Sunteți pe pagina 1din 196

Book-vL^^

COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT

)
Th(^ T, Atrated Series. No. 10. July, 1890. Issued Quarterly. Subscription, S2.00.
Kutered as second-class mail matter at Chicago Post Office, June 14,1888.

EDITED BY

JOHN C. ECKEL
AND

FRANK CONNELLY.

ILLUSTRATED.

RAND, MCNALLY &. CO.

PUBLISHERS,

Chicago and NewYork,


/
UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

BASE-BALL—ITS HISTORY.
The American public has long since set its stamp of
approval upon the game of base-ball. As a form of out¬
door amusement, its equal has never been found. Foot¬
ball and cricket are the only games which approach
within hailing distance, and such are the inroads which the
great American pastime is making upon the two which
England has given us, that it is hardly straining a point
to say in a few more years there will be but one game,
and that the one of which a history is about to be given.
Indeed, arrangements have been made to introduce it in
England, and a number of noted base-ball players have
already gone to Great Britain to instruct our English
cousins in the rudiments and the technique of the game.
If the other European nations fail to introduce its
beauties into their athletic sports, it will be becaus^e the
game is too distinctively American for any but the
Americans to master.
Embodying all the elements which go to make up the
pushing, progressive, and tireless life of the successful
men of this country, it is the type of an American game.
C5)
• 'f'’*

6 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

It contains nothing of the well-known roughness of foot¬


ball, and, on the other hand, nothing of the dull slowness
of cricket. But for vim, snap, and go, it is thoroughly
characteristic of the great nation which supports it so
nobly.
To furnish a complete history of base-ball, the writer
is usually in very sorry straits to find a starting point, a
“ first cause.” A noted player has well and truly writ¬
ten, that the literature on the origin of the game is very
scarce. It is well known, however, that the ball has
been used in a number , of games among the civilized
ancients; and, for that matter, usually a stick or some
sort of an implement with which the ball was propelled or
struck. One of the favorite games of the North Ameri¬
can Indians was one in which a ball and a primitive bat
were the leading factors, and even at this day the abo¬
riginal la-crosse is finding favor with civilized Ameri¬
cans. Hockey or shinny is an old English game which
dates back to the thirteenth century, if the writer mis¬
takes not,,and who knows if this game may not be the
“ primordial first cause ” of base-ball.
The theory that the game had its immediate deriva¬
tion irom the English game of “ rounders ” has many
adherents up to the present day, and, per contra, there are
many who deride the idea, and claim it to be a strictly
American game—conceived here, nurtured here, and
brought to its present high state of perfection. An
examination of the English game furnishes some points
of similarity from which the great game of to-day may
BASE-BALL—ITS HISTORY. 7

have sprung. In both games there are “sides;” a ball


is used, which is thrown or “ tossed ” to the batter; a fly-
ball caught puts the latter out; and there are bases which
must be run, and any base-runner caught between the
bags is put out. Thus far the similarity can be traced,
but no further. While in base-ball the field is a diamond,
in “rounders” it is pentagonal in shape. Another
marked difference is the number of players engaged in
the game. In base-ball it can not exceed eighteen,
though in the other game there is practically no limit.
There are other points of difference in the details of the
plays which cut no particular figure. The main point
to determine seems to be whether “ rounders ” was really
played before base-ball. This has never been done, and
the proponents of the game of “rounders” being the
parent of base-ball, must needs cut a sorry figure in
making out their case.
The earliest players all agree that base-ball was the
legitimate offspring of the old American game of “ cat-
ball.” This is the original American ball game, and the
memory of man does not reach beyond the time when it
was not played. In the West and South, this game was
sometimes called “ practise,” from the fact that the player
made the rounds consecutively of all the positions now
played in base-ball. For instance, if he were fortunate
enough to be the first man to choose the batter’s position,
he could hold it until he was put out, either by a fly-ball
being caught or by being touched between the bases. In
either event, he took the most inferior position, which was
8 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

usually in the field; and as each man was put out, he was
advanced along the different fielding positions, until he
reached the pitcher’s box, when he became catcher, and
finally he reached the coveted position of batter once
more. There were no “ sides ” to this game, and there
was, as in “ rounders,” no limitation as to the number of
players. It will be readily observed that there is but a
short gradation between “ cat-ball ” and the national
game of the present day. The selection of “ sides ” and
a score of the runs made by each was all that was neces¬
sary. It is therefore a fair presumption that base-ball
is a thoroughly American institution, even from its
inception.
It appears to be very certain that base-ball was first
played in America at the beginning of the present cent¬
ury, although there is no authentic record of this fact
prior to 1825. There was little interest taken in it, ex¬
cepting at colleges, and the game dragged out an unin¬
teresting existence until 1845. It is this year which
practically marks the era of organized base-ball. A
number of well-known gentlemen associated themselves
into a permanent organization, which they called “ The
Knickerbocker Club.” A constitution and by-laws were
prepared, and in this manner, though unconsciously,
they laid the foundation of the great game. Their
grounds was the Elysian Field, near New York, and for
a half-dozen years they played regularly, forming the
two nines from the membership of the club. In 1851,
other clubs were organized, and in a few years a dozen
BASE-BALL—ITS HISTORY. 9

clubs were in the field. Among these were the Mutual,


Excelsior, Union, Baltic, Gotham, Eagle, Atlantic, Eck-
ford, and Putnam.
During the next six years the game began to find pop¬
ular favor. The public at once discovered in it merits
which could not be found in any other game. It brought
into active play the activity, manliness, and skill which
did not present themselves in the outdoor games then
played. Consequent to its growth was called the first
delegate convention of base-ball clubs. It met in 1857,
and included representatives from all the clubs which
had been located in the neighborhood of New York and
Brooklyn. Rules were drawn up, and these governed
the organizations under the jurisdiction of the conven¬
tion.
The following year, so rapidly had base-ball strode to
the front, another convention was called, and in this the
delegates from twenty-five clubs held seats. “ The
National Association of Base-ball Players ” was duly
organized, and for its government a constitution and by¬
laws, permanent in their character, were adopted. Prac¬
tical base-ball men were kept on a committee whose
duty it was to revise the rules of the game in conformity
with its advancement from year to year. It was during
this same year, 1858, that two cities, represented by their
respective ball teams, met in a series of three games for
a test of superiority. The cities were New York and
Brooklyn, and the games were played on the well-known
and historical Fashion Course, Long Island. The local
10 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

interest was at a fever heat, and partisan feeling ran


very high. Immense crowds attended the games, which
were won by the New York team capturing two of
the three games. The same teams, in i86i, played for a
silver ball, a trophy offered by the New York Clipper.
This time the tables were turned, and Brooklyn was an
easy victor. It is said that fully fifteen thousand people
attended.
When the “ National Association” met in i860, seventy
clubs had delegates present, representing New York,
Brooklyn, Boston, New Haven, Newark, Troy, Albany,
Buffalo, and even far-off Detroit, besides many other
cities. The first trip of a ball team was made this year,
the Excelsior Club, of Brooklyn, making a circuit which
included Buffalo, Rochester, Troy, Albany, and New¬
burgh. Every game was won by the Brooklyn team,
and this gave the game another strong impetus. In
this year the leading American cities, from Portland,
Me., to San Francisco, and from Detroit to New Orleans,
had its champion base-ball team, and the great game
had captured the country as the leading outdoor pas¬
time. With the outbreak of the civil war came a general
suspension of play, and it was not until 1865 that even
friendly contests were attempted.
Many members of the professional clubs had laid down
life or limb on the battle-field, and attempts at a reorgan¬
ization were abandoned, owing to an absence of material.
However, for the next three seasons amateur base-ball
reached the acme of its existence, and during this time
BASE-BALL-ITS HISTORY. 11

many men who afterward became noted players received


their base-ball education. The different clubs had, in the
meantime begun to strengthen themselves, and one of
the means of doing this was to offer first-class amateurs
financial inducements that they might be secured as
members. A rule had been adopted in 1859 prohibiting
the participation of paid players in base-ball matches.
This rule had been violated time and again, and in 1866
the rule was rehabilitated, but without any appreciable
effect. Finally, two years later, the association con¬
cluded' to recognize the professional class of base-ball
players. This had a most beneficial effect on the profes¬
sionals, because it placed the stamp of legitimacy upon
their business, and they were permitted to conduct their
affairs on business principles. But this condition of
things was short-lived. It did not take many seasons
before the principle upon which the professional fabric
was constructed was badly mutilated. The competition
for players became very animated, and the clubs with the
largest exchequer began to reach for the strongest men.
Larger pecuniary offers were accepted by many players,
regardless of existing contracts, and the result was that
chaos reigned once more.
• In 1876, “The National League,” the parent of the
professional base-ball organizations, was formed, and
five years later, or in 1881, a new organization, called
“ The American Association,” was called into existence.
Up to last year it was, next to the league, the con¬
trolling factor in base-ball matters. Numerous other
12 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

organizations were formed from time to time, but, unable


to compete with the stronger associations, soon passed
out of existence. Quite a number, however, have suc¬
ceeded in overcoming all difficulties, and are now in good
condition.
P"or mutual protection, the National League, the
American Association, and the Northwestern League, in
1882, entered into what is called the “ Tripartite Agree¬
ment.” Out of this grew the famous “ National Agree¬
ment,” and this in turn contained the oft-quoted
“ Reserve Rule.” These important features of the
game will be passed in this article without further
details, for the reason that the questions involved in
them will be treated at considerable length by those who
framed and who are now either supporting or opposing
them. The formation of the brotherhood, and the birth
of the Players’ League, will also be treated in separate
articles.
It is eminently proper, in closing this history of Amer¬
ica’s great game, to call attention to its growth in a few
words. At the beginning of organized professional
base-ball, the amount of money invested could easily be
reckoned by the thousands. In 1890, with the advent
of the Players’ League, the starring of eight clubs by the
National League, and the presence of the American
Association, the Western League, the Atlantic Associa¬
tion, and many minor leagues, it is not an exorbitant
estimate to place the amount involved at $12,000,000.
Thirty years ago there were no enclosed grounds, and
BASE-BALL—ITS HISTORY. 13

the travel from place to place was often of a very ques¬


tionable and serious character. At present each large
city has at least one, and in several instances two and
three, enclosed grounds, with all the conveniences for
the patrons of the game. The players travel in elegant
style, at a cost which almost reaches a quarter of million
dollars annually. Thousands of the lovers of the game
pay a handsome admission fee at the gate of the base¬
ball park at present. In 1869, the game was played, and
the players considered themselves lucky if the hat, while
it was “ passed around,” was not kept by some enterpris¬
ing citizen, in the crowd.
14 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL LEAGUE.


Base-ball has had a foot-hold in America for several
years, but prior to 1876 was conducted with lax laws,
which, had they not been remedied, would have
undoubtedly wrecked the game in what might be termed
its infancy. Especially in the season of 1875 was this
made apparent, as the pool-gamblers got such a strong
grip that they controlled the actions of certain players,
and the games were becoming hippodromes, simply for
the aggrandizement of the gamblers. The honest ele¬
ment connected with the game, those who had the
welfare of the game at heart, saw the threatened danger,
and set about to devise a plan by which they could,
before it was hopelessly lost, rescue the noble sport.
The plan was the forming of an organization which
would, by combined effort, be able to check the tend¬
ency to run base-ball against the rocks of corruption.
The tendency of professional sport is always down¬
ward, and to keep it pure and honorable requires the
most stringent laws and regulations. With this object
in view, a number of men who were deeply interested in
the welfare of the game met at Louisville in December
of 1875. There were present at that meeting Messrs. W.
A. Hulbert, Louis Meecham, Charles A. Fowle, W. N.
Haldeman, Charles E. Chase, John A. Joyce, and myself.
The outcome of this meeting was the appointment of a \
HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL LEAGUE. 15

committee, with instructions to confer with other gentle¬


men from the eastern cities who were desirous of taking
part and assisting in the work of reform. The commit¬
tee, which was composed of Messrs. Hulbert and Fowle,
issued a circular calling for a meeting at New York for
the following month. The circular was sent to the lead¬
ing clubs, the result being an attendance at the meeting
of the duly accredited representatives of the Chicago,
Cincinnati, St. Louis, Louisville, Athletic (of Phila¬
delphia), Boston, Mutual (of New York), and Hartford
clubs, who were vested with power to act. Hon. Mor¬
gan G. Buckley (now Governor of Connecticut) was
chosen chairman, with Harry Wright as secretary; and
right then and there was formed the National League of
^:)rofessional base-ball clubs, the most remarkable and
successful organization ever organized in the world to
foster any professional sport.
The first officers of the permanent body were: Presi¬
dent, Morgan G. Buckley; Secretary, N. E. Young;
Directors, Messrs. Apollonio, Cammeyer, Fowle, and
Chase. Aside from Harry Wright, who has made himself
famous as a champion of honest base-ball, I am the
only delegate to that meeting now actively engaged in
base-ball. Of the eighty-six players who made up the
teams of the league as then organized, but five were
in the league during the season of 1889. The cham¬
pionship that season was won by the Chicago club. In
1877, changes were made in the membership, the Athletics
and Mutuals having been expelled from the league for
16 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

failure to carry out their contract obligations to the league.


W. A. Hulbert, who in reality was the founder of the
league, was elected president, which office he filled
from that time to his death, in April, 1882. N. E. Young
was continued in the office of secretary; he still holds
that position, and probably will as long as it is his pleas¬
ure. The season of 1879 was, in some respects, a most
disastrous one, as in that season the very object of the
league had a serious blow in the discovery of crookedness
in certain players of the Louisville club. The events are
history, and it is a well-known fact that none of the
crooked players ever played ball professionally again,
and not since that time has the breath of suspicion
touched a player of the National League, thus achieving
the object of its existence—that of purifying and elevat¬
ing the game.
The season of 1878 found but six clubs, as in the pre¬
vious season. In 1879 the league membership was again
made eight clubs, at which number it has entered each
playing season since. At the fourth annual meeting of
the league, held at Buffalo, in December, 1879, it was
recognized that the rules were not as stringent as the
welfare of the game demanded, consequently a new code
of rules, as to discipline, was made. Sunday playing
was made an expellable offense, and other reforms were
enacted. The financial struggle had been a hard one,
and the profits meager; but there appeared better times
ahead, as the lost confidence of the public was again
being regained, and the purposes of the National League \
A. G. Spalding.

I
I
- •..:- ' •■ ■•.. ■

History of The national league. 17

were becoming more and more apparent to the public,


which was beginning to take a deeper interest in the
games and players.
The season of t88o was productive of no special
results, except that at the annual meeting more strin¬
gent rules were made as to management of grounds,
making the selling of malt or spirituous liquors on any
league grounds an expellable offense. At the annual
meeting held in December, 1880, the following resolution
was adopted:
<>
Whereas, Repeated applications have been made by, or on beh?lf
of, James A. Devlin, George Hall, W. H. Graver, and A. H. Nichols
h to this board, or members thereof, for the removal of their disabili¬
ties resulting from their expulsion from the league for dishonest ball-
playing;
I
-f
Resolved, That notice is hereby served on persons named, and on
their friends, defenders, and apologists, that the board of directors of
this league will never remit the penalties inflicted on such persons,
nor will they hereafter entertain any appeal from them, or in their
behalf.
W. II. Hulbert, "I
Chairman, j
\Si?ned?( J. F. Evans, y Directors.
)
A. H. SODEN, I
John B. ^Sage, j

This decided stand could not but be a warning to any


player who might have had a desire or temptation to jug¬
gle games for his own dishonest welfare, and I can but
repeat that no player of the National League has caused
a blush to cover any official’s cheek by dishonest play
since, showing the great respect they had for the rulings
2

. (
18 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

of the National League. During the season of 1882,


however, an individual—happily not a player, but an
umpire—was detected in crooked work, and he was, at
a special meeting called to investigate the charges,
promptly expelled. That prompt and decisive action of
the league has effectually stopped all such doings in that
department of the game, and the umpires of later years
have been of the highest character, and have the perfect
confidence of the public. In the season of 1882 the
league suffered its greatest loss, in the death of its
founder and president, W. A. Hulbert. In 1883 the
membership was changed by the withdrawal of the Troy
and Worcester clubs and the admission of the New York
and Philadelphia clubs. A. G. Mills was elected presi¬
dent. Previous to this season, there had existed among
clubs and associations a regular system of “piracy,”
which was working great injury to the game. There
was recognized need of some central power, to govern all
associations by an equitable code of general laws, to put
the game on a prosperous and lasting basis. It was this
need which led to the celebrated arbitration committee,
and with it the National agreement, which has been such
an important factor in the promotion of the game, which,
joined with the main object of the National League,
viz., honest games, conducted on the highest possible
grade of morality, has made base-ball the loved National
sport of America.
At its annual meeting in December, 1884, Mr. A. G.
Mills declined a reelection as president, and was made an
HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL LEAGUE. 19

honorary member of the league. N. E. Young was


elected president. He has held the position ever since,
being elected annually without opposition.
The season of 1885 was quite successful, considering
the rather depressed condition of business affairs. The
following season was the most prosperous in the history
of the league up to that time. The race was close and
exciting, the interest great, which, coupled with knowl¬
edge that the games of the league were conducted in
absolute honesty, undoubtedly aided in the success. The
seasons of 1887, 1888, and 1889 were satisfactory to the
league, and as the public are fully conversant with the
game during those years, I will not take space to say
more of them. Of course, there have been many instances,
in the fourteen years’ existence of the National League
which I might call attention to in this article, would
space allow it, such .as the formation of the American
Association of base-ball clubs, in 1882; the formation
and opposition of the Union Association, in 1884; the
formation of the Players’ National League, etc.; but I
consider those as_ of such recent date that the base-ball
public are familiar with the history. The National
League has succeeded in elevating the game, has attracted
the attention and support of the better classes of people,
has a record of honest games and honest actions, has
checked the natural downward tendency, and has popu¬
larized the game, which was at the birth of the league
almost in its last stdges of dissolution. It has come out
of all its battles with colors flying, and it still has confi-
20 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE

dence in its ability to go on in the same proud manner in


the future that it has maintained in the past.
A. G. Spalding.

RECORD IN THE NATIONAL LEAGUE.

The season of 1889, in the National League, com¬


menced April 24th and ended October 5th. The record
was:

Indianap’s.

Philadel’a.
Cleveland.

New York.

Pittsburg.
til

Per Cent.
Chicago.

> " a
Boston.

Clubs. A

Won.
Vi
d

Boston . 10 12 10 8 13- 16 14 83 .648


Chicago.;. 7 11 13 5 9 10 12 67 .508
Cleveland. 8 ”9’ 9 4 10 7 14 61 459
Indianapolis. 10 i io’ 7 4 10 11 59 440
New York. 6 13 14 ‘is’ 12 12 13 83 ,659
Philadelphia. 6 10 9 13 r*4 9 9 63 .496
Pittsburg. 3 9 13 10 7 '9’ 10 61 .462
Washington.. 5 7 3 7 5 7 "7 41 .331
Lost. 45 05 72 75 43 04 71 83 518 ....

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.


Base Hits.

Base Hits
Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.'

Hits.

Clubs.
Bat.

Players.
Rank.

Runs.

1 Brouthers... Boston. 126 485 105 181 .373 31 23


2 Glasscock.... Indianapolis... 134 582 128 209 .359 34 57
3 Anson. Chicago. 134 518 99 177 .341 41 27
4 Tiernan. New York. 122 499 116 167 .334 23 33
5 Carroll. Pittsburg. 90 318 . 80 105 .330 15 19
6 Ewing. New York. 96 407 91 133 .326 38 34
7 Ryan. Chicago. 135 576 140 187 .324 14 45
8 Van Haltren. Chicago. 134 543 126 175 .322 18 28
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 21

Average j
Base Hits. |j

|
Base Hits.
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Stolen
Bases.
Players. Clubs.
' Rank.

Runs.
1
9 O’Rourke.... New York. 128 502 89 161 ..320 24 33
10 Connor. New York. 131 496 117 1.57 .316 33 21
11 Seery. Indianapolis. 127 526 123 165 .313 17 19
Fields . Pittsburg. 74 289 42 90 .311 15 6
12
Duffy. Chicago. 136 584 144 182 .311 35 52
14 Gore'^ _ New York. 119 488 131 149 .305 17 36
110K i Richardson.. Boston. 132 536 122 163 .304 34 47
Hines . Indianapolis... 121 486 77 148 .304 33 34
17 i Andrews. . . Indianapolis.... 50 212 42 64 .302 10 17
11 159 .302 35
' McKean — Cleveland. 123 500 86 33
19 Wilmot. Washington .... 107 432 88 130 .301 28 40
Beckley. Pittsburg. 123 522 92 157 .300 36 11
20 <
Daly..'.. AVashin^on .... 69 250 39 75 .300 11 , 18
22 Ward. New York. 114 479 86 143 .298 41 . ' 62
Thompson... Philadelphia.... 128 533 103 158 .296 32 24
1 Beecher. Washington ... 41 179 20 53 .296 14 7
25 Kftllv Boston. 125 507 120 149 .293 52 68
( Delehanty.... Philadelphia.... 54 246 37 72 .292 15 19
40
Mack.r>.. Washington ... 97 386 -SI 113 .292 24 26
28 3Iadden. Boston.. 21 86 7 25 .290 4 2
29 John Irwin Washington .... 58 228 42 66 .289 11 '0
30 Mulvey. Philadelphia.... 129 544 77 157 .288 35 23
31 Gumbert. Chicago.— 40 153 30 44 .287 6 1
;i2 SuHivan .... Indianapolis... . 69 256 45 73 .285 7 15
33 Clements .... Philadelphia.... 78 310 51 88 .284 15 6
i Tebeau. Cleveland. 136 521 72 147 .282 31 26
34 ^ Hoy . AVashington .... 127 507 98 143 .282 31 36
Denny . Indianapolis.... 133 578 96 163 .282 27 22
37 Richardson New York. 124 497 88 139 .279 39 32
38 Sanders. Philadelphia.... 41 169 21 47 .278 14 8
39 Maul. -Pittsburg. 67 257 37 71 .276 15 18
40 Twitchell.... Clevelan'cl...;... 134 549 73 151 .275 33 17
41 Nash. Boston. 127 481 84 132 .274 36 26
42 Tener .... Chicago. 38 150 18 41 .273 8 2
43 Farrar. Philadelphia... 130 477 70 128 .268 30 28
Miller. Pittsburg. 102 422 77 113 .267 18 16
44 Indianapolis. .. 131 532 83 142 .267 33 37
) McGeachy. ..
46 A. Myers ... AA^ash., Phila — 121 481 76 128 .266 39 17
47 Ganzel. Boston. 71 2('5 30 73 .265 22 13
48 Schriver. Philadelphia.... 55 211 24 56 .265 16 6
49 Farrell. Chicago. 100 407 66 107 .263 14 13
j Sowders. Pitts., Boston... 16 65 6 17 .261 4 0
50 j Oiiinn Boston. 111 444 57 117 .261 32 24
52 Wm. Brown. New York. 33 139 16 36 .259 8 4
r Fogarty. Philadelphia.... 128 499 107 129 .258 32 99
Zimmer.. Cleveland. 80 259 4T 67 .258 14 14
53 <
Rowe . Pittsburg. 74 317 57 82 .2.58 21 6
^ Buckley. Indianapolis.... 65 260 35 67 .258 18 3
57 Burns... Chicago. 136 525 84 135 .257 22 18
22 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Bat,

Hits.
Stolen
Players. Clubs.

Bases.
Rank.

Runs.
58 Clark. Washington .... 37 145 19 37 .255 8 6
59 Ebright. Washington .... 15 59 7 15 .254 2 0
(Hailmau. Philadelphia.... 119 462 67 117 .2.53 44 20
60 White. Pittsburg. 55 225 57 253 15 2
1 Bassett. Indianapolis .... 126 477 64 121 '253 29 15
63 Gleason. Philadelphia.... 28 99 11 25 .2.52 10 2
( Wood. Philadelphia.... 97 422 77 106 .251 27 17
64 ■< Strieker. Cleveland. 136 566' 83 142 . 2n1 31 32
i Daily. Indianapolis.... 60 219 35 55 ;25i 15 14
t O’Brien. Cleveland. 41 140 13 35 .250 8 2
67
i AVise. AVashington .. 120 472 79 118 .250 27 24
69 Sutcliffe. Cleveland. G5 161 17 40 .248 12 6
70 Kuehne. Pittsburg . 97 390 42 96 .246 24 15
71 Boyle. Indianapolis. 44 155 17 38 .245 6 4
72 Schoeneck,.. Indianapolis... . 18 242 3 15 .242 0 1
73 Pfeffer. Chicago. 134 531 85 128 241 41 44
74 Sommers. Chicago, Ind’pls 31 129 17 31 .245 6 2
75 Sunday. Pittsburg. 80 321 62 77 .2.39 1,3 47
f Gilks . Cleveland. 52 210 17 50 238 12
Radford . Cleveland. 136 487 94 116 .2,38 22 .30
Hanlon. Pittsburg . 115 461 81 no 2,38 24 53
Shoch. AVashington .... 30 109 12 26 .238 13 9
80 AVilliamson.. Chicago. 47 173 16 41 .237 6 2
81 ( McAleer. Cleveland. 109 447 66 105 2,35 37
Dunlap.. .r7. Pittsburg. 121 451 ' 59 106 .235 a2 • 21
83 Casey. Philadelphia ... 16 64 5 15 .234 7 0
( Flint. Chicago. 15 56 6 13 232 2 0
84 A. Irwin. ... Wash., Phila_ 103 386 58 89 .2,32 24 17
(T. Brown_ Boston. 88 362 93 84 .232 17 63
87 Smith. Pittsburg, Bost’ n 131 463 47 107 .231 38 29
(Faatz . Cleveland. 115 442 50 102 230 22 27
88 ■1 Bennett. Boston. 80 247 42 57 .230 15 4
(Carney. AA^ashington .... 69 273 25 63 .230 24 12
01 i Johnston ... Boston. 131 539 80 123 .228 25 34
1 Sweeney. AVashington .... 49 193 13 44 .228 6 8
93 Healy. AV^ash., Chicago. 16 66 8 15 .227 1 1
94 Haddock .... AVashington .... 33 112 13 25 .22.3 3 4
95 Whitney._ New York. 129 4?'3 71 103 .217 24 19
96 Bufflnton.... Philadelphia... 41 154 16 32 .208 21 1
97 Clarkson. Boston. 72 262 36 54 .206 12 5
98 Crane. New York.. 28 103 16 21 204 4 A
99 Dwyer. Chicago. 33 135 14 27 20.3 R 1
109 Myers. Indianapolis .... 39 149 22 29 194 5 12
J Welsh. New York. 41 156 20 30 192 Q 0
101 5
"j Snyder... Cleveland. 21 83 16 192 1 A
103 Darling. Chicago. 35 120 14 23 191 A fl
104 Radbourn ... Boston. 35 122 17 23 .188 13 2
105 Galvin. Pittsburg. 40 150 15 28 187 Q 2
106 Krock. Chi., Ind., Wash. 17 59 8 11 .186 2 1
TV'-

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. ^ 23

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Carnes.

Hits.
Rank.

Stolen
Players. Clubs.

Bases.
Bat

Runs.
1
107 Morrill. Washington .... 44 146 20 27 .185 12 12
108 Hatfield. New York. 32 125 21 23 .184 7 9
109 Gotzein. Indianapolis.... 40 139 20 25 .179 li 2
no Rusie... Indianapolis.... 26 103 15 18 .174 4 1
111 Keefe. Washington .... 27 98 7 16 .163 3 2
112 Staley. Pittsburg. 49 186 11 30 .161 5 1
113 Hutchison.. Chicago . 37 133 14 21 .158 4 1
114 Keefe. New York. 41 149 17 23 .154 5 0
115 O’Day. Wash.jNewYork 23 75 6 11 .146 5 3
j Rfl,stia,n . Chicago. 46 155 19 21 .135 7 1
116 ( Rakeiy. 9 1
Cleveland. 33 111 15 .135 3
118 Bea.tin. Cleveland. 37 121 13 14 .115 9 0
119 Fei’son. Washington .... 35 114 6 13 .114 7 2
120 Gruber. Cleveland. 23 59 7 7 .101 8 0
121 Morris. Pittsburg. 19 72 2 7 .097 5 1

NATIONAL LEAGUE SCHEDULE FOR 189O


The National League admitted Brooki”
nati to membership in the fall of i8^
of 1890 adopted a ten-club sch'
Indianapolis and Washingt<^
following schedulemt^p^'
u ! r
■>

KA

0
■ r*

■* -S'

24 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE. ’


Cincinnati Cleveland. Pittsburg.

' “ 23
23

22
Sept. 24

June 20

24

Sept. 27
“ 29
30
June 25
26
“ 27
28

25
“ 26
June 30

2
3
28
29
Sept. 19
20
23
July 24
25
“ 26

30

21

July 21
July 1
CO
At

.. .. tiv s. 4^.. ..







d- 3- - o- “
1-5 "<10

26
“ 27

3
28

25
26
Oct. 2
June 25

July 24

4
O-r-iCO-tOOClOt-OJO
c6 oiNoii->55oj CO 'MO}OJ<MOJOiCCC?<(OJCO
At

32 fc.. L
0 JC*.. Q.V. .. . Sf- - a- - a.. - - .3?- - ft.,





3 S'* 3- - - 3- - 57- - d' - - d-* '* 0)- •*
►-ji-s xn •-5 < m 1-5 ►d 02
1

27 !

i
July 1,
June 25

28
July 24
25

30
June 30

24
“ 26

26
Sept. 27
29

2
3

22
23

25
26
21
'^•^aO-^t-hC^'^OSOC^
^ CO CO 1-1 ^ Oi
At

Sept.
d^ ^ 4^ „ s. .b- - - ^--ft--






O'*'*
3- - - 3- - d- -
^ o 1-5 <1 02
Chicago.

0»-'CO^^OICOC^CO*^ icsor-oo-ficcocioo* QT-iCieooQC50T(;inia>


Oi Oi (N 0» (M 00 oio^cooi WN
At

u >« >• <,« 4« s« a - — — r3| - - ftj -


3'* •* - 5- ■' a?-- '
^'*'^'* O'*'*
S'* '* ■* a'* ■* d■* •* |3i i i i i gc i
l-J M ►-5 1^0 *d 1-5 02 'd'-s 02
1
iladel’a

*••••••*••
sciocoi-s^co-^ojTjtaj OOi-^C^CiO^COt-OO 05OC«C0»d50l>Q0C5O • •••••••■■
^ CO rH tH T'S «-H 1-H rH
• «•»••••••
At

cs--

-
a.. -
g- - 357^
hi
CL-* OS'*
'* ^
R'*'*
»»
S'*** d- - -
a- -
3- -
ft- -
57- -


••••»•««•
*••••«•••
• ••«••••••
i-j <Jcc < ^ S 1-5 02 • •••••••••

COiOOl^C^COTtiTj^OtO • •••••• ••• Tjjuo«ocoi>Goaitooooi


T-'S T—i -rH *••«•«•••• ^0^(MOirHrHrHr^rHi-H
• •••*••• ••
• • ••••••••
s • • ••••••••
Si
d' 2
- i
•* fti i i Si - i
*• •«•*••••
02
• *••••••••
April 19
“ 22
23

O^CO^CDO^-'C^r-iOiCO
“ 14
Aug. 13

“ 15
Sept. 15
21

16
“ 17
« • ^ rH 'tH i-H t-H

a- v. - £P- - ft- -

J3"^ '* o'* '* “


•< 02

''CO'^lO '^C^COTt<COi-<C^rHO^CO
'I tH rH rH rH rH 1—•rHrHrHrHrHrHT-iTHrH
4^
bg- - - ^-■^-
Pc*
^ - d g- - - d- 57^ -
<1 02

s
NATIONAL LEAGUE SCHEDULE. 25

'^iOtOQOlO^Ot^^OI'-QO

22

18

6
19

23
17

19
4
5
21
1)

April
^

Sept.
June
"s. s. 6br. 9P-'*






3-' 3-- •*'* p'*'*
S >-5 <1
Tf'iOCDCOOOt-tOt'QO COiCOJ^MTt<lOiO«Ot^
CO 1^1-^ tH rH rH rH rH rH
m ® .• ^ D • ■••••••••
U
« «# «« rt 6^c • «»•••••••
b- ..>. .- a- -- U-
^ s* ^'’ i?'* 3-- a-*'* •

*•*•
••*•
••4 «4 s-
*«4 t« 57- --
-< i-s <1 <1 S <1 •
4
•44f
4« 44
444«4 s
44.4 4* < m

rftT-HC<icoi>-coc^o^Tfio i2

14

IG

19
8

12
13

IG

10

10
12
18

13
9
10

13
11
11
tH (j^ 0^ tH 1-H r^ t—t ^
^ o ,•

Sept.
Sept.
June

June
Aug.
9?'* ■*

May
v« C3 "A





! ! I ! I ! I i ! !
<J <1
coo:ci^Tfir:cDic:DC^ CiO<^?COC^OrH'^0>CO 0<c0Tf':05CG0Ct00CiO
rH rH rH rH rH rH i—< rH rH rn rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH
. ..... ’. ’ ■
^ t* hJ
rt'* '• v* s# a.. .... a- -- p ># >• ># 9P«* «♦
a- -. s.„ p.. '*
a- - ■* 3-* ■* cp> ■*
S c» S 1-^ cc >-5 'Sl CQ
lC:Ot>*ail-.Q0O5rHTHG^ OiOO’-HOHHdiOCOt- Tt’Ot-OOTPiOCC^O^CC
O-t—'NCCt^QCOiCOOSO rH rH rH rH OlCOOOCO'rHrHrHOiOJOJ <NOi<WG^rHrHrH02O?0^
>s >> ti
TO'* '• '* j'-f'* '* S'* '* . .b. .
^■''■•* 3- - oT--
- TO'*'*'*^ ^'*4*^ 6P'*'*
f. .. ^. .. .. b- -^
CQ'*'*'* -
S i-s CZJ
lO:Ot-C:iH.GOCirHrHO^
8
9
30
30

22

26
27
28
7

28
29
30
*29

IG

23

24
14
15
31

21

C^C^»-HrHrH(Olfl'JOI rH rH rH rH ^ rn i-h
Aug.
Aug,

July
July

May

bb
May

t>i







rt- - - g- -

S'*'' p'*'* -
s <1 S ^-5 OQ
16

22
23

20

‘.>‘^

10

28
29
30
30
30

15

22

12
July 14

■^fcOl-OOC^QOOSiftUSt-
May 29

lOCDt'-a5?>Q0O5t-JrHC^
31

21

11
21

©i <N <N <N (X IW (N T—t rH rH rH rH r4


Aug.

Aug.
July
May

>>
»*.* •.* >» be


'* '* ^r-» >s




‘‘



W'*'* - P'*'*
S ^ <1
lOOt-OlO-r^C^THT-KN rHO^•Q0^•'30O000iO OSOOrHfQOOiilOOt^
tH ^ rH T-^ T*H T-H r-i OiOiOlWi-Hri'^O^'OlCO ot CO CO CO ■ o5 o< oi

^
C5s#s.>*
^
3'''*
tib
S'* '*
. .b.. . . b- -
l.. . b- ^
. 3..
^
- 3- - 3^ -
S »-: OJ s ^ . <1
Pittsburg.
Cincinnati.

Cleveland.
Chicago.
26 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

LEAGUE PITCHING RECORD FOR l88g.

Battery Errors
Struck Outs.
Per cent, of
Base Hits off

Earned Runs.

Batting.
Victories.

Fielding.
Per cent, of
Per cent, of
Per cent, of

Average of

Average of

Average of
Pitching.
Pitchers. Clubs.
V

*Clarkson. Boston. 72 .736 .252 1.89 3.48 3.32 .865 .206


iKeefe. New York.... 41 .732 .219 1.91 5.41 4.18 .802 .154
Bufiinton- Philadelphia.. 41 .659 .259 2.31 3.49 3.06 .875 .208
Galvin. Pittsburg. 40 .625 .281 3.02 1.72 2.18 .795 .187
O’Brien. Cleveland. 41 .585 .265 2.41 3.19 5.13 .755 .250
Gumbert... . Chicago. 29 .552 .262 2 72 3.38 3.08 .791 .287
Rusie. Indianapolis.. 2(5 .500 .269 3.07 4.34 5 18 .732 .174
+Ferson. Washington .. 35 .514 .205 2.34 2.54 3 26 .782 111

* Clarkson was, beyond q^uestion, the leading pitcher of the league in


1889. He led in pitching in the largest number of games; in percentage of
victories; the smallest average of earned runs.
i Keefe led in having the highest avei’age of struck-outs, and the small¬
est percentage of base hits off his pitching. Rusie is charged with the high¬
est average of battery errors. Gumbert did the best batting of the eight,
and Buifinton the best fielding.
t Ferson pitched in more defeats than victories, but not a pitcher in the
Washington team did as well in this respect.
The record of the league pitching of 1889. excluding all pitchers who failed
to pitch in as many victories as defeats, is as follows:
i
i

Earned Runs.

Struck Outs.
Ave. 1st B. H.
off Pitching.

* Wild

Errors.
Average.

Average.
Per cent, of

Average of

Average of
Pitching
Victories.
Victories.

Fielding
Average

Record
Defeats.

Batting

Pitchers. Clubs.
Games.
1 Rank.

I H. B. 1

fL
B. B.

1 Clarkson... Boston. 72 49 19 .736 1.89 .252 3.48 .865 .208 204 16 16 3.32
2 Keefe. New York. 41 28 11 .732 1.91 .219 5.41 .862 .154 154 10 18 4.18
3 Welch. New York. 41 28 11 .732 2.31 .230 3.22 .763 .192 154 20 11 4.21
4 Buffinton .. Philadelphia .. 41- 27 14 .659 2,31 .259 3.49 .875 .208 116 11 2 3.06
5 Ra.dboiirne Boston .... 20 11 656 2.40 .259 2 97 919 188 80 7 4 2 27
6 Galvin. Pittsburg. 40 23 15 .625 3.02 .281 1.72 .795 .187 77 14 7 2.18
7 O’Brien ... Cleveland .... 11 22 17 585 2.41 .265 3.19 .755 .250 172 29 17 5.13
8 Crane. New York. ... 28 13 12 .571 2.03 .252 4.86 .591 .204 141 19 9 6.01
9 Beatin. Cleveland 37 21 16 .569 2.48 .2.50 3.48 .821 .115 142 10 9 4.13
10 Gumbert. . Chicago . 29 16 13 .552 2.72 262 3.38 .791 .287 75 9 11 3.08
11 Dwyer. Chicago ... 29 16 13 .552 2.96 .270 2.48 .772 .203 78 15 9 3.14
12 Teiier. Chicago. 31 15 14 .548 3.26 .259 3.15 .843 273 102 10 9 3.28
13 Sowders... Pittsburg. 15 8 7 .533 2.40 .249 3.26 .766 .261 49 8 7 4.04
14 O’Day. New York. i... 23 11 11 .522 2.21 .279 2.26 .807 .146 94 9 11 4 22
15 Rusie . ... Indianapolis .. 26 13 13 .500 3.07 .269 4.34 732 .174 128 16 8 5.78
16 Madden.. Boston. ...— 20 10 10 .500 3.10 .271 3.05 .862 .290 69 3 13 4.05
t
*B. B.—bases on balls; W. P.—wild pitches; H. B.—hit batsmen.
HISTORY OF THE PLAYERS' NATIONAL LEAGUE. 27

HISTORY OF THE PLAYERS’ NATIONAL


LEAGUE.
In writing of the Players’ National League of base¬
ball clubs of the United States, the latest and, to my
mind, best of all base-ball leagues, so far as playing
strength is concerned, I must tell the story as an inter¬
ested on-looker and newspaper man until December 17th,
and after that date as the new league’s Secretary. The
public attention given the movement out of which the
Players’ League grew has been stupendous. This is
accounted for by the novelty of the movement and the
individual prominence of nearly all the actors in it.
From the first, the movement was really no more nor less
than the effort of a number of skilled workmen to break
loose from their employers and do business for them¬
selves in a broad and original way. The endeavors of
these employers to hold the men and prevent them from
taking such action, and the almost heroic struggle of the
players to carry out their plan, attracted the press and
public to the struggle. The players won handsomely,
and at this time have established their league and
are on the verge of what promises to be the most suc¬
cessful season the national game has ever seen.
The creation of the Players’ National League was
inevitable. The causes for it began in 1885, when the
so-called high-salary evil—really the unequal-salary evil
28 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

—came before the public through the base-ball operators.


The cry arose through the objections of certain men
held in the clubs of the smaller cities in high-class
leagues objecting to playing for small salaries in the
clubs reserving them, while men of less talent in the
clubs of larger towns were paid more money. The re¬
serve rule had been in operation for seven years, and the
ugly spots in it were beginning to work out. The only
rule fair to the player was that of the business world—
the rule of supply and demand. But this didn’t suit the
base-ball operators. They were too selfish to equitably
divide the gate receipts, and thus enable the smaller cities
to stand the financial pace set by the larger, and satisfy
their players. The false system of forcing each club to
sustain itself while a part of and contributing to the suc¬
cess of the whole league of six, eight, or ten clubs, had
had a selfish backing, and had gained a strong foothold
from which it could not be moved. In days of adversity
The National League relaxed its selfish policy, but the
general drift was toward lower, instead of higher, per¬
centages to visiting clubs; and the financial side of the
game was thus kept cramped in the places where freedom
and activity were needed. Under it, a championship club
in a large city could earn $100,000 profits in one sea¬
son, and the same club in a smaller city, $40,000 or less;
and the .chances for such a club, under such conditions,
were five to one or so in favor of the larger cities. The
prize in sight was not fairly offered. So the small city
clubs pinched their players to get “ even.” The players
HISTORY OF THE PLAYERS* NATIONAL LEAGUE. 29

objected, naturally, but their objections were not noticed.


The reserve rule was made to hold more men, and the
large city clubs grew more extravagant in the prices they
offered for base-ball talent. As a part of this extrava¬
gance, the sales system came into play about 1884. Small
but gradually increasing prices were paid for the releases
of reserved men, and as the larger and wealthier clubs
were usually the purchasers, and the player’s consent
was necessary to consummate a sale, large city salaries
increased still faster, as the plum held out to the player
was usually a large increase. The sales system, there¬
fore, unsettled the general base-ball structure a great deal
faster than any single innovation into the game. New
evils came with it. Players who would not consent to
be sold were coerced, and in the minor leagues were
compelled to consent under threats of fines or the direct
influence of fines.
The original reserve rule, adopted in 1879, held five
men to a club, but gradually this number had been in¬
creased to fourteen. Under it an operator “cornered ”
talent, used it for a money-maker as long as he chose,
and then sold at a large profit. The Detroit club gave
a pretty exhibition of the reserve rule possibility be¬
tween 1885 and 1887. At the time of its adoption, and
for eight years afterward, the operators, who had passed
the rule without consulting the players, set up no claim
that it bound men to them as a contract or option.
The reserve rule was simply an agreement between
clubs to hold selfish hands off certain players, so as to
80 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

insure the clubs in their group a nucleus of or an entire


team.
Players broke away from time to time, and went out¬
side the group of clubs to which the club reserving them
belonged, and no lawsuit was brought against them or
claim set up that the reserve rule gave any option on
their services for succeeding years. But the National
League did frame what is now known as the “National
Agreement,” and by it bound the various leagues to¬
gether so that the avenues of escape for the ball-player '
who sought to throw off the reserve rule’s yoke were few.
The result was as hard and close a trust as men ever
formed, and its motto to the player was: “Work where
and for what we choose.”
At last the National League sought to get away from
the effects of its own bad legislation, and passed the
$2,000 salary limit law. It had no effect, because passed
Only to bluff the players. The proof of this is, that no
sooner was the law passed than the framers of it began
to violate it, guaranteeing their players amounts over
$2,000 by side contracts.
In 1886 the brotherhood was formed, and the ball-
players^'began to work on their own account to straighten
out the inequalities of the game. The new organi¬
zation gave a quasi-recognition to the reserve rule as
a necessity of the hour, but sought and secured amend¬
ments to the contract then in use—a harsh, brutal, and
one-sided affair.
Matters ran smoothly along until the winter of i888*-89.
HISTORY OF THE PLAYERS* NATIONAL LEAGUE. 81

when, while the Spalding expedition was on its world’s


tour and the ball-players widely apart, the classification
rule was a^lopted. It was a violation of every promise
made to the ball-player by the operator, and trouble
came of it. The players asked for its abolition, and
with it the sales system. The league dilly-dallied, and
offered a conference after the playing season. That
trick had been worked before. At once the players
went at the organization of a league on lines that had
been examined and laid down before. The National
League had been warned. Two seasons back there had
been talk of enlisting capital with playing talent and
forming a new league^. The operators, with the reserve
rule and national agreement as assistants, were confident
of their grip, and took no warning. It was a fatal mis¬
take. From July moneyed friends of the leaders in the"
various brotherhood chapters were interested in the new
movement, the various chapters held meetings with legal
advisers in attendance, and the preliminary work went
actively on. A. L. Johnson, of Cleveland, threw his
talent and energy into the work, and in his rooms at
Cleveland many conferences were held as the various
teams came along to fill their schedule engagements. By
the end of September nearly all the players in the various
league teams had signed agreements with the men who
had been solicited to furnish the capital to carry on the
projected league. No suspicion, even, of what was going
on reached the operators’ ears. The brotherhood and its
assistants had agreed on a policy of silence. Men in the
9

32 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

chapters of the weaker or smaller cities feared that, should


the brotherhood’s plans get out, they would lose part of
their season’s salaries. In past seasons the operators
had, without notice, terminated contracts and salaries
nearly thirty days before the date written therein. In
August a bare inkling of what was going on came out of
Indianapolis, but its author soon repudiated it. At the
end of August, while doing sporting work for the Chi¬
cago Tribune^ 1 ran across a pointer which told me
plainly that the Indianapolis story was not a fable, and,
after a day’s work among the ball-players, I knew I got
the story in detail, and, September 7th, published
a three-column account of the-work and intentions
of the new league. It created a sensation. The ball¬
players denied it; they were compelled to do so for
reasons given above. So well did they deny, that
from all parts of" the country came newspaper cries
of disbelief. Until early in November there was little
faith in the new league. Its preliminary work went
actively on, and was finished up by the end of the
contract season. The operators feared and hoped—
feared the magnitude of the revolt, and hoped that
the players would give them another chance to redress
the evils they had refused to notice in midsummer.
When, November 5th, the brotherhood issued its famous
address and declaration of intentions, and the following
day turned the organization over to the delegates sent
by the various clubs in the Players’ National League,
war was declared. From November 6th until December

/ t
i
>

HISTORY OF THE PLAYERS* NATIONAL LEAGUE. 33

17th, I worked for the new league as well as I could in a


personal way, and oh the latter date was accorded the
honor of a unanimous election as its Secretary and
Treasurer. From December 17th until this time, I can
speak with knowledge of the new league and its men and
their work. Few mistakes have been made since it
started. The only one of importance was the delay in
forming a permanent organization, from November 6th
until December 17th. The legal bar was a good one, but
a working organization with full power should have been
in the field from the first. There was much misdirected
and go-as-you-please labor during November, and out of
it the National League—itself hardly in fighting trim,
because it hoped for a dissolution, and was encouraged
in its hope by a few influential newspaper partisans—
gained half a dozen valuable players who had signed the
original agreement, but, under the influence of threats
and bribes, afterward signed National League contracts.
A few devoted men bore the brunt of the fight until
the December meeting, and then, with an intelligent and
a common purpose, the new officials took up the work,
and the Players’ League began to assume form and
show ability to meet the necessities of the hour. Soon ’
public confidence in the new movement increased; the
American press—intelligent, honest, and fair at all times
—treated the league with kindness and consideration
because of the clean methods used in dealing with men.
The old league, while appealing to the law of the land
to enforce its alleged reserve rule option, threw all scru-
3
34 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

pies aside in fighting the new league, bribed and told


false stories to our men, and abused the leaders in the
new movement.
These methods had little effect. The New York club,
of the National League, asked for a temporary injunction
against John M. Ward, of the Brooklyn club, one of its
“reserved” players from the season of 1889. The suit
was heard by Judge Morgan O’Brien, of the Supreme
Court of New York, early in Januar}^; Messrs. Joseph
Choate and G. F. Duysturs as attorneys for the New
York club, and Judge Henry Howland and W. Murray
for John M. Ward. The decision was reserved. January
28th it was handed down, Judge O’Brien declining to
grant the preliminary injunction asked for.
The decision boomed the new cause, and gave the fin¬
ishing touch to the full, round strength it now enjoys.
Since my connection with the Players’ National League,
I have found an extraordinary desire on the part of the
capitalists to work for the general good and sink self-
interest. All their meetings have been harmonious, and
the discussions of vital points marked by care and deep
consideration. All assessments for carrying on the work
in and outside the organization and courts have been
promptly met, and not a squabble has marked any meeting.
'Fhe players have surprised all connected with the new
league. No work has been too hard and continued for
them; and at all times they have shown deep faith in their
new partners. The old league’s sneering criticism,^ Every
player has his price,” has been proven false by nearly
HISTORY OF THE PLAYERS* NATIONAL LEAGUE. 35

every man of the one hundred and twenty under con¬


tract to the Players’ League to-day. Some have refused
comparative fortunes, and all have stood ready to give
their time, and even money, in aid of the new league.
Phis alone shows how fast and steadily the American
ball-player has profited by the public approval given
him. I have seen players improve in their ideas since
being thrown in with them by the business of the
new league, and, in my opinion, no movement was ever
inaugurated that will improve its men so much. The
players have already shown their ability to manage their
own affairs even in troublous times. The old managers
have not.' This failure is partially accounted for in that
they underestimated the forces used against them. The
Players’ League, now on its feet with eight star clubs,
each full of individual stars, is certain of a successful
season. I do not expect the National League to die.
Its clubs in the larger cities will survive, but those in
the smaller cities can not well do so; the question of
population and ball-playing ability enters here. The
Players’ League policy from this date is clear and well
defined. It sees that the public is the arbiter between
it and the National League, and will decide all differ¬
ences justly. It has treated the public with considera¬
tion from its inception, and will use its best endeavors
in the same direction at all times. The fittest will sur¬
vive, and if the Players’ National League does not prove
its right to be the survivor under such conditions, dis¬
solution will be welcome. Frank H. Brunell.

j>
36 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE

players’ national league


Cleveland. New York. PhiladePa Pittsburg.

2
3

25
26

2
COi-i(MOOt>XiOiOt^'JO t—Oico 'fosoi-i'^iin;©
30

25
1

24

Sept. 24

27
1
31
T—1 ^ OJ (M (M 7-11-1
At

June

Aug.
r< 4) 4i
July

July
Oct.

S
ft S?- - fl- -
- -







a. - g- 3- - fti i - 9 ^ - 9*- -
•T a 42
<1 1-5 02

CaOO?cO(5^00-^^QOOi Tt<oi>-oo^^aoooocio 0500'i-tTr»r5:OT-i-'’eo


16
5
6

15

17
2
3

7
30
1

T—1 ^ oicowco>-i7-ii-ic»CJOi
April

Sept.
June
At

May

.




c3. - . y. . 3. . 3. . . g. . 3. .
S *-5
1
OiOC^COC^GO’^'iOGOCi lOOt^COrfuOixOCOt^QO incoi>-ci«>cooT-if-iO^ C-rHOJCOO-rHC^nOOSO
T-H T—( t-h 1—( t-H r-« T“H T-^ T-<
At

>> a ti 2 hr . ft. . .
a. . “p. >> ti
TO'*'*'* F^'*'* p'*'*
d" ' 5' ■* 0)' ■* “
’-5 ■< 02 S 1-5 OQ s ^ <J

Oi—eO'^'003iO'S'Oi> iC 0 {.. 00 ■>-• (TJ CO 05 0 I5J iOOl>QOlf50C-COTfkC OthO^COO^CO'^^OICO


■WCilJiiNMOlCOC'J'J'tW T-^ r-1 1—i CO 1—• -r^ 1-^ ^F1 1-^
At

<V K. ® >, +j ? !>, ® 4i


a....r?. . ftr.. >5 3 be s :?. . a- - ft. .
j3- i- - 3- i- a;- :- 3. -- - -
>-i *-> W >-5 h-5 02 h, 02

OTHCO'-"C0050050'rH ooo^cooiT-4c^jooi>
Chicago.
At *

Otd(^OiCt6*i7iT-i(ftQi CJ5<0}0?0?0«COO>CO tH y—^ tH


^ +j ••••••••••
^ - 4?^ .. ft. - a. . . ft. 4j
3- - - 3- - - 3. - . 3-4 S'- - »••»•••*••
^ M 0 S -<02 • •••••••*•
• • • • • • %,« •
<•••••«••-
30

24
2
3

25
26

3
4
2

O^OOescOGOOSCOOO
1
Bull alo

CO 00
• •••*•••••
• ••••»•< *• , •
June
At

July

Oct.

«*••••%. •«
. ti. . U-



3-- - 3- - 5?- O ft. . . 3. . ^ .


• •*••••»«•
< w O <1 02
Brooklyn.

*CtOt-COOO.-i.-i(M'X) O'^5^C0Ot-'C^iC:C'N* lOOC-Ot'-GOOii-'^Oi


•r-i 'rH
At

. . ft. . ^. . . . ^. . . i?. . .
^... JJ. . ^. - TO'*'*'* p,*^ c4- - . j3- . 57- -
S 1-5 02 S >-5 02

i-«OlCOTft^t-05CiT-<C^ OiOOi-HTj^iCCOi-iC^CO M'>»t-Qoc-ooo5»r>or^


Boston.

Oi tH r-i Ti T—« OiCOCOCOi-n-HT-iG^O<C« ^(0<W(MT-i-r-i-i-(<M<N(5»


At

ft. . . j3. . .
3. . ^. . . '.b. . y;. . b. - - .b- - ii. -
TO'*'*'* P'*'* TO'*'*'* —'•'* p'*'*
<! i-s <!
1

1
Bpston..

Buffalo.

Chicago.
CLUBS.

.M
8
h.
CQ
players’ national league schedule. 37

SCHEDULE FOR 189O.

O-i-HCOTfi-I^IOOiOr-l
19
“ 28
“ 29
Aug. 16
18

Sept. 8
9
10
25
26
26

27
2S
28
29
April 25

30
19
20
22
• ; • • • : • • : :
June

Sept.
03 -t^' .
July

.. .. . r^'» '* C0|'*







‘‘
“ =3- - - 3- - 03- w
--o 1-3 02 0

mcDt'-QOoiOT-ti-iCjeo iC30t^Oit-.Q0 03i-iT-t(Ol


»—» t-8 tH rH y-^ T—1 .—1 1—1 r—i
.. t>. 03
Sr--
S 1-5 S >-i 02 1^ >-i 02
-p tr 00 iO CO »-• (>i sc T4o?CO'r^<l>GOaiO^v-‘0^ OiOOTHt^OOOiOCOt-
* • .. T-iv-4 oicococoi-iTHT-icr^oiO?
^ s* p V* s* W..* ^
5'* - - .b- -
3- - s-
^
ft'* '*'* 3'-'* p'*'*
b- - - .b- .. 5>ib^ -
S'. - - J3- - 5-
<1 t-3 s H -<
T}iTt4iCi-HrH(3j'<o<o?eo-^ c:oo^coc^T-HO>»r:cot^
30

30
2
3
24
25
26
29
1

CO tH rH tH rH rH rH "rH
Sept.
June
July

Oct.

^ ^ ti. .. +j.. ., b-
rt- -- -- s- - ^- -




S'. -. - 03- - 0- -
• c^** • • ■• • • 1-3 -^0 F=i -<02

(NCO^CDI>GCC5COi---0O ooi>ooio;oi>coTt'iO
O'J'
June 30

2
3
24
25
26
24
25
July 1

T-H ^ T-< "rH CO rH rH tH


Sept.

^ s ^ ^ .. ^.. .... d - - -

H

^ ^ P'*'* O'* -*
<1 h-5 <J 0

•^C^COTfOiOi-iTj^.OCO O-r-'eO-^T-t'NSOTjuoi^ C^CO^OJCO'TfCOrHOJcO


28
28

20
22
26
27

29
30
19
25

rH rH rH rH -i-H TH -rH
^
Sept.

03 +j
June

0
July

^ S l4 c;.. ^ ^ ^ a- - P ^



a— - 3-* ^ CD' ■* S- -* - 3-* O)- - ^ r


<Jj I-: 02 ^-3 1-3 02 H 02

0;QQ<-i£-00030050 OiHG^COOiCOTfTf^OCO OOgQ03a3I>OOOOCJ30 '^CO^-X'^iOOthC^CO


®JCC05«0t-i-i-ii-iC^N«C CO V—t tH tH (MOJOlOi T-< <M(^0l02rHTHT-H(M0l0<
.... S-
CB...... .j....-• 3....- ^.. .. a.. .. Q.'- '• •’2. . . g). . -a. .
- S'* - 03- '• A-'* - 3- - ^■''*
S ^ <1 <5 02

lOCDv^Oit>aOOiT-trHC^ if3O0003a3t-a0cr:0iO 0?CO'^CDCOr}^iOT#<00 0—'OiCOOrHOJCOCiO


tH •rH tH tH (?« OJ »i©i Tl t-h tH rH -rH ^ rH G^<^^O^O^rHrHrHC^^^CO
^ .. .. §.. .. .. .. ^.. .. .. - Sf- -
«'*'.'. S'* •* ST'* '* A'.'.'. 5'''* 03-- S- - - - 03- -
S 02 <j <1 02 1-5 -<02
Philadelphia.

Pittsburg.
Cleveland.

New Y'ork... .
V
.
(

38 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HISTORY OF THE BROTHERHOOTF

The formation of the Brotherhood of Base-ball Play¬


ers was inspired by the same causes that have doubtless
been the corner-stone of other protective brotherhoods.
The National game of base-ball had gradually grown so
important that its exponents became a numerous body of
men, who not only represented muscle and brawn, but
intelligence and manhood.
Base-ball was acknowledged a profession, and as such
its members should have received consideration ■ and
respect from the men who controlled its legislation; but
greed and selfishness outweighed the common sense and
business judgment of the self-constituted rulers of the
national game, and the players found that they were
being treated and used as so many money-making ma¬
chines.
The men who had obtained control of base-ball forced
restrictions and unjust conditions on the players until,
finally, their very rights as American citizens, were threat¬
ened, and a ball-player found that he had not even the
rights that every laborer in the land is entitled to. Is it
to be wondered at that the men rebelled at the thought of
11 '

being “goods and chattels,” and that some means of self¬


Lk
protection were looked for? Therefore, it transpired that
I on October 22, 1885, a meeting of the members of the
New York club was held in a room in the Harlem House,

V r-

(t
y
HISTORY OF THE BROTHERHOOD. 39

115th Street and Third Avenue, New York City; and after
discussing the methods and evident intentions of the
rulers of base-ball toward their players, it was resolved
that they, the players, recognizing the importance of
united efforts, and impressed with its necessity in their
own behalf, should form themselves into an organization
to be known as the National Brotherhood of Base-ball
Players.
The objects of the Brotherhood were understood to
be: First, to protect and benefit its members collectively
and individually. Second, to promote a high standard
of professional conduct. Third, to advance the interest
of, the national game. The original signers were Ward,
Keefe, Gerhardt, Ewing, Connor, Richardson, Welch,
Dorgan, and O’Rourke. During the playing season of
1886 meetings were held in every city in the league cir¬
cuit, new chapters were formed in every club and mem¬
bers admitted. At subsequent meetings, held during the
season, the disadvantages of the league contract, the
formation of a new contract, the buying and selling of
players, the length of time a player should be bound,
players’ injuries, etc., were freely discussed.
In the fall of 1887 the Brotherhood appointed J. M.
Ward, Daniel Brouthers, and Edward Hanlon as a com¬
mittee to wait upon the National League at its annual
meeting, at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, and demand formal
recognition for the Brotherhood, and to present to
the League the grievances of the players. At first, the
League refused to recognize the men as a Brotherhood;
40 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

but, after a somewhat lengthy debate, to which the rep¬


resentatives of the press were invited, the League was
forced to admit the rights of the men, and formally and
officially recognized the Brotherhood. The players’
committee presented their complaints and demanded a
new contract. The League appointed a committee on its
side to confer with the Brotherhood committee, and, after
much argument, a new form of contract was mutually
decided on, and its principal benefit to the player was the
abolition of the obnoxious two-thousand-dollar limit
clause. This the League promised faithfully to do, and
the players relied on the honor of the League, but they
were betrayed; for when the Brotherhood committee was
discharged, and the principal officers of the Brotherhood
were absent on a professional tour around the world, the
League not only broke its promise to repeal the two-
thousand-dollar limit clause, but passed the new classifi¬
cation scheme, by which no player was to receive more
than $2,500 for his season’s work; though one club
might ask ten or twelve thousand dollars bonus of
another club for the mere option on the player’s services.
The indignation of the players was fully aroused at
the League’s flagrant treachery, and when the Brother¬
hood again assembled and held its meetings in the early
spring of 1889, it was resolved to appoint a committee to
again confer with the League and ask that organization
to redeem its broken faith. A hearing was asked of the
League, but then it was that the magnates thought them¬
selves secure, and by the supposed helplessness of the
HISTORY OF THE BROTHERHOOD. 41

players, refused them a hearing on the ground that they


did not consider the matter of sufficient importance.
This was the crowning point to the arrogant despotism of
these dictators, and the players revolted at this contempt¬
uous disregard of their rights as men and laborers. It
was then, and then only, that the idea of a Players’
League was conceived, and it is at this point I will stop,
for with the inception of the new league it became, in
itself, a separate and distinct organization from the
National Brotherhood of Base-ball Players, and as a
new league of base-ball clubs, its history should be
entirely distinct and apart from the Brotherhood.
T. J. Keefe.

t
42 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION.

The American Association of base-ball clubs was born


in i88i. Only the National League, of all the present
base-ball associations, was then alive, with clubs in Chi¬
cago, Cleveland, Boston, Buffalo, Providence, Troy,
Worcester, and Detroit. All the other cities now prom¬
inently associated with the game were out. Cincinnati
made the move out of which the American Association
grew. Justus Thorner, George Herancourt, and others
had possession of the plant of the dead Cincinnati
club, and resolved to go into base-ball. O. P. Caylor,
then on the Cincinnati Coimnercial Gazette^ entered into
the scheme with them. The task was a heavy one.
It was not the organization of one team, but as many as
were required to make up a new league—four, six, or
eight clubs. The plan was spread through the news¬
papers, and Pittsburgh, through H. D. McKnight, now a
cattle operator in the Southwest, was interested in the
scheme.
, A meeting was called to be held at Cincinnati, Novem¬
ber 2, i88i. During the interval between the call and
the meeting, H. B. Phillips had worked up interest
in Philadelphia, Louisville, and St. Louis. When the
meeting assembled, the following cities were represented:
Cincinnati—J.Thorner,V. Long, O. P. Caylor; St.Louis—
C. Von der Ahe, J). L. Reid; Louisville—J. H. Pauk,
HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION. 43

J.W. Reccius; Alleghany—H. D. McKnight; Philadelphia


—H. B. Phillips; Athletics of Philadelphia—Charles Ful¬
mer; Atlantics of Brooklyn—W. Barnie. H. D. McKnight
was made chairman, and J. A. Williams, of Columbus,
who had been secretary of the old International Associa¬
tion, secretary.
As a result of the meeting, cliibs in Cincinnati,
St. Louis, Louisville, Pittsburgh, unconditionally, and
Philadelphia (Athletics) and Brooklyn (Atlantics), con¬
ditionally, were admitted to membership. Subsequently,
the Atlantic club failed to fulfill the conditions under
which it was admitted, and was compelled to resign,
Baltimore being given its place.
Permanent officers werp elected as follows: President,
H. D. McKnight, Pittsburgh, Penn.; vice-president, J. H.
Pauk, Louisville, Ky.; secretary and treasurer, James A.
Williams, Columbus, Ohio. Directors—C.Von der Ahe, St.
Louis, Mo.; Wihiam Barnie, Baltimore, Md.; Charles Ful¬
mer, Philadelphia, Penn.; Justus Thorner,Cincinnati,Ohio.
The guarantee or self-supporting system, and a
twenty-five-cent tariff, were adopted. The new organ¬
ization was a success from the start.
At its fall meeting at New York, December 15, 1882,
there was appointed a committee made up of J. H. Pauk,
of Louisville, Lewis Simmons and W. Barnie, of Phila¬
delphia, to meet a committee from the National League,
and President Elias Matler, of the newly organized
Northwestern League. This joint committee was the
original board of arbitration, and out of its meeting at
44 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

New York, February 15, 1883, came the original national


agreement. The officers chosen by this committee, were:
A. G. Mills, chairman; O. P. Caylor, secretary; Elias
Matler, treasurer. The agreement was signed, for the
National League, by A. G. Mills; for the American Asso¬
ciation, by H. D. McKnight; by E. Matler, for the North¬
western League, and by W. G. Sedley, for the Eastern
League. *
This agreement lasted until October, 1885, when that
agreement now in force was adopted. It set aside the
minor leagues, and provided for them articles of qualified
agreement. The association is still alive, and only bad
management and cliques twice prevented it taking the
leading place in base-ball. At this time it is but the
leading minor league.

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION AVERAGES.

Below will be found the official averages of all players


in the American Association, who participated in twenty
games or more, during the season of 1889:
i
1
Athletic. !

Lou’ville.
Brooklyn

Cincin’ti.

Columb’s

u
St. Louis.

Percent.
Kan. Cy.

Won.

s
Clubs. 43
*3
w

Athletic. 12 7 11 12 12 76
14 8 567
Baltimore. 8 8 8 12 11 70
16 7 !514
Brooklyn. 12 i2 .... 15 12 16 19
94 8 .681
Cincinnati. 9 11 5 .••. 11 14 18
76 8 .546
Columbus. 7 8 8 9 9 13
60 431
Kansas City i. 8 7 4 6 n 13
6 60 .412
Louisville. 5 4 1 2 7 7 2 28 .201
St. Louis.. 9 12 11 12 14 14 18 .... 90 .666
Lost. 58 06 44 63 TO 83 111 45 554
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 45

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.

Base Hits.

Base Hits.
Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Stolen
Bat.

Bases.
Players. Clubs.
Rank.

Runs.
1 Tucker. Baltimore. 134 528 101 198 40 61 .375
2 Milligan. St. Louis . 72 276 54 102 13 3 .370
3 Holliday.. .. Cincinnati. 135 562 107 193 24 51 .343
4 O’JSeill. St. Louis. 133 534 125 180 43 29 .337
i Stovey. Athletic.... 138 546 154 ISO 33 115 .330
5 Baltimore. 19 .330
) Ray. 27 115 38 5 11
7 Lyons . Athletic. 131 507 1.31 171 32 11 .327
8 Orr. Columbus. 134 5()0 70 182 36 6 .325
9 Larkin . .... Athletic. 133 516 108 167 35 10 .324
TO Bums. Brooklyn. 132 499 104 157 32 37 .316
11 Shinclle. Baltimore. 138 565 125 178 40 58 .315
12 Bierbauer ... Athletic. 130 543 78 170 27 26 .313
13 O’Bi'icn . Brooklyn. 136 565 144 176 21 103 V .312
14 Mullane. Cincinnati. 62 192 53 69 9 29 .307
15 Purcell. Athletic. 130 504 71 154 27 22 .306
J Marr. Columbus. 139 545 108 165 25 31 .303
Ifi ( Burns. Kansas City.... 133 575 108 174 38 52 .303
18 Hamilton.... Kansas City .. 137 582 145 160 25 117 ^ .301
19 McCarthy ... St. Louis. 140 603 136 179 38 59 .297
j Terry. Brooklyn. 48 164 29 48 7 13 .293
20 I Beard. Cincinnati. 141 560 96 164 48 39 .293
22 Wolf. -. Louisville. 130 546 74 159 28 18 .291
j Kilroy. Baltimore. 65 207 33 60 5 10 .290
23 I Weaver. Louisville. 124 496 62 144 23 22 .290
j Sterns. Kansas City.... 139 560 95 161 39 59 .288
25 105 169 40 .288

i
( Comiskey ... St. Louis. 137 586 71
27 Keenan . Cincinnati. 87 300 52 86 19 23 .287
28 Foutz Brooklyn_T.. 138 552 121 158 37 50 286-^
Johnson. Columbus. 117 460 92 131 24 38 .285
29 Stratton. Louisville. 62 228 30 65 6 10 .285
Long .. Kansas City .... 136 571 137 160 13 91 .280
31 Grinin. Baltimore. 137 533 152 149 18 43 .280
33 McTamany. Columbus. 139 530 113 148 12 45 .279
j McGarr. K. City and Balt 28 115 23 32 4 12 .278
34 j Fulmer . Baltimore. 16 54 11 15 3 1 .278
] Barkley. Kansas City.... 45 177 36 49 9 9 .277
36 (Hecker. Louisville. 82 329 42 91 13 16 .277
38 Welch. Athletic. 125 512 131 140 2:3 92 .273
O’Conner.... Columbus. 107 398 68 107 18 29 .269
Kappel. Columbus. 49 171 25 46 3 12 .269
39 ■I Caruthers.... Brooklyn. 57 171 45 46 11 15 .269
McPhee. Cincinnati...... 135 543 110 146 30 66 . .269
Earle. Cincinnati. 63 167 37 45 12 27 .269
Duryea. Cincinnati. 55 164 37 44 7 5 .268
44 Colhns. Brooklyn. 138 560 139 150 46 81 .268
' 46 Clark. Brooklyn. 53 181 32 48 14 22 .265
47 Shannon. Louisville. 120 496 1 91 131 26 27 .264
4G UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Aver.age
O

Times at
Games.

Bat.
Cfi 50

Stolen
Bases.
Players. Clubs.
Rank.

Runs.
§51
OQ

*
48 Reilly. Cincinnati. Ill 426 84 Ill 15 49 .261
49 Ramsey. Louisville. 23 77 5 20 3 o .260
50 Smith...... Cincinnati. 28 81 12 73 1 0 259
51 Corkhill.. .. Brooklyn. 138 534 90 1.38 29 30 .2.58
52 Carpenter... Cincinnati. 123 489 67 126 22 46 .257
53 Tebeau . Cincinnati. 135 4QfS 111 126 33 69
( Daily. Columbus. 137 586 104 149 83 51 . 254
54 •< Davis.... K.'insns Hity 64 248 42 63 16
lU 22 254
i Latham . ... St. Louis ._ 118 512 108 130 29 83 .254
( Ehret.^ Louisville_rr 67 257 26 65 12' 5 .2.53
57 < Browning:.... Louisville... ... 83 324 39 82 26 23 .253
(Pinckney .. Brookljm. 138 545 104 130 28 58 .253
60 Boyle. St. TiOnis .... 99 344 58 23 6 2.50
61 Visner. Brooklyn. 80 297 57 74 12 16 249
j Baldwin ..... Cincinnati . 60 222 34 55 10 8 .248
( Fennelly. Athletic. 138 513 69 127 26 20 248
64 j Hoover". Kansas City .... 71 263 45 65 ii 7 !247
) Flanigan .... Louisville. 23 89 11 22 4 1 .247
66 Nicol. Cincinnati.... 122 476 81 117 27 81 *>16
67 Duffee. . St. Louis. 137 510 93 29 22 245
68 Robinson.... Athletic. 69 260 31 63 6 9 .242
69 j Raymond.... Louisville. 130 515 58 124 26 21 .241
( McCarthy.... Kansas City.... 20 79 12 19 5 4 .241
71 Dowie. Baltimore. 20 75 13 18 n 5 210
72 Donahue. Kansas City.... 67 252 .30 60 17 10 .238
j Mack. Baltimore. 136 521 87 , 123 35 25 .236
j Cook. Louisville. 81 284 33 67 12 11 .236
4i> King. St. TjOuis. 184 37 43 A 3
J Vaughn. Louisville.. 90 360 40 84 25 11
76
1 Smitli. Brooklyn .... 121 442 89 103 IQ 37
78 Sowders. Kansas City. 28 '87 10 20 6 1 .2.30
79 j Fuller. St. Louis. 140 518 87 118 36 46 .228
^ Stivetts. St. TjOui.s._ 26 79 10 18 A 0 OO^
81 Hornung. Baltimore. 135 538 70 122 33 43 .227
82 Cross. Athletic . 55 199 25 11 10
83 Sommer. Baltimore. 106 384 49 86
cu 19 16 2>4
81 ) Pickett. Kansas City.... 41 202 20 45 10 9 .223
Peeples... ^. Columbus_.»r. 28 94 13 21 4 3 ^^.223
86 Alvoi’d. Kansas City .50 190 23 AO o K 991
87 ( Greenwood Columbus 118 411 63 90 19 40 .219
1 ( Seward .. .. Athletic. 45 146 22 32 7 7 .219
89 ! Tomney. Louisville . ,112 376 60 81 14 26 .215
90 ' j Brennan .. Athletic. 31 112 12 24 9 8 .214
( Cunningham Baltimore. 40 131 12 28 9 3 .214
92 Robinson.... St.-Louis. 132 453 99 95 26 42 .210
93 Widner. Columbus. 40 1.34 17 28 7 7 .209
94 Conway. Kansas City.... 41 149 14 31 4 0 .208
J Manning. Kansas City.... 132 ,505 68 103 35 62 .204
«5
} Farrell. Baltimore. 42 157 26 32 11 14 .204
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 47
|j

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Stolen
Players. Clubs.

Bases.
Rank.

Runs.
97 Carl. Louisville. . 25 99 13 20 10 0 .202
98 Mattiinore... Ath'tic and K.C. 42 145 17 29 11 8 .200
99 Gunsou. Kansas City .. 34 121 15 24 4 1 ,198
100 Chamberlain. St. Louis . 53 173 19 34 15 3 .197
101 Gastright .. Columbus. 31 93 5 17 4 0 ,183
\ Baldwin. Columbus . 64 209 19 38 10 2 .182
102 1 Holland. Baltimore. 40 143 13 26 4 4 .182
i Bwinp' . Louisville. 41 134 12 24 12 5 .179
104 ) Hughes. Brooklyn. 19 67 4 12 4 0 .179
i T .nvetl,. Brooklyn. 30 101 17 18 7 5 .178
106 j Tatf*. Baltimore. 72 253 28 45 15 3 .178
► .175
108 Easterday.... Columbus. 105 325 44 15 14
109 Oiiin7i Baltimore. 54 190 17 33 13 6 .174
no Galligan. Louisville. 31 120 6 20 7 2 .167
i Bushong. Brooklyn. 25 80 15 13 3 3 .163
111 I Ryan. Louisville. 21 80 7 13 0 1 .163
113 riant.T; . rO Baltimore 21 76 6 12 5 1 .l')8
114 Mays. Columbus . ... 22 58 4 9 5 1 .1.55
115 Swartzel... . Kansas City.... 52 179 18 27 14 7 .151
r*
116 Viaii Cincinnati. 47 145 14 21 4 6 .145
117 McMahon ... Athletic. 30 105 9 15 4 1 .143
118 Foreman ... Baltimore. 54 179 18 25 6 9 .140
119 Wpvbinp'. Athletic. 53 192 15 26 12 4 . 135
120 Bligh. Columbus. 27 95 6 12 7 2 .126
48 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION

'^fTfiOOOOG^t-^GQO
St. Louis.

Aug. 19

“ +20
“ *29

Sept. 19
June +28

“ 20

“ *21
“ 21
July 1
*+“ * 4— T-H ^ (5^ ^
* -H* “i— ,
At

-b- bii. ft- - ..b- - - - ft4j'-


.
I.=. tr: = j2-- - P- - O''
f-s <5 0! ►-? <5 02 1-5 OiO
6 QOOi-rHC<i»OtOt-Oi-i(M •<i(T}<intt>Tf<cot-coT)<o

“ *28
July 4 July 8

12
Sept+27
9
10
“ 12

July *13
15

“ *10

“ 29
Aug. *3 Aug. 19
“ 20

16
17
Aug. +9
Sept. 30 Sept. 19
“ t20
“ 21

“ *21

55 (M CO -h-*
-»-* .
2- .b- - ■^4i-





p p'' - P'' ST-*-
o t-5 <5 030 1-5 <5 02
lA
Columbus.

C0i0O£>CiO’^OO’-‘ COOSr-iG^rt^COt^CO'^liG Q0050(5?050ff«fcCOC5


4
“ +5
*6

2
5

T—i r-t tH t—1 ^ G^ Ci G^ G^Gi T-.r^i-«GlG^G^ r-y r-1 4— 1—1 1—1 lyi Ol
* ^ . -i-* -H* -H* -i- * +-*
At

>5 ti O G) >5 tiX)


Oct.

3- - - 3- - ft- - fl G 'TS
w- G p- -G ^- ^G G- 3- - - P- - g*- -


J3-

1-5 <5 02 1-5 <5 02 ►-5 <5 02

0Qc;•I-l(M0sO(^?^^QD05 G005OG^’^?0?>C0'rfL0 '^'^xOOOiOT-iOiO^ coio:or>iO:ot>OT-«Gl


Toledo.

-i-1-1 r-. (M o? N 1-^ i-H ^ ^ G'i G^ G^ +-* ^ Gi G^ T-i Gi GJ T-H r-» r-t CO
+-* * -t-* -H* . *
At

O >> ti 4j .^- - - - ft*i-


O'* TJ- a2 “ 2 .b..
g--
- -
-
- ft- -
P'' ^''
02 1-5 <5 02 ►-5 <5 02 ^ < mO
Philadel a Brooklyn. Syracuse. Rochester

dOOSOi-iOS-r-iOiTtiiOO 0-^G^COT-iGiM<GiCO^
-H* 05o»eO y—OiCi-i-* 1-H y—i T—+ T-H ^ r-l r-t 1-^
— + * +-* 4- .+-*
At

sj- - P- - jj.. - 5:5-- ^P--+S-- - - «-, ft- -


ft' 'SP'' O'- ! I ! I I • ! I I !
S t-3 <5 <5 O S 1-5 02
cQc»Oi-i05T-io?'5j<mco oicoTfioTriOsoco-tio CD!>00 05incDt-»f5«5t>
1—1 1—1 T—1 TH T.4 1—1
C5oj eo r-i (2J Oi+-* ■h-* o5oj(Mo^o}oj • •••••••a • *
►;^- - - ® aataataaa*
At

•ri <1! p- - 1?* - aaaa^saaaa b- - -


ft' o- - ^-- - 0- -- -S.- ^---
<5 o S ^ <5 • aaataa ata

OX>OOOSC^TfiOG^CO’^
June 3

“ *12
13
18
“ +19
“ *20
June +7
“ *8
9

April 22

“ +26
“ *27

5
April 17

7
8
9

24

Oct. +11
rH ^ 1-H ^
At

P 4-> • •S***a«*«
Oct.

p - a-'



' 3' ' '


S 1-5-02
OGiCOTj<OJ>QOiO':Ot^
^ Ple<5rf'O00''3'i0Oi-HC0
April 17
18
“ +19

June +7

9
9
“ 10
7
8
“ 21

t-h T-1 rH T-^ y—« (5J'5J(5!i W r-i-HT-i


At

^-
ra- -- -- p-
p- -- ^-
ft- --
Oct.

^2 2 2 §2 2 -§2 2


S cc <5 ^=5 0
1
Athletic.

Brooklyn ..

Syracuse .

Rochester.
CLUBS.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION SCHEDULE 40

SCHEDULE FOR 189O.

r-t©iOO'<J'lO«0!>COTplO
Apr.+26
“ *27
“ 28
“ 29
June 12
“ *15
Oct. 7
8
“ +14

9
-J-* (3t ©i <?i 154 Ci »>••••••«•
• •. ••• •«•«
'S_.



ft-*-' - S'*'* «■*'*
1-5 0 • •• •« «•••*
5ico->i'iO{>acort<io«o l^XOOCOTfiOi-'C^CO
Apr.+26
“ *27
“ 28
“ 29
June 12
“ +14
“ *15

8
Oct. 7

6ie5!M©i+-* T-t-i-* r-* O't r-i


s a>
7
p,. ..^ (3 1* y*
<1*
i ■ i i : i ! ; i ■

q-'' o-*-
<1 0 *3 0

■i^-OOCiOCOTTiOrHC^CO
r-« T-» -r^ C'i 1-^
1-1
• ••••«•*•• i-H ^ ^ 'tH Of>*OOOir-»C^COxO«Dl'-
C'l th th
• i—t ^ ^ • ••••••••• -i-
!>.
*
54 4S
.-(-*■
p.-- - S'*'* 0-- • ••••••••• :: - Si 3 g<i q. . .. q.
g. . -g.. .
CL> 2
0 ^ CO 1^ t-3 CO
• •••••«•••
• ••••••••• T-HOlCC>'^TflO?OCOTt‘iO OT-H<MCOt>*C005C«iCO'^
May 6

9
“ *22
7
8

“ 23
Sept. 15
“ 16
“ 17
June+21

tH --h tH ^

* Sun day.
>••••• !• •• ■*-*
>••••••• '• ^ q +a
*••••*•• •• qi - gi :: i . . q. . . Q.. .

^ 1-5 CO

TfifjcoooeoTrtot-ooo lOOl^OOOSQ^CO'^CO OQ^ofr-iojcot^aocs


May 30
“ 30

July *27
“ 28
“ 30
Aug.*31
Sept. 1
“ +31
June *1

i-c C4 04 '3*
•H* -e-*
- 3- - q...- .b.
b- - . ft. - ft. .

t Saturday.

q- - ST'*'' q. . . q- . ^. .
S 1-5 to S <1 CO
00 Ct 0 ^ ^ OiOT-iOlCO'^COt^OOO TfinOOQr-KNCOt-^QOQ i0?0^•00^^QQOC0Tr:0
WCOCO* T-iJ^OCO r-. C'i Ci * OiC^CO T-1 (M'Cy CO *♦“
-H -H * * , -t- * -e- -*-* *
2 "*”4^ ^. g,..
- q q- - ? Cg'• -* 2*^ «- - - q- - 01- -
'^►-3 CO S CO s'* '' '* ■<.
iOOi.'-GOi“lC^COCO'<J<^ 0'r4C}eoosOT.<{'.cooj
“ 28
“ 30

“ 30

July 23
“ +26
Aug. 27
“ 28
“ +30
May+24
“ *25
“ 26
“ 28

May 30
July *27

Aug. *31

May +31

“ 24
Sept. 1

June *1
1

T-H T-4 ^ C45464<Mt-iS'»C4*


-»- *
-f- *
«... ...
q.-. -g,. .. ^
q... g..
— i?. . U- .•*

<J CO S t-S to
“ +30 1

iO^Di-o^corr^cO'^o
“ 27
“ +2
“ 28

4rtt>t.aooi.-(0?i-iTHC«
“ 30

June 2
“ 10
May 30
“ 30
Sept. 8
9

Aug. 1
May 20

“ 22

July 28
“ 29

July 31
“ +31
“ 21

tHt-I't-it—-i- 04 Oi 04 04 r.| 04 04
-H . ■*-
. ft. .
q.
^. . . .b.
g. . g. .

. . .
1-5 to
i

St. Louis.
Louisville.
Columbus.
.

_
Toledo

4
50 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE,

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION PITCHING RECORD FOR 1889.

The following table shows the record of the twenty-


one pitchers of the American Association who partici¬
pated in ten or more games during the championship
season of 1889. Caruthers, of the Brooklyns, leads, in
percentage of victories, the next highest by nearly 100
per cent. Stivetts, of the St. Louis, surpasses all others
in percentage of base hits made off his pitching, and
also in average of earned runs.

Earned Runs.
Victories.

Fielding.
off Pitching.

Batting.
Per cent, of

Avera^ of
Per cent, of

Per cent, of

Per cent, of
Base Hits
Games.
Pitchers. Clubs.

Caruthers.,.. Brooklyn. 45 .800 .251 1.98 .977 .269


Chamberlain St. Louis. 47 .702 .222 2.16 .953 .197
King. St. Louis. 50 .680 .250 2.44 .962 .2M
Stivetts. St. Louis. 18 .667 .209 1.38 .909 .228
Duryea. Cincinnati. 46 .652 .242 1.65 .892 .268
Lovett. Brooklyn. 28 .643 .256 2.41 .937 .178
Terry. Brooklyn. 37 .622 .223 2.00 .880 .293
Seward. Athletic. 35 .600 .274 2.08 .912 •219
MuUane. Cincinnati. 24 .583 .255 2 17 .914 .307
Weyhing .... Athletic. 51 .569 .224 1.69 .914 .135
Hughes. Brooklyn. 18 .5.56 .275 2.70 .976 .179
Viau. Cincinnati. 42 .548 .260 2.36 .927 .145
Foreman .... Baltimore. 44 .545 .235 2.14 .866 .140
McMahon.... Athletic. 28 .536 .241 '2.41 .919 .143
Kilroy. Baltimore. 54 .519 .2.51 1.76 .930 .290
Conway. Kansas City. 39 .487 .241 1.90 .922 .208
Cunningham Baltimore. 33 .485 .274 2..51 .922 .214
Baldwin. Columbus. 62 .4.52 .228 1.95 .912 .182
Widner. Columbus.. 32 .406 .290 2.80 .878 .209
Swartzel. Kansas City. 47 .404 .281 2.73 .9:34 .151
Ehret. Louisville. 39 .256 .281 2.68 .899 .253

>
Individual batting averages. 51

MINOR LEAGUES.

THE INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE.

This was the order in the International League at the


close of the season of 1889:
Hamilt’n.

Syracuse.
Roch’st’r.

Per Cent.
Toronto.
London.
Buffalo.

Detroit.

Played.
Toledo.

Won.
Clubs.

Buffalo. .... 4 7 4 6 8 5 41 107 .381


Detroit. 12 13^ 10 11 8 8 10 72 111 .649
Hamilton. . ... 8 3 . • • • ^5 5 4 4 34 108 .314
London. 9 6 11 * • • > 8 4 7 53 107 .495
Rochester. 11 5 11 7 • • « • 5 11 9 59 108 .546
Syracuse. 8 8 11 7 10 . • • • 9 10 63 107 .588
Toledo.."_ 8 8 9 9 5 7 • « • • 9 55 106 .519
Toronto. 10 5 12 9 6 5 7 .... 54 108 .500
Lost. 66 39 74 54 49 44 51 54

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.

\
Base Hits.
Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Stolen

Clubs.
Rank.

Players.
Bases.
Runs.

<DGQ
c3

1 Sunday . Toledo. 31 128 32 51 .398 9 4


2 Warden ... Toledo . 109 424 107 267 .394 28 58
3 Knight. T.ondon. 103 472 81 165 ..349 1 4i
4 Kinslow. London. 72 274 45 94 .343 9 9
5 Child. Syracuse.. ,.. 105 425 79 145 .341 21 53
6 Hoover. Toronto .... 110 483 114 161 .333 19 72
7 Friel. London . 41 176 45 58 .329 3 26
8 Powell. Hamilton. 40 149 30 48 .322 8 26
9 Goodfellow.... Detroit. 57 210 43 67 .319 14 8
10 W. O’Brien_ Rochester .... 95 375 53 119 .317 13 15
11 Burke. Toronto. 109 476 102 150 .315 26 97
12 Virtue. Detroit. 107 382 80 120 .314 20 40
52 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average

Sacrifice
ci

Games.

Hits.
Players. Clubs.

Stolen
Bases.
Rank.

at'§ CO


gM a
p
H fKn

13 Wood. London.. ... 29 117 14 37 .313 7 5


14 Wright. Syracuse. . .. 107 423 107 131 309 10 29
15 J Alvord. Toledo . 52 224 33 69 .308 11 11
"j Ward. Hamilton.... 50 201 34 62 .308 8 37
17 Hiland. London. 37 147 37 45 .306 6 21
18 Rainey. Buffalo. 108 452 91 138 .305 21 36
19 Rooks . Detroit. 112 455 109 138 .303 29 50
20 j Brodie . Hamilton. 111 467 87 141 .302 18 50
( Nicholson. Toledo. 87 361 52 109 .302 14 39
22 Lehane. Buffalo. 109 445 66 134 .301 18 11
23 Shafer . Detroit. 110 436 99 131 .300 16 38
24 McQueery. Syracuse ... . 104 438 70 131 .299 18 20
25 Grifiin . Rochester .... 111 456 101 134 .294 18 45
26 Zell . Detroit. 16 58 8 17 .293 3 4
97 ) MePhillips.. .. Rochester .... 108 433 54 116 .290 29 37
( Smith. Detroit. 33 100 28 29 .290 9 8
29 Fitzgerald. Rochester. 17 45 11 13 288 1 0
30 Campau. Detroit. 112 442 111 126 .285 32 69
31 Donnelly. Detroit. 89 369 m 105 .284 32 64
32 Swartwbod ... Hamilton. 105 427 69 121 283 17 36
33 McGuix’e. Toronto. 93 354 ‘ 72... 100 .282 28 20
34 Wheelock. ... Detroit. 112 483 130 Kirr-T^ 24 89
1 Kearns, H. London. 109 438 70 123 .280 28 41
35 ) Ellis. London. 39 171 31 48 .280 9 10
i Hartnett. Toronto . 89 373 50 104 .279 30 15
37 ] Pettit. Toronto . 41 179 47 50 .279 5 18
qq
oy i Simon. Rochester .... 102 385 71 107 .278 21 56
Hamburg. Buffalo. 109 413 74 116 .278 22 40
41 Collins, R. Buffalo. 103 379 93 no .277 18 81
42 Hofford. Rochester. 16 47 6 13 .276 0 1
43 Esterbrook. ..
( Sneed.
London.
Toledo .
39 160 30 44 .275 11 16
41 95 337 74 92 273 17 35
j Blair. Hamilton.... 65 241 31 66 .273 4 26
46 Sluebeck. London....... 108 416 104 113 .271 8 53
47
j Donovan. London. 53 224 45 60 .268 10 27
) O’Brien. Rochester .... 43 175 18 47 .268 13 12
49 Connor. Syracuse. 107 452 67 121 .267 32 44
50 Shepherd . Buffalo. 92 345 59 92 .266 8 29
01 ) Sales . Hamilton. .. 104 451 70 119 .264 15 20
(Vickery. Toronto.. .. 43 1.58 31 42 .264 11 12
53 Stallings. Toledo. 28 91 12 24 .263 2 8
54 Higgin^. Detroit . 112 513 79 134 .261 42 37
55 Grim. Toronto. 8:3 334 52 87 .260 20 52
56 McLaughlin. Syracuse . .. 105 389 58 101 .259 8 21
( Van Dyke. . Toledo. 10(5 424 64 108 .254 18 59
04
1 Rogei’s. Toledo. 15 55 9 14 .254 2 3
Ou
j Knowles. Rochester . .. 144 178 32 45 .253 11 18
) Andrus.. Buffalo. 109 450 88 114 .253 11 45
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 53

1
Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Stolen
Players. Clubs.

Bases.
Hank.

Runs.
\ Campana. London. 31 119 15 30 .252 10 1
Dl I Rris^e^s. Syracuse . 53 182 22 .252 8 4
46
63 Dickerson. London . 131 131 16 33 .251 2 3
64 Rnrkley. Toledo . 50 197 26 49 .248 16 1
65 McMillan. Toronto. 106 385 80 95 .247 18 65
Phillips. Hamilton. 82 302 26 74 .245 11 9
67 Ely..t. Syracuse . 70 455 68 111 .244 24 39
68 Thayer. Buffalo. 12 181 27 44 .243 2 10
69 Peltz. Rochester . 109 408 61 91 .242 24 19
70 Keefe. Syracuse . 40 150 18 36 .240 11 0
71 Knauss. Detroit. 40 147 17 35 .238 9 5
72 Shafer. Toledo. 80 287 46 68 .237 17 45
73 rJoiighlin . London. 21 73 12 17 .233 3 3
74 Reidy. Buffalo. 70 267 31 62 .232 15 7
75 Pettee. London. 76 312 39 72 .230 15 8
76 Polhemus. Hamilton. 19 79 18 18 .228 4 0
77 Rottonns. Toledo. 70 269 48 61 .226 9 37
78 Wells. Detroit. 53 200 30 15 .225 11 15
79 Smith. Toledo. 43 156 24 35 .224 5 18
\ McGuire. Toronto, Det.. 53 204 37 45 .220 19 34
80 i Mnrra.v. London.. 44 150 21 33 .220 5 8
82 Wa.lkpr. Syracuse . 50 171 29 37 .216 4 18
83 Whitney. Buffalo. 29 95 12 20 .210 8 1
1 Tifl. Roque. London. 68 243 40 51 .209 6 27
84 1 Gibbs -- Buffalo, Ham. 40 143 14 30 .209 9 2
86 Murphy... Syracuse . 47 173 21 36 .208 8 11
87 Rickley . .. Toronto. 91 339 46 75 .207 15 18
88 Shreve . Detroit. 27 97 17 20 .206 9 4
89 Stuart. Ham’ton, Buff 44 186 18 38 .204 9 8
90 Burke . Rochester .... 17 59 3 12 .203 2 1
( Calihan .... Roch’ter, Buff 41 138 24 28 .200 3 4
91 ) Oldfield. Hamilton..... 43 150 13 30 .200 8 2
t Prinpf^. London. 19 71 7 14 .197 1 0
93 •< McLaughlin. . Toronto. 108 391 72 77 .197 24 90
( Quest. Toledo. 21 81 9 16 .197 3 0
96 Sage . Toledo. 71 235 22 46 .196 5 5
97 Sera d .... Toronto. 36 123 20 24 .194 7 4
98 McShannic . .. Hamilton. 54 213 21 40 .187 12 24
1 Toole. Buffalo, Roch. 38 135 16 25 .185 11 12
99 '( Jones. London . 46 167 14 31 .185 11 2
101 8»pips . . ... Hamilton.... 43 156 14 28 .179 5 5
102 Lufb’y. Rochester .... 68 '275 127 49 .178 10 4
( Banning. Detroit. 47 163 26 28 .171 3 11
103 51 187 25 32 .171 8 4
1 Toy. Rochester . ..
105 Rpa.ly . Buffalo. 71 258 33 44 .170 16 20
106 Titpomb. Toronto . 29 106 8 18 .169 9 1
107 Battin. Syracuse .... 107 419 44 70 .167 30 15
108 Fanning. Buffalo. 16 54 7 9 .166 1 3
54 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Stolen
Bases.
Players. Clubs.
Rank.

Runs.
j Cushman. TnlerJo. 32 110 7 18 .163 rt 0
109 1 Jovr.f^... Toledo . 30 110 27 18 .163 7 11
111 McCann . Hamilton. 38 161 20 26 .161 5 18
112 Oftiss . T.ondon. 31 106 7 17 .160 3 4
j Calihan, T. Rochester .... 44 172 15 27 .156 6 11
llo (Barr. Rochester .... 47 14
160 25 .156 8 2
115 Cain . London _ 34 116 7 18 .155 4 2
116 White. Buffalo. 20 68 5 10 147 1 1
117 Swift. Toronto. 27 98 9 14 .146 7 5
118 McKeough. ... Rochester .... 72 242 34 33 .136 12 19
119 Wehrle . Toledo. 26 87 8 9 .103 5 0

INTERNATIONAL PITCHING RECORD .FOR 1889.

The_record of the pitchers in the International League,


who participated in ten or more games during 1889, fol¬
lows:
Earned Runs.

Sti'uck Outs.
Average Bat¬
tery Errors.
Per Cent, of

Average.
Average of

Average.
Victories.
Victories.

Average
Defeats.

Fielding
Games.

Batting

Pitchers. Clubs.

Smith. Detroit. 26 18 8 .692 2.55 4.02 3.00 .290 .930


Knauss. Detroit. 40 27 13 .675 1.65 5.04 4 33 .238 .951
Shreve . Detroit. 27 18 9 .667 2.07 4.14 2.02 .206 .974
Barr. Rochester .. 47 29 18 .617 1.68 3.22 3.28 .156 .954
Keefe. Syracuse.... 39 24 15 .615 1.84 3.28 3.21 .240 .941
Murphy. Syracuse.... 46 28 18 .609 1.85 4.84 2.39 .208 981
Giess. London. 15 9 6 .600 2.46 2.11 2.07 .160 .972
Fitzgerald... Rochester... 17 10 7 .588 2 38 6.11 4.05 .288 .900
Smith . Toledo. 37 21 16 .568 2.05 4.02 3.00 .224 .974
Cushman .... Toledo. 32 18 14 .563 2.09 3.11 6.02 .163 .910
Serad. Toledo. 35 19 16 .543 2.11 3.38 2.00 .194 .954
Jones. London. 35 19 16 .513 2.19 3.03 2.27 .185 .935
Whitney. Buffalo. 24 13 11 .542 2.66 4.01 4.06 .210 .920
Titcomb. Toronto..... 2? 14 13 .519 1.29 4.09 4.17 .169 .891
Callahan. Rochester... 39 20 19 .513 1.74 4.23 4.03 .200 .963
INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE SCHEDULE. 55

THE INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE SCHEDULE.

The schedule meeting of the International League


was held March 25th and 26th, at Toronto. A combina¬
tion club, representing Bay City and Saginaw, and the
Buffalo club, were admitted to membership, and the fol¬
lowing championship schedule was adopted:

Games Played in Buffalo.—With Detroit, May 8, 9,


10, June 16, 17, 18, Aug. 14, 15, 16, Sept. 18, 19, 20; Sagi¬
naw and Bay City, May 5, 6, 7, June 12, 13, 14, July 17,
18, 19, Aug. 9, II, 12; London, May i, 2, 3, 30 (a. m. and
p. M.), 31, July 10, II, 12, Sept. 15, 16, 17; Hamilton,
May 26, 27, 28, June 26, 27, 28, Aug. 5, 6, 7, Sept, i, 2,
3; Toronto, June 9, 10, ii, July 4 (a. m. and p. m.), 5,
Aug. 25, 26, 27, Sept. 22, 23, 24.

Games Played in Detroit.—With Saginaw and Bay


City, June 5, 6, 7, July 10, ii, 12, Aug, 21, 22, 23, Sept. 15,
16, 17; London, June 12, 13, 14, July 4 (a. m. and p. m.),
5, Aug. I, 2, 3, Sept. II, 12, 13; Buffalo, May 19,20, 21,
June 23, 24, 25,, July 14, 15, 16, Sept. 6, 8, 9; Hamilton,
May 15, 16, 17, June 9, 10, ii, July 28, 29, 30, Aug. 25,
26, 27; Toronto, May 12, 13, 14, 30 (a. m. and p. m.), 31,
July 17, 18, 19, Aug. 18, 19, 20.
Games Played in Hamilton.—With Detroit, May 5,
6, 7, June 19, 20, 21, July 21, 22, 23, Sept. 22, 23, 24; Sagi¬
naw and Bay City, May i, 2, 3, 23, 24 (a. m. and p. m.),
July 14, 15, 16, Aug. 18, 19, 20; London, May 8, 9, 10,
June 16, 17, 18, Aug. 9, ii, 12, Sept. 18, 19, 20; Buffalo,
June 2, 3, 4, July i (a. m. and p. m.), 2, 24, 25, 26, Aug.

m
56 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

21, 22, 23; Toronto, June 5, 6, 7, July 7, 8, 9, Aug. i,


2, 4, Sept. II, 12, 14.
Games Played in London.—With Detroit, May 23, 24
(a. m. and p. m.), July 7, 8, 9^4^. 5, 6, 7, 28, 29, 30; Sag¬
inaw and Bay City, May 26, 27/^8, June 19, 20, 21, July
I (a. m. and p. m.), 2, Aug. 14, 15, 16; Buffalo, May 12, 13,
14, June 5, 6, 7, July 28, 29, 30, Aug. 18, 19, 20; Hamil¬
ton, May 19, 20, 21, June 23, 24, 25, July 17, 18, 19, Sept.
4, 5,6; Toronto, May 15, 16, 17, June 26, 27, 28, July
24, 25, 26, Aug. 21, 22, 23.

Games Played in Saginaw and Bay City.—With


Detroit, June 2, 3, 4, 26, 27, 28, July 24, 25, 26, Sept, i, 2,
3; London, June 9, 10, ii, July 21, 22, 23, Aug. 25, 26, 27,
Sept. 22, 23, 24; Buffalo, May 15, 16, 17, July 7, 8, 9,
Aug. I, 2, 4, Sept. II, 12, 13; Hamilton, May^i2, 13, 14,
May 30 (a. m. and p. m.), 31, July 4 (a. m. and p. m.), 5,
Aug. 28, 29, 30; Toronto, May 19, 20, 21, June 23, 24,
25, July 28, 29, 30, Sept. 18, 19, 20. .

Games Played in Toronto.—With Detroit, May i, 2,


3, 26, 27, 28, July I (a. m. and p. m.), 2, Aug. 9, 11, 12; Sag¬
inaw and Bay City, May 8, 9, 10, June 16, 17, 18, Aug. 5,
6, 7, Sept. 4, 5, 6; London, May 5, 6, 7, June 2, 3, 4, July
14, 15, 16, Sept. I, 2, 3; Buffalo, May 23, 24 (a. m. and
p. M.), June 19, 20, 21, July 21, 22, 23, Aug. 28, 29, 30;
Hamilton, June 12, 13, 14, July 10, ii, 12, Aug. 14, 15,
16, Sept. 25, 26, 27.
WESTERN ASSOCIATION. 57

THE WESTERN ASSOCIATION.

The season of 1889 in the Western Association com¬


menced May 18th and ended September 30th. The
record made by the eight clubs follows;

)
Min’apolis. |

Milwaukee, j

j
1
Des Moines,
Sioux City.

St. Joseph.

Per Cent.
St. Paul.
Omaha.

Denver.
Clubs.
Rank.

Won.
1 Omaha. 11 11 14 10 12 13 12 83 685
2 St. Paul. 7 8 11 11 10 13 14 74 616
3 Minneapolis. 6 16 » . 9 11 12 10 8 66 540
4 Sioux City. 4 7 8 • • • . 10 10 8 12 59 .508
5 Milwaukee. 7 6 7 7 7 9 13 56 .470
G Denver . 6 6 6 8 16 7 9 52 433
*7 St. Joseph . 3 3 7 6 7 8 .... 8 42 .392
8 Des Moines.. 5 3 9 6 4 9 5 .... 41 350
Lost. 38 46 5t> 61 63 68. 65 76

* The St. Josephs dropped out just at the close of the season, and
had finished all but three games with Des Moines.

INDIVIDUAL BATTING RECORD.

Here are the official batting averages of the ninety


players of the Western Association;
Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Aver.aj'e

\
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Players. Clubs.
Rank.

Runs.

1 Earl. Milwaukee. 28 121 25 46 4 .380


2 Hudson. Minneapolis. 32 129 47 46 6 .357
s dine. Sioux City. ITS 449 166 160 90 .356
4 Reilly . St. Paul. 120 505 141 179 46 .354
5 Crooks . Omaha. 111 433 197 149 93 .344
6 Werrick . St. Paul . 119 483 124 1 39 .341
7 Piekett. St. Paul. 28 126 31 ' 42 15 .333
s Dalrymple. .. Denver. 118 523" 142 173 54 .331
9 Kreisr. St. Joseph. 106 436 88 142 17 .326
(Treadway. St. PaulandDenv. 121 459 108 149 41 325
1(J ) Devlin. Minn, and St. Joe. 27 83 11 27 5 .325
58 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Bat.

Hits.
Players. Clubs.

Runs.
a
eS
Pi

12 Mains. St. Paul. 54 193 35 62 5 .321


13 Lowe. Milwaukee. 97 410 72 129 25 .315
14 Cleveland. Omaha. 111 449 142 141 23 .314
15 Morrissey. Milwaukee. 119 511 119 160 25 .313
16 Sutton. Milwaukee . 87 .342 88 105 37 .307
17 Hawes... St. Paul. 120 523 139 159 72 .304
18 j Poorman. Milwaukee. 109 475 138 144 97 .303
I IMcQuaid .... Denver. 26 122 24 37 18 .303
20 j Cooney. Omaha. 106 494 113 137 56 .302
I Shock. Milwaukee. 78 324 82 98 39 .302
22 Minnehan. Minneapolis. 115 469 90 141 20 .301
23 Nagle. Omaha. 85 346 55 103 14 .2^
24 Carroll. St. Paul. 117 481 152 142
25 ( Curtis. St. Jos.and Denver 111 444 102 130 50 .293
'( Black. Sioux City. 39 150 22 44 12 .293
27 Powell. Sioux City. 115 463 95 135 40 .292
28 J Foster. Minneapolis. 90 362 88 105 58 .290
j Smith. Denver. 30 117 34 34 7 .290
30 CartAvright.... St. Joseph. 106 411 101 118 54 .287
31 J Silch. Mil. and Denver.. 121 477 113 1.36 83 '.285
I Rowe. Denver. 110 466 90 133 15 285
33 Farmer. St. Paul.. 61 222 47 63 38 >284
34 j Alberts. Milwaukee. 118 417 82 118 69 .283
I McClellan. Denver. 114 456 117 129 41 .283
36 Mahoney. St. Joseph. 42 163 24 46 6 .282
37 ( Murphy. St. Paul.. 119 506 132 142 69 .281
] Hotahng. St. Joseph. 50 192 20 54 13 .281
39 Miller. Minneapolis. 122 485 98 136 19 .280
40 Glenn. Sioux City. 101 441 117 144 46 .277
41 Maskrey. Des Moines. 116 457 104 125 42 .274
42 Jantzen. Minn, and Mil. 57 200 45 54 5 .270
43 Daly. Minn, and St. Paul 114 469 89 126 19 .269
Genins.... Sioux City. 117 475 94 128 48 .269
45 Brosnan .. Sioux City. 118 492 81 1.32 33 .268
46 Mills. IMilwaukee. 74 298 58 74 27 .266
Kirby .... Mil. and Denver.. 92 355 67 94 47 .265
47 Klusman . Mil. ,D. M. and Den 70 279 51 74 20 .265
Phelan ... Des Moines. 65 279 44 74 40 .265
50 Morrison . Minn, and Mil. 40 140 30 37 5 .264
51 Dolan.. Denver. 78 319 60 84 11 .263
52 West. Minneapolis. 50 203 22 53 6 .261
53 Tmmer ..., Minn, and Denver 92 354 74 92 16 .260
McGarr ... St. Joseph. 54 231 58 60 47 .260
55 Canavan.. Omaha. 115 444 93 115 75 .259
56 Hart... ... Des Moines. 69 244 39 63 13 .2.58
57 Fagan - Des Moines & Den. 68 226 ■ 42 58 10 .257
Snuth. St. Joseph . 19 78 11 20 3 .257
59 Hanrahan, Minneap*olis. 120 485 87 123 58 .254
Broughton, St. Paul. 100 393 57 100 8 .254
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 59

2 4> ”
8 fee--
OQ £ O gw
Players. Clubs. o « 4^ GO M
M O Ci
a •S.'S >> »
8 s PCQ
«a2
ej s c2 C3^
o cc

61 Willis. Omaha. 69 278 67 70 38 .252


62 Andrews. Omaha. 111 422 86 106 28 .251
Strauss. Omaha. 103 480 102 120 58 .250
Ardner. St. Joseph. 106 456 59 114 23 .250
63 Whitely. Des Moines... 66 260 41 65 7 .250
Hengle . Minneapolis. 122 492 88 123 33 .250
67 Walsh. Omaha. 121 527 72 131 37 .249
68 Crossley. Mil.,Minn.&S. C’y 32 93 20 23 3 .247
69 Whitney. St. Joseph. 19 69 9 17 • • • .246
70 Meekin. St. Paul. 28 98 14 24 4 .245
71 Duke. Minneapolis. 63 235 34 57 7 .243
72 SheUhase. St. Joseph. 100 385 58 92 32 .239
73 Miller. St. Paul. 49 189 33 45 17 .2:38
White. Denver. 81 329 65 78 28 .237
74 Hin:ley. Milwaukee. 56 215 32 51 40 .237
Messitt. Omaha. 62 232 64 55 42 .2:37
77 Dugdale. Minneapolis. 77 275 38 65 12 .235
78 O’Connell. Des Momes. 118 421 79 113 39 .235
79 Roach.. Des Moines. 17 60 5 14 1 .233
80 Darnbrough ... Denver. 41 155 28 36 6 .232
81 KneU. St. Jos. & Omaha. 64 244 28 56 11 .230
82 Bradley. Sioux City. 118 471 76 107 41 .227
83 Webber. Sioux City. 23 85 16 19 . • • .224
' Burks. SiouxC’y & St. Jos. 79 306 49 69 11 .222
Shores. Denver. 48 194 28 43 8 .222
84 Smith. Des Moines. 106 419 63 93 14 .222
Chrisman___ JlinneapoUs. 19 81 10 18 22 .222
88 Tuckerman.... St. Paul. 47 149 32 as 7 .221
( Cady. Des Moines. 90 353 46 77 6 .218
89 1 Clark. Omaha. 52 197 38 43 7 .218
91 Crotty. Sioux City. 68 240 35 52 20 .217
92 Trafldey. Des Moines. 102 365 70 79 28 .216
9;i Mitchell. Minneapolis. 34 118 11 25 3 .208
94 Burdick. Sioux City. 20 68 14 14 3 .206
95 Wagenhurst... Minn, and St. Paul 15 59 7 12 13 .203
96 Kennedy . Des Moines. 37 134 15 27 2 .202
97 Griffith . Milwaukee. 50 154 32 31 4 .201
(Siebel. Sioux City. 21 70 11 14 • • • .200
98 < Macullan . Des Moines. 102 335 68 67 24 .200
(Crowell. St. Joe and Des M. 40 135 21 27 3 .200
101 Nicholl. Omaha. 53 191 27 38 5 .199
\ Dreschell. Minneapolis. 32 122 28 24 23 .197
102 '( Heilman. Sioux City. 36 132 20 26 1 .197
104 Timishan. Denver. 58 208 41 40 8 ..197
105 McCarty. St. Joseph. 20 68 5 13 3 ,192
106 Flood. St. Joseph. 34 116 18 21 .191
107 Frye. St. Joseph. 38 150 22 28 "4 .190
108 Flanagan. Sioux City. 35 131 16 24 • • • .187
J09 Miurhy.. • Sioux City. 25 89 9 16 6 .188
60 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE

Base Hits(.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.
Players. Clubs.
Rank.

Runs.

1
110 Herr . Milwaukee. 26 92 25 16 12 .180
111 Davies. Milwaukee. 34 130 20 20 3 .174
112 Jevne. Minn, and Mil. 34 112 13 17 11 .154
113 McVey. St. Joseph. 16 62 1 9 .145
114 Alexander. Des M. and Mil... 28 105 7 14 i .133
115 McNabb. Denver. 26 75 9 8 1 .107
116 Emmerke. Des Moines. 17 56 6. 5 2 .080

THE ATLANTIC ASSOCIATION.

Worcester won the Atlantic Association pennant of


1889, as shown by the following table.:
1

I
1
1

1
1
Hartford, j

Worc’ter.j
N. Haven.

Per Cent.
Wilk’b’e.
Jersey-C.

Newark.
Easton.

Lowell.

Won.
Clubs.

Easton. 2 2 1 1 4 0 0 10 378
Hartford. 5 2 14 7 12 5 4 49 .527
Jersey City... 2 5 • •. • 6 6 5 2 7 33 .589
Lowell. 4 3 3 4 9 3 5 31 .344
Newark.. 2 9 7 li 8 3 9 49 .5.57
New Haven. 4 6 4 9 8 2 5 38 .432
Wilkesbarre. . 5 5 2 5 6 4 5 32 .40.5
Worcester. 4 14 3 13 7 8 5 54 .607
Lost. 26 44 23 59 39 50 20 35 296

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.


11
|j
!
of B. Hit.s.
Per cent.

Sacrifice

02
Scored.
Hits.

Players.
Stolen

Clubs.
Bases.

02
Runs

S
0

Hines .... AVilkesbarre.. 54 .344 23 6 61


Flanagan Wilkesbarre. 54 .343 12 7 59
Hamilton Lowell. 86 .341 19 15 68
Beecher , Worcester. 50 .329 19 18 49
Lyons.... Worcester. 55 .320 28 12 52
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 61

of B. Hits.

Sacrifice
Per cent
Games.

Scored.
Hits.
Stolen
Players. Clubs.

Bases.

Runs
Dwyer.. Lowell. 81 .319 9 14- 60
Shoenink. New Haven. 61 .316 15 13 22
Henry. Hartford. 80 .312 41 12 44
Lally. New Haven. 76 .309 16 8 54
O’Brien, T. 51 .309 33 9 52
Dooms .. Newark. 55 .305 10 9 36
Seh'effler.... . Worcester. 89 .303 34 11 87
Pettit. . Wilkesbari’e. 52 .303 31 8 64
Irwin. 51 .298 56 15 66
T.yneh, T. Hartford. 81 .293 17 15 75
Meister. Worcester. 87 .290 52 21 79
Burdock. New Haven. 64 .286 24 19 44
Wilson.. . Worcester. 54 .286 9 12 34
.Johnson. . Newark. 88 .282 47 14 85
McKee. New Haven. 72 .282 62 22 64
Day . Lowell. 65 .273 66 9 57
Qalligan. Ne w Haven. 65 .272 18 11 33
Field"" . Newark. 89 .269 51 32 66
Bradley. ... . Worcester. 68 .269 15 11 55
Jones . Worcester. 81 .268 28 15 54
Knowles.. Jersey City. 56 .268 38 12 64
P.nrke, .1.. Lowell. 71 .264 24 18 35
r tampion . Worcester. 88 .2.58 67 16 79
Black . Wilkesbarre. 52 .2.58 54 i5 46
Ha ves .... . Newark. 62 .257 29 13 39
Pooca n ... . Newark. 88 .251 50 14 82
Miirnhv. N P. .. . Lowell. 66 .247 26 9 36
rrPi'hnrdt. . Hartford. 78 .245 24 20 49
Kosf,er .... Hartford. 92 .241 27 18 59
Mann. Hartford. 83 .235 40 15 73
Onmn'rAn .1 . New Haven. 80 .235 20 20 38
ftt.A.l'ZA .... Lowell. 77 .234 43 28 58
Porcora.n . New Haven. 65 .232 19 12 31
. New Haven. . 88 .224 60 4 68
TTilA.nri . Jersey City. 56 .223 29 20 •55
Sav ... . Hartford. 88 .222 16 10 55
Cud worth. Worcester. 88 .218 49 21 62
/Vnnis . Hartford. 84 .214 30 20 65
Ma n sel 1 . Newark. 84 .212 50 16 68
On Villi .... . ... New Haven. 55 .212 34 6 43
SuUivan, J. Newark. 53 ,211 6 6 31
Donoghue . Lowell. . 68 .210 35 11 25
O’Brien .f ... . Jersey City. 53 .207 5 11 38
Smith, L. H. Newark .. 89 .205 24 18 45
MnOnViA ... .... Hartford. 68 .204 11 12 28
T.nncr . Worcester. 84 .188 54 11 62
McDermott. . Newark. 64 .182 37 18 42
62 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE ATLANTIC ASSOCIATION SCHEDULE.

The schedule for 1890 of the Atlantic Association


follows:
Baltimore Abroad.—At Hartford, May 28, 30 (a.
M.), 31, July 22, 23, Aug. 16, 18, Sept. 20, 22; at Jersey
City, May 20, 21, 22, July 17, 18, Aug. 19, 20, Sept. 29,
30; at Newark, May 3, 5, 6, June 16, 17, July 5, 7, Sept.
2, 3; at New Haven, May 24, 27, 30 (p. m.), July 15, 16,
- Aug. 21, 23, Sept. 25, 27; at Washington, June 10, ii, 12,
July 4 (a. m.), 28, 29, Aug. 9, Sept. 15, 16; at Wilming¬
ton, May 7, 8, 9, June 13, 14, July 8, 9, Aug. 27, 28; at
Worcester, June 2, 3, 4, July 19, 21, Aug. 14, 15, Sept.
23, 24.
Hartford Abroad.—At Baltimore, April 23, 24, 25,
June 25, 26, Aug. 6, 7, Sept. 10, ii; at Jersey City, May
7, 8, 9, June 13, 14, July 8, 9, Aug. 28, 29; at Newark,
April 30, May 12, June 27, 28, July 30, 31, Sept. 12, 13;
at New Haven, May 3, 6, 16, June 16, 17, July 4 (p. m.),
5, Aug. 26, Sept. I (a. m.); at Washington, April 19, 21,
22, June 30^ July i, Aug. 4, 5, Sept. 8, 9; at Wilmington,
April 26, 28, 29, July 2, Aug. i, 2, Sept. 4, 5, 6; at Wor¬
cester, June 5, 6, 7, July 26, 28, Aug. 12, 13, Sept. 17, 18.

Jersey City Abroad.—At Baltimore, April 30, May


I, 2, July 2, 3, Aug. 4, 5, Sept. 8, 9; at Hartford, May 10,
13, 14, June 21, 23, July 10, ii, Sept. 2, 3; at Newark,
April 19, 22, 30 (p. M.), July i, 4 (a. m.), 21, Aug. 2, Sept.
10, II; at New Haven, June 5, 6, 7, July 26, 28, Aug.
12, 13, Sept. 17, 18; at Washington, April 26, 28, 29,
ATLANTIC ASSOCIATION SCHEDULE. (Kj

June 25, 26, Aug. 6, 7, Sept. 5, 6; at Wilmington, April


24, 25, June 27, 28, July 30, 31, Sept. 12, 13; at Wor¬
cester, May 15, 16, 17, June 19, 20, July 12, 14, Aug. 30,
Sept. I.

Newark Abroad.—At Baltimore, May 10, 12, 13,


June 20, 21, July 10, ii, Aug. 25, 26; at Hartford, May
24, 26, 27, July 17, 18, Aug. 19, 20, Sept. 29, 30; at
Jersey City, April 21, May 29, 30 (a. m.), July 4 (p. m.),
19, Aug. 14, 15, Sept. 20, 22; at New Haven, May 30,
June 3, 4, July 22, 23, Aug. 16, 18, Sept. 23, 24; at
Washington, May 15, 16, 17, June 18, 19, July 12, Aug.
27, 28, 29; at Washington, June 10, ii, 12, July 28, 29,
Aug. II, 12, Sept. 15, 16; at Worcester, May 20, 21, 22,
July 15, 16, Aug. 21, 23, Sept. 25, 27.
New Haven Abroad.—At Baltimore, April 19, 21,
22, June 30, July i, Aug. i, 2, Sept. 12, 13; at Hartford,
May 5, 15, 17, June 18, 20, July 4 (a. m.), 12, Aug. 30,
Sept. I (p. M.); at Jersey City, June 10, ii, 12, July 24,
25, Aug. 8, 9, Sept. 15, 16; at Newark, April 26, 28, 29,
July 2, 3, Aug. 6, 7, Sept. 5, 6; at Washington, April 23,
24, 25, June 27, 28, July 30, 31, Sept. 10, ii; at Wil¬
mington, April 30, May 12, June 25, 26, Aug. 4, 5, Sept.
8, 9; at Worcester, May 10, 12, 13, June 21, 23, July 10,
II, Sept. 3, 4.
Washington Abroad.—At Baltimore, June 6, 7, July
4 (p. M.), 25, 26, Aug. II, 12, Sept. 17, 18; at Hartford,
May 23, June 3, 4, July 15, 16, Aug. 21, 23, Sept. 25, 27;
at Jersey City, May 24, 27, 28, July 22, 23, Aug. 16, 18,
64 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Sept. 23, 24; at Newark, May 7, 8, 9, June 13, 14, July


8, 9, Aug. 30, Sept, i; at New Haven, May 20, 21, 22,
July 19, 21, Aug. 14, 15, Sept. 20, 22; at Wilmington,
May 3, 5, 6, June 16, 17, July 5, 7, Aug. 25, 26; at Wor¬
cester, May 30 (a. m. and p. m.), 31, July 17, 18, Aug.
19, 20, Sept, 29, 30.
Wilmington Abroad,—At Baltimore, May 15, 16, 17,
June 18, 19, July 12, 14, Aug. 30, Sept, i; at Hartford,
May 20, 21, 30 (p. M.), July 19, 21, Aug. 14, 15, Sept. 23, 24;
at Jersey City, May 31, June 3, 4, July 15, 16, Aug. 21,
23, Sept. 25, 27; at Newark, June 5, 7, 9, July 25, 26,
Aug. 8, 9, Sept. 17, 18; at New Haven, May 28, 29, 30
(a, m.), July 17, 18, Aug. 19, 20, Sept. 29, 30; at Wash¬
ington, May 10, 13, 14, June 21, 23, July 10, ii,Sept. 23;
at Worcester, May 23, 24, 27, July -22, 23, Aug. 16, 18,
Sept. 20, 22.
Worcester Abroad.—At Baltimore, April 26, 28, 29,
June 27, 28, July 30, 31, Sept. 5, 6; at Hartford, June
10, II, 12, July 24, 25, Aug. 9, II, Sept. 15, 16; at
Jersey City, May 3, 5, 6, June 16, 17, July 5, 7, Aug. 26,
27; at Newark, April 23, 24, 25, June 25, 26, Aug. 4, 5,
Sept. 8, 9; at New Haven, May 7, 8, 9, June 13, 14,
July 8, 9, Aug. 28, 29; at Washington, April 30, May 12,
July 23, Aug. 12, Sept. 12, 13; at Wilmington, April 19,
21, 22, July 4 (a. m. and p. m.), Aug. 6, 7, Sept. 10, ii.

THE TRI-STATE LEAGUE.

April 30th opened, and September 14th closed, the


season of i'889 in the Tri-State League, August 27th,
iNDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 65

the Hamilton club disbanded, but finished the season on


the cobperative plan. The record:

||
Springfield.

Wheeling.
Hamilton.
Mansfield.

Per Cent.
Dayton.
Canton.
Clubs.

Won.

Canton. 11 13 11 67 15 17 .644
IMansfleld. 11 11 13 59 10 14 .kl
Springfield. 9 ii • • • ■ 13 55 11 11 .534
Dayton. 8 9 8 • • • 48 9 14 .470
Hamilton. 5 12 5 8 •••• 41 11 .890
Wheeling. 4 7 11 9 10 ..... 41 .311
, Lost. 37 50 48 54 55 67 311

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.


Base Hits.

0)2
Times at

Sacrifice

6c*
Games.

Hits.

gw
Bat.

Players. Clubs.
Stolen
Bases.
Rims.

00
Pi
<1 eg

1 O’Connor.... Springfield. 20 72 32 29 4 26 .402


2 Rvn Canton. 102 419 116 150 25 77 .358
3 DoIa Mansfield. 30 115 22 39 7 3 .339
4 Williams .... Hamilton, Wheeling. 81 332 75 106 13 14 .319
Nichols.. .. Wheeling. 31 132 36 42 2 22 .317
]y[illAr Canton. 101 446 129 139 24 76 .312
G Diinn . Wheeling... . 91 385 80 120 8 24 .312
8 O’Brien. MansfielH. 85 339 76 104 21 48 .307
... Mansfield. - 107 455 97 138 25 76 .303
9 Fitzsimmons Mansfield. 92 366 74 111 17 21 .303
11 Hamilton. 84 345 77 103 9 50 .299
12 Van Alstine . Springfield. 107 448 89 133 34 34 .297
Stephens .... Dayton. 99 385 77 110 20 29 .295
13 Hamilton. 54 204 32 60 10 10 .295
15 St.An K a1 ....... Springfield. 103 444 121 130 20 81 .293
16 'nillnn Hamilton. 38 151 26 45 7 11 .291
17 Haller .... Wheeling. 46 180 25 53 7 11 .290
18 pi rd . Mansfield.. 94 381 76 110 13 56 .289
19 MnncrAr, Da.yt.on. 43 129 31 37 7 16 .287
SnAinAl WhAoling. 102 459 75 128 31 12 .282
20 MansflelH. 41 131 28 37 11 8 .282
Burchard....
Chrisman.... Dayton. 94 394 71 110 23 26 .280
22 Dr>yjA. Canton. 80 368 89 103 8 81 .280
24 A lcr»t. Mansfield. 108 386 70 102 25 25 .278
25 Riley. Canton. 28 94 11 27 3 9 .277
5
66 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Base Hits,
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Stolen
Clubs.

Bases.
Players.

Runs.
4»S
(3
d
Pi

26 Berger . Canton. 77 315 66 87 16 48 .276


27 Prescott. Dayton. 83 334 63 92 16 49 .275
j Bowman. Wheeling. 77 325 48 88 11 19 .271
28 I Flanagan.... Hamilton, Dayton.... 43 173 22 47 6 12 .271
30 Carey. Mansfield . 83 348 81 94 19 35 .270
31 Hobrecht.... Wheeling . 105 422 63 113 14 44 .268
32 Lersch. Springfield. 38 146 37 39 6 16 .267
33 Parks. Mansfield . 108 434 66 114 22 21 .263
34 Higgins. Hamilton. 77 329 59 86 9 22 .261
35 Shai'p. Canton. .. 99 392 99 102 20 83 .260
j Niles. Hamilton, Dayton.... 108 395 57 102 10 36 .258
36 ] Meehan. Wheeling . 89 151 21 39 5 4 .258
j Randall. Dayton. 102 400 82 103 13 51 .257
38 i Easton. Springfield. 79 327 67 84 15 41 .257
j Carr. Hamilton.. 20 75 13 19 1 13 .253
40 I Smith. Mansfield . 87 356 58 90 20 31 .253
J Ryan. Hamilton, Wheeling.. 84 362 57 89 18 42 .246
42
I Westlake, G. Springfield. 97 422 93 104 3G 76 .246
44 McQuirk. Springfield. 21 90 31 90 6 14 .244
j Brewer. Hamilton. 26 99 5 24 4 10 .243
45 j Staib. Canton, Springfield... 62 247 35 61 15 20 .243
47 Kennedj’^. Wheeling. 35 124 18 30 5 10 .242
(Gans. Dayton. 46 201 31 49 9 12 .241
48 -I Fogarty. Dayton. 21 87 28 21 7 16 .241
(Lawless. Springfield, Canton .. 32 116 20 28 4 6 .241
51 Shoup . Hamilton.. 90 265 62 87 24 71 238
52 Wilson. Mansfield.. 20 80 20 19 2 17 .237
53 Zecher.... .. Canton.. 99 394 52 93 22 25 .236
54 Delaney. Canton . 93 346 84 81 14 55 .234
j McAlleny.... Davton. 46 189 35 48 14 15 .2.33
55 I Darrah. Mansfield, Springfield 80 351 66 82 30 34 .233
i Somers. Springfield. 102 438 72 101 26 46 .231
57 < O’Rourke.... Wheeling. 63 268 53 62 9 21 .231
(Zimmer. VTieeling. 82 422 41 71 19 23 .231
60 Whitrock.... Springfield. 45 166 24 38 8 9 .220
61 Harris..._ Canton, Ham., Spring. 93 345 51 78 11 23 .226
62 Morrison..!.. Mansfield . 43 151 18 34 14 5 .225
63 De Wald. Dayton. 47 170 30 38 9 20 .224
( White. Hamilton . 106 436 75 98 18 53 .220
64 i Borland.. ... Dayton, Springfield .. 44 177 25 39 18 12 .220
66 Shamus. Canton, Wheeling ... 44 151 35 33 5 12 .219
67 Little. Springfield.. 43 177 25 38 12 5 .215
68 Westlake, R . Springfield. 78 331 52 71 25 17 .214
69
j Wetterer .... Hamilton. 66 250 28 53 13 19 .212
I McCullom. .. Dayton. 34 137 27 29 7 19 .212
j Dallas. WheePg, Dayton,Can. 51 189 26 40 3 12 .211
71 1 Miller. Wheeling. .*. .50 194 32 41 7 12 .211
73 Myers. Wheeling. 21 74 9 15 5 4 .203
74 Blandy. Hamilton . 20 74 7 15 4 4 .202
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 6?

Base Hits.
1 Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.
Players. Clubs.

Stolen
Rank.

Bases.
Runs.

1
75 Reedei*. Mansfield. 20 80 16 16 9 6 200
76 Conover . ... Springfield. 27 103 19 20 11 7 .ik
77 Green . Dayton, Wheerg,Can. 63 241 51 45 12 18 .187
78 Williams .,. Dayton. . 71 391 57 70 13 62 .179
79 Allen'........ Hamilton. 35 122 14 21 2 2 .172
80 Thomas. Dayton... 43 173 11 29 5 14 .108
81 Ulonroe. Canton . 44 132 16 22 7 2 167
82 Browner. ... Hamilton . .. .. 36 128 li 20 3 4 .156
83 Lyons. Dayton, Spr’g, Ham’n 94 364 39 56 20 28 .154
84 Lemmons . Dayton.^. 23 81 15 12 9 9 .148
85 Hograve ... Hamilton . 20 65 7 9 0 8 .138
86 Hyainger— Wheeling. 20 71 7 6 7 3 .084

THE NEW YORK STATE LEAGUE.

The New York State League, for the season of 1889,


was composed, at the beginning, of six clubs, but Oneida
dropped out on July 12th, and Seneca Falls disbanded
on August 19th, leaving only four clubs to finish the
season. The club record and individual batting aver¬
ages are here given:
||

|
1

Seneca F’lls
Canand’a.

Per Cent.
Auburn.

Elmira.

Oneida.

Clubs.
Utica.
Rank.

Won.

1 Aiihnrn. . 5 8 6 8 5 32 .627
2 Elmira.: . 7 5 7 7 4 30 .588
3 Canandaigua. .. 4 7 .... 7 6 3 27 .529
4 Utica.. 6 5 4 . • • • 5 2 22 440
5 Seneca FaUs. 2 3 5 5 • • • . 3 18 .391
6 Oneida. 0 1 2 3 2 ... 8 .320
Lost. 19 21 24 28 28 17
68 universal base-bAll guide.

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES,

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.
Players. Clubs.

Runs.
d

1 Taylor. Ehnira. 37 154 39 58 12 .370


2 Phalen. Auburn. 55 250 68 92 18 .368
3 Kennedy. Canandaigua. 42 189 41 68 2 .8.59
4 Halligan. Canandaigua. 49 204 44 72 13 .353
5 Knox. Canandaigua. 45 193 57 66 11 .342
6 Connor. Canandaigua . 44 200 50 67 5 .335
7 Doyle. Auburn. 39 168 37 56 5 .333
8 Goodall. Elmira. 23 85 17 28 3 .329
9 Walsh. Seneca Falls. 15 62 13 20 3 .323
10 Petrie. Oneida . ,28 118 24 37 2 .314
11 Murphy. Oneida. 10 32 6 10 1 .312
12 Roche. Auburn.. 49 167 38 52 6 .311
13 Mooney. Utica. 56 221 49 66 6 .299
14 Weidman. Canandaigua. 27 121 19 36 6 .298
15 Ryan. Auburn. 46 199 44 59 a .297
16 May. Oneida. 31 135 25 40 5 .296
17 Shugarts. Elmira. 52 237 55 70 15 .295
18 Keay. Auburn. 55 245 70 72 14 .294
19 McHale. Canandaigua. 40 198 37 58 7 .293
20 Goodryder. Seneca Falls .. . 50 202 42 50 9 .292
21 Fee. Canandaigua. 29 110 21 32 4 ,291
22 Kenney.. Canandaigua. 49 207 56 60 10 .290
23 j Shinnick. Auburn. 53 235 66 67 9 .2a5
I Agan. Seneca Falls. 29 116 20 33 4 .285
25 Quirk. Elmira. 48 201 29 42 18 .281
26 J Creegan. Seneca Falls. 52 240 42 66 14 .275
1 Brill. Elmira. 40 160 28 44 9 .275
28 Begy. Utica_. 55 245 44 66 6 .269
29 McGuckin, Joe ... Elmii’a ... . 61 221 52 59 7 .267
30 Coakley . Oneida . 36 140 32 37 3 .264
31 Urquhart. Seneca Falls . 48 183 26 48 7 .262
32 Pitz. Elmira. 51 198 43 50 9 .253
33 Burns.. Elmira. 31 134 20 33 15 .249
j Allen. Utica. 26 105 22 26 4 .248
34
(Foulkrod. Utica. 26 109 18 27 3 .248
36 Thompson. Caoandaigua. 31 130 24 32 5 .246
37 Doyle. Seneca Falls. 47 200 31 49 9 .245
38 Weber. Utica. 53 197 29 48 10 .244
39 Stephens. Elmira. 49 217 39 52 7 .240
40 Clare. Auburn. 47 189 59 45 8 .238
j Stone. Utica. 56 232 41 53 13 .233
41
I Jones. Oneida. 31 116 18 27 5 .233
43 Gallagher. Seneca Falls. 31 113 20 26 2 .230
44 j McGuckin, John.. Elmira.... 41 166 15 38 9 .229
(McDermott. Auburn. 48 179 40 41 3 .229
46 Barrett. Auburn. 12 44 8 10 1 .227
47 Scott. Utica. 56 201 36 45 6 .224
THE MICHIGAN STATE LEAGUE. 69

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Avera{?e
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Players. Clubs.

Bat.
Rank.

Runs.
1
48 Flynn. Utica. 40 148 26 33 6 .223
49 Esniack. Seneca Falls. 29 117 14 26 10 .222
50 Latham. Oneida. 36 140 14 31 9 .221
51 Fournier. Utica. 23 78 17 17 5 .218
52 RiiHdp.rhfl.m Aiihnm. 51 206 43 44 4 .217
( An.«!All. . Oneida. 10 56 4 12 3 .214
53 Seneca Falls. 35 126 13 27 9 .214
Cole.
55 f.ittle. Seneca Falls •.. 15 61 9 13 4 .213
56 Cain. Utica. 38 150 22 33 9 .210
Rpfl.rflnn Seneca, Falls . 39 157 25 30 7 .200
57 i Shearon . Elmira... 17 60 8 12 4 .200
Riirns? .... Auburn. 29 111 30 22 4 .198
59 ■ Rrniithers. Oneida . 34 121 16 24 3 .198
Rra.ha.n . Elmira. 20 71 14 13 3 .ISS
61
1
Bishop.
Dolan .
Utica..' .
Seneca Falls.
27
11
93
44
15
4
17
8
1
4
.183
.182
63
64 Moore.. Seneca Falls . 19 116 16 21 2 .181
65 Ca.se . Oneida. 19 79 8 14 1 .177
66 Wetzel. Seneca Falls. 21 80 11 13 3 .165
67 Oreen. Utica. 25 96 12 15 5 .156
68 Dozen dorf . Oneida. 11 34 4 5 1 .147
69 Alfonson . Oneida. 31 124 13 18 2 .145
70 Glea.son. Canandaigua. 23 90 20 13 6 .133
71 Sheehan .... Auburn. 12 49 4 6 2 .121
72 SulUvan. Canandaigua... 16 52 7 6 4 .115

THE MICHIGAN STATE LEAGUE.

This organization began its season May 13th and


closed September 17th. The record:
Won. Lost. PerCt. Won. Lost. Per Cl.
Jackson. ....60 38 .612 Greenville. .. .42 56 A2d
Saginaw. ...59 38 .608 Lansing. .41 58 .414
Grand Rapids.. ....54 45 .545 Flint. 17 .261

THE MICHIGAN STATE LEAGUE SCHEDULE.

The schedule for 1890 adopted by the Michigan


State League is as follows.
Games Played at Grand Rapids.—With Muskegon,
June 4, 5, 6, July ii, 12, Aug. 7, 8, Sept. 12, 13, 14;
70 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Manistee, June 7, 8, 10, 18, 19, July 20, 21, Aug. 20, 21,
22; Lansing, May 10, ii, 12, July 2, 3, 25, 26, Aug. 27,
28, 29; Flint, May 13, 14, 15, July 4,4, 27, 28, Sept. 2,
3, 4; Port Huron, May 16, 17, 18, July 5, 6, 29, 30, Aug.
30, 31, Sept. I.

Games Played at Muskegon.—With Grand Rapids,


June 14, 15, 17, 29, 30, July 31, Aug. i. Sept. 5, 6, 7;
Manistee, June ii, 12, 13, 20, 21, July 23, 24, Aug. 23,
24, 25; Lansing, May 16, 17, 18, July 5, 6, 29, 30, Aug.
30, 31, Sept, i; Flint, May 10, ii, 12, July 2, 3, 25, 26,
Aug. 27, 28, 29; Port Huron, May 13, 14, 15, July 4, 4,
27, 28, Sept. 2, 3, 4.

Games Played at Manistee.—With Grand Rapids,


May 19, 20, 21, July 7, 8, Aug. 2, 3, Sept. 9, 10, ii; Mus¬
kegon, May 23, 24, 25, July 9, 10, Aug. 5, 6, Sept. 15,
16, 17; Lansing, May 13, 14, 15^ July 4, 4, 27, 28, Sept.
2, 3, 4; P'lint, May 16, 17, 18, July 5, 6, 29, 30, Aug. 30,
31, Sept, i; Port Huron, May 10, ii, 12, July 2, 3, 25,
26, Aug. 27, 28, 29.

Games Played at Lansing.—With Grand Rapids,


May 20, 27, 28, June 23, 24, July 14, 15, Aug. 9, ii, 12;
Muskegon, May 31, June 2, 3, 27, 28, July 18, 19, Aug.
16, 18, 19; Manistee, May 29, 30, 31, June 25, 26, July
16, 17, Aug. 13, 14, 15; Flint, May 22, 23, 24, July ii,
12, Aug. 7, 8, Sept. 16, 17, 18; Port Huron, June ii, 12,
13, July I, 3L Aug. I, Sept. 5, 6, 8.
Games Played at Flint.—With Grand Rapids, May
29» 30. 3o» June 25, 26, July 16, 17, Aug. 13, 14, 15; Mus-
CENTRAL INTER-STATE LEAGUE. 71

kegon, May 26, 27, 28, June 23, 24, July 14, 15, Aug. 9,
II, 12; Manistee, May 31, June 2, 3, 27, 28, July 18, 19,
Aug. 16, 18, 19; Lansing, June 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, July
25, 26; Port Huron, May 19, 20, 21, July 7, 8, Aug.
2, 4, Sept. 9, 10, 11.

Games Played at Port Huron.—With Grand Rap¬


ids, May 31, June 2, 3, 27, 28, July 18, 19, Aug. 16, 18,
19; Muskegon, May 29, 30, 30, June 25, 26, July 16, 17,
Aug. 13, 14, 15; Manistee, May 26, 27, 28, June 23, 24,
July 14, 15, Aug. 9, II, 12; Lansing, June 4, 5, 6, July
9, 10, Aug. 5, 6, Sept. 12, 13, 15; Flint, June 7, 9, 10, 19,
19, July 21, 22, Aug. 20, 21, 22.

CENTRAL INTER-STATE LEAGUE.

The Central Inter-State League season of 1889 began


April 27th and closed September 27th. Davenport dis¬
banded just before the season ended, and the pennant
was awarded to Springfield. The record:
Springfield.

Burlington.
Davenport.

Evansville.

Per Cent.
Quincy.

Peoria.

Clubs.
Won.

'nn.vAnnnrf, . 12 7 13 57 14 11 .559
Springfield .. 10 12 13 62 16 11 .544
Quincy. 9 i2 .... 12 59 10 16 .532
Peoria. 10 8 12 .... 55 12 13 .478
Evansville .... 10 8 14 12 ... 54 10 .454
Burlington. 6 12 7 10 13 .... 48 .440
Lost.. 45 52 52 60 65 61 335
72 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE,

THE CALIFORNIA LEAGUE.

The Standing of the four clubs in the California.


League, at the close of the season of 1889, was as fol¬
lows:

Clubs. Won. Lost. Played. Per Ct.


V

Oakland. 56 38 94 .595
San Francisco. 55 39 94 .585
Stockton. 42 50 92 . 4n6
Sacramento. 33 59 92 .358

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.

Players.
Rank.

Runs.

« •.

1 Sweeney, P. 15 68 17 27 5 .403
2 Hardie. 94 416 110 152 31 .365
3 Dailey. 92 413 94 133 30 .322
4 Stockwell.. 89 338 82 117 18 .301
K ( Veach. 84 334 50 100 14 .290
) Burke. 40 157 39 47 4 .299
7 Hanley. 86 362 109 107 17 .295
8 Howard . 81 329 73 94 10 .285
9 Dooley . 83 3;38 72 96 14 .284
10 Sylvester. 31 124 32 35 4 282
11 Smalley. 76 329 71 91 24 .276
12 Sweeney, C. 88 346 57 95 14 .274
13 Goodenough. 84 358 87 98 17 .273
14 Perrier. 94 396 77 107 20 .270
15 McSorley. 69 304 36 82 18 .269
16 <1 Shea. .. 82 385 81 103 9 267
1 Ebright. 55 228 42 61 13 .267
i Hurley. 26 98 12 26 9 .265
] De Pangher. 19 64 5 17 2 .265
20 Clark. 15 . 68 11 18 4 .264
21 Levy. 93 433 93 113 20 .260
22 O’Neill. 93 411 103 106 18 .257
23 Roxburg.. 46 176 36 44 6 .250
24 McDonald. 93 382 64 95 23 .248
\ Power.. • 93 96
2.5 388 89 22 .247
1 Newbert. .. 76 287 75 71 9 .247
27 Swett... 93 351 76 86 14 .245
THE CALIFORNIA LEAGUE, 73

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Average
Times at

Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Bat.
Players.

Runs.
Rank

28 Van Haltren. 40 45 9 11 5 .244


29 Buckley. 63 256 50 61 10 .238
on j O’Day. 75 256 60 69 8 .237
OU 1 Fudger. 17 29 10 .237
35 122
\ Whitehead. 73 280 44 66 10 .235
O'V
00
1 Selna. .. 70 46 59 9
251 .235
34 Zeigler. 40 149 23 35 7 .2;34
35 Stickney. 64 248 58 57 20 .229
36 Roberts. 74 277 54 63 10 .227
37 Incell_. 17 62 13 14 2 .225
(Cahill . 78 347 60 78 24 .224
00
( Gagus... 41 156 28 35 5 .224
40 Coughlin. 53 207 31 46 7 .222
(Krehmeyer. . 43 168 29 36 5 .214
41 ■j Farrell. 13 42 7 9 2 .214
43 Barry. 28 108 15 23 3 .212
44 Long. 94 391 116 82 16 .209
45 Thompson. . 19 72 16 15 3 .208
( Smith, H. 22 90 14 18 7 .200
4o } Baker. 23 85 5 17 10 .200
48 Stallings . 35 154 30 30 8 .194
49 Wilson. 50 206 30 38 13 .184
50 Behan —. 40 159 31 29 7 .182
51 Hayes... 16 61 6 11 1 .180
j Meegan —. 47 175 28 31 8 .177
5)6 1 Wehrle. 22 79 12 14 3 .177
54 Doyle. 11 40 10 7 2 .175
55 Creamer. 25 92 9 16 9 .173
56 Knell. 14 50 2 8 1 .16)
57 Harper. 47 153 15 23 14 .150
58 Donahue. 61 228 66 34 13 .149
59 Fairhurst . 32 112 14 16 4 .142
60 Lohman. — 16 58 4 8 3 .137
61 McLaughlin. 31 123 18 16 10 .130
62 Jevne. 16 59 13 7 1 .118
63 Moore. 28 91 10 10 5 .109
64 Hapeman. 10 37 4 3 7 .081

CALIFORNIA LEAGUE PITCHERS’ RECORD.

The following table gives the record of six pitchers


in the California State League for the season of 1889.
Wehrle, of the Oaklands, leads in percentage of victories,
average of earned runs, and bases on balls and fielding.

m r’ -j r* K ^
I -1 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

|
1
1

Bases on Balls.
Earned Runs
Average of

Average of
Per Cent, of

Struck Outs.
Average of
Victories.
Victories.

Average.

Average.
Fielding
Defeats.

Batting
Pitchers. Clubs.

Games.
Wehrle.... Oakland. 20 15 5 .750 1.35 1.20 4.20 .251 .828
Clark. San Francisco.. 14 10 4 .714 1.50 2.00 4.00 .215 .816
Coughlan.. Oakland. 47 32 15 .681 2.02 2.40 4.23 230 .817
Meegan ... San Francisco.. 43 28 15 .651 3.16 2.58 3.49 .261 .846
Barry . San Francisco.. 26 15 11 .577 2.92 3.34 1.65 .238 .746
Harper.... Stockton . 39 21 18 .538 1.92 4.07 5 43 .221 .664

THE TRI-COLLEGIATE LEAGUE.

Here is the record in the Tri-Collegiate League:

Per Cent, of
Princeton.

Victories.
Victories.
Harvard.
Clubs.
Yale.

May 18, 12 to 9 May 25, 15 to 3


May 22, 13 to 1 June 20, 4 to 3
Yale.■ June 15, 6 to 5 June 22, 7 to 5 7 .875
June 25, 8 to 4
Princeton_ May 8, 14 to 11 May 4, 11 to 2
May 30, 7 to 6 3 .375
Harvard.- May 11, 9 to 6
June 1, 4 to 3 2 .250

Defeats. 1 5 6 12

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.


!

Average.

Fielding
Average
Batting
Played.

Bases.
Games

Stolen

Players. Clubs. Position.

Calhoun . Yale. Second Base. 8 375 918 14


Willard . Harvard... First Base. 8 ;321 .989
Dalzell. Yale. Center Field. 8 305 .812 4
Brokaw. Princeton.. Catcher. 8 .290 .977 4
Cushing . Yale. Right Field, S. S.,C. F. 6 .285 .777 6
.McClintock, N Yale. Lelt Field. 8 275 944 11
Purell-- Princeton.. Center Field. 8 .266 !875 4
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 75

Average.

Average.
Fielding
Batting
Played.
Games
Players. Clubs. Position.

Stolen
Bases.
Stasrer. Yale. . Pitcher. 8 .257 .974 8
Watte. Princeton.. Third Base, Left Field 8 .242 .750 6
Henshaw. Harvard .. Catcher. 8 .235 .900 1
Evans . Harvard... Center Field, Left F’ld 7 .2.33 .733 2
King.,. Princeton.. Right Field, 2d Base 8 .232 .722 5
Osborn . Princeton.. Second Base, R. Field. 8 .230 .860 1
Linn. Harvard... Right Field. 8 .225 .888 3
McBride. Yale. First Base. 8 .225 ,959 10
Payne . Princeton.. Left Field. 7 .218 .933 2
Knickerbocker .... Princeton.. Short Stop. 8 .205 .727 3
McClurg. Yale. Short Stop, Right F'ld 7 .181 .850 6
Downer.. Harvard... Pitcher. 7 .181 .904 1
Corning. Harvard.. Short Stop. 6 .172 .787 3
Dana. Princeton.. First Base. 8 .166 .949 4
Dean. Harvard... Second Base. 8 .156 .9.31 7
Hawley. Harvard... Left Field, Pitcher_ 6 .142 .857 3
Noyes . Yale. Third Base. 8 .142 .758 5
Poole. Yale. Catcher. 8 .129 .977 1
Howland. Harvard... Third Base. 8 .100 .783 2
Ames. Princeton.. Pitcher. .. 5 .086 .942 3

THE TEXAS LEAGUE.

The season of 1889, in the Texas League, commenced


April 7th and closed August 12th. Waco disbanded
August 4th; Houston, August 9th; and Dallas, August
nth. The record:
Fort Worth.
Galveston.

Per Cent.
Houston.

Played.
Austin.
Dallas.

Clubs.
' Waco.

Won.
i

TTmiston. 9 8 14 12 11 54 98 .551
Dfl.llflx. . 8 15 9 9 5 49 91 .538
Austin. 10 5 10 12 13 50 96 .520
Galveston. 8 11 8 ... 10 13 50 98 .510
Fort Worth. 8 11 7 11 8 45 96 .468
Waco. 7 6 8 4 8 . • • 33 83 ..397
Lost. 41 42 46 48 51 50
,
UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.

Base Hits.

Base Hits
Average-
Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Stolen
Clubs.

Bases.
Playehs.

1 Works. Galveston. 84 136 5 23 .372


2 Sunday . Houston. 84 109 11 37 ..T44
3 Hustun. .. Galveston. 19 23 3 14 .306
4 Mullaly. Waco. 29 32 8 8 .293
5 Motz. Fort Worth. 41 45 12 26 .292
( Elliff. Waco. 28 28 4 18 .288
6 A Fogarty. Dallas and Fort Worth ... 94 110 15 35 .288
( Welch. Dallas.— 71 77 8 23 .288
9 O’Neill. Waco. 86 96 13 64 .286
10 O’Conners. Austin.T. 89 100 8 61 .284
11 Andrews.... Austin. 87 90 7 29 .271
12 Crogan. Fort Worth. 96 98 31 62 .269
13 i O’Rourke.. Galveston.. 91 100 8 44 .260
I Hutchinson. Austin. 72 78 15 52 260
iProsser . Galveston. 38 39 4 23 .258
15
1 Fabian. Dallas. 23 22 1 14 .258
17 Keinzle. Houston and Galveston... 96 93 8 47 .257
18 j Weikert. Houston. 69 58 12 19 .256
I Rogers. Houston. 85 93 13 50 .256
20 Choquette . Waco and Galveston. 52 49 3 39 .253
21 (Jordan. Dallas. 82 85 6 75 .252
1 Land. Austin. 57 61 4 9 .252
23 j Darrow. Fort Worth. 48 50 15 22 .251
I Welch, P. J. Fort Worth. 99 97 21 51 .251
25 Pettiford. Waco. 78 87 10 67 .247
26 Joanes. . Waco. 32 33 2 28 .244
27 Crothers. Dallas. . 55 48 3 33 .243
28 Levis. Galveston. 70 70 3 32 .242
(Wentz . Galveston. 93 93 6 45 .241
29 A Rodsmacher. Dallas. 94 90 6 30 .241
( Ellsworth. Waco. 81 80 10 27 .241
32 j McVey. Fort Worth. 99 100 25 65 .239
( Reinagle . Dallas. 64 58 8 17 .239
34 Bader. Dallas. 95 90 1 146 .237
35 j Joyce . Houston. 85 73 11 85
I Guehrer. Waco. 10 9 0 3 .235
37 Truby. Austin. 69 68 8 15 .231
38 Sherry... Houston. 65 57 7 27 .230
39 Hassamaer. Waco. 45 40 Q 18 Q28
40 \ McCloskey. Houston. 73 67 11 36 .227
I Maurer. Austin. 66 70 2 87 .227
42 • Mussey. Austin. 89 87 7 18 .223
43 Daime. Austin.. 56 45 3 17 .222
44 Tobias. Austin.. 89 77 2 46 .221
45 Hill. Fort Worth.. 99 90 13 98 .219
46 i Benne. . Galveston. 54 43 5 11 .218
'( Ryan. Austin. 22 19 1 4 .218
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 77

Base Hits.
Base Hits.

Averaere
Sacrifice
Games.

Hits.
Players. Clubs.

Stolen
I R^nk,

Bases.
( O’Neill. Galveston. 85 74 9 37 .216
( Bright. Austin. 34 26 3 3 .216
j Firle. Dallas. 77 61 5 23 .212
2 S g

) McCormack. Waco and Dallas. 32 24 7 11 .212


\ Pike-.... Fort Worth. 81 61 16 59 .211
VTebeau _ W"aco . 70 59 15 26 .211
\ Daniels. Dallas... 53 40 3 17 .208
) Isaccson .... Houston..... . 88 66 14 20 .208
Trost . Fort Worth. 74 53 14 50 .205
Peeples. Houston. 80 66 10 50 .204
Kittle. Austin. 43 33 4 14 .200
Cross . Waco.. 19 13 1 1 .196
Godar. Galveston and Dallas. ... 96 67 4 58 .194
Creely. Waco. 31 23 7 14 .193
i Douthett ... Houston. 62 48 6 32 .192
S

) Flynn.. Galveston. 59 44 5 25 .192


McNabb ... Waco.. 38 28 3 14 .191
Lemmons .. Fort Worth. 79 61 8 31 .190
Bates. Austin. 36 26 2 3 .188
France . Fort Worth.. 28 18 6 5 .183
Derrick. Waco. 56 36 10 8 .182
( Rose. Waco.. 85 60 11 30 .181
S

'( King. Galveston. 16 12 3 2 .181


Bellman .... Dallas. 48 29 9 13 .172
Buchan. Waco.. 18 11 2 16 .166
Bishop. Dallas. 32 18 1 11 .163
Roach .. Galveston. 11 6 0 0 .162
Flaherty_ Houston. 39 22 5 11 .160
Touhey . Galveston. 19 10 5 1 .153
(Baldwin_ Houston. 10 5 3 0 .147
} Mallory.. Fort tVorth. 35 18 6 4 .147
McCoy. Houston. 24 11 1 3 .142
Schell. Fort Worth. 49 22 6 15 .138
Kane. Galveston... 19 9 1 1 .134
Gagen . Houston. 17 7 2 5 .125
Barry. Dallas ... 20 9 2 8 .120
Curry. Galveston. 23 8 0 6 .117
Fritz.. Waco. 20 8 1 7 .103
Maloney. Dallas. 23 8 2 2 .098
87 Rafferty. Fort Worth.. 22 7 8 .093

TEXAS LEAGUE PITCHING RECORD FOR 1889.

The record of the Texas League pitching contingent


for 1889 follows;
78 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Earned Runs.

tery Errors.
Average Bat¬

Struck Outs.
Average of

Average of
Per Cent, of
Victories.
Victories.

Defeats.

Played.
Pitchers. Clubs.

Wp.ika.rt.. Houston. 27 11 38 .711 2.18 1.17 1.20


McNfl.bh. Waco. 20 10 30 .667 1.52 2.32 8.21
Crot.hftrs. Dallas. 18 11 29 .621 2.13 3.03 4.02
BPihnft. Galveston. 19 11 31 .613 2.12 3 26 3.01
Kittle. Austin. 25 16 41 .610 2.02 2.13 3.12
Roach. Galveston. 6 4 10 .600 3 10 2.05 3.01
Gagen. Houston .. . 10 7 17 .588 2.29 2.15 3.01
Huston. Galveston. 7 5 12 .583 1.83 4.02 5.03
Maloney... Dallas. 9 8 17 .529 1.76 2.07 7.01
France*. Fort Worth. 11 10 21 .524 1.66 2,08 6.13
Schell. Fort Worth. 20 19 39 .513 1.87 6.11 5.07
Daniels. Dallas. 20 20 40 .500 1.82 3.14 3.21
Baldwin. Houston. 5 5 10 .500 3.00 5.03 1.05

THE SANDWICH ISLAND LEAGUE.


The following are the averages for 1889:
|

Club Batting. Club Fielding.


1

Base Hits,

Average.

Average.
Put Out.

Clubs.
Assists.

Errors.
At Bat.
1 Rank.

Runs.
1

1 Houolulus. 395 106 96 .243 246 188 54 .888


2 Stars . 355 95 78 .219 245 186 61 .876
3 Kamehamehas. 318 86 64 .201 219 188 64 .864
4 Hawaiis. 323 82 60 .186 215 170 73 .840
5 Kaiulanis . 287 39 42 112 213 153 115 .756

INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES.


i
1

Average.

Average.
Games.
Games.
Rank.

Rank.

Runs.

Players. Ta Players.
C
P

1 WodehouseCHon.) 9 21 .441 5 Hugo. 4 1 ..312


2 Wilder (Chan.)... 9 11 .366 6 Friedenberg. 9 12 .279
3 Whitney. 9 17 .347 7 Spencpir. 0 11 269
4 Overend. 8 4 .333 8 Kinney . 4 7 .'^3
INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 79

Average.

Average.
Games.
Games.
Players. Players.
Rank.

Rank.

Runs.
Runs.
1

9 Brunei’ . 6 6 .261 27 Meek. 8 i .184


10 Perry (Kaiulani) . 7 8 .259 28 Winter. 4 3 .177
■M J Lane. 8 11 .257 29 Gilliland. 6 4 .174
1 Lawelawe, A.... 8 8 .257 30 Wilder, Chas. 9 i .163
12 Desha. 8 8 .243 31 Lucas, W. 9 6 .162
13 Luahiwa_ . ... 6 8 .241 J Rosa.. 8 6 .1.54
14 .238 OZ ) Oat. 8 6 .154
Wodehouse(Stars) 9 12
15 Kaia. 8 14 .231 33 Morris. 6 4 .148
16 Baldwin, B. 9 14 .227 J Wise. 8 6 .146
o4 1 Crabbe, C. 7 3 .146
17 Lucas, G.. 9 16 .224
18 Parker. 9 6 .214 35 Low. 8 5 .135
19 Pahau. 8 12 .212 36 Joseph. 5 3 .132
20 Davis. 8 12 .211 37 Torbert. 4 2 .118
21 Hoick. 7 0 .208 38 Naukana. 7 3 .111
99 J Perry (Stars).... 9 11 .205 39 Widdifield. 8 3 .100
1 Lucas, A. 9 10 .205 40 Crowell.. .•. 3 1 .091
j Dan. 8 12 .200 41 Duke. 6 2 .090
23 < Makaimoku. 8 8 .200 42 Thompson. 5 2 .087
(Markham. 3 3 .200 43 McGuire . 3 1 .077
24 Lawelawe, M. 8 7 .194 44 Crabbe, H. 5 1 .0.50
25 Carter. 9 7 .189 45 Baldwin, E. 5 1 .048
26 Pakele.*.. 8 6 .188 46 Bright. 3 0 .000
80 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUiDE.

THE PENNANT WINNERS.


W':
Beginning with 1869, the following are the profes¬
sional teams which have won the championships for the
years and in the associations mentioned:
1869 AND 1870—Cincinnati “Reds.”—Allison, c.;
Brainard, p.; Gould, i-b.; Sweasy, 2-b.; Waterman, 3-b.;
George Wright, s. s.; Leonard, 1. f.; H. Wright, c. f.; Cal
McVey, r. f.
1871— Athletic.—Malone, c.; McBride, p.; Fisher,
i-b.; Reach, 2-b.; Myerle, 3-b.; Radcliffe, s. s.; Cuthbert,
1. f.; Sensenderfer, c. f.; Huebell, r. f.; Bechtel and Tom
Pratt, subs.

1872— Boston.—McVey, c.; Spalding, p,; Gould, i-b.;


Barnes, 2-b.; Schafer, 3-b.; George Wright, s. s.; Leon¬
ard, 1. f.; Harry Wright, c. f.; F. Rogers, r. f,; Birdsall,
sub.

1873— Boston.—White, c.; Spalding, p.; Manning,


I-b.; Barnes, 2-b.; Schafer, 3-b.; George Wright, s. s.;-
Leonard, 1. f.; Harry Wright, c. f.; Sweezy, r. f.; Bird¬
sall, sub.

■ 1874—Boston.—Same team , as in 1873, excepting


O’Rourke, i-b.; McVey, r. f., and Hall and Bealls, subs.

1875—Boston.—White, c.; Spalding, p.; McVey,


I-b.; Barnes, 2-b.; Schafer, 3-b.; George Wright, s. s.;
THE PENNANT WINNERS. 81

Leonard, I f.; O’Rourke, c. f.; Manning, r. f.; Bealls,


H. Wright, and Heiffer, subs.

• THE NATIONAL LEAGUE.

1876— Chicago.—White, c.; Spalding, p.; McVey,


i-b.; Barnes, 2-b.; Anson, 3-b.; Peters, s. s.; Glenn, 1. f.;
Hines, c. f.; Addy, r. f.; Bielaski and Andrus, subs.
1877— Boston.—Brown, c.; Bond, p,; J. White, i*b.;
G. Wright, 2-b.; Morrill, 3-b.; Sutton, s. s.; Leonard, 1. f.;
O’Rourke, c. f.; Schafer, r. f.; Murnan and W. White,
subs.
1878— Providence.—Snyder, c.; Bond, p.; Morrill,
i-b.; Burdock, 2-b.; Sutton, 3-b.; George Wright, s. s.;
Leonard, 1. f.; O’Rourke, c. f.; Manning, r. f.; Schafer,
sub.
1879— Providence.—Gross, c.; Ward, p.; Start, i-b.;
McGeary, 2-b.; Farrell, 3-b.; George Wright, s. s.; York,
I. f.; Hines, c. f.; O’Rourke, r. f.; Matthews, sub.
i88o, 1881, 1882—Chicago.—Flint, c.; Corcoran and
Goldsmith, p.; Anson, i-b.; Quest, 2-b.; Williamson, 3-b.;
Burns, s. s.; Dalrymple, 1. f.; Gore, c. f.; Kelly, r. f.

1883— Boston.—M. Hines and Hackett, c.; Whitney,


and Bufhnton, p.; Morrill, i-b.; Burdock, 2-b.; Sutton,
3-b.; Wise, s. s.; Hornung, 1. f.; Smith, c. f.; Radford, r. f.
1884— Providence.—Gilligan and Nava, c.; Sweeney
and Radbourne, p.; Start, i-b.; Farrell, 2-b.; Denny,
3-b.; Irwin, s. s.; Carroll, 1. f.; Hines, c. f.; Radford, r. f.
0
82 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

1885— Chicago.—Flint, c.; Kelly, c. and r. f.; Corco¬


ran and Clarkson, p.; Anson, i-b.; Pfeifer, 2-b.; Will¬
iamson, 3-b.; Burns, s. s.; Dalrymple, 1. f.; Gore, c. f.;
Sutcliffe and Jos. Brown, subs.
1886— Chicago.—Kelly, c. and r. f.; Flint, c.; Moolie,
c.; Clarkson and McCormick, p.; Anson, i-b.; Pfeffer,
2-b.; Burns, 3-b.; Williamson, s. s.; Dalrymple, 1. f.;
Gore, c. f.; Ryan, Sunday, and Flynn, subs.
1887— Detroit.—Bennett and Ganzell, c.; Getzein,
Baldwin, and Conway, p.; Brouthers, i-b.; Dunlap, 2-b.;
White, 3-b.; Rowe, s. s.; H. Richardson, 1. f.; Hanlon,
c. f.; Thompson, r. f.; J. H. Manning and Twitchell,
subs.
1888— New York.—Ewing and Brown, c.; Keefe,
Welch, Titcomb, and Crane, p.; Connor, i-b.; D. Rich¬
ardson, 2-b.; A. Whitney, 3-b.; Ward, s. s.; O’Rourke,
1. f.; Slattery, c. f.; Tiernan, r. f.; Hatfield, Gore, and
George, subs.

1889— New York.—Keefe, Crane, Walsh, p.; Ward,


s. s.; Brown, Ewing, c.; O’Day, p.; Slattery, c. f.; Tier-
nan, r. f.; Gore, c. f.; Whitney, 3-b.; Richardson, 2-b.;
Connor, i-b.; O’Rourke, '!, f.

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION.

1882—Cincinnati.—Snyder and Powers, c.; W. White


and H. McCormick, p.; Stearns, i-b.; McPhee, 2-b.;
Carpenter, 3-b.; Fulmer, s. s.; Sommer, 1. f.; McCullar,
c. f.; Wheeler, r. f.; Luff and Kemmler, subs.
THE PENNANT WINNERS. 83

1883— Athletic.—Rowen and O’Brien, c.; Matthews,


p.; Corey, p. and 3-b.; Stovey, i-b.; Strieker, 2-b.; Bradley,
3-b. and p.; Birchall, 1. f.; Blakiston, c. f.; Knight, r. f.;
Jones and Crowley, subs.

1884— Metropolitan.—Holbert and Reipschlager, c.;


Keefe and Lynch, p.; Orr, i-b.; Crane, 2-b.; Esterbrook,
3-b.; Nelson, s. s.; Kennedy, 1. f.; Roseman, c. f.; Brady, r. f.

1885— St. Louis.—Bushong, Broughton, and D. Sulli¬


van, c.; Foutz, Caruthers, and McGinnis, p.; Comiskey,
I-b.; Robinson, 2-b.; Latham, 3-b.; Gleason, s. s.;
O’Neill, 1. f.; Welsh, c. f.; Nicol, r. f.

1886— St. Louis.—Bushong and Kemmler, c.; Foutz,


Caruthers, McGinnis, and Hudson, p.; Comiskey, i-b.;
Robinson, 2-b.; Latham, 3-b.; Gleason, s. s.; O’Neill,
1. f.; Welsh, c. f.; Nicol, r. f.
1887— St. Louis.—Bushong and Boyle, c.; Foutz, p.
and r. f.; Caruthers, p. and r. f.; Hudson and King, p.;
Comiskey, i-b.; Robinson, 2-b.; Latham, 3-b.; Gleason,
s. s.; O’Neill, 1. f.; Welsh, c. f.; Sylvester, sub.

1888— St. Louis.—Boyle and Dolan, c.; King, Hud¬


son, Devlin, and Chamberlain, p.; Comiskey, i-b.; Rob¬
inson, 2-b. and s. s.; McGarr, 2-b. and s. s.; Herr, s. s.;
White, s. s.; O’Neill, 1. f.; Lyons, c. f.; McCarthy, r. f.
1889— Brooklyn.—Clark, Visner, and Bushong, c.;
Foutz, I-b.; Collins, 2-b.; Pinckney, 3-b.; Davis, s. s.;
Smith, s. s.; O’Brien, 1. f.; Corkhill, c. f.; Burns, r. f.;
Hughes, Caruthers, Terry, and Lovett, p.
84 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE WORLD’S CHAMPIONS.

Although the interest in base-ball was very great in


the early ’80s, it was not until the year 1884 that any
attempt was made to decide the championship of the world.
Until that time the winners of the National League and
the American Association pennants had rested content
in their positions as champions of their respective
organizations. In 1884, however, an arrangement was
made between the Providence club, champions of the
National League, and the Metropolitan club, champions
of the American Association, for a series of three games,
to decide the championship of the world. The games
were all played on the old polo grounds. New York
City, October 23d, 24th, and 25th. They resulted as
follows:

October 23—Providence, 6; Metropolitan, o.


October 24—Providence, 3; Metropolitan, i.
October 25—Providence, 12; Metropolitan, 2.

In 1885, the Chicago club won the championship of


the National League, and the St. Louis Browns the cham¬
pionship of the American Association. The series was
for a prize of $1,000, and consisted of seven games. For
the first and last time, the contest resulted in a tie, each
team winning three games, and playing one* tie. The
THE world’s champions. 85

$1,000 prize-money was equally divided between the two


teams. The scores for the seven games follow:

October 14—St. Louis, at Chicago (8 innings), 5—5.


October 15—Chicago, at St. Louis (^forfeited), 5—4.
October 16^—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 7—4.
October 17—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 3—2.
October 22—Chicago, at Pittsburg (7 innings), 9—2.
October 23—Chicago, at Cincinnati, 9—2.
October 24—St. Louis, at Cincinnati, 13—4.
The same teams contested for the world’s champion¬
ship in 1886. This time the series consisted of six
games. St. Louis proved the victor. The scores follow:
October 18—Chicago, at Chicago, 6—o.
October 19—St. Louis, at Chicago, 12—o.
October 20—Chicago, at St. Louis, 11—4.
October 21—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 8—5.
October 22—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 10—3.
October 23—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 4—3.
For the third successive time, St. Louis, in 1887, won
the association championship. The Detroits were the
victors in the National League. A series of thirteen
games was arranged, Detroit winning eight, and thereby
the championship. Here are the scores:
October 10—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 6—i.
October ii—Detroit, at St. Louis, 5—3.
October 12—Detroit, at St. Louis (13 innings), 2—i.
October 13—Detroit, at Pittsburg, 8—o.
October 14—St. Louis, at Brooklyn, 5—2.

* Captain Comiskey, of the St. Louis Browns, claiming that the


umpire was purposely giving his team the worst of all decisions,
ordered his men to leave the field; and the game was awarded to
Chicago, by the customary score of 9 to o.
8(> UNIVERSAL Ease-ball guide.

October 15—Detroit, at New York, 9—o.


October 17—Detroit, at Philadelphia, 3—i.
October 18—Detroit, at Boston, 9—2.
October 19—St. Louis, at Washington, ii—4.
October 21—Detroit, at Baltimore, 13—3.
October 22—Detroit, at Detroit, 6—3.
October 24—Detroit, at Chicago, 4—3.
October 25—St. Louis, at St. .Louis, 9—2.
New York came to the front in 1888, and carried off
the pennant of the National League, St. Louis once more
capturing the flag of the American Association.. Eleven
games were played. New York winning six and the
championship. Scores were:
October 16—New York, at New York, 2—i.
October 17—St. Louis, at New York, 3—o.
October 18—New York, at New York, 4—2.
October 19—New York, at Brooklyn, 6—3.
October 20—New York, at New York, 6—4.
October 22—New York, at Philadelphia, 12—5.
• October 24—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 7—5.
October 25—New York, at St. Louis, ii—3.
October 26—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 14—ii.
October 27—St. Louis, at St. Louis, 18—7.
The world’s championship series of 1889 brought a
new competitor to the field, in the shape of the Brooklyn
club, which that year won the championship of the
American Association. The New York club again car¬
ried off the honors in the National League. This time
the series consisted of nine games, New York winning
the majority. The scores follow:
October 18—Brooklyn, at New York, 12—10.
October 19—New York, at Brooklyn, 6—2.
THE world’s champions. 87

October 22—Brooklyn, at New York, 8—7.


October 23—Brooklyn, at New York, 10—7.
October 24—New York, at Brooklyn, ii—3.
October 25—New York, at New York, 2—i.
October 26—New York, at New York, ii—7.
October 28—New York, at Brooklyn, 16—7.
October 29—New York, at New York, 3—2.

The following are the individual batting averages of


the players participating i the world’s championship
series of 1889:
RANK. A. B. R. B. H. S. B. AV.
1. Brown, N. Y. 5 3 3 0 .600
2. Keefe, N. Y.4 I 2 0 .500
' (Ward, N. Y.36 10 15 ' 10 .417
I Clark, Brooklyn... 12 3 5 I .417
4. O’Rourke, N. Y. ..36 7 14 3 •389
5. Collins, Brooklyn.. 35 13 13 7 •371
6. Connor, N. Y.35 9 12 8 •343
j Hughes, Br’klyn.. 3 I I 0 •333
I Welsh, N. Y.3 0 I 0 •333
8. Richardson, N. Y. .35 7 11 3 .314
9. Foutz, Brooklyn... 35 7 10 3 ,286
10. Tiernan, N. Y.38 12 10 4 .263
11. Pinckney, Br’klyn..31 2 8 2 .258
12. Caruthers, Br’klyn. 8 I 2 0 .250
13. Gore, N. Y.17 ' I 4 3 •235
j Whitney, N. Y_35 4 8 0 .229
( Burns, Brooklyn .35 8 8 0 .229

( Ewing, N. Y.36 5 8 3 .222

'5- I Crane, N. Y.i8 3 4 0 .222

16. O’Brien, Brooklyn.31 8 6 7 •195


17. Slattery, N. Y-16 6 3 I .188

^8. Smith, Brooklyn...29 2 5 3 .172

J Terry, Brooklyn.. 18 I 3 I .167

( Corkhill, Br’klyn..24 4 4 I .167


88 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

RAmc, A. B. R. B, H. S. B. AV.
20, Visner, Brooklyn..16 2 2 0 .125
21. O’Day, N. Y. 10 5 I 0 . 100

( Davis, Brooklyn.. 4 0 0 0 .000


22. ■{ Bushong, Br’klyn.. 8 0 0 0 .000

1 Lovett, Brooklyn.. I 0 0 0 .000

In club fielding, the Brooklyns led, with a percentage of


.917, as against .915 by New York. Clark led the catch¬
ers, Foutz the first-basemen, Collins the second-base¬
men, Whitney the third-basemen, Davis the short-stops,
O’Rourke the left-fielders, Corkhill the center-fielders,
Tiernan the right-fielders, and Crane the pitchers.
TRIPS TO FOREIGN CLIMES. 89

TRIPS TO FOREIGN CLIMES.


The first attempt to introduce base-ball in England
was made in 1874, when the Athletics of Philadelphia
and the Bostons took a trip across the Atlantic to teach
Great Britain our national game. The clubs sailed in
July, and returned in September. The trip was a fail¬
ure. Following shows the make-up of the two teams:
BOSTON. POSITIONS. ATHLETIC.

A. G. Spalding. Pitcher. James D. McBride.


James White. Catcher. James C. Clapp.
James O’Rourke. First base. W. D. Fisher.
Ross C. Barnes. Second base. Joseph Battin.
Henry Schafer. Third base. Ezra B. Sutton.
George Wright. Short-stop. M. H. McGeary.
H. J. Leonard. Left field. A. W. Gedney.
Harry Wright. Center field. James F. McMullin.
Cal C. McVey. Right field. A. C. Anson.

George W. Hall, Thomas L. Beals, Sam Wright, Jr.,


Bostons, and A. J. Reach, Tim Murnan, and J. P. Sen-
senderfer. Athletics, were the substitutes. Fifteen
games were played on this trip, in the cities and with
the results as herein given:
DATE. CITIES. SCORES.

July 30. Liverpool. Athletic 14; Boston ii.


July 31- Liverpool. Boston 23; Athletic 18.
August I. Manchester. Athletic 13; Boston 12.
August 3. London. Boston 24; Athletic 7.
00 UNIVERSAL Base-ball guide.

DATE. CITIES. SCORES.


August 6. London. Boston 14; Athletic ii.
August 8. Richmond. Athletic 10; Boston 3.
August lo. Crystal Palace. Boston 17; Athletic 8.
August II. Crystal Palace. Athletic 19; Boston 8.
August 13. Kensington. Boston 16; Athletic 6.
August 14. Kensington. Spld’gs 14; McMullens 11.
August 15. Sheffield. Boston 19; Athletic 8.
August 17. Sheffield. Boston 18; Athletic 17.
August 20. Manchester. Athletic 7; Boston 2.
August 24. Dublin. Boston 12; Athletic 7.
August 25. Dublin. Athletic 15; Boston 4.

In the summer of 1888, A. G. Spalding and Leigh S.


Lynch projected a trip around the world, and in the
winter of the same year carried it out. Two teams
were formed, one the Chicago league club and the
other the All-Americas, made up of players from the
various clubs in the National League and the American
Association. The clubs left Chicago in October, 1888,
returning in April, 1889. They worked their way across
the continent to San Francisco, and sailed from that
city for Australia November i8th. At that time the
teams were made up as follows:
CHICAGO. POSITIONS. ALL-AMERICA.
A. C. Anson, Capt. First base. G. A. Wood.
N. F. Pfeffer. Second base. James Ryan.
Thos. Burns. Third base. H. Manning.
E. N. Williamson. Short-stop. John M. Ward, Capt.
Martin Sullivan. Left field. James Fogarty.
James Ryan. Center field. Edward Hanlon.
Robert Pettit. Right field. J. C. Earle.
Thos. P. Daly. Catcher. Fred H. Carroll.*
Trips to ToreiOn cLimRs. . 91

CHICAGO. POSITIONS. ALL-AMERICA.


J. K. Tener. Pitcher. John Healy.
Mark E. Baldwin. Pitcher. E. N. Crane.

The games played between Chicago and San Fran¬


cisco on the out-trip were:
DATE. . CLUBS. CITIES. SCORES.
Oct. 20. Chicago vs. America. Chicago. II- 6
Oct. 21. Chicago vs. Am^erica. St. Paul. 8- 5
Oct. 22. Chicago vs. Am*erica. Minneapolis. I- 0
Oct. 22. America vs. Chicago. Minneapolis. 6- 3
Oct. 23. Chicago vs. America. Cedar Rapids. 6- 5
Oct. 24. America vs. Chicago. Des Moines. 3- 2
Oct. 25. America vs. Chicago. Omaha. 12—2
Oct. 26. Chicago vs. America. Hastings. 8- 4
Oct. 27. Chicago vs. America. Denver. 16-2
Oct. 28. America vs. Chicago. Denver. 9- 8
Oct. 29. Chicago vs. America. Colorado Springs. 3- 9
Oct. 31. America vs. Chicago. Salt Lake City. 19- 3
Nov. I. America vs. Chicago. Salt Lake City. 10- 3
Nov. 4. America vs. Chicago. San Francisco. 4- 4
Nov.i I. America vs. Chicago. San Francisco. 9- 6
N0V.14. Chicago vs. America. Los Angeles. 5- 0
Nov.15. America vs. Chicago. Los Angeles. 7- 4
Hutchinson, Duryea, and Van Haltren accompanied
the teams to the Pacific slope, and there left them. In
addition to the players, Mr. Spalding and wife and a
number of newspaper correspondents made the tour of
the globe. From the start to the finish, the trip was
one continual ovation, the players being banqueted in
almost every country on the face of the earth. The
games, played in cities on the continent of Europe and
92 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

beneath the shadows of the silent pyramids in Egypt,


resulted as follows:
DATE. CLUBS. CITIES. SCORES.
Dec. lO. Chicago vs. America. Auckland. 22-13
Dec. 15- America vs. Chicago. Sydney. 5- 4
Dec. 17- America vs. Chicago. Sydney. 7- 5
Dec. 18. America vs. Chicago. Sydney. 6- 3
Dec. 22. Chicago vs. America. Melbourne. 5- 3
Dec. 24. America vs. Chicago. Melbourne. 13-10
Dec. 26. America vs. Chicago. Adelaide. 19-14
Dec. 27. Chicago vs. America. Adelaide. 12—9
Dec. 28. Chicago vs. America. Adelaide. II- 4
Dec. 29. America vs. Chicago. Ballarat. II- 7
Jan. I. Chicago vs. America. Melbourne. 14- 7
Jan. I. Chicago vs. America. Melbourne. 9- 4
Jan. 5- Chicago vs. America. Melbourne. 5- 0
Jan. 26, America vs. Chicago. Colombo. 3- 3
Feb. 9- America vs. Chicago. Ghizeh. 9- 8
Feb. 19. America vs. Chicago. Naples! 8- 2
Feb. 23- Chicago vs. America. Cologne. 3- 2
Feb. 25- America vs. Chicago. Florence. 7- 4
Mar. 3- *••#•••••»<»••*« *••• Paris. • • • *
THE INFIELD. 93

THE INFIELD.

There is no player in America to-day better able to


illustrate the complex nature of work in the infield than
N. Fred. Pfeffer, the brilliant second-baseman of the
Chicago Players’ League club. Mr. Pfeffer is not only
recognized as a great ball-player, but as a man of intel¬
lect as well. He is what is known as “ a brainy man on
the field.” An originator in everything, it is not sur¬
prising that Mr. Pfeffer has evolved ideas that have done
wonders toward placing the national game where it
stands to-day—in the front rank of sports in America,
and the very acme of all scientific outdoor games of the
world. In his article on the infield, which follows,
Mr. Pfeffer quotes occasionally from his book. Scientific
Ball.
A base-ball club without an infield of strength would
be just about as successful as “Hamlet” with James
Owen O’Connor as the Danish Prince. It was its “ stone¬
wall infield” that made the‘Chicago league team fa¬
mous; it was the infield work that pulled the Philadel-
phias to the front in 1887; and it is the infield that is
almost invariably responsible for the good or evil fortune
of a ball club. Of course, team work is the first essen¬
tial of success; but team work will always follow where
the players are in accord one with the other, and where
a general holds the reins as captain, and compels his

1
94 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

men to fight for games, rather than for records as indi¬


vidual players.
A mutual good feeling being guaranteed, the first point
to be considered, in my opinion, is a code of signs or sig¬
nals. Every man who can be seen by the catcher should
be made by sign to know when the catcher intends to
throw to him. It is possible for a pitcher to have a code
of motions so perfected that every man in his club will
know what kind of a ball is to be pitched. Knowing this
in advance, the men can so govern and place themselves
as to give the man in the box the most effective support.
No pitcher can win games without support; and it is the
pitcher who realizes this, and has a thorough understand¬
ing with his fielders, who will stand in the front rank of
his profession. Either the catcher or pitcher can give
the signs to the men. It will perhaps be more natural
for the catcher to do it, when he is up behind the bat.
The pitcher can signify to him the kind of a ball he pro¬
poses to deliver, while both are in their natural positions.
The catcher will then communicate it to the infield; if
the men in the outfield are alert, they can get it nine
times out of ten. When the catcher is not up,” the
pitcher can make known the signals. First-baseman,
third-baseman, and short-stop have equally shared in the
advantage of knowing the pitcher’s intention in advance,
when they have been informed. Too often they have not
been made acquainted with the pitcher’s design.
For instance, here is an illustration: The catcher
gives the second-baseman a sign that he will throw
THE INFIELD. 95

the next ball pitched. The pitcher should deliver it a


little to one side, so that it can be surely and easily
handled; otherwise, the ball may be hit, and the
intended play prevented. When pitcher and catcher
understand each other perfectly, the basemen interpret¬
ing the signal know what to do. The short-stop, having
seen the sign, knows that the next ball will not be hit,
and has ample time to “ back up ” second base. '
And here is another instance: The base-runner is
leading off second. The pitcher should never be com¬
pelled to look or turn around to ascertain the situation
favorable for an attempt to catch the man napping.
Upon a signal from the catcher, the pitcher wheels and
sends the ball to second. The second-baseman is there
to handle it, as he has seen the sign made by the catcher.
By a little practice, it will be found that this programme
can be successfully executed; and after two or three
men have been retired in this way, the runner is apt to
remain glued to the second bag. Signal work can be
made equally effective when understood by catcher,
pitcher, and first-baseman.
One thing that should be avoided is a collision of in¬
field and outfield players while attempting to get the same
ball. Many ugly accidents have occurred in this man¬
ner in the past. However, collisions can be prevented
by the captain calling the ball for the nearest man to it,
or by the outfielder calling that he will take it. The
infielder, running with upturned face, must keep his eye
'on the ball, and can never tell just what balls he can
96 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

take, and therefore will always go for everything until


he hears a fellow-player sing out, and then he can stop.
Many players become speechless when a ball is hit up
between two of them. Practice will obviate this diffi¬
culty, and make it a source of comfort to the whole team
to know that every man will go for everything, and,
when sure of taking it in, will call out, so the other men
can take their eyes off the ball. I have seen some of the
league players shirk their work, and the managers of the
team would never know it.
Failure to ‘‘back up” players and positions has prob¬
ably been as disastrous a feature of losing clubs as any
other which can be specified. Because of this fatal
weakness, scores of otherwise well-played games are
needlessly sacrificed every year. The men in the Phila¬
delphia league club were well drilled in the theory and
practice of “backing up ” during the season of 1887, and
while many were surprised at their splendid succession
of victories on the home stretch, few realized that their
triumphs were largely due to the fact that every player
was in the right place at the right time.
For the better development of base-ball as an athletic
profession and a legitimate entertainment, it is desirable
that every player should understand that there is more
winning play in brainy play than in hand or leg work.
No situation which can arise in the progress of any game
should or will confuse a player who understands the game.
When a ball is thrown from the catcher to second
base the short-stop should run across behind the second-
N. F. PFEFFER,
THE INFIELD. 97

baseman, and the center-helder should run in. Right


here is a chance for the pitcher. Suppose the ball gets
away from the short-stop, goes to the center-fielder, and
the base-runner gets to third. Anticipating a throw to
third, the pitcher should back up third base.
When a ball is hit to left field, the center-fielder
should get to the rear of the left-fielder as soon as pos¬
sible. A hit to center field should be a signal for both
the other fielders to close up in the rear and be prepared
to return the ball immediately, should the center-fielder
fail to take it. Right field should always be backed by
center.
When a ball is hit to left field, the short-stop should
take second base, while the second-baseman should back
up the throw. If the ball be hit to right field, the base-
man comes to second, while the short-stop backs up the
ball. Observe the same plan when the ball is hit to
center field.
When there are men on bases, always strive for a
double play. When there is a runner on first bag, let
the second-baseman play close to the base-line. Thus,
in case he gets the batted ball ahead of the runner, he
has almost a sure thing on a double play.
My experience has taught me that no two men will
come down to second base, when crowded for time, ex-
actly*alike. This fact should be remembered by all who
cover the second bag. But it is also a fact that a runner,
when under pressure, will always come down in an indi¬
vidual and characteristic fashion. Take John Ward,
7
D

98 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

who is one of the most puzzling base-runners living.


Ward will vary his style of getting away from a bag, but
he always alights, when he is hustling, in the same old,
stereotyped way. I have found it extremely useful to
“ keep tab” on the way runners come down to my base.
Some make it a practice to collide with you in such a
way as to block you from throwing. In those cases, I
rush at a man, touch him, jump away from him, and
recover to throw to first. For so doing, I have been
many times criticised, but when I do it, it is because I
know my man. Believe me, there is no egotism in this.
It is only a measure of self-preservation.
It should be remembered.
Another axiom of the game which should be made
more prominent is this:
Whenever there is a runner at first base, there is
always a chance for a double play on a batted ball. This
point M. J. Kelly, of the Boston club, never loses sight
of. Hundreds of times I have heard him call from the
right field, and always at the right time, to remind men
that they must not be satisfied with doing one thing as
long as it was possible to score two points.
The certain mark of superiority in an infielder is the
fashion in which he throws a ball, making a double play.
The cool-headed man is always the general.
The level-headed man on the ball-field will regulate
his action according to the hit. If the ball is hit sharp,
do not throw it as hard as you can. Take your time,
ftnd endeavor to throw it high or low, according to the
\

( *-

I
THE INFIELD. 99

preference of the baseman who receives it. Too much


haste on the part of the man who has the first handling
of the ball has, hundreds of times, prevented what would
otherwise have been a double play. Send the ball prop¬
erly to the second-baseman, and it gives him a chance to
get himself in position to throw effectively when he
receives the ball.
Naturally enough, being a ,second-baseman myself, I
consider that the most important position in the infield.
At the same time, I realize the importance of the short¬
stop, the third-baseman, and the first-baseman, and
believe that the only way a ball club can ever be made
strong is by well-directed and systematic work on the
part of every man in the infield.
N. F. Pfeffer.
100 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE OUTFIELD.
There is but one way to play the outfield as it should
be played, though it is played in a hundred different
ways. A good outfielder should be the very soul of
activity. He should never lose sight of a single inci¬
dent during the progress of the game, whether it con¬
cerns him or not, and he should also be ever on the alert
to help a fellow-player out of a dangerous position. Catch¬
ing in the field, though a good catch will always receive
the plaudits of the multitude, is one of the easiest parts
of a fielder’s duty. The first thing a new beginner learns
is to catch a fly-ball, and if he should fail in that, he
might as well decide that he has no business on the
diamond; for if he does not decide it for himself,
the public will do it for him, and that, too, very uncere¬
moniously.
One of the strongest points a fielder can possess,
is to know what to do with a ball after he gets it,
and to act promptly when he takes in the situation.
For instance, a ground-hit may be made to center while
a man is holding downlsecond bag. The hit is a sharp
one; the fielder is play^n'g well in, and feels sure that the
man who has started to run from second base can be
retired at the home plate. In his efforts to get hold of
the sphere, he fumbles it, but finally secures it, and fires
it in to the catcher; but he is too late. TheHumble
THE OUTFIELD. 101

robbed him of his advantage, and in losing that, his


opportunity for putting the man out was also lost. The
fielder has also shown bad judgment in throwing the
ball, after his little margin of advantage was gone, to
the catcher; for the batter has now run down to second,
whereas he should have been held at first. It is the
exercise of good, sound judgment at just such critical
points that makes a fielder valuable.
A fielder should never throw a ball in from the field
slowly, or roll it, when there are men on bases, as a good
base-runner will always take advantage of such a dis¬
play of a lack of judgment. When there is no one
on the bases, any hit to the outfield should be returned
as rapidly as possible to the second base. A ball hit to
left field when a runner is on first should be sent to
third; while if a runner is on bag No. 2, and a hit is made
into the left garden, the ball should be sent to second
immediately. If thrown to third, the man who made
the hit will likely go round to second. Supposing a hit
were made to center while a runner was on second, nine
times out of ten the runner will try to reach the home
plate. If the hit was a sharp one, and the fielder was
not playing out too far, the runner may be thrown out.
There is an opportunity for a fielder to display his good
judgment here, if he possesses that quality. Then, again,
we have a runner on first base when a hit has been made
to right or center field. The intelligent fielder will see
that there is no chance of catching the man running from
first base, but the batter may be caught at second if the
• ♦
' 'mC y.r V- ’77'

102 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

leather is properly thrown and handled. Let the fielder


throw to short third, and the batter will think an attempt
is being made to put the runner out ahead of him, and
will try himself to get to second. The short-stop is there,
however, and takes the ball, throwing it to second in
time to catch the batter. If there is doubt about catch¬
ing the man at home plate, the fielder should deliver the
ball near the pitcher’s position. Frequently, the batter
will attempt to go down from first to second, but just as
often will the pitcher get the ball there ahead of him.
A fielder capable of making such points is indeed an
excellent player. A man may retrieve himself, after mak¬
ing a fumble, when there are other men on the bases. I
know there is no use throwing the ball to first to put the
batter out; but I pick up the ball, anyhow, and wheel
round, making the motion to throw to first, but instead
put the ball in to one of the other bases, fooling the run¬
ners who have left the bags thinking the ball has gone
to first. Fielders should back each other up, just as well
as basemen. Right field, in my opinion, should be
played within one hundred and eighty feet of the home
plate. Like the left-fielder, he should be a rapid runner,
sure catcher, and quick and accurate thrower. The
same is required of a center-fielder. The fielders should
all know the individual record of each and every player
with whom they have to deal, and should know what
kind of a ball he is accustomed to knocking—whether he
puts it in the air, or on the ground, or sends a liner.
Every right-fielder should be well drilled, so that he can
.r.’

j?

THE OUTFIELD 103


i
throw men out at the home plate. To do this, he must
put every ounce of his muscle into the ball, and yet throw
^ it with a steady and accurate aim. The center-fielder
must possess all the qualities of the fielder in general,
ir- and besides act as the center or hub of the base-ball
wheel. The fielder does not get half the credit from the
' general public he deserves; for, be it known, his position
» is just as difficult to play as any other on the diamond.
i Ed. Hanlon
104 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HOW TO CAPTAIN A BALL TEAM.


The general public has but little idea of the difficulties
met with by the manager or captain of a base-ball club
in handling his men. My first experience in the position
of captain was in the spring of 1883, when I took charge
of the St. Louis Browns. It did not take me long to
discover that the lot of a base-ball captain was not a
particularly happy one. The first day of my experience
I found that I had a lot of balky horses in command. At
first I tried to drive them, but finding that severe dis¬
cipline would not bring about the best results, I changed
my tactics, and commenced to reason with the boys.
Kind treatment soon had the desired effect. The play¬
ers were spurred on to their best efforts, and good work
all around followed in consequence. It was in this
way that I first gained the respect of my men and the
confidence of the public, and started upon a career
which has been at least fairly successful in the manage¬
ment of ball-players. I have won many championships,
and attribute the same to the hearty cooperation of my
fellow-players and the fact that I was fortunate enough
always to keep them in good spirits and first-class ball¬
playing condition. A great deal depends upon the judg¬
ment shown in sizing up the diversity of dispositions and
temperaments of players.
One plan which has aided me wonderfully in winning
Chas Comiskey
HOW TO CAPTAIN A BALL TEAM. 105

games has been to play my hardest against the weaker


as well as the stronger teams. Good clubs have fre¬
quently lost the championship through an inability to
properly judge the strength of their rivals.
Base-ball players are not divine. They are decidedly
human. Handle them gently and kindly, and you will
get good team work, good individual playing, and many
a game in return; treat them harshly, and you will find
it a Herculean task to even realize a creditable showing.
Of course, it is necessary to have your players in good
physical condition at all times in order to get winning
work from them. It is a mistake, however, to attempt to
keep your players under lock and key. Trust to their
own good sense to restrain from dissipation. Where I
have found that a player was leading a fast life, I have
used ihoral suasion with him. It double discounts a
fine, and rarely ever fails of its object. Temperate I am
at all times, a prohibitionist never. A little stimulant at
the proper time will never injure anyone, not even a ball¬
player.
Charles Albert Comiskey.
106 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE ART OF PITCHING.


Mark E. Baldwin, pitcher of the Chicago Players’
League club, writes: Vitally important to the game
of base-ball is the pitcher. Not that he should expect,
or be expected, to play the whole game himself; but
that he must be a master of technique, a thorough
student of the opposing batsmen, and a man of coolness
and judgment. The art of pitching is to-day an art of
arts. Every successful pitcher must have a varied style
of delivery; for, if I may use the term, upon his versa¬
tility depends in a great measure his effectiveness. It is
not so much the curve that bothers the batsman, as it is
the guessing that must precede the curve. Before the
ball leaves the twirler’s hand, the knight of the willow
must decide in his own mind just where that ball is going
to be when it reaches the home plate; failing to do this,
his chances of making a safe hit are slim indeed.
The secret of effective pitching is absolute and perfect
control of the ball at all times. Speed and curves will
not suffice, without ability to place the ball over the plate
at the proper height whenever desired. A number of
first-class pitchers use a straight, speedy ball in prefer¬
ence to curves, and in almost every instance where
speed is combined with accuracy in placing the ball,
success is attained. The reason for this is that many
strong batsmen are timid and terror-stricken lest they
Mark E. Baldwin
THE ART OF PITCHING. 107

should be disabled by being hit with the ball. Other


pitchers prefer a change of pace, alternating it with
straight, speedy, slow, and curved balls.
During the season of 1889, while playing with the
Columbus team of the American Association, my most
successful deliveries were a fast, straight ball and a drop
curve. Of course, while pitching against the several
clubs that formed the association, my style was changed
as much as possible, from the different peculiarities
possessed by the different batsmen. Some preferred a
curve; others, straight, fast pitching; while some waited,
and waited well, for the slow ball. To my idea, the
Athletics were decidedly the heaviest hitting team of
the association, and it required my very best efforts to
defeat them; for, when once they started, they were
indeed a hard club to stop. Indeed, this could only be
done by a change of pace.
A pitcher who desires to rank in Class A must know
how to use all the varied deliveries, and also be able to
field his position well; to back up first, third, and
the home plate; to watch the bases, and, above all,
have a good, sound understanding with his catcher in
regard to signs. Many pitchers give their own signs;
but 1 am safe in saying the majority of pitchers are
signed by their respective catchers. To my liking, it is
quite the safest and surest method. My reason for this
is that in every team there is always some player on the
outlook to discover signs as given by either player.
The year 1884 marked my entrance into the base-ball
108 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

arena. My professional debut was made in the position


of right-fielder and change catcher with" the Boston
Union. The early part of 1885 found me with the
Providence club, champions of the National League.
In July of that year I was sold to the Buffalo club, and
remained with that organization until 1886, when I
joined the Washingtons. The winter of 1886 found me
in Cuba, with the Athletics of Philadelphia. It was
during this trip that I first attempted the art of pitching.
The year 1887 found me with the Toronto club, champions
of the International League; in 1888 and 1889 I was with
the New York Giants, and 1890 finds me with the New
York club, of the Players’ National League.
A pitcher should have, first of all, a strong, supple arm,
loose shoulder, and perfect self-possession. Lacking
one of these, he is handicapped from the start. He
must be accurate; his aim must be true. With accuracy
should be combined the power to change the pace of the
ball at will, at such a time and in such a manner that the
batsman can not with certainty be prepared with any
definite tactics. Another important factor is the curve
of the ball in its passage through the air. The long,
slightly rounding, or “rainbow” curve is of little use,
while the short, abrupt curve can be used most effectively.
The pitcher should be always ready to field slow-hit
balls, and also cover first when that baseman is engaged
in fielding a ground-ball. In addition to this, he should
back up third and home on a throw in from the outfield.
With men on bases, he should be constantly on the alert.
ED. Crane
THE ART OF PITCHING. 109

holding them as close as possible to the bases, the first


base receiving special attention.
In delivering a ball, the pitcher should never expose
his grasp of the ball to the batsman. Each ball should
be thrown, to all appearances, with the same effort and
motion as its predecessors, even though the speed may
constantly vary. An easy, natural delivery is always
desirable. A snappy, jerky delivery will in a short
time wear out the strongest arm and shoulder. With
the abilities I have mentioned, together with endurance
and pluck, I think any player could soon become a win¬
ning pitcher.
Ed. N. Crane.
110 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HOW TO FILL THE CATCHER’S POSITION.


In these days of fast pitching, hard hitting, and fast
and tricky base-running, it is absolutely necessary that
a first-class catcher should be not only a reliable back¬
stop and fast and correct thrower, but he must be a
scientific thrower, and an almost perfect judge of bats¬
men, and their strong and weak points as well. By
scientific throwing, I mean so handling the ball when it
comes from the pitcher that the motion to throw costs
no time. I always try to get and throw the ball with
the same motion, or as nearly so as possible.
My system of catching is to stand on the outer edge of
the plate. It is the outcurves that go widely, and
are missed. The so-called incurves are always within
reach.
It has always seemed to me that the catcher, with the
team before him, and in the natural position to attract
the attention of the other eight men, is the natural cap¬
tain and distributer of signs for team work, and the cen¬
tral figure in the game. The New York team has always
worked on this plan since I have been its captain, and it
has been a most successful one.
Of course, the catcher who captains and “ signs ” a
team from behind the bat must be able to do so; other¬
wise, he will fail worse in that position than in any
Other, because of the amount of “ business ” for him to
Buck " Ev/ing
HOW TO FILL THE CATCHER’S POSITION. Ill

do at all times. But, if he can do the work, the catcher


is the natural captain of every base-ball team.
The successful catcher, with good judgment on oppos¬
ing batsmen, should control the battery work, and even
choose the pitchers to face certain groups of batsmen.
As the rules stand, the base-runner has little or no chance
against a first-class battery. With a pitcher working
smoothly, and his delivery sharp enough to hold runners
closely to the bases, the chances against the average
base-runner are about ten to one.
No pitcher is first-class who does not cultivate a sharp
delivery, and pay almost as much attention to men on
bases as to the batsman facing him. Base-running
ability is best used in the start the runner gets. I have
in mind two or three men who are but ordinary runners,
and yet start so well that they reduce the chances in
favor of their being caught to five to one, or even less.
No first-class catcher throws hard at all times. The
ability to throw straight and hard is good to possess,
but your first-class catcher is a flexible fellow, who throws
hard when he has to, but relies most on getting the ball
down straight and quickly, gaining the time on the run¬
ner before he lets the ball go.
To me, catching is not hard work. If it was, I should
not have been as successful as I have been.
W. E. Ewing.
112 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE ART OF BASE-RUNNENG.


William A. Sunday, the graceful and speedy sprinter
of the Pittsburgh league club, has some very excellent
ideas on base-running. Says Mr. Sunday:
Base-running is almost as essential to the success of
a club as team work. Two qualities must be possessed
by a player before he can become a success in the art—
judgment and speed. I consider judgment paramount
to speed, and believe it possible for a comparatively slow
runner to become proficient in the theft of bases. He
must be very careful, however, in watching the move¬
ments of the pitcher, and be off the instant the ball
leaves his hands. Further, he must be able to tell
whether the pitcher is about to deliver the ball to the
catcher or throw it to first. These faculties only come
after careful study and much experience.
In running, one should always get behind the fielder
whenever possible, as you thus have him at a disadvan¬
tage. He is compelled to keep a sharp lookout for the
ball which will be thrown him in order to head you off,
and if you are behind him, he will be compelled, even
after getting the ball, to turn around in order to touch
you out. While the baseman is performing this little
operation, a clever base-runner will have slid in and
captured the bag.
W. A. Sunday.
THE ART OF COACHING. 113

THE ART OF COACHING.

Of course, coaching is a fine art. Base-ball without


the gay and festive coacher would be as Hamlet with
Hamlet left out, or as cricket with Chinese as players.
Coaching is what keeps alive the interest while men are
on bases; coaching is what pleases the crowd, rattles the
opposing pitcher, and wins games. It is as essential to
the success of base-ball as is batting, base-running, or
pitching—it has become a part and parcel of the game;
and, as the patent-medicine advertisements say, no game
is complete without it. I do not believe in bulldozing
taotics in coaching, but in a thorough understanding
between the players and their captain. When a man
once reaches first base, it is the proper caper for him to
continue on in his mad career until he lands at the
home plate. He can not do this single-handed and alone.
Of course, he will have to do the running himself,
but with a good man on the first and third base coach¬
lines his chances of scoring are greatly enhanced.
A coacher who has studied the methods and motions
of pitchers can very often “tip off” to the runner
just the proper moment for him to start on his career of
thievery.
The coacher has a much easier time of it sometimes
than others. In other words, he does not find it half as
114 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.
I
hard to coach around a speedy runner as he does an ice-
wagon or a freight-train. There are no ice-wagons or
freight-trains in the Players’ League.
W. A. Latham.

-SX'
V

I
ARLIE LATHAM.

I
THE ART OF SCHEDULE-MAKING. 115

THE ART OF SCHEDULE-MAKING.


One of the most difficult matters in connection with
base-ball is the art of schedule-making. But few men in
the profession are masters of this branch of the business,
and of these few, “Jim” Hart, ex-manager of the Bos¬
ton league club, but at present private secretary to A.
G. Spalding, stands at the head. In writing on the
subject, Mr. Hart says:
You have requested me to write a few lines regard¬
ing base-ball schedule-making. It is seldom that two
people are found who have the same plan for arranging
a schedule. Consequently, I will simply explain my
mode of procedure.
To arrange a schedule for a base-ball league, the
maker must, first of all, familiarize himself with the loca¬
tion of the several cities, and the railways connecting
them. This is easily done by placing a blank paper
under a map upon which all the cities are shown; then
placing the point of a pin on the city as indicated by
the map, pressing hard enough to make an impression
on the blank paper. When this has been done with each
city, lines are to be drawn on the blank paper to indicate
the railways which can be used in traveling from city to
city. On these lines the number of miles separating the
cities are marked; also, the time of arrival and departure
of trains. By so doing, a map is made which at a glance
116 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

supplies all information of the character desired. Con¬


tinual searches in a railway guide are thus avoided.
The next point is to ascertain from each club the
desirable days for the club to play on home grounds, and
the dates which are undesirable for home games, owing
to opposition or other causes. In a book which is ruled
horizontally only, beginning at the extreme left side, is
placed one date on each line, beginning with the date
upon which it is proposed to open the season, finishing
with the closing date—missing no date, except that it be
that Sunday games are not to be scheduled, in which case
all Sundays can be omitted. If it is the desire to play
Sunday games, all Sundays should be included, and
marked or underscored so that they can be seen at a
glance. Saturdays should also be marked, but not with
the same mark as for Sundays, as Saturdays and Sundays
are usually considered the most desirable days, and should
be evenly divided. If on any day it is proposed to play
two games, there should be two lines for those dates, or,
in other words, repeat that date the same as though there
were two of that number in that month, thus:
July 3-4-4-5-
All the lines thus used, from the opening to the closing
of the season, are to be counted. This will indicate
exactly how many days there are for games, and by sub¬
tracting the number of games which it is proposed to
play, it will give the open or idle dates. It is necessary
that this be known, so that open dates may be judiciously
distributed. By dividing the dates already written into
THE ART OP SCHEDULE-MAKING. Il7

sections, it can be shown how much time may be used to


make certain trips. For example: Suppose there is
. being made an eight-club schedule of one hundred and
twenty-six games for each club, the season beginning on
April I St and closing October ist; this, with two games
on May 30th (Decoration Day), and two on July 4th
(Independence Day), gives one hundred and eighty-five
days for one hundred and twenty-six games, making
fifty-nine open days, which must be distributed through¬
out the entire season. The eight cities are divided into
two sections, four in each, selecting those four which are
nearest together in any one direction. These sections
can be designated as East and West. The four clubs of
these sections can again be divided into two each, which
can be called sections i and 2 of the East, and sec¬
tions I and 2 of the West. To play one hundred
and twenty-six games during the season, each team will
have to play nine games on the grounds of the seven
remaining clubs, or sixty-three away from home, and
each of the seven teams will be compelled to visit the
home grounds for nine games, making sixty-three games
at home, or the one hundred and twenty-six in the aggre¬
gate. These games are usually divided into series of
three, making it necessary for each team to visit each
grounds three times during the season.
These trips may be again divided in this manner: The
West to play the East at home a series of twelve games;
then the East to play the West in the West one series,
also of twelve games; then the sections to play among
118 tJNtVER'SAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

themselves, one series at home and one series abroad;


sections i of the East and West playing on grounds of
sections 2; sections 2 on grounds of sections 1; then
the two clubs of each section i with each other. At
the same time, the two clubs of each section 2 can play
with each other. This would make eighteen games be¬
tween the sections, or forty-two games up to that time,
which is one-third of the total number for the season.
One-third of the one hundred and eighty-five dates on
the schedule is about sixty-two, which, if the games had
been scheduled without leaving any. open dates, would
put the games twenty days too far ahead. To ascertain
exactly how these idle dates should be distributed, let it
be found how much idle time there is for each game
played; thus, there are one hundred and eighty-five days
for one hundred and twenty-six games, or nearly one and
a half days for each game. Consequently, for the twelve
games which the East play at home with the West, there
must be allowed seventeen days for like games in the
West, and for the eighteen games which the sections
have played with each other, there must be allowed
twenty-seven days, making an allowance of sixty-one
days, or about one-third of the playing time for one-third
of the games.
The same principle is, of course, used in the remaining
two-thirds of the schedule, although it is always advisable
to keep pretty busy the first third of the season, so that,
in case of postponement, more time is left to play off the
postponed games on the later trips.
THE ART OF schedule-making. 119

When the schedule has been completed as thus planned,


the task of “ proving ” should be gone through with in
this manner: Each club should be taken from the begin¬
ning to the closing of the season, and its trips and dates
given, thereby showing whether all trips can be made
from city to city, under existing railway schedules, in
time to play on dates given. This being verified, the
schedule should be “blocked,” or the complete schedule
put on one page. This is done by putting all the home
games of each club in squares. For an eight-club
schedule there would be required a block eight by eight,
but, of course, only seven of these in each line would be
used, as the home club has but- seven teams visit its
grounds. When this is completed, if it is found that each
space contains nine dates, it is proved that the schedule
is right and correct.
Schedule-making is quite an art, and a man who can
become so expert in the art that he can give each club
all the holidays, all the Sundays, all the Saturdays, and
all XhQpleasant days on the home grounds, will be able to
present a schedule that will be adopted without the usual
kick, and at the same time gain a reputation that will
crown him king of all schedule-makers.
James A. Hart.
120 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HOW TO ORGANIZE A BALL CLUB.

I don’t know how other people organize a base-ball


club. I can tell you, though, how we organized one
quickly and successfully. , I knew little or nothing about
the Brotherhood until last July, when Fred Pfeffer, its
Chicago leader, came to me and told me how he and the
other members of the Brotherhood felt; how a vote had
been taken on the question of strike or no strike, on the
morning of July 4th—and the decision of which, by the
way, was no strike—and how the players had determined
to go into business for themselves next season if they
could attract capital to their side. Pfeffer asked me to
furnish the capital for the Chicago venture. I asked for
a National League contract, and submitted it to my law¬
yers. They said it was no good, and another legal firm
was called in and gave the same opinion. I gave a
favorable answer to Pfeffer, but no move was made until
John Ward came here. We had two meetings, in which
all the details were gone over, and I agreed to find the
men and money to organize the Chicago White-Stocking
Club of the Players’ National League.
At the last meeting between Ward, Pfeffer, and myself,
it was agreed that Charles A. Comiskey, the famous cap¬
tain and manager of the St. Louis Browns, should be
invited to fill those places, and that of first-baseman, upon
the Chicago team. He quickly accepted the invitation.
HOW TO ORGANIZE A BALL CLUB. 121

promised to sign a contract when the time came, and ful¬


filled the promise. All the men in the old team that were
wanted signed the agreement, except Tom Burns and
Hutchinson, and all, except those two, signed our con¬
tract. Later, Burns and Hutchinson pledged themselves
to us, but broke their promises. Comiskey’s players,
anxious to follow their captain, more than filled the gap,
and when we had done signing contracts we had eighteen
men on our rolls. Thus we had our own great team
complete, and were able to aid Brooklyn with Van Hal-
tren, Pittsburgh with John Tener, and Boston with Gum-
bert. Myself and the men who shared the stock in the
new club watched our interests carefully, and, by so
doing, were able not only to care for and protect them,
but occasionally aid the other teams in various ways.
We tried to get the old park for the old team, and offered
$25,000 cash down, if six per cent, was paid us for the
money, for a three-year lease. The owners were willing,
but the tenant, whose lease had expired, was not, and,
rather than get into a tedious law-suit, we looked for
grounds, and after a lot of work found those we are now
shaping up tor the season. From the first I had no
doubt of the success of the new league, and found ready
assistance on every hand. The players gave the lie to
their old employer’s charge of “ every player has his
price,” stood every test, and aided us in every possible
way. That’s how the Chicago White-Stockings were
organized. There may be better methods of doing the
work. Ours being successful, suits us very well.
C. A. Weidenfeller.
122 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

HOW TO SCORE A BALL GAME.


Very few persons understand how to keep a correct
score of a base-ball game. For the benefit of the general
reader, therefore, the following rules, which are those
used by reporters and official scorers, are given. Each
square in the accompanying diagram is supposed to rep¬
resent the field of play. The center represents the dia¬
mond, with the home plate at the bottom. First base is
to the right, second base at the top, and third base at the
left. In the first block, mark how the player got first;
in the second, how he reached second; and so on to the
plate. When a runner scores, mark a straight line in the
center to record the tally. Number each player accord¬
ing to the order of the batting-list.
A base-hit is recorded by a dash, thus:—; a two-base
hit by two dashes; a three-base hit by three dashes, and
a home-run by four dashes.
In recording put-outs, mark it 1-2-4. This means
that the first man out in the inning was put out from
2 to 4 — 2 assisting and 4 putting out. F. 4 means
that the batter flew out to 4; F. B. means foul bound; F.
F., foul fly; F. T., foul tip; B. B., base on balls; E., base
on error; P. B., hit by pitched ball; K., out on strikes;
O., put out; M. F., muffed fly; W., wild pitch; W. T.,
wild throw; P., passed ball; L., left on bases. Triple
plays should be recorded thus: 9-7-6, showing that 9
HOW to SCORE A BALL GAME. 123

Stopped the ball, threw it to 7, who threw to 6 and com¬


pleted the play. All such marks must be recorded in
the square which the base-runner is to reach next. In
making up a summary, carry out the plays into the vari¬
ous columns as shown in the diagram. Earned runs are
runs made without an error, or before a chance has been
offered to retire the side. Stolen bases should be marked
S., and credited to a player who reaches a base unaided
by error or hit.

■ 1 2 3 u 5 6 7 8 5 t'ifDC
itBi R. 18. S.B. P.O A. E.
0 <> <> 0 <> <> <> <> 0

0 <> 0 <> <>


-0 <> <> <> <> 0
0 <> -<> <> <> 0 -0- <>
<> 0 0 <>- 0

<6 <> <> <> <> <> -0

<> <> <> <> <>- <>


<> <> <> <6 <> <> <>
[-<>- <> 0 <> <> <i>
Utal

Uarned Bans_2 Base Bits__ __3 Base-Hlts^- -..BomsBans-^_.Double.HUya.


Base OD -Balls-Base.onJHii.'by Pitched Ball—- -w-JPaased-Balls —.^VUd Pitches.'b^ —..
Time...__ ■ ■■■ -
124 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

LONG DISTANCE THROWING.


Ed. N. Crane, pitcher for the New York Players’
League team, holds the record for long distance base¬
ball throwing. On the Cincinnati grounds, October 12,
1884, Crane threw a ball one hundred and thirty-five
yards, one foot, and one-half inch, and in St. Louis,
October 19th of the same year, he threw the ball one
hundred and thirty-five yards, five inches. In 1868,
John Hatfield, of the Cincinnati Reds, threw the ball
one hundred and thirty-two yards. A throwing contest
took place on the old Union ball-grounds, Brooklyn, in
October, 1872. John Hatfield, at that time a member
of the Mutuals, threw the ball one hundred and thirty-
three yards, one foot, seven and one-half inches, the dis¬
tance being officially measured. This throw stood as
the record until Crane beat it. On the Chicago grounds,
a throwing match took place September 9, 1882, be¬
tween Ed. Williamson of the Chicagos and N. F. Pfeffer,
then of the Troys. Pfeffer’s best throw, in three trials,
was one hundred and thirty-two yards and five inches.
Williamson threw the ball one hundred and thirty-
two yards, one foot, or four feet seven and one-half
inches short of Hatfield’s champion throw. During
the summer and fall of 1888, a number of throwing
contests took place in Cincinnati, but no records were
LONG DISTANCE THROWING. 125

beaten. On a wet day, with slippery grounds, William¬


son threw the ball three hundred and ninety-nine feet,
eleven inches, winning the prize, $ioo and a handsome
locket.

1
126 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

POINTS OF INTEREST TO EVERYBODY.


According to the official averages, the best fielding
team in the National League during the season of
1889 would have been as follows: Radbourne, Boston,
pitcher; Bennett, Boston, catcher; Anson, Chicago, first-
baseman; Dunlap, Pittsburgh, second-baseman; Denny,
Indianapolis, third-baseman; Glasscock, Indianapolis,
short-stop; Wilmot, Washington, left-fielder; Fogarty,
Philadelphia, center-fielder; Radford, Cleveland, right-
fielder. The best fielding club in the American Asso¬
ciation would have been: Caruthers, Brooklyn, pitcher;
Cross, Athletic, catcher; Orr, Columbus, first-baseman;
McPhee, Cincinnati, second-baseman; Pinkney, Brook¬
lyn, third-baseman; Fuller, St. Louis, short-stop; Man¬
ning, Kansas City, left-fielder; Corkhill, Brooklyn, cen¬
ter-fielder; Wolf, Louisville, right-fielder.
Fogarty, of Philadelphia, led the National League in
base-running during the season of 1889, and Hamilton,
of Kansas City, led the American Association. In 128
games, Fogarty stole 99 bases, and secured an average of
.773. In 137 games, Hamilton stole 117 bases, making
an average of .854.
The New York league club of 1889 won the series
from every team except the-Boston.
Chicago is the only league club that escaped without
a single whitewash in 1889.
POINTS OF INTEREST TO EVERYBODY. 127

The Columbus club, of the American Association, won


the championship of Ohio, in a contest with Cleveland
and Cincinnati, at the close of the season of 1889.
The series for the championship of Philadelphia, in
1889, between the Athletics and Philadelphias, resulted
in a tie.
There were thirty-two extra-inning games played by
the National League in 1889.
John Clarkson* of the Boston club, not only pitched in
a greater number of games than any other pitcher in the
league or association, but he had a larger number of
victories to his credit as well.
The following organizations are under the protection
of the National Agreement: National League, Ameri¬
can Association, International League, Western Asso¬
ciation, Atlantic Association, Texas League, Western
Inter-State League, Eastern Inter-State League, Tri-
State League, Indiana State League, Colorado State
League, New England League, California League, New
York State League, Michigan State League, New York
and Pennsylvania League, Illinois and Iowa State
League.
The Brooklyn club drew the banner crowds in 1889.
The sixty-nine championship games played at Washington
Park, in the City of Churches, were attended by 353,690
persons, an average of 5,126 to a game. Boston came
next with an attendance of 295,000, or over 4,000 to a
game.
Base-ball is becoming popular in Italy.
128 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

The pennant winners in the fourteen leading organ¬


izations of America, in 1889, were: National League,
New York; American Association, Brooklyn; Western
Association, Omaha; International Association, Detroit;
Atlantic Association, Worcester; Southern League, New
Orleans; California League, Oakland; Texas League,
Houston; Tri-State League, Canton; Inter-State League,
Springfield; Middle State League, Harrisburg; Michigan
State League, Jackson; New York State League, Auburn;
Ohio State League, Akron.
." V C . ; '•■ / .' ■ ••
, t
)

THE ART OF BATTING. 129


;
I

f
r
r
! THE ART OF BATTING.
I

^ Batting is an art that is not easily acquired—that is,


I successful batting. It comes to one after long, steady
j; practice, experience, and perseverance. Some people, of
course, are natural-born batters, and it seems that they
y

, have to hit the ball whenever it comes near them; but


most of the successful batters of to-day have become
such from long experience and steady practice. One
must study one’s weak points just the same as in
: any profession, and must try to master or overcome
; them.
^ The eye is the most important part of a man’s make-up,
when it comes to handling the willow with any degree of
success. It is the factor that tells the batter when to
^ strike, and where to place his bat. He must judge with
his eye. A man with a bad optic can never wield the
■: willow very successfully. The arms and wrist are other
t very important factors which assist the batter. He
V must, as I have said before, judge with the eye, and strike
w with the arm and not the body. The majority of all
B beginners step up to the plate, grasp the bat, and stand
■ erect, with their feet close together. Just as soon as the
pitcher raises his hand the feet part, the right, if he is
K not south-pawed, going out in front of the plate, and
B the left to the rear. The whole body is thrown out of
130 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

position, and, as a result, when the ball crosses the plate


the batter strikes wild. A ball-player, when he goes to
the bat, should place his feet out and take his position
before the pitcher makes a move, and should keep his '
position all the time he is at the bat. Timidity or fear
is a bad thing for a batter. He should not be afraid of
getting hit, but should wait, and then if there is danger
of his being hit, merely dodge the ball, and not jump all
over the field. That was a great difficulty with me when
I first began to play ball. No sooner would a ball curve
than I would jump out of its way, and, as a result, have a
strike called on me, or else get struck myself. I finally
broke myself of this annoying habit, and have since
become quite a successful batter.
There are only two kinds of batters—the free and the
steady hitters. The free hitter is a man like Jake Buck-
ley, who strikes at every ball the pitcher throws him.
No matter whether the ball is high, low, wild, or even
way out of his reach, the free batter will strike at it.
The steady hitters are the men who wait for a ball,
and do not strike until they get it. It doesn’t matter
whether the ball is curved, straight, or a high or low ball,
just so long as it is a good ball, they will hit it, and hit
it hard, too. These are the most successful hitters
all the way through. There are men who can place a
ball to a certain extent; that is, some of them can knock
a ball into a certain part of the field if they choose.
They can not do this all the time, but I have occasionally
seen it done, There are some players who will not listen
THE ART OF BATTING. 131

to an older head who points out their weak spots. They


know it all themselves, and don’t want any advice. This
class of men can never be successful.
Fred. H. Carroll.
VS2 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

PLAYERS FOR 1890.

ROSTER OF NATIONAL LEAGUE CLUBS.

The roster of the National League is withheld for


the present owing to the numerous changes in the mem¬
bership of the various clubs.

ROSTER OF players’ LEAGUE CLUBS.

The officers and players of the Players’ National


League for the season of 1890 follow:
Col. E. A. McAlpin, 150 Avenue D, New York, N. Y.,
President.
John Addison, 51 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ill., Vice-
President.
Frank H. Brunell, 927 Chicago Opera House Block,
Chicago, Ill., Secretary and Treasurer.
Boston.—President, C. H. Porter; Treasurer, F. E.
Long; Secretary, J. B. Hart; Manager and Captain,
Michael J. Kelly. Players: Brouthers, i-b.; Brown, f.;
Daley, p.; Gumbert, p.; Irwin, s. s.; Johnston, f.; Kelly,
c.; Madden, p.; Murphy, c.; Nash, 3-b.; Quinn, 2-b.;
Richardson, f.; Radbourne, p.; Stovey, f.; Sweet, c. ^
Brooklyn.—President, Wendell Goodwin; Secretary,
G, H. Wirth, Mills Building, New York; Manager and
ROSTER OF PLAYERS* LEAGUE CLUBS. 133

Captain, John M. Ward. Players: Andrews, t.; Bierbauer,


2- b.; Cook, c.; Dailey, c.; Van Haltren, p.; Hayes, c.;
Joyce, 3-b.; Kenslow, c.; Murphy, p.; McGeachy, f,; Orr,
i-b.; Seery, f.; Sunday, f.; Weyhing, p.; Ward, s. s.

Buffalo.—President, M. Shire; Vice-President, J.


Gilbert; Secretary, C. R. Fitzgerald. Players: Beecher,
f.; Clark, c.; Carney, f.; Callihan, p.; Ferson, p.; Had¬
dock, p.; Hay, f.; Hallegan, c.; Irwin, 3-b.; Keefe, p.;
Krock, p.; Mack, c.; Rowe, s. s.; Rainey, f.; Wise, 2-b.;
White, i-b.

Chicago.—President,John Addison; Vice-President,


James Murdough; Treasurer, Lot P. Smith; Secretary,
James P. Hayde; Captain and Manager, Charles A.
Comiskey. Players: Boyle, c.; Bartsen, p.; Bastian, s. s.;
Baldwin, p.; Comiskey, i-b.; Duffy, f.; Darling, c.; Will¬
iamson, s. s.; Dwyer, p.; Farrell, c.; King, p.; Latham,
3- b.; O’Neill, f.; Pfeffer, 2-b.; Ryan, f.

Cleveland.—President, Al. L. Johnson; Vice-Presi¬


dent, C. Grover; Secretary, J. J. Coleman. Players:
Bakely, p.; Brennan, c.; Browning, f.; Faatz, i-b.; Gruber,
р. ; Hemmings, p.; Larkin, i-b.; McAleer, f.; McKean,
s. s.; O’Brien, p.; Radford, f.; Sutcliffe, c.; Strieker, 2-b.;
Snyder, c. (Manager and Captain); Tebeau, 3-b.; Tv. itch-
ell, f.
New York.—President, Cornelius Van Cott; Vice-
President, E. B. Talcott; Secretary, F. B. Robinson;
Manager and Captain, William Ewing. Players: Brown,
с. ; Crane, p.; Connor, i-b.; Ewing, c.;J. Ewing, p.; Gore,
y

134 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

f.; Hatfield, s. s.; Keefe, p.; O’Day, p.; O’Rourke, f.;


Richardson, 2-b.; Slattery, f.; Vaughn, c.; Whitney, 3-b.
Philadelphia.—President, H. M. Lane; Secretary,
James W. Allen; Treasurer and Manager, B. F. Hilt;
Captain, James G. Fogarty. Players: Buffinton, p.; Cross,
c.; Cunningham, p.; Farrar, i-b.; Fogarty, f,; Griffin, f.;
Hallman, c.; Husted, p.; Kilroy, p.; Milligan, c.; Rous,
2-b.; Sanders, p.; Shindle, 3-b.; Shannon, s. s.; Wood, f.;
Pickett, 3-b.
Pittsburgh.—President, W. McCallen; Secretary and
Treasurer, John K. Tener; Manager and Captain, Ed¬
ward Hanlon. Players: Carroll, c.; Corcoran, s. s.; Fields,
f.; Galvin, p.; Hurley, c.; Hanlon, f.; Kuehne, 3-b.;
Morris, p.; Maul, p.; Quinn, c.; Robinson, 2-b.; Shaley,
p.; Tener, p.; Beckley, i-b.; Visner, c.
Umpires.—J. H. Gaffney, Worcester, Mass.; Robert
Ferguson, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Alonzo Knight, Boston,
Mass.; Robert Mathews, Philadelphia, Penn.; Ross
Barnes, Chicago, Ill.; Thos. F. Gunning, Fall River,
Mass.; Charles Jones, New York; W. H. Halbert, New
York.
ROSTER OF AMERICAN ASSOCIATION CLUBS.

The officers and players of the American Association


for the season of 1890 follows:
Zach. Phelps, Louisville, Ky., President and Secretary.
Gen. Henry Brinker, Rochester, N. Y., Vice-Presi¬
dent.
Allen W. Thurman, Columbus, Ohio; J. J. O’Neill,
ROSTER OF AMERICAN ASSOCIATION CLUBS. 135

St. Louis, Mo.; Zach. Phelps, Louisville, Board of Arbi¬


tration.
Athletic.—President, H. C. Pennypacker; Secretary
and Treasurer, W. H. Whitaker; Manager, Will Sharsig.
Players: Collins, Seward, Robinson, Bausewine, Welch,
Esper, Lyons, Purcell, McMahon, Smith, Kappel,
O’Brien, Wagner, Kilroy, Fitzgerald, Bowers, Halpin.
St. Louis.—President,Chris, von der Ahe; Secretary,
Daniel Reedy; Treasurer, Edward von der Ahe. Play¬
ers: Meek, Kane, G. Adams, J. J. Adams, Calvin, Von
der Brock, Chamberlain, Stivetts, Ramsey, Winscott,
Sweeney, Darrah, Klusman, W. B. Fuller, Harry Fuller,
Roseman, McCarthy, Gettingen, Duffee.
Louisville.—President, Lawrence S. Parsons; Secre¬
tary and Treasurer, Thos. J. Batman; Manager, John C.
Chapman. Players: Harry L. Taylor, P. F. Jones, John
Keenan, H. F. Goodal, John B. Ryan, Phil. H. Tomney,
W. B. Weaver, Wm. V. Wolff, D. B. Crewson, Phil. H.
Ehret, Harry H. Raymond, E. Scott Stratton, Daniel
Phelan, Chas, Hamburg.
Toledo.—President and Treasurer, V. H. Ketcham;
Vice-President, Clarence Brown; Manager, Chas. H.
Morton. Players: W. C. Alvord, W. J. Van Dyke, E. L.
Cushman, T. C. Nicholson, F. C. Smith, Leander Abbott,
Frank Schiebeck, Perry W. Werden, J. S. Sneed, C. E.
Swartwood, C. W. Sprague, E. Rogers, Harry Sage.
Columbus.—President, Conrad Born; Vice-President,
Ralph Lazarus; Treasurer, A. B. Cohen; Secretary,
136 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

F. W. Newburg; Manager, A. C. Buckenberger. Players:


Ed. Bligh, J. Easton, R. Johnson, J. B. Munyan, Chas. -I
Crooks, John J. Doyle, Chas. T. Reilly, Harry Easterday, |
Wm. Widner, Samuel A. Nichols, Henry C. Gastright, J
John O’Connor, James McTamany, Mike Lehane. i
i

Syracuse.—President, Secretary, Treasurer, and Man-


ager, George C. Frazier. Players: Grant Briggs, P. E.
Dealy, M. Morrison, J. T. Keefe, Dan. Casey, T. B. ‘4
Lyons, Wm. M. McQuery, Frank McCabe, Clarence L. i
Childs, B. McLaughlin, J. V. Battin, M. C. Dorgan, W. /
T. Ely, W. S. Wright, Jos. H. Ramsey. ’
Rochester.—President, Henry Brinker; Secretary, S.
C. Mackaye; Manager, P. T. Powers. Players: R. M.
Barr, J. J, Fitzgerald, W. Callihan, D. McKeough, '
Daniel L. Burke, T. H. O’Brien, W. F. Greenwood,
Jas. Knowles, Marr Phillips, Harry Lyons, T. C. Griffin, j
Theo. Scheffler. ^
Brooklyn.—President, James M. Kennedy. Players: ^
Chas. Reipschlager, James E. Toy, Frank Bowes,-
Powers, John Lynch, S. J. Toole, W. O’Brien, Joe Ger- j
hardt, -Sweeney, F. J. Fennelly, J. Peltz, Henry j
Simon, Ed. Daily. 'i
Umpires.—Robert D. Emslie, St. Thomas, Ont.; John h|
T. Hunt, St. Louis, Mo.; T. G. Connell, Philadelphia,
Penn.; G. W. Barnum, Columbus, Ohio.
PLAYING RULES. 13 i

PLAYING RULES OF THE NATIONAL


LEAGUE.
THE BALL GROUND.

Rule i. The ground must be an inclosed field, sufficient in size


to enable each player to play in his position as required by these
rules.
Rule 2. The infield must be a space of gp'ound thirty yards
square.
THE BASES.

Rule 3, The bases must be—


Section i. Four in number, and designated as first base, second
base, third base, and home base.
Sec. 2. The home base must be of whitened rubber, twelve inches
square, so fixed in the' ground as to be even with the surface, and so
placed in the comer of the infield that two of its sides will form part
of the boundaries of said infield.
Sec. 3. The first, second, and third bases must be canvas bags,
fifteen inches square, painted white, and filled with some soft mate¬
rial, and so placed that the center of the second base shall be upon
its corner of the infield, and the center of the first and third bases
shall be on the lines running to and from second base, and seven and
one-half inches from the foul lines, providing that each base shall be
entirely within the foul lines.
Sec. 4. All the bases must be securely fastened in their positions,
and so placed as to be distinctly seen by the umpire.
the foul lines.

Rule 4. The foiri lines must be drawn in straight lines from the
outer corner of the home base, along the outer edge of the first and
third bases, to the boundaries of the ground.
138 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE POSITION LINES.

Rule 5. The pitcher’s lines must be straight lines, forming the


boundaries of a space of ground, in the infield, five and one-half feet
long by four feet wide, distant fifty feet from the center of the home
base, and so placed that the five and one-half feet lines would each be
two feet distant from and parallel with a straight line passing through
the center of the home and second bases. Each corner of this space
must be marked by a flat, round, rubber plate, six inches in diameter,
fixed in the ground even with the surface.
Rule 6. The catcher’s lines must be drawn from the outer corner
of the home base, in continuation of the foul lines, straight to the
limits of the ground back of home base.
Rule 7. The captain’s or coacher’s line must be a line fifteen feet
from and parallel with the foul lines, said lines commencing at a
line parallel with and seventy-five feet distant from the catcher’s lines,
and running thence to the limits of the ground.
Rule 8. The players’ lines must be drawn from the catcher’s
lines to the limits of the ground, fifty feet distant from and parallel
with the foul lines.
Rule 9. The batsman’s lines must be straight lines, forming the
boundaries of a space on the right, and of a similar space on the left
of the home base, six feet long by four feet wide, extending three
feet in front of and three feet behind the center of the home base, and
with its nearest line distant six inches from the home base.
Rule 10. The three-feet lines must be drawn as follows: From a
point on the foul line from home base to first base, and equally dis¬
tant from such bases, shall be drawn a line, on foul ground, at a right
angle to said foul line, and to a point three feet distant from it; thence
running parallel with said foul line to a point three feet distant from
the first base; thence in a straight line to the foul line, and thence
upon the foul line to point of beginning.
Rule ii. The lines designated in Rules 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10
must be marked with chalk or other suitable material, so as to be dis¬
tinctly seen by the umpire. They must all be so marked their entire
PLAYING RULES. 139
length, except the captain’s and players’ lines, which must be so
marked for a distance of at least thirty-five yards from the catcher’s
lines.
THE BALL.

Rule 12 . The ball—


Section i. Must not weigh less than five nor more than five and
one-quarter ounces avoirdupois, and measure not less than nine nor
more than nine and one-quarter inches in circumference. The Spald¬
ing League Ball or the Reach American Association Ball must be used
in all games played under these rules.
Sec. 2. For each championship game, two balls shall be furnished
by the home club to the umpire for use. When the ball in play is
batted over the fence or stands, onto foul ground out of sight of the
players, the other ball shall be immediately put into play by the
umpire. As often as one of the two in use shall be lost, a new one
must be substituted, so that the umpire may at all times after the
game begins have two for use. The moment the umpire delivers a
new or alternate ball to the pitcher it comes into play, and shall not
be exchanged until it in turn passes out of sight onto foul ground.
At no time shall the ball be intentionally discolored by rubbing it with
the soil or otherwise.
Sec. 3. In all games, the ball or balls played with shall be fur¬
nished by the home club, and the last ball in play becomes the prop¬
erty of the winning club. Each ball to be used in championship
games shall be examined, measured, and weighed by the secretary of
the association, inclosed in a paper box, and sealed with the seal of
the secretary, which seal shall not be broken except by the umpire, in
the presence of the captains of the two contesting nines, after play has
been called.
Sec. 4. Should the ball become out of shape, or cut or ripped so
as to expose the yarn, or in any way so injured as to be—in the opin¬
ion of the umpire—unfit for fair use, the umpire, on being appealed to
by either captain, shall at once put the alternate ball into play and
call for^ new one.
140 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

THE BAT.
Rule 13. The bat—
Section i. Must be made wholly of wood, except that the handle
may be wound with twine, or a granulated substance applied, not to
exceed eighteen inches from the end.
Sec. 2. It must be round, except that a portion of the surface
may be flat on one side, but it must not exceed two and one-half
inches in diameter in the thickest part, and must not exceed forty-
two inches in length.
(In batting against the swift pitching of the period, a
tough, light bat is the best; and it should be handled
quickly in striking at the ball, giving the wrists ample
play, and not hit from the shoulder. A comparatively
light, quick stroke of the bat meeting a swiftly thrown
ball will frequently send it out of reach of the outfield¬
ers, while a safe tap of the ball will send it clear of the
infielders, and prevent a catch in the outfield, unless the
latter are playing very close in.)
the players and their positions.

Rule 14. The players of each club in a game shall be nine in


number, one of whom shall act as captain; and in no case shall less
than nine men be allowed to play on each side.
Rule 15. The players’ positions shall be such as may be assigned
them by their captain, except that the pitcher must take his position
within the pitcher’s lines, as defined in Rule 5. When in position on
the field, all players will be designated “ fielders ” in these rules.
(The field side is not complete without nine men in
the field. The captain can place his men as he likes,
even to the extent of playing one of the outfielders as
right short; but the ball can only be thrown to the bat
from the pitcher’s regular position.)
PLAYING RULES. 141

Rule i6. Players in uniform shall not be permitted to seat them¬


selves among the spectators.
Rule 17. Every club shall be required to adopt uniforms for its
players, and each player shall be required to present himself upon
the field during said game in a neat and cleanly condition; but no
player shall attach anything to the sole or heel of his shoes other than
the ordinary base-ball shoe-plate.

THE pitcher’s POSITION.

Rule 18. The pitcher shall take his position facing the batsman,
with both feet square on the ground, one foot on the rear line of the
“box.” He shall not raise either foot, unless in the act of delivering
the ball, nor make more than one step in such delivery. He
shall hold the ball, before the delivery, fairly in front of his body,
and in sight of the umpire. When the pitcher feigns to throw the
ball to a base, he must resume the above position, and pause mo¬
mentarily before delivering the ball to the bat.
(The pitcher must bear in mind the fact that if he
lifts his rear foot from off the back line of his position
before he delivers the ball, or before it leaves his hand,
he violates the rule, as in such case he takes two steps
in delivery, whereas the rule confines him to but one
step. It is immaterial whether he lifts his rear foot or
not after the ball leaves his hand. In every instance of
his making a feint to throw to first base, he must after¬
ward make a pause and take his original standing posi¬
tion before he throws the ball to the bat.)
THE batsmen’s POSITION—ORDER OF BATTING.

Rule 19. The batsmen must take their positions within the bats¬
men’s lines, as defined in Rule 9, in the order in which they are
named on the score, which must contain the batting order of both
nines, and be submitted by the captains of the opposing teams to the
142 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

umpire before the game; and when approved by him, this score must
be followed, except in the case of a substitute player, in which case the
substitute must take the place of the original player in the batting
order. After the first inning, the first striker in each inning shall be
the batsman whose name follows that of the last man who has com¬
pleted his turn—time at bat—in the preceding inning.
(The “score” referred to in the rule is the printed or
written order of batting handed to the umpire by the
captain when the game is about to begin, and it can not
afterward be changed in its order except in the case of
a substitute player taking his place in the nine, in which
case he bats in the same order as that of the retired
player.)
Rule 20. Section i. When their side goes to the bat, the
players must immediately return to and seat themselves upon the
players’ bench, and remain there until the side is put out, except
when batsman or base-runner. All bats not in use must be kept in
the bat-racks, and the two players next succeeding the batsman, in
the order in which they are named on the score, must be ready with
bat in hand to promptly take position as batsman; provided, that the
captain and one assistant only may occupy the space between the
players’ lines and the captain’s lines to coach base-runners.
(No player has a right to leave the players’ bench
except when called to the bat. Neither have they the
right to put their bats on the ground when not using
them in their position at the bat. In the case of the
captain and his coaching assistant only, can any player
leave the bench when not at the bat. Umpires should
see that this rule is strictly enforced.)
Sec. 2. No player of the side at bat, except when batsman, shall
occupy any portion of the space within the catcher’s lines, as defined
PLAYING RULES. 143

in Rule 6, The triangular space behind the home base is reserved


for the exclusive use of the umpire, catcher, and batsman, and the
umpire must prohibit any player of the side “at bat” from cross¬
ing the same at any time while the ball is in the hands of, or passing
between, the pitcher and catcher while standing in their positions.
Sec. 3. The players of the side “at bat” must occupy the por¬
tion of the field allotted them, but must speedily vacate any portion
thereof that may be in the way of the ball, or of any fielder attempt¬
ing to catch or field it.
players’ benches.
Rule 21. The players’ benches must be furnished by the home
club, and placed upon a portion of the ground outside the players’
lines. They must be twelve feet in length, and must be immovably
fastened to the ground. At the end of each bench must be immov¬
ably fixed a bat-rack, with fixtures for holding twenty bats; one such
rack must be designated for the exclusive use of the visiting club, and
the other for the exclusive use of the home club.

THE GAME.
Rule 22. Section i. Every championship game must be com¬
menced not later than two hours before sunset.
Sec. 2. A game shall consist of nine innings to each contesting
nine, except that—
(a) If the side first at bat scores less runs in nine innings than the
other side has scored in eight innings, the game shall then terminate.
(b) If the side last at bat in the ninth inning scores the winning
run before the third man is out, the game shall terminate.
(During the closing months of the season, the umpire
should keep himself well posted as to the almanac time
for sunset on the days of the month, so as to be ready to
call play at least two hours before the official time for
sunset. The moment the winning run in a game is
made, that moment the contest ends, and the umpire
144 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

must call “Game.” For instance, if there be no man


out, and a runner on third base, and the score a tie, and
a home-run hit is made, the moment the home base is
touched by the runner from third, the game ends, and
only a single hit can be credited to the batsman.)
A TIE GAME.

Rule 23. If the score be a tie at the end of nine innings to each
side, play shall only be continued until the side first at bat shall have
scored one or more runs than the other side, in an equal number of
innings, or until the other side shall score one or more runs than the
side first at bat.
A DRAWN GAME.

Rule 24. A drawn game shall be declared by the umpire when


he terminates a game on account of darkness or rain, after five equal
innings have been played, if the score at the time is equal on the last
even innings played; but if the side that went second to bat is then
at the bat, and has scored the same number of runs as the other side,
the umpire shall declare the game drawn, without regard to the score
of the last equal innings.
(For instance, if the fifth innings has ended, and the
sixth has been commenced, and the score is six to five at
the end of the first part of the sixth innings, and the
side second at the bat have but five runs to their credit,
and before a hand is out a run ties the game, and rain
or darkness obliges the umpire to call the game, the
contest becomes a drawn game. But if the score at the
end of the fifth even innings is equal, and the side first
at the bat fail to score, and their opponents then get in
one run before a hand is out, and the umpire then calls
the game on account of rain or darkness, the side last
at the bat wins.)
PLAYING RULES. 145

A CALLED GAME.

Rule 25. If the umpire calls “ Game ” on account of darkness or


rain at any time after five innings have been completed by both sides,
the score shall be that of the last equal innings played, unless the
side second at bat shall have scored one or more runs than the side
first at bat, in which case the score of the game shall be the total
number of runs made.
(When the side first at the bat have completed their
innings, and the score be equal, and the side last at
the bat then make one run before a hand is out, and the
game be then called by the umpire, the side last at the
bat wins.)
A FORFEITED GAME.

Rule 26. A forfeited game shall be declared by the umpire in


favor of the club not in fault, at the request of such club, in the fol¬
lowing cases:
Section i. If the nine of a club fail to appear upon a field, or,
being upon the field, fail to begin the game within five minutes after
the umpire has called “ Play,” at the hour appointed for the begin¬
ning of the game, unless such delay in appearing or in commencing
the game be unavoidable.
(The “ unavoidable ” delay above mentioned means a
detention caused by the breaking down of any convey¬
ance, or that resulting from any accident on a railroad.)
Sec. 2. If, after the game has begun, one side refuses or fails to
continue playing, unless such game has been suspended or termi¬
nated by the umpire.
Sec. 3. If, after play has been suspended by the umpire, one
side fails to resume playing within one rninute after the umpire has
called “Play.”
(This is a very important rule, as it gives the umpire
full power to put a stop to the unnecessary delays caused
10
146 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

by continuous disputing of the umpire’s decisions.


When delays are “points” to play in the game, in the
case of an approaching shower, or of darkness, and these
delays can be obtained by constant kicking, the umpire
is em.powered to call play the moment he renders every
decision, and if the kicking is continued one single min¬
ute thereafter, the game becomes forfeited under the
rule.)
Sec. 4. If, in the opinion of the umpire, any one of these rules
is willfully violated.
Sec. 5. If, after ordering the removal of a player, as authorized
by Rule 57, Sec. 5, said order is not obeyed within five minutes.
Sec. 6. In case the umpire declares a game forfeited, he shall
transmit a written notice thereof to the president of the association
within twenty-four hours thereafter.

NO GAME.

Rule 27. “No game” shall be declared by the umpire if he


shall terminate play, on account of rain or darkness, before five
innings on each side are completed.
(It is absolutely essential that five innings on each side
shall have been played to a finish, and the sixth about to
be commenced, before the game can legally be ended as
a game. In any other case, “ No game ” must be called
by the umpire, such as in the instance of the second part
of the fifth innings not being completed.)
SUBSTITUTES.

Rule 28. Section i. In every championship game, each team


shall be required to have present on the field, in uniform, at least two
or more substitute players.
Sec. 2. Two players, whose names shall be printed on the score-
card as extra players, may be substituted at any time by either club.
PLAYING RULES. 147
but no player so retired shall thereafter participate in the game. In
addition thereto, a substitute may be allowed at any time in place of
a player disabled in the game then being played, by reason of illness
or injury, of the nature and extent of which the umpire shall be the
sole judge.
(This is a very important rule, and the changes intro¬
duced require to be well understood. Under this rule,
as it now is, the captain of either nine is given the power
to introduce three distinct pitchers in the game, viz., the
one originally named in the batting order, and two extra
men; or, he can change his battery entire, by substi¬
tuting a pitcher and catcher. This, too, is independent
of any substitution of players for those who may be dis¬
abled by illness or injury. These changes of players in
putting in extra men, too, can be made at any period of
an innings or of a game.)
Sec. 3. The base-runner shall not have a substitute run for him,
except by consent of the captains of the contesting teams.
(A substitute for a base-runner—and he only—can
only be introduced by consent of the opposing nine’s
captain. If he refuses, that ends it. He can, of course,
designate the particular substitute he allows to run.)
CHOICE OF INNINGS—CONDITION OF GROUND.

Rule 29. The choice of innings shall be given to the captain of


the home club, who shall also be the sole judge of the fitness of the
ground for beginning a game after rain.
(The advantage in the choice of innings lies with the
side who go in last at the bat. The captain of the home
team is sole judge of the fitness of the field for begin¬
ning a game, as to its being too wet or muddy, etc. But
148 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

after “ Play ” is called, and a shower wets the field again,


the umpire then becomes the sole judge as to whether
the field is in proper condition to resume play or not.)
THE DELIVERY OF THE BALL—FAIR AND UNFAIR BALLS.

Rule 30. A fair ball is a ball delivered by the pitcher while


standing wholly within the lines of his position, and facing the bats¬
man; the ball, so delivered, to pass over the home base, not lower than
the batsman’s knee, nor higher than his shoulder.
Rule 31. An unfair ball is a ball delivered by the pitcher, as in
Rule 30, except that the ball does not pass over the home base, or
does pass over the home base, above the batsman’s shoulder, or below
the knee.,
(There are two classes of '■'■fair ” balls referred to in
the rules, one of which is the “fair ball ” mentioned as
touching fair ground from the bat, and the fair ball
referred to in Rule 30. It would be well to call the lat¬
ter a good ball, as of old, leaving the term “ fair ” ball
to refer solely to balls hit to fair ground. The umpire,
in judging the range of balls—as referred to in Rule 31
—should bear in mind the fact that the rule requires the
ball to be below the knee, and above the shoulder, to be
an unfair ball. If it comes in on the line of the knee
or the shoulder, it is a legal ball.)
BALKING.
Rule 32. A balk is—
Section i. Any motion made by the pitcher to deliver the ball
to the bat without delivering it, and shall be held to include any and
every accustomed motion with the hands, arms, or feet, or position of
the body assumed by the pitcher in his delivery of the ball, and any
motion calculated to deceive a base-runner, except the ball be acci¬
dentally dropped.
PLAYING RULES. 149
Sec. 2. The holding of the ball by the pitcher so long as to delay
the game unnecessarily; or,
Sec. 3. Any motion to deliver the ball, or the delivering the ball
to the bat by the pitcher, when any part of his person is upon ground
outside of the lines of his position, including all preliminary motions
with the hands, arms, and feet.
(The balk rule was violated last season by umpires,
both in the league and the association, and the result
was a poorer record of base-running than in 1888. In
the first place, the pitcher was frequently allowed to be
too slow in his delivery, thereby violating Sec. 2 of
the above rule. Then, too, he was allowed to violate
the first section, in making motions well calculated to
deceive the base-runner, which the rule explicitly pro¬
hibits. The pitcher commits a balk every time he makes
any movement of his arms or his body, such as he is reg¬
ularly accustomed to in his method of delivery, and then
fails to deliver the ball to the catcher immediately; and
if he make any one of these preliminary motions, and
then throws to first base to catch a runner napping, or
makes a feint to throw, he unquestionably makes a balk.
The base-runner on a base is alone entitled to a base on
a balk, in all cases where the pitcher makes a motion to
deliver the ball to the bat, and fails to do so. The bats¬
man is only entitled to a base on a balk when the ball is
actually delivered to the bat after the pitcher has stepped
outside the lines of his position, or has made two steps
in his delivery, or has failed to make a pause and to
stand in his position, after making a feint to throw to a
base. Of course, when the batsman is given a base on a
balk, every runner on a base takes a base also.
150 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL CxUIDE.

DEAD BALLS.

Rule 33, A dead ball is a ball delivered to the bat by the pitcher
that touches the batsman’s bat without being struck at, or any part of
the batsman’s person or clothing, while standing in his position, with¬
out being struck at; or any part of the umpire’s person or clothing,
while on foul ground, without first passing the catcher.
(The umpire should be careful in watching the action
of the batsman when attempting to “bunt” the ball—
i. e.^ to let the thrown ball strike the bat—so as to be
sure that it is not a “bunt,” but an accidental hit, and
consequently a dead ball.)
Rule 34. In case of a foul strike, foul-hit ball not legally caught
out, dead ball, or base-runner put out for being struck by a fair-hit
ball, the ball shall not be considered in play until it is held by the
pitcher standing in his position.

BLOCK BALLS.

Rule 35. Section i. A block is a batted or thrown ball that


is stopped or handled by any person not engaged in the game.
Sec. 2. Whenever a block occurs, the umpire shall declare it, and
base-runners may run the bases, without being put out, until the ball
has been returned to and held by the pitcher standing in his position.
Sec. 3. In the case of a block, if the person not engaged in the
game should retain possession of the ball, or throw or kick it beyond
the reach of the fielders, the umpire should call “Time,” and require
each base-runner to stop at the last base touched by him until the ball
be returned to the pitcher standing in his position.
(The umpire is requested to watch all play likely to
result in a “ block” ball, very carefully, and to promptly
call “ Block ball ” in a loud voice the moment the block
occurs; and be very prompt in calling time in the case
of any such action of an outfielder as that referred to in
PLAYING RULES. 151

Sec. 3 Oi the rule. The ball is not in play after a


“ block ” has been called by the umpire, until the ball is
held by the pitcher while standing in his box. When¬
ever the pitcher sees that a “ block ” is likely to occur,
he should remain in his box until the ball is fielded in.)
THE SCORING OF RUNS.

Rule 36. One run shall be scored every time a base-runner, after
having legally touched the first three bases, shall touch the home base
before three men are put out. Exception: If the third man is
forced out, or is put out before reaching first base, a run shall not be
scored.
(If, when two men are out, a base hit is made while
a runner is on second base and none at first base, and
the runner on second is caught napping between second
and third, and the runner on third reaches home before
the runner caught between bases is touched out, the run
counts; but if, under somewhat similar circumstances,
there is also a runner on first as well as second, in such
case all that is necessary for the base-player at third is
to hold the ball there before the runner from third gets
home, to prevent the run from counting, as, in such case,
the runner from second to third is forced off, and there
is no necessity to run him down to touch him.)
THE BATTING RULES.

Rule 37. A fair hit is a ball batted by the batsman, standing in


his position, that first touches the ground, the first base, the third
base, any part of the person of a player, umpire, or any other object
that is in front of or on either side of the foul lines, or batted directly
to the ground by the batsman, standing in his position, that (whether
it first touches foul or fair ground) bounds or rolls, within the foul
152 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

lines between home and first or home and third bases, without inter¬
ference by a player.
Rule 38. A foul hit is a ball batted by the batsman, standing in
his position, that first touches the ground, any part of the person of
a player, or any other object that is behind either of the foul lines, or
that strikes the person of such batsman, while standing in his position,
or batted directly to the ground by the batsman, standing in his posi¬
tion, that (whether it first touches foul or fair ground) bounds or rolls
outside the foul lines between home and first or home and third
bases, without interference by a player; Provided, that a foul hit not
rising above the batsman’s head, and caught by the catcher playing
within ten feet of the home base, shall be termed a foul tip.
(There is a very important difference between a ball
hit directly from the bat to the ground and a ball hit
into the air from the bat. In the former case, the char¬
acter of the hit ball, as to its being fair or foul, is
decided entirely by the fact of its rolling or bounding
from fair ground to foul^ or from foul ground to fair.
But in the case of a ball hit in the air it becomes fair or
foul from its first touching fair or foul ground, no matter
in what direction it may afterward roll. In the case of
a ball batted direct to the ground, the fielder should not
touch the ball until it has stopped rolling. For only
then is it settled either as a fair or foul ball. But if he
does pick it up before it stops, it becomes fair or foul
according to whether the fielder is standing upon fair or
foul ground at the time he fields the ball.)
BALLS BATTED OUTSIDE THE GROUNDS.

Rule 39. When a batted ball passes outside the grounds, the
umpire shall decide it fair should it disappear within, or foul should
it disappear outside of the range of the foul lines, and Rules 3 7 and 38
are to be construed accordingly.
PLAYING RULES. 153
Rule 40. A fair batted ball that goes over the fence at a less dis¬
tance than two hundred and ten feet from home base shall entitle the
batsman to two bases, and a distinctive line shall be marked on the
fence at this point.
(The latter rule is intended to govern the batting on
ball grounds not sufficiently large in the outfield for
ordinary outfield play.)
STRIKES.

Rule 41. A strike is—


Section i. A ball struck at by the batsman without its touching
his bat; or,
Sec. 2. A fair ball legally delivered by the pitcher, but not struck
at by the batsman.
Sec. 3. Any obvious attempt to make a foul hit.
Rule 42. A foul strike is a ball batted by the batsman when any
part of his person is upon ground outside the lines of the batsman’s
position.
(An ‘^obvious attempt” to hit the ball foul would
occur if the batsman turned round and attempted to hit
the ball just as it had passed him to the left of his posi¬
tion. It should be understood that no attempt to bunt
a ball can be justly construed as an effort to hit a foul
ball intentionally.)
THE BATSMAN IS OUT.

Rule 43. The batsman is out—


Section i. If he fails to take his position at the bat in his order
of batting, unless the error be discovered and the proper batsman takes
his position before a fair hit has been made; and in such case the balls
and strikes called must be counted in the time at bat of the proper
batsman. Provided, this rule shall not take effect unless the out is
declared before the ball is delivered to the succeeding batsman.
154 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

(If the wrong batsman goes to the bat, and he makes a


fair hit before the error is discovered and declared, the
change of batsmen can not be made until the turn at the
bat comes round again. In all cases the out must be
declared before another ball is thrown to the bat.)
Sec. 2. If he fails to take his position within one minute after the
umpire has called for the batsman.
(If there be any attempt to gain time by delays in
batsmen going to the bat, the umpire should have his
watch in hand, ready to note the time, and promptly
declare the dilatory batsman out on the expiration of the
one minute.)
Sec. 3. If he makes a foul hit, other than a foul tip as defined in
Rule 38, and the ball be momentarily held by a fielder before touching
the ground, provided it be not caught in a fielder’s hat or cap, or touch
some object other than a fielder, before being caught.
Sec. 4. If he makes a foul strike.
Sec. 5. If he attempts to hinder the catcher from fielding the
ball, evidently without effort to make a fair hit.
(The action of the batsman should be closely watched
in this regard, when a runner is on first base and the
catcher is trying to throw him out.)
Sec. 6. If, while the first base be occupied by a base-runner,
three strikes be called on him by the umpire, except when two men
are already out.
(It makes no difference whether the catcher holds the
ball on the fly or not, after the third strike has been
called, the striker is out when there is a runner on first
base, and only one man out when the third strike is
called. In all other cases the catch must be made in
PLAYING RULES. 155

order to put him out, or otherwise the catcher has to try


to throw him out at first base.)
Sec. 7. If, while making the third strike, the ball hits his person
or clothing.
(In Other words, if he strikes at an in-shoot ball after
two strikes have been called, and the ball—without
touching the bat—hits his person or clothing, he can not
be given his base on being hit by a pitched ball, and
neither can the ball be called dead, or it must be de¬
clared the third strike, and the batsman declared out.)
Sec. 8. If, after two strikes have been called, the batsman obvi¬
ously attempts to make a foul hit, as in Section 3, Rule 41.

BASE-RUNNING RULES.

WHEN THE BATSMAN BECOMES A BASE-RUNNER.

Rule 44. The batsman becomes a base-runner—


Section i. Instantly after he makes a fair hit.
Sec. 2. Instantly after four balls have been called by the umpire.
Sec. 3. Instantly after three strikes have been declared by the
umpire.
Sec. 4. If, while he be a batsman, his person or clothing be hit
by a ball from the pitcher, unless—in the opinion of the umpire—he
intentionally permits himself to be so hit.
Sec. 5. Instantly after an illegal delivery of a ball by the pitcher,
(An illegal delivery of the ball is made whenever the
pitcher delivers the ball to the bat, after stepping out¬
side the lines of his position; or for failing to pause
before sending the ball to the bat, after making a feint
to throw to first base; or, after raising his rear foot from
the ground before the ball leaves his hand. The ordi-
156 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

nary balk, however, does not give the batsman his base,
but only the runners.)
BASES TO BE TOUCHED.

Rule 45. The base-runner must touch each base in regular


order, viz,: First, second, third, and home bases; and when obliged
to return (except on a foul hit), must retouch the base, or bases, in
reverse order. He shall only be considered as holding a base after
touching it, and shall then be entitled to hold such base until he has
legally touched the next base in order, or has been legally forced to
vacate it for a succeeding base-runner.
(There is an exception to the latter part of the rule,
and that is, in the case of a runner being on first and
second bases, or second and third bases, and an attempt
to steal bases is made. For instance, suppose the run¬
ner on third attempts to steal home, and the runner on
second, in the interim, runs to third, and touches that
base; under the ordinary working of the rule, he would
be entitled to hold that base; but, in this exceptional
case, if the runner trying to steal home finds that he
can not do it successfully, and tries and succeeds in
getting back to third base, he is entitled to that base;
and the runner from second to third, who has touched
and held third, must return to second, and if touched
while standing on third base, he is out.)
ENTITLED TO BASES,

Rule 46. The base-runner shall be entitled, without being put


out, to take the base in the following cases—
Section i. If, while he was batsman, the umpire called four
balls.
Sec. 2. If the umpire awards a succeeding batsman a base on
four balls, or for being hit with a pitched ball, or in case of an illegal
PLAYING RULES. 157
delivery—as in Rule 44, Sec. 5—and the base-runner is thereby
forced to vacate the base held by him.
Sec. 3. If the umpire calls a “ balk.”
Sec. 4. If a ball delivered by the pitcher passes the catcher and
touches the umpire or any fence or building within ninety feet of the
home base..
Sec. 5. If, upon a fair hit, the ball strikes the person or clothing
of the umpire on fair ground. '
(This is intended to apply when the double umpire
plan is in use.)
Sec. 6. If he be prevented from making a base by the obstruction
of an adversar}^
Sec. 7. If a fielder stop or catch a batted ball with his hat, or
any part of his dress.
(This “obstruction of an adversary” has two distinct
meanings under the rules. Of course, when the base-
player holds the ball in his hand ready to touch an
advancing adversary, he stands in the runner’s way, and
virtually obstructs his adversary; but in this case it is a
legal obstruction. But when he does not hold the ball,
and then in any way obstructs a runner, the latter can
not be put out, even if afterward touched off the base.)

RETURNING TO BASES.

Rule 47. The base-runner shall return to his base, and shall be
entitled to so return without being put out—
Section i. If the umpire declares a foul tip (as defined in Rule
38) or any other foul hit not legally caught by a fielder.
Sec. 2. If the umpire declares a foul strike.
Sec. 3. If the umpire declares a dead ball, unless it be also the
fourth unfair ball, and he be thereby forced to take the next base, as
provided in Rule 46, Sec. 2.
158 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Sec. 4. If the person or clothing of the umpire interferes with


the catcher, or he is struck by a ball thrown by the catcher to intercept
a base-runner.

\VHEx\ BASE-RUNNERS ARE OUT,

Rule 48. The base-runner is out—


Section i. If, after three strikes have been declared against him
while batsman, and the catcher fails to catch the third strike ball, he
plainly attempts to hinder the catcher from fielding the ball.
Sec. 2. If, having made a fair hit while batsman, such fair-hit
ball be momentarily held by a fielder before touching the ground or
any object other than a fielder: Provided, it be not caught in a field¬
er’s hat or cap.
Sec. 3. If, when the umpire has declared three strikes on him
while batsman, the third strike ball be momentarily held by a fielder
before touching the ground: Provided, it be not caught in a fielder’s
hat or cap, or touch some object other than a fielder, before being
caught.
Sec. 4. If, after three strikes, or a fair hit, he be touched with
the ball in the hand of a fielder before such base-runner touches first
base.
(If the base-runner from home to first base reaches
the base—that is, touches it—at the same moment that
the fielder holds the ball on the base, the runner is not
out. It must be plain to the umpire that the ball is held
by the fielder before the runner touches the base, or he
is not out.)
Sec. 5. If, after three strikes or a fair hit, the ball be securely
held by a fielder, while touching first base with any part of his per¬
son, before such base-runner touches first base.
Sec. 6. If, in running the last half of the distance from home
base to first base, he runs outside the three-feet lines, as defined in
Rule 10; e.xcept that he must do so if necessary to avoid a fielder
PLAYING RULES. 159

attempting to field a batted ball, and in such case shall not be declared
out.
(Umpires should closely watch the runner from home
to first to see that he does not touch fair ground in run¬
ning along the pathway, for if he does, he must be
declared out. Runners frequently run off the path,
touching fair ground, and when they do, they are out.)
Sec. 7. If, in running from first to second base, from second to
third base, or from third to home base, he runs more than three feet from
a direct line between such bases to avoid being touched by the ball in
the hands of a fielder; but in case a fielder be occupying the base-
runner’s proper path, attempting to field a batted ball, then the base-
runner shall run out of the path, and behind said fielder, and shall
not be declared out for so doing.
(The running out of the reach of a fielder holding the
ball ready to touch a runner, must be plainly done
beyond the distance of three feet to put the runner out.
It makes no matter how far he runs off the line, except
the fielder holds the ball in his hand and reaches out to
touch the runner. If the runner is near the fielder while
the latter is attempting to field the ball, then the runner
must run out of his reach in order to avoid obstructing
him.)
Sec. 8. If he fails to avoid a fielder attempting to field a batted
ball, in the manner described in Sections 6 and 7 of this rule; or if
he in any way obstructs a fielder attempting to field a batted ball, or
intentionally interferes with a thrown ball: Provided, that if two or
more fielders attempt to field a batted ball, and the base-runner comes
in contact with one or more of them, the umpire shall determine
which fielder is entitled to the benefit of this rule, and shall not
decide the base-runner out for coming in contact with any other
fielder.
160 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

(This obstructing a fielder is a very important matter


for the umpire’s decision, and it requires the closest
attention. For instance, suppose a fielder is under a fly-
ball which is falling on the line of the bases; in such
case, the runner has no right of way on the base path,
but must run on one side of the fielder to avoid obstruct¬
ing him in making the catch. This rule applies in all
cases of fielding a batted ball; but the base-runner can
not intentionally interfere with a fielder attempting to
field a thrown ball, and such interference is at all times
intentional where it could readily have been avoided,
such as purposely getting in the way of a thrown ball so
that it might strike him on the back, or putting up his
hand to cause it to glance off his arm, etc.)
Sec. 9. If, at any time while the ball is in play, he be touched by
the ball in the hands of a fielder, unless some part of his person is
touching a base he is entitled to occupy; Provided, the ball be held
by the fielder after touching him; but (exception as to first base), in
running to first base, he may overrun said base without being put out
for being off said base, after first touching it, provided he returns at
once and retouches the base, after which he may be put out as at any
other base. If, in overrunning first base, he also attempts to run to
second base, or, after passing the base, he turns to his left from the
foul line, he shall forfeit such exemption from being put out.
(So long as the runner overrunning first base keeps
on the right side of the foul line, he is entitled to
exemption from being put out in returning; but the
moment he crosses the foul line, he forfeits such exemp¬
tion. In attempting to run to second base, after over¬
running first, he is not required to return to first and
retouch that base before running to second.)
PLAYING RULES. 161

Sec. io. If, when a fair or foul hit ball (other than a foul tip as
referred to in Rule 38) is legally caught by a fielder, such ball is
legally held by a fielder on the base occupied by the base-runner
when such ball was struck (or the base-runner be touched with the
ball in the hands of a fielder), before he retouches said base after such
fair or foul hit ball was so caught: Provided, that the base-runner
shall not be out in such case, if, after the ball was legally caught as
above, it be delivered to the bat by the pitcher before the fielder holds
it on said base, or touches the base-runner with it; but if the base-
runner, in attempting to reach a base, detaches it before being touched
or forced out, he shall be declared safe.
(On all fair or foul fly-balls caught, runners on bases
who leave a base the moment such ball was hit, must
return to them at once, and if the fielder catching the
fly-ball throws it to the base-player in time before the
runner can get back, a double play is made, the batsman
being out on the catch, and the runner on the base.)
Sec. II. If, when a batsman becomes a base-runner, the first
base, or the first and second bases, or the first, second, and third
bases be occupied, any base-runner so occupying a base shall cease to
be entitled to hold it, until any following base-runner is put out, and
may be put out at the next base, or by being touched by the ball in
the hands of a fielder in the same manner as in running to first base,
at any time before any following base-runner is put out.
(The base-runners in such case are “ forced ” off the
bases they occupy by the batsman’s fair hit, and they
can be put out at the base they are forced to run to, jdst
the same as in running to first base, simply by the player
holding the ball on the base.)
Sec. 12. If a fair-hit ball strike him before touching the fielder;
and in such case no base shall be run unless forced by the batsman
becoming a base-runner, and no run shall be scored, or any other
base-runner put out.
11
162 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

(The change in the rules prevents the double play


which could be made under the rule of 1889. For
instance, if a ball from the bat struck the runner run¬
ning from first to second, the fielder fielding the ball
could throw it to first base in time to put the striker
out. Under the new rule, only the runner who is hit by
the batted ball—and before it touches a fielder—can be
put out.)
Sec. 13. If, when running to a base or forced to return to a base,
he fail to touch the intervening base or bases, if any, in the order pre¬
scribed in Rule 45, he may be put out at the base he fails to touch,
or by being touched by the ball in the hands of a fielder, in the same
manner as in running to first base.
(In returning to a base on a foul ball, the runner is
not obliged to touch the intervening bases. Thus, if the
batsman hit a ball to the outfield on which he runs to
third, and the ball be declared foul, the runner can
return direct to home base, without retouching second
and first.)
Sec, 14. If, when the umpire calls “ Play,” after any suspension
of a game, he fails to return to and touch the base he occupied when
“ Time” was called, before touching the next base.
(The call of “ Time ” by the umpire deadens the ball,
and until “ Play ” is called, runners can not leave the
bases they were holding when time was called.)
WHEN BATSMAN OR BASE-RUNNER IS OUT.

Rule 49. The umpire shall declare the batsman or base-runner


out, without waiting for an appeal for such decision, in all cases where
such player is put out in accordance with these rules, except as pro¬
vided in Rule 48, Secs. 10 and 14.
PLAYING RULES. 163

(The umpire should be required to declare how the


batsman or base-runner was put out in all cases. It is
the most satisfactory.)
COACHING RULES.

Rule 50. The captains and coachers are restricted in coaching


to the base-runner only, and are not allowed to address any remarks
except to the base-runner, and then only in words of necessary direc¬
tion; and no player shall use language which will in any manner
refer to or reflect upon a player of the opposing club, or the audience.
To enforce the above, the captain of the opposite side may call the
attention of the umpire to the offense, and upon a repetition of the
same, the club shall be debarred from further coaching during the
game.

(The noisy coaching in vogue last season is a nuisance


the umpire should put a stop to. It is plainly not
“ words in necessary direction,” but is intended solely to .
annoy the pitcher. If the rule is violated, the penalty
is that the side on which the fault lies is prohibited
from further coaching during the game.)

THE UMPIRE.

Rule 51. The umpire shall not be changed during the progress
of a game, except for reason of illness or injury.

HIS POWERS AND JURISDICTION.

Rule 52. Section i. The umpire is master of the field from


the commencement to the termination of the game, and is entitled to
the respect of the spectators, and any person offering any insult or
indignity to him must be promptly ejected from the grounds.
Sec. 2. He must be invariably addressed by the players as Mr.
Umpire; and he must compel the players to observe the provisions of
all the Playing Rules; and he is hereby invested with authority to
164 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

order any player to do or omit to do any act he may deem necessary


to give force and effect to any and all of such provisions.
(The power of deciding all points of play, whether
covered by the rules expressly or not, is given the
umpire in Section 2 of the above rule, in which he is
empowered to order any player “ to do or omit to do ”
any act he may deem necessary to give force and effect
to the spirit of the Code of Rules. In fact, as stated in
the rule—the umpire is master of the field from the first
innings of the game to the last.)
SPECIAL DUTIES.

Rule 53. The umpire’s duties shall be as follows—


Section i. The umpire is the sole and absolute judge of play.
In no instance shall any person be allowed to question the correct¬
ness of any decision made by him, except the captains of the contending
nines, and no other player shall at such time leave his position in the
field, his place at the bat, on the bases, or players’ bench, to approach
or address the umpire, in word or act, upon such disputed decision.
Neither shall any manager or other officers of either club—except the
captains as before mentioned—be permitted to go upon the field, or
address the umpire in regard to such disputed decision, under a
penalty of a forfeiture of the game to the opposing club. The
umpire shall in no case appeal to any spectator for information in
regard to any case, and shall not reverse his decision on any point of
play on the testimony of any player or bystander.
(This rule has hitherto been violated with impunity
each season, and it is high time that it be strictly carried
out to the letter. It expressly prohibits any player from
speaking to the umpire during a game, except the cap¬
tain, and the latter even has no right to dispute a single
decision in a game in which a simple error of judgment
PLAYING RULE§. 165

is alone involved, such as in the case of a base-runner


being touched while off a base or not, or as to the char¬
acter of a ball delivered by the pitcher to the bat, which
he may justly or unjustly decide a called ball or a strike.
In all such cases, the captain has no right to address a
word to the umpire, under this rule, except to ask for
judgment. The utter uselessness of disputing decisions
involving only errors of judgment is shown in the fact
that no such decision can be reversed. Only when the
umpire errs in his interpretation of the letter of any
special rule, can the captain call for an explanation, or
appeal for a reversal of the illegal decision. It should
be borne in mind that the penalty for a violation of this
rule is the forfeiture of the game.)
Sec. 2. Before the commencement of a game, the umpire shall
see that the rules governing all the materials of the game are strictly
observed. He shall ask the captain of the home club whether there
are any special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall
see that they are duly enforced, provided they do not conflict with any
of these rules. He shall also ascertain whether the fence in the rear
of the catcher’s position is distant ninety feet from the home base.
Sec. 3. The umpire must keep the contesting nines playing con¬
stantly from the commencement of the game to its termination, allow¬
ing such delays only as are rendered unavoidable by accident, injury,
or rain. He must, until the completion of the game, require the play¬
ers of each side to promptly take their positions in the field as soon
as the third man is put out, and must require the first striker of the
opposite side to be in his position at the bat as soon as the fielders are
in their places.
Sec. 4. The umpire shall count and call every ‘'unfair ball”
delivered by the pitcher, and every “dead ball,” if also an unfair
ball, as a “ball;” and he shall also count and call every “strike.”
166 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Neither a “ ball ” nor a “ strike ” shall be counted or called until the


ball has passed the home base. He shall also declare every “dead
ball,” “block,” “foul hit,” “ foul strike,” and “balk.”
Rule 54. For the special benefit of the patrons of the game, and
because the offenses specified are under his immediate jurisdiction,
and not subject to appeal by players, the attention of the umpire is
particularly directed to possible violations of the purpose and spirit of
the rules, of the following character—
Section i. Laziness or loafing of players in taking their places
in the field, or those allotted them by the rules when their side is at
the bat, and especially any failure to keep the bats in the racks pro¬
vided for them; to be ready (two men) to take position as batsmen,
and to remain upon the players’ bench, except when otherwise required
by the rules.
Sec. 2. Any attempt by players of the side at bat, by calling to
a fielder, other than the one designated by his captain, to field a ball,
or by any other equally disreputable means seeking to disconcert a
fielder.
Sec. 3. The rules make a marked distinction between hindrance
of an adversary in fielding a batted or thrown ball. This has been
done to rid the game of the childish excuses and claims formerly
made by a fielder failing to hold a ball to put out a base-runner; but
there may be cases of a base-runner so flagrantly violating the spirit
of the rules and of the game, in obstructing a fielder from fielding a
thrown ball, that it would become the duty of the umpire not only to
declare the base-runner “out” (and to compel any succeeding base-
runners to hold their bases), but also to impose a heavy fine upon him.
For example : If the base-runner plainly strikes at the ball while pass¬
ing him, to prevent its being caught by a fielder; if he holds a fielder’s
arms so as to disable him from catching the ball, or if he runs against
or knocks the fielder down for the same purpose.

CALLING “play” AND “TIME.”

Rule 55. The umpire must call “Play” promptly at the hour
designated by the home club; and on the call of “ Play,” the game
Playing rules. 16'j'

must immediately begin. When he calls “ Time,” play shall be sus¬


pended until he calls “ Play ” again; and during the interim no player
shall be put out, base be run, or run . be scored. The umpire shall
suspend play only for an accident to himself or a player (but in case
of accident to a fielder, “ Time” shall not be called until the ball be
returned to and held by the pitcher, standing in his position), or in
case rain falls so heavily that the spectators are compelled, by the
severity of the storm, to seek shelter, in which case he shall note the
time of suspension; and should such rain continue to fall thirty min¬
utes thereafter, he shall terminate the game; or to enforce order, in
case of annoyance from spectators.
(The umpire can not suspend play on account of rain,
unless it rains so heavily that spectators are obliged to
seek shelter from “the severity of the storm.” An ordi¬
nary drizzle or a gentle shower does not produce this
effect as a rule. can always be called by the
umpire to enforce order, in case of any portion of the
crowd becoming unruly.)
Rule 56. The umpire is only allowed, by the rules, to call
“Time” in case of an accident to himself or a player; a “block,”
as referred to in Rule 35, Sec. 3; or in case of rain, as defined by
the rules. The practice of players suspending the game to discuss or
contest a decision with the umpire, is a gross violation of the rules,
and the umpire must promptly fine any player who interrupts the game
in this manner.
(The umpire must do more than fine a player or play¬
ers who violate this rule. He must call “Play” imme¬
diately, and forfeit the game, in favor of the side at
fault, within one minute after play has been called, if
the disputing of decisions does not cease within that
time.)
168 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

INFLICTING FINES.

Rule 57. The umpire is empowered to inflict fines, of not less


than $5.00 nor more than $25.00 for the first offense, on players
during the progress of a game, as follows—
Section i. For indecent-or improper^ language addressed to the
audience, the umpire, or any player.
Sec. 2. For the captain or coacher willfully failing to remain
within the legal bounds of his position, except upon an appeal by the
captain from the umpire’s decision upon a misinterpretation of the
rules.
Sec. 3. For the disobedience by a player of any other of his
orders, or for any other violation of these rules.
Sec. 4. In case the umpire imposes a fine on a player, he shall at
once notify the captain of the offending player’s side, and shall trans¬
mit a written notice thereof to the president of the association or
league within twenty-four hours thereafter, under the penalty of hav¬
ing said fine taken from his own salary.
Sec. 5. A repetition of any of the above offenses shall, at the
discretion of the umpire, subject the offender either to a repetition of
the fine or to removal from the field, and the immediate substitution
of another player then in uniform.
(Umpires did not enforce the rule last year, of remov¬
ing an offending player from the field for repeatedly dis¬
puting an umpire’s decision, as they should have done.
It is a very effectual rule against kickers, especially kick¬
ing captains, who are nuisances on the diamond.)
FIELD rules.

Rule 58. No club shall allow open betting or pool-selling upon


its grounds, nor in any building owned or occupied by it.
Rule 59. No person shall be allowed upon any part of the field
during the progress of the game (in addition to the players in uniform,
the manager on each side, and the umpire) except such officers of the
PLAYING RULES. 1G9

law as may be present in uniform, and such officers of the home club
as may be necessary to preserve the peace.
*

Rule 6o. No umpire, manager, captain, or player shall address


the audience during the progress of a game, except in case of neces¬
sary explanation.
Rule 6i. Every club shall furnish sufficient police force upon its
own grounds to preserve order, and in the event of a crowd entering
the field during the progress of a game, and interfering with the play
in any manner, the visiting club may refuse to play further until the
field be cleared. If the ground be not cleared within fifteen minutes
thereafter, the visiting club may claim, and shall be entitled to, the
game, by a score of nine runs to none (no matter what number ot
innings have been played).
(There should be a rule in the code, as there is in the
constitution of the league, prohibiting any player of a
team from being party to any bet or wager on the
game in which he participates.)

GENERAL DEFINI I'lONS.

Rule 62, “ Play ” is the order of the umpire to begin the game,
or to resume play after its suspension.
Rule 63. “ Time ” is the order of the umpire to suspend play.
Such suspension must not extend beyond the day of the game.
Rule 64. “ Game” is the announcement by the umpire that the
game is terminated.
Rule 65. “An inning” is the term at bat of the nine players
representing a club in a game, and is completed when three of such
players have been put out as provided in these rules.
Rule 66. “A time at bat” is the term at bat of a batsman. It
begins when he takes his position, and continues until he is put out,
or becomes a base-runner; except when, because of being hit by a
pitched ball, or in case of an illegal delivery by the pitcher, as in
Rule 44.
170 UNIVERSAL BASE-BALL GUIDE.

Rule 67. ‘‘I/Cgal,” or “ Legally,” signifies as required by these


rules.

SCORING.

Rule 68. In order to promote uniformity in scoring champion¬


ship games, the following instructions, suggestions, and definitions
are made for the benefit of scorers, and they are required to make all
scores in accordance therewith:

BATTING.

Section i. The first item in the tabulated score, after the play¬
er’s name and position, shall be the number of times he has been at
bat during the game. The time or times when the player has been
sent to base by being hit by a pitched ball, by the pitcher’s illegal
delivery, or by a base on balls, shall not be included in this column.
Sec. 2. In the second column should be set down the runs made
by each player.
Sec. 3. In the third column should be placed the first-base hits
made by each player. A base hit should be scored in the following
cases:
When the ball from the bat strikes the ground within-the foul
lines, and out of reach of the fielders.
When a hit ball is partially or wholly stopped by a fielder in
motion, but such player can not recover himself in time to handle
the ball before the striker reaches first base.
When a hit ball is hit so sharply to an infielder that he can not
handle it in time to put out the batsman. In case of doubt over this
class of hits, score a base hit, and exempt the fielder from the charge
of an error.
When a ball is hit so slowly toward a fielder that he can not handle
it in time to put out the batsman.
That in all cases where a base-runner is retired by being hit by a
batted ball, the batsman should be credited with a base hit.
When a batted ball hits the person or clothing of the umpire, as
defined in Rule 37.
PLAYING RULES. 171
Sec. 4. In the fourth column shall be placed sacrifice hits, which
shall be credited to the batsman who, when but one man is out,
advances a runner abase, on a fly to the outfield or a ground hit, which
results in putting out the batsman, or would so result if handled
without error.
FIELDING.

Sec. 5. The number of opponents put out by each player shall be


set down in the fifth column. Where a striker is given out by the
umpire for a foul strike, or because he struck out of his turn, the put-
out shall be scored to the catcher.
Sec. 6. The number of times the player assists shall be set down
in the sixth column. An assist should be given to each player who
handles the ball in assisting a run-out or other play of the kind.
An assist should be given to a player who makes a play in time to
put a runner out, even if the player who could complete the play fails,
through no fault of the player assisting.
And generally, an assist should be given to each player who handles
the ball, from the time it leaves the bat until breaches the player who
makes the put-out; or, in case of a thrown ball, to each player who
throws or handles it cleanly, and in such a way that a put-out results,
or would result if no error were made by the receiver.

ERRORS.

Sec. 7. An error shall be given in the seventh column for each


misplay which allows the striker or base-runner to make one or more
bases when perfect play would have insured his being put out, except
that “ wild pitches,” “ bases on balls,” “ bases on the batsman being
struck by a pitched ball,” or case of illegal pitched balls, balks, and
passed balls, shall not be included in said column. In scoring errors
of batted balls, see Sec. 3 of this rule.

STOLEN BASES.

Sec. 8. Stolen bases shall be scored as follows:


Any attempt to steal a base must go to the credit of the base-run¬
ner, whether the ball is thrown wild or muffed by the fielder; but any
17^ Universal base-ball guide.

manifest error is to be charged to the fielder making the same. If the


base-runner advances another base, he shall not be credited with a
stolen base, and the fielder allowing the advancement is also to be
charged with an error. If a base-runner makes a start, and a battery-
error is made, the runner secures the credit of a stolen base, and the
battery error is scored against the player making it. Should a base-
runner overrun a base and then be put out, he should receive the
credit for the stolen base.
EARNED RUNS.

Sec. g. An earned run shall be scored every time the player


reaches the home base unaided by errors before chances have been
offered to retire the side.
(Earned runs should be charged against the pitching
only on the basis of base hits made off the pitching, and
should not include stolen bases or bases scored in any
other way.)
THE SUMMARY.

Rule 69. The summary shall contain—


Section i. The number of earned runs made by each side.
Sec. 2. The number of two-base hits made by each player.
Sec. 3. The number of three-base hits made by each player.
Sec. 4. The number of home runs made by each player.
Sec. 5. The number of bases stolen by each player.
Sec. 6. The number of double and triple plays made by each side,
with the names of the players assisting in the same.
Sec. 7. The number of men given bases on called balls by each
pitcher.
Sec. 8. The number of men given bases from being hit by pitched
balls.
Sec. 9. The number of men struck out.
Sec. 10. The number of passed balls by each catcher.
Sec. II. The number of wild pitches by each pitcher.
Sec. 12. The time of game.
Sec. 13. The name of the umpire.
/
/

PLAYING RULE^. 173

(By including in the summary the number of total


bases made on base hits—such as two and three baggers
and home runs—a premium is offered for record-playing
at the bat.
Assistances on strikes are not to be included in the
record of fielding assistances. There should be a record
added giving the figures of runs batted in by safe hits
aitd legitimate sacrifice hits.)
AMENDMENTS.

Rule 70. No amendments or change of any of these National


Playing Rules shall be made, except by a joint committee on rules,
consisting of three members from the National League and three
members from the American Association; such committee to be ap¬
pointed at the annual meetings of each of said bodies, to serve one
year from the tw'entieth day o‘f December of each year. Such com¬
mittee shall have full power to act, provided that such amendments
shall be made only by an affirmative vote of the majority of each
delegation.
i
\

V
THE

Globe Library
Read The

A New Series of Selected Writinos


BY THE BEST AUTHORS. AT POPULAR PRICES.

SOLD .

On All Trains,
AND BY BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY.

Rand, McNally & Co.,


PUBLISHERS,
CHICAGO AND NEW YORK.
Send for catalogue.
* *' .*
/ ,

CAMPING if AND /3(ila/V

CAMP OUTFITS^
A Manual of Instruction for Young and Old Sportsmen.

By G. O. SHIELDS (Coquina),
Author of “Cruisings in the Cascades,” “Rustlings in the Rockies,” “Hunt¬
r. . »
ing in the Great West,” “The Battle of the Big Hole,” etc.

I;': ■ 12mo. 200 Pages. 30 Illustrations, Cloth, $1.25.

This book contains practical points on how to drCss for Hunting, Fish¬
ing, or other Camping Trips; what to carry in the way of extra Clothing,
Bedding, Provisions, Cooking Utensils, and all classes of Camp Equipage ;
how to select Camp Sites ; how to make Camp Fires ; how to build Tem¬
porary Shelters; what to do in case of Getting Lost, etc. It contains check
lists of articles constituting Complete Camping Outfits; a list of the names
and addresses of Guides, in various hunting and fishing countries, and
\- «.-
much other information of value to Campers, and which has never before
4V'. .
been given to the public.
The instructions given are based on an experience of twenty-five years
,i in Camping, and in the study of Camp Lore, Woodcraft, etc., and it is
believed that the work will prove of great value to thousands of men and
boys, who have not had such favorable opportunities for study.
L^'-' .
The book also contains a Chapter by
W§-
d^.' BR. CHARLES GILBERT DAVIS, on “Camp Hygiene, Medicine
and Surgery.”
One by COL. J. FRY LAWRENCE, on “Camp Cookery.”

And one by FRANK F. FRISBIE, on “The Diamond Hitch, or. How to


Load a Pack Horse.”
This book should be in the library of every Sportsman, and will be sent,
post-paid, on receipt of price, by

RAND, McNally & CO., Publishers, j


CHICAGO and NEW YORK.

M>^

'Z' ■>
(

I
(
\
i
» 4
j
5 ,

i
I
j
■a

\ . ■

'r/
I.

•%
i.

{*■
•I
I

i' ,
4

(■.A’1
't <
s
}
i

; Wi

I',
i

A«i

f*
M
,t
» •
4f
•* t *
$ .\;rr
k