYDOXDUH7RFPDLGHDFHHDHVWHUHODWLYGLILFLOFDWHVWHOHHODERUDWH

18
GH SURIHVRUL V VDWLVIDF WRDWH DFHVWH FDOLWL WHKQLFH vQ FRQGLLL RSWLPH
GH]DYDQWDMFDUHHVWHvQVvQOWXUDWvQPRPHQWXOvQFDUHWHVWHOHVXQWSURGXVH
GH R LQVWLWXLH VSHFLDOL]DW vQ DFHVW VHQV ,QGLIHUHQW GH PHWRGD SULQ FDUH VH
HYDOXHD] XWLOL]DUHD XQXL LQVWUXPHQW GH HYDOXDUH LQVXILFLHQW GH ELQH FDOLEUDW
GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH DO UHVSHFWULL FDOLWLORU VDOH WHKQLFH DGXFH LPSRUWDQWH
SUHMXGLFLL GHPHUVXOXL LQLLDW UHODWLYL]kQG FRQVLGHUDELO UH]XOWDWHOH úL HIHFWHOH
HYDOXULL
'HVFULHUHDVXFFLQWDDFHVWRUFDOLWLHVWHSUH]HQWDWvQFRQWLQXDUH YH]LúL,
1HDFúX$6WRLFD FRRUG SJ 

3ULQFLSDOHOH FDOLWL DOH XQXL LQVWUXPHQW GH HYDOXDUH SH FDUH vO YRP QXPL vQ
continuare test sunt: YDOLGLWDWHDILGHOLWDWHDRELHFWLYLWDWHDúLDSOLFDELOLWDWHD

Validitatea XQXL WHVW HVWH H[SULPDW GH DFXUDWHHD FX FDUH WHVWXO UHVSHFWLY
PVRDUFHHDFHLQWHQLRQHD]VPVRDUHÌQFRQVHFLQDDSUHFLDGDFXQ
WHVW PVRDUD FHHD FH úLD SURSXV V PVRDUH QX VH SRDWH IDFH GHFkW vQ
UHODLH FX VFRSXO WHVWXOXL UHVSHFWLY 3ULPD vQWUHEDUH OD FDUH WUHEXLH V
UVSXQG DXWRUXO XQXL WHVW HVWH FH LQWHQLRQH] V PVRU SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO
acestui instrument? 3ULPD FRQVWDWDUH SH FDUH R SRDWH IDFH HVWH DFHHD F
WUHEXLH V VH UDSRUWH]H OD FHHD FH HVWH FDSDELO V PVRDUH vQ PRPHQWXO
UHVSHFWLY PRWLY SHQWUX FDUH GH UHJXO SULQ SURLHFWDUHD XQXL WHVW VH FHUH
HOHYLORU V UVSXQG OD DQXPLWH FHULQH úL VDUFLQL GH OXFUX FDUH OL VH GDX
DFHVWRUD VSUH UH]ROYDUH &RQVHFLQD GLUHFW D DFHVWXL IDSW HVWH F FHHD FH
PVXUP VXQW GRDU FRPSRUWDPHQWH (VWH PXOW PDL JUHX GH UHDOL]DW
PVXUDUHDDFHORUDVSHFWHFDUHLQGHLQWHUHVHOHHOHYLORUGHDELOLWLOHDFHVWRUD
VDXGHODWXUDDIHFWLYDWLWXGLQDODSHUVRQDOLWLLHOHYLORU$FHVWHDVSHFWHQXSRW
ILPVXUDWHvQPRGGLUHFW
ÌQFDGUXOXQXLWHVWQXWUHEXLHVH[LVWHHOHPHQWHGHLQWHUIHUHQ'HH[HPSOX
XQ WHVW FDUH PVRDUD JUDGXO GH H[HUVDUH DO XQXL DOJRULWP GH DQDOL]
JUDPDWLFDOQXWUHEXLHVFULVvQWUXQOLPEDMJUHXDFFHVLELOYkUVWHLHOHYLORUVDXV
ULGLFH SUREOHPH GH YRFDEXODU VDX VWLO SHQWUX F vQ DFHVW IHO YRU IL PVXUDWH
DELOLWL GH VWSkQLUH D HOHPHQWHORU GH OLPE úL DELD vQ SODQ VHFXQGDU FHOH
SUHVXSXVHGHDQDOL]DJUDPDWLFDO
3HQWUXFDXQWHVWVILHFRQVLGHUDWYDOLGWUHEXLHVDFRSHUHvQWUHJXOFRQLQXW
DO SURJUDPHL GH H[DPHQ vQWUXQ PRG DGHFYDW LQkQG FRQW GH OXQJLPHD
SRQGHUHD VDX LPSRUWDQD GLIHULWHORU DVSHFWH DOH FRQLQXWXOXL OD FDUH IDFH
referire.

În continuare vom face referire la câteva tipuri de validitate:


• YDOLGLWDWHDGHFRQLQXW
• validitatea de construct

19
• YDOLGLWDWHDFRQFXUHQW
• YDOLGLWDWHDSUHGLFWLY
• YDOLGLWDWHDGHIDDG

1. 9DOLGLWDWHDGHFRQLQXWUHOHYPVXUDvQFDUHWHVWXODFRSHUvQPRG
XQLIRUPHOHPHQWHOH GH FRQLQXW PDMRUHSH FDUH DFHVWD OH WHVWHD]
$SUHFLHUHD YDOLGLWLL GH FRQLQXW VH IDFH SULQ HVWLPDUHD
FRQFRUGDQHLGLQWUHLWHPLLWHVWXOXLúLRELHFWLYHOHRSHUDLRQDOHGHILQLWH
SHED]DFRQLQXWXULORUHVHQLDOHDOHSURJUDPXOXLGHLQVWUXLUH

2. Validitatea de constructH[SULPDFXUDWHHDFXFDUHWHVWXOPVRDU
XQ DQXPLW FRQVWUXFW VSHFLILFDW GH H[HPSOX LQWHOLJHQD
FUHDWLYLWDWHD VXFFHVXO úFRODU HWF  'H DVHPHQHD DFHVW WLS GH
YDOLGLWDWH YL]HD] FRQFRUGDQD GLQWUH QDWXUD LWHPLORU úL RELHFWLYHOH
FRUHVSXQ]WRDUH FRQLQXWXULORU VXSXVH HYDOXULL GHFL UDSRUWXO LWHP
QLYHOXOvQYULL

3. VDOLGLWDWHDFRQFXUHQWIDFHUHIHULUHODFRQFRUGDQDGLQWUHUH]XOWDWHOH
RELQXWH GH XQ HOHY OD XQ WHVW úL XQHOH FULWHULL GH FRPSRUWDPHQW
VLPLODUH ÌQ FRQVHFLQ YDOLGLWDWHD FRQFXUHQW UHIOHFW PVXUD vQ
FDUH VFRUXULOH vQUHJLVWUDWH OD XQ WHVW UHODLRQHD] FX DOWH PVXUUL
UHDOL]DWHDVXSUDDFHORUDúLDELOLWL

4. 9DOLGLWDWHD SUHGLFWLY YL]HD] PVXUD vQ FDUH WHVWXO SRDWH IDFH


SURJQR]D SHUIRUPDQHORU YLLWRDUH DOH HOHYXOXL 5H]XOWDWHOH SUH]HQWH
ale testului sunt utilizate pentru a atinge acest scop. Acest tip de
YDOLGLWDWH YL]HD] HVWLPDUHDGHWHUPLQDUHD FRUHODLHL GLQWUH
SHUIRUPDQD vQUHJLVWUDW OD XQ WHVW FDUH D IRVW DGPLQLVWUDW úL
SHUIRUPDQD OD WHVWH FDUH XUPHD] D IL VXVLQXWH OD DFHHDúL
GLVFLSOLQGHVWXGLXVDXDVXSUDDFHOHLDúLH[WHQVLLFXUULFXODUH

5. 9DOLGLWDWHDGH IDDG )DFH 9DOLGLW\  H[SULP PVXUD vQ FDUH WHVWXO


HVWHUHOHYDQWúLLPSRUWDQWSHQWUXFHLFDUHVXQWWHVWDL'HH[HPSOX
XQ WHVW FDUH HYDOXHD] FRQLQXWXUL GH GLPHQVLXQL GLIHULWH VDX
FRQVLGHUDWHDILGHLPSRUWDQGLIHULWWUHEXLHVH[SULPHDFHVWIDSW
SULQWURSRQGHUHGLIHULWDLWHPLORUSHXQLWLGHFRQLQXWVSHFLILFH
Printre factoriiFDUHLQIOXHQHD]YDOLGLWDWHDXQXLWHVWVHLQFOXG
- LQGLFDLLQHFODUH
- nivelul de dificultate inadecvat al itemilor de test;
- LWHPLLQFRUHFLGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHWHKQLF
- test prea scurt;

20
- DGPLQLVWUDUHDúLVDXFRUHFWDUHDQHFRUHVSXQ]WRDUHDWHVWXOXL
- LJQRUDUHDYDULDELOHLGHVHPQDWHSULQFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHJUXSXOXLFUXLDL
VHDGPLQLVWUHD]WHVWXO

FidelitateaUHSUH]LQWcalitatea unui test de a produce rezultate constante în


XUPD DSOLFULL VDOH UHSHWDWH. Un test caracterizat printr-un grad ridicat de
ILGHOLWDWH DSOLFDW vQ FRQGLLL LGHQWLFH DFHOXLDúL JUXS GH HOHYL GDU vQ GLIHULWH
RFD]LL WUHEXLH V FRQGXF OD RELQHUHD  DFHORUDúL UH]XOWDWH VDX FX GLIHUHQH
minime).
)LGHOLWDWHD XQXL WHVW DUH OHJWXU GLUHFW FX PRGXO vQ FDUH VH DVLJXU
FRQVLVWHQD PVXUULL GLQ SHUVSHFWLYD XQHL FRQVLVWHQH SHVWH WLPS GH OD
SHUVRDQODRDOWSHUVRDQGLQWUXQORFvQDOWXO
3HQWUXHVWLPDUHDILGHOLWLLXQXLWHVWVHIRORVHVFXUPWRDUHOHmetode:
a) metoda test-retest FDUH YL]HD] VWDELOLWDWHD  WHVWXOXL UHVSHFWLY
DFHVWD ILLQG DSOLFDW GH GRX RUL DFHOXLDúL JUXS VDX OD GRX JUXSXUL
GLIHULWH GH HOHYL GDU FX DFHOHDúL DELOLWL OD XQ LQWHUYDO GH WLPS
YDULLQGvQWUHFkWHYDPLQXWHúLFkLYDDQL
b) metoda formelor echivalente FH HYLGHQLD] HFKLYDOHQD WHVWXOXL
UHVSHFWLY SULQ DGPLQLVWUDUHD OD XQ LQWHUYDO GH WLPS VFXUW D GRX
IRUPHGHWHVWHFKLYDOHQWHDFHOXLDúLJUXSGHHOHYL&HOHGRXIRUPH
GH WHVW WUHEXLH V ILH SDUDOHOH DGLF V FRQLQ DFHODúL QXPU GH
LWHPLDUDQMDLvQDFHODúLIRUPDWGHWHVWVDFRSHUHDFHODúLFRQLQXW
VDLEXQQLYHOGHGLILFXOWDWHVLPLODUúLLQVWUXFLXQLGHDGPLQLVWUDUH
similare.
c) metoda test-retest cu forme echivalenteUHIOHFWDWkWVWDELOLWDWHDFkW
úLHFKLYDOHQDWHVWXOXLvQFDX]6HDGPLQLVWUHD]DFHOXLDúLJUXSGH
HOHYLGRXIRUPHDOHDFHOXLDúLWHVWODXQLQWHUYDOGHWLPSVFXUW
d) PHWRGD vQMXPWLULL HVWH FHD FDUH SXQH vQ YDORDUH FRQVLVWHQD
LQWHUQ D WHVWXOXL $FHVWD VH DSOLF R VLQJXU GDW GXS FH vQ
SUHDODELO D IRVW vPSULW vQ GRX MXPWL HFKLYDOHQWH GH H[HPSOX
LWHPLSDULúLLWHPLLPSDUL 
Printre factoriiFDUHLQIOXHQHD]ILGHOLWDWHDPHQLRQP
- lungimea testului &X FkW WHVWXO HVWH PDL OXQJ FX DWkW FUHúWH
fidelitatea sa.
- dispersia scorurilor&XFkWvPSUúWLHUHDVFRUXULORUHVWHPDLPDUH
cu atât testul este mai fidel.
- RSLXQHD DVXSUD WLSXOXL GH LWHP úL FRUHFWLWXGLQHD WHKQLF FX FDUH
LWHPLL UHVSHFWLYL VXQW FRQVWUXLL. Testul format majoritar din itemi
RELHFWLYLDUHRILGHOLWDWHFUHVFXW

21
- modul în care testul a fost administrat (timpul suficient alocat,
LQVWUXFLXQLOH GH WHVW IXUQL]DWH FRQGLLLOH DVLJXUDWH VSDLX
temperatura, lumina, zgomotul etc.).
- schema de notare 2 VFKHP GH QRWDUH FODU úL ELQH VWUXFWXUDW
FUHúWHILGHOLWDWHDWHVWXOXL

5HODLDGLQWUHYDOLGLWDWHúLILGHOLWDWH

‹)LGHOLWDWHDHVWHRFRQGLLHQHFHVDUGDUQXúLVXILFLHQWSHQWUXYDOLGLWDWH
‹8QWHVWSRDWHILILGHOIU DIL YDOLG GHRDUHFH WHVWXO SRDWH PVXUDDOWFHYD
GHFkWúLDSURSXVVPVRDUH
‹ 'DFXQWHVWQXHVWHILGHOHOQXHVWHQLFLYDOLG
‹ÌQvQFHUFDUHDGHDvPEXQWLILGHOLWDWHDHVWHLPSRUWDQWVQHDVLJXUPF
DFHVWGHPHUVQXDIHFWHD]YDOLGLWDWHDWHVWXOXLUHVSHFWLY
‹ ÌQ VLWXDLD vQ FDUH H[LVW XQ FRQIOLFW vQWUH YDOLGLWDWH úL ILGHOLWDWH DVLJXUDUHD
YDOLGLWLLHVWHFHDFDUHWUHEXLHVDLESULRULWDWH

Obiectivitatea UHSUH]LQW JUDGXO GH FRQFRUGDQ vQWUH DSUHFLHULOH IFXWH GH


HYDOXDWRUL LQGHSHQGHQL vQ FHHD FH SULYHúWH XQ UVSXQV EXQ SHQWUX ILHFDUH
dintre itemii unui test7HVWHOHVWDQGDUGL]DWHDXRIRDUWHEXQRELHFWLYLWDWH

Aplicabilitatea VDX YDOLGLWDWHD GH DSOLFDUH  GHVHPQHD] calitatea unui test


GHDILDGPLQLVWUDWúLLQWHUSUHWDWFXXúXULQ. Printre criteriilevQIXQFLHGHFDUH
VH DSUHFLD] EXQD DSOLFDELOLWDWH D XQXL WHVW VH vQVFULX $XVXEHO úL 5RELQVRQ
1981, p. 687):
- LPSRUWDQDFRQLQXWXOXLSHFDUHWHVWXOvOPVRDU
- FRQFRUGDQD GLQWUHIRUPD úL FRQLQXWXO WHVWXOXL úL QLYHOXO GH YkUVW
al elevului testat;
- FRVWXOúLWLPSXOQHFHVDUHSHQWUXDGPLQLVWUDUHDWHVWXOXL
- RELHFWLYLWDWHDvQQRWDUHúLLQWHUSUHWDUHDUH]XOWDWHORU

1.5. Tipuri de itemi


3HQWUX R vQHOHJHUH PDL EXQ D DFHVWHL SUREOHPDWLFL YRP RSHUD FX
XUPWRDUHDGHILQLLHGHOXFUXDitemului:
Item vQWUHEDUH!IRUPDWXODFHVWHLD!UVSXQVXODúWHSWDW!
7HRULDúLSUDFWLFDHYDOXULLHYLGHQLD]PDLPXOWHFLWHULLSHED]DFURUDSRWIL
FODVLILFDL LWHPLL 8QXO GLQWUH FULWHULLOH FHO PDL GHV XWLOL]DWH este acela al

22
gradului de obiectivitate oferit în corectare ÌQ IXQFLH GH DFHVW FULWHULX
LWHPLLSRWILFODVLILFDLvQWUHLPDULFDWHJRULL
a) itemi obiectivi
b) itemi semiobiectivi
c) LWHPLVXELHFWLYL FXUVSXQVGHVFKLV
Itemii obiectivi WHVWHD] XQ QXPU PDUH GH HOHPHQWH GH FRQLQXW vQWUXQ
interval de timp relativ scurt, asigurând un grad de obiectivitate ridicat în
PVXUDUHDUH]XOWDWHORUúFRODUH
Itemii semiobiectivi SRW DFRSHUL R JDP YDULDW GH FDSDFLWL LQWHOHFWXDOH
FDUHVHGRUHVFDILWHVWDWHRIHULQGvQDFHODúLWLPSSRVLELOLWDWHDGH DXWLOL]D úL
materiale auxiliare utile elevilor în rezolvarea sarcinilor de lucru propuse.
,WHPLL VXELHFWLYL FX UVSXQV GHVFKLV  VXQW UHODWLY XúRU GH FRQVWUXLW
SULQFLSDODSUREOHPFRQVWLWXLQGRPRGXOGHHODERUDUHDVFKHPHLGHQRWDUHa
DFHVWRUD FX DWkW PDL PXOW FX FkW DFHDVW FDWHJRULH GH LWHPL YL]HD]
GHPRQVWUDUHDGHFWUHHOHYLvQUVSXQVDRULJLQDOLWLLúLFUHDWLYLWLLORU
7LSXULOH GH LWHPL FDUH VH LQFOXG vQ ILHFDUH GLQWUH FDWHJRULLOH PHQLRQDWH
DQWHULRUYRUILGHVFULVHGHWDOLDWvQFDSLWROHOHXUPWRDUHDOHJKLGXOXL

23