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The Nature of

The Electro
The Dual
Nature of Light

Luminous and Opaque,

Illuminated Transparent
Sources of Light
Objects and Translucent
The Dual Nature of
Light Light
as a as a
wave particle
The WAVE Theory of
Light The theory that lights is transmitted
via wave form was proposed by
Christian Huygens in 1679. According to
•light corpuscles have mass and travel at extremely
the theory:
high speeds in straight lines
•rectilinear propagation - blocked by large objects
(well-defined shadows)
•obey the law of reflection when bounced off a
•speed up when they enter denser media
The Particle Theory
of Light transmitted via corpuscar
The theory that light is

form was supported and

•wavelet envelop modeladvocated by Sir
(each point onIsaac Newton.
a wavefront
According to his theory:
acts as a source for the next wavefront)
•plane waves generate plane waves, circular waves
generate circular waves
•light was composed of longitudinal waves like
•obey the law of reflection when bounced off a
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible
frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic
waves are formed when an electric field couples with a
magnetic field. It is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves
arranged according to frequency, wavelength and energy.
frequency, wavelength and

• Wavelength is inversely proportional to the wave

• Photon energy is directly proportional to the wave

Electromagnetic Spectrum:
Radio Infrared
Waves Radiation

Visible Light Ultraviolet

(Light) Light

Rattlesnakes May
Inject Venum Under
Xtreme aGitation 
Radio waves Microwaves
•Have the longest •Very easily absorbed by water
wavelengths but least
energetic •Cause water and fat molecules to
vibrate, which makes the
substances hot.
•Utilized by antennas
•Good for transmitting information
•They are used for
because microwave energy can
transmission of data, via penetrate haze, light rain and
modulation. snow, clouds, and smoke.

•Television, mobile phones, •Mobile phones, fixed traffic speed

wireless networking, and cameras, and radar, which is used
amateur radio all use radio by aircraft, ships and weather
waves. forcasters, all use microwaves.
Infrared Light
Radiation Visible light waves are the only
•Can be detected by special electromagnetic waves we can
infra-red film.
see. We see these waves as the
•Primary source of infrared colors of the rainbow.
radiation is heat or thermal

•Our skin emits infrared light,

which is why we can be seen in
the dark by someone using
night vision goggles.

•Ex. remote control

UV rays X-rays
•Main natural source is the sun •Also called as Roentgen rays
and other stars in honor of their discoverer

•Can break chemical bonds, •Given off by stars and are

making molecules unusually strongly emitted by some
reactive types of nebulae.

•Often harmful to plants and •Have so much energy and

animals, including humans such a short wavelength that
they can go right through you

•Used to kill microbes, getting • Used by doctors to see

a sun tan, detecting forged inside people
bank notes
Gamma Rays
•Shortest-wavelength, Highest energy

•Most dangerous and most penetrating of

all electromagnetic radiation, and are
quite difficult to stop

•Result of violent cosmic events such as

supernovas, other nuclear explosions, and
radioactive decay

•Used to kill cancer cells ("Radiotherapy")

Light is a form of energy. To create light, another form of
energy must be supplied. There are two common ways
for this to occur, incandescence and luminescence.
"Black body radiation"

It is the emission of light from a hot

body as a result of its temperature.
Incandescence Involves the vibration of entire atoms

Sunlight, regular light bulbs (not

florescent) and fires are all
incandescent sources of light.
"Cold light"

It is the emission of light by a substance

not resulting from heat. It can be caused
by chemical reactions, electrical energy,
subatomic motions, or stress on a crystal.
Involves only the vibration of electrons

Ex. computer monitors, televisions, and

florescent lights, fireflies
Luminous and
Illuminated Bodies
The objects that we see can be placed into one of two categories:
luminous objects and illuminated objects. Luminous objects are
objects that generate their own light. Illuminated objects are
objects that are capable of reflecting light to our eyes.
A luminous body, such as the sun, another star,
or a light bulb, is thus distinguished from an
illuminated body, such as the moon and most
of the other objects one sees. Luminous objects
give off light whereas illuminated objects
relfect light. Examples of luminous bodies are
the sun, stars, fireflies, lighted candle, light
Illuminated bodies not only
reflect light but sometimes also
transmit it, such as the opaque,
transparent and translucent
Translucent or

Translucent Transparent
Objects Objects
•These kinds of objects scatter or
disperse light when light falls on •They are those that allow
them. light to pass through readily.

•They are said to transmit light in •These kind of objects have

the absence of details absolute clarity.

•You can only see a blur image •You can see right through
when you peek through these them.

•Frosted glass and waxed paper •The water, air and glass are
are examples of translucent all transparent objects.

•These objects do not allow light to pass through.

•They absorb some of the light that is cast on
•Wood, paper and many more are examples of
such objects.