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User’s Guide

Powersim Inc.

i

SmartCtrl User’s Guide

Version 2.1.2

May 2014

Copyright © 2009–2014Carlos III University of Madrid, GSEP Power Electronics Systems Group,

Spain.All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be photocopied or reproduced in any form or by

anymeans without the written permission of Powersim and the Carlos III University of Madrid.

Disclaimer

Powersim Inc. (“Powersim”) and the Carlos III University of Madrid make no representation or warranty

with respect to the adequacy or accuracy of this documentation or the software which it describes. In no

event will Powersim and the Carlos III University of Madrid or its direct or indirect suppliers be liable for

any damages whatsoever including, but not limited to, direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential

damages of any character including, without limitation, loss of business profits, data, business

information, or any and all other commercial damages or losses, or for any damages in excess of the list

price for the license to the software and documentation.

Powersim Inc.

email: info@powersimtech.com

http://www.powersimtech.com

Table of Contents

1.1 Why SmartCtrl? 1

1.2 Program Layout 3

2.1 File Menu 5

2.2 Design Menu 6

2.3 View Menu 6

2.4 Window Menu 8

2.5 Tools Menu 8

2.6 Main Toolbar 8

2.7.1 SmartCtrl additional transfer functions 11

3.1.1 Single Loop 15

3.4.1 Power Stage 33

3.4.2 Graphic panels 34

3.4.2.1 Oscillator ramp and internal compensator 35

3.4.2.2 Line Current 35

3.4.2.3 Rectified voltage and external compensator output 36

3.4.3 Multipliers 37

3.4.3.1 Multiplier 37

3.4.3.2 UC3854 Amplifiers 38

i

CHAPTER 4: DESIGN A GENERIC TOPOLOGY 39

4.1.1 s‐domain model (equation editor) 40

4.1.1.1 s‐domain (equation editor) VMC 40

4.1.1.2 s‐domain (equation editor) CMC 44

4.1.2 s‐domain model (polynomial coefficients) 48

4.1.2.1 Plant Wizard 50

ii

CHAPTER 9: COMPENSATORS 83

9.1.1 Type 3 compensator 83

9.1.2 Type 3 compensator unattenuated 84

9.1.3 Type 2 compensator 85

9.1.4 Type 2 compensator unattenuated 86

9.1.5 PI compensator 87

9.1.6 PI compensator unattenuated 88

9.2.1 Single pole compensator 89

9.2.2 Single pole compensator unattenuated 89

9.2.3 Type 3 regulator 91

9.2.4 Type 3 compensator unattenuated 92

9.2.5 Type 2 compensator 93

9.2.6 Type 2 compensator unattenuated 94

9.2.7 PI compensator 95

9.2.8 PI compensator unattenuated 96

14.1.1 Export transfer function 119

14.1.2 Export to PSIM 120

14.1.3 Export transient responses 124

iii

14.1.4 Export Global. 125

14.1.5 Export waveforms 127

14.2.1 Add Function 129

14.2.2 Modify Function 131

iv

Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction

SmartCtrl is the control designing tool for power electronics. It provides an easy to use

interface for designing the control loop of almost any plant.

It includes the predefined transfer functions of some of the most commonly used power

electronics plants, such as different DC-DC topologies, AC-DC converters, Inverters

and motor drives.

However, it also allows the users to import their own plant transfer function by means

of a text file. Therefore, this feature provides flexibility to design an optimized control

loop for almost any system.

In order to make easier the first attempt when designing a control loop, an estimation of

the stable solutions space is given by the program under the name of "solutions map".

Based on the selected plant, sensor and type of regulator, the solutions map provides a

map of the different combinations of fc and phase margin that lead to stable systems.

Thus, the designer is able to select one of the points of the stable solutions space and to

change the compensator parameters dynamically in order to adjust the system response

to the user requirements in terms of stability, transient response, ... Since the program

provides, at a glance, the frequency response of the system as well as the transient

response and the compensator component values for the open loop given features. All of

them are real time updated when any parameter of the system is varied by the designer.

Key Features

Pre-defined transfer functions of commonly used DC-DC converters, Power

Factor Correction converters, sensors and regulators.

Different control techniques for DC-DC converters are supported:

o Single control loop structures: voltage mode control and current mode

control.

o Peak current mode control.

o Double control loop structure: two nested control loops that implements

an average current mode control.

Capability of designing the controller of any converter by means of:

o Importing its frequency response data from a .txt file.

o Defining its transfer function through the equation editor.

Capability of designing a generic control system.

Digital control is also available.

Estimation of the stable solutions space ("Solutions Map").

Sensitivity analysis of the system parameters.

SmartCtrl 1

Introduction

Real time updated results of the frequency response (bode plots), transient

response and the steady state waveforms.

Possibility of importing and exporting any transfer function by means of .txt

files.

2 SmartCtrl

Introduction

When SmartCtrl is started, all the available options are shown, and the user can select

which of them is going to use. The aforementioned window is shown below. It is

divided into four sections:

This option provides an easy and straightforward way of designing the

control circuit of the most widely used power converters. Through a guided

process, the user will be able to select amongst different control strategies:

DC-DC Converter- Single loop

Two different control strategies are available in this case: voltage

mode control and current mode control.

DC-DC Converter - Peak Current mode control

DC-DC Converter - Average current mode control

Two nested loops are needed to implement the average current mode

control. The outer loop is a voltage mode control loop, and the inner

one is a current mode control.

PFC Boost converter

2. Design a generic topology.

This option allows to design a converter by two different ways:

s-domain model editor.

Importing the frequency response data from .txt file

SmartCtrl 3

Introduction

SmartCtrl also provides the option of defining the whole system though its

equation editor. And so, help the user though the designing process of any

control problem regardless its nature, for example temperature control,

motor drives, etc

4. Open...

Default file. It opens a pre-designed example.

Recently saved file. It opens the last file the user worked with.

Previously saved file. It opens the folder where user used to save its designs

Sample design. It opens the folder where SmartCtrl examples have been

previously recorded.

Regardless of the selected option, once the converter is completely defined, the main

window of the program is displayed. Different areas are considered within the main

window and all of them are briefly described below:

1. There are six drop-down menus, this is:

File It includes all the functions needed in order to manage files, import

and export files, establish the printer setup and the print options.

Design SmartCtrl libraries, modification of input data, access to the digital

sweep.

View Allows the user to select which elements are displayed and which are

not.

Window Functions to create, arrange and split windows.

2. The Main Toolbar provides quick access to the most commonly used program

functions through left click on the respective icon.

3. The View Toolbar icons allows the user a quick selection of the elements

displayed.

4. The Status Bar summarizes the most important parameters of the open loop

control design (cross frequency, phase margin and attenuation at the switching

frequency).

5. The compensator Design Method Box includes the three calculation methods of

the compensator as well as the Solution Map.

6. Graphic and text panels include the most relevant information of the system:

frequency response, polar plot, transient response, input data and the designed

regulator components. To access the help topic regarding each panel just right

4 SmartCtrl

Main Menus and Toolbars

New Create a new project (Ctrl+N)

New and initial dialog Create a new project and displays the initial dialog box

Open Open an existing project (Ctrl+O)

Open sample designs Open a sample design from the examples folder

Close Close the current project window

Save Save the current project (Ctrl+S)

Save as... Save the current project to a different file

Open txt files Open any .txt file in Notepad

Import (Merge) Merge data of another file with the data of the existing file for

display. The curves of these two files will be combined.

(Ctrl+M)

exporting the following.

Export to PSIM the schematic and the parameters file,

or update parameters file

Export transfer functions to a file. The available

transfer functions are: plant, sensor, control to output,

compensator, etc.

Export transient responses to a file. The available

transient responses are: voltage reference step, output

current step and input voltage step

Export waveforms to a file. The available steady state

waveforms are: inductor voltage and current, diode

voltage and current, carrier, modulating signal and

PWM.

Generate report Generate a report to either a .txt file or notepad. It contains

information regarding both the input data (steady-state dc

operating point, plant input data, ...) and output data

(compensator components, cross frequency, phase margin, ...)

Print preview Preview the printout of any of the graphic and text panels (

Transfer function magnitudes (dB), Transfer function phase (º),

Nyquist diagram, Transients, Data input, Results)

SmartCtrl 5

Main Menus and Toolbars

Print Print any of the panels of the main window (bode plots,

Nyquist diagram, transient, input data or results)

Printer setup Setup the printer

Exit Exit SmartCtrl program

The SmartCtrl Design Menu contains the elements that can be used in the SmartCtrl

schematic. The library is divided into the following sections:

in single and double loop configurations, as well as

AC-DC plants.

function either in s-domain or importing a .dat, .txt, or

.fra file. And use the predefined sensors and

compensators provided by SmartCtrl to desing the

closed-loop control system.

Generic Control System Allows the user to define the plant and the sensor

transfer functions through the built-in equations

editor. And design the compensator for this user

defined system.

Modify Data Open the schematic window of the current project to

modify the parameters.

SmartCtrl 2.1 Pro)

system parameters. It is divided into three different

parametric sweeps: Input Parameters, Compensator

Components and digital factors.

Reset all Clear the active window

Comments Open the comments window. It allows the user to add

comments to the design. These comments will be

saved together with the designed converter.

(inner or outer loop)

6 SmartCtrl

Main Menus and Toolbars

Plant transfer function, G(s)

Sensor transfer function, K(s)

Compensator transfer function, R(s)

Sensor-Compensator transfer function,

K(s)·R(s)

Control to output without regulator transfer

function, A(s)

Control to output transfer function, T(s)

Reference to output transfer function, CL(s)

Digital compensator transfer function

Digital control to output transfer function

Digital reference to output transfer function

Additional transfer functions Select the additional transfer functions to be

displayed, like the audiosusceptibility Gvv, the output

impedance Gvi, etc. For more information regarding

these transfer function, see section 2.7.1.

Additional t.f. toolbar Show a toolbar with all the additional transfer

functions. For more information regarding this

toolbar, see section 2.7.1.

Transients Select the transient response to be displayed.

The available transient responses are:

Input voltage step transient

Output current step transient

Reference step transient.

Organize panels Resize all panels and restore the default appearance of

the graphic and results panels window.

Enhance Select the panel to be displayed in full screen size

Bode (magnitudes) panel (Ctrl+Shift+U)

Bode (phase) panel (Ctrl+Shift+J)

Nyquist diagram panel (Ctrl+Shift+I)

Transient responses panel (Ctrl+Shift+K)

Input data panel (Ctrl+Shift+O)

Output (results) panel (Ctrl+Shift+L)

Input data View design input data

Output data View design output data

SmartCtrl 7

Main Menus and Toolbars

New Window Create a new window

the different window panels and drag. This will

change the size of the panels

Organize all It restores the default size of the graphic and text

panels.

Settings It allows the customization of the frequency

range (frequency settings) and the default re-

arrangement of the graphic and text pannels to

their default size and appearance (Layout

settings).

Equations Editor The equation editor provides direct access to the

SmartCtrl built-in Equations Editor. Through

the equations editor, SmartCtrl allows the user to

program any transfer function, export its

frequency response and afterwards, if needed,

import and visualize it within the Bode plots

graphic panel.

Create a new project

Generate report

8 SmartCtrl

Main Mennus and Too

olbars

View

w documentt comments

DC-D

DC convertter - Single loop

l

DC-D

DC convertter - Peak Current Modde Control

DC/D

DC - Average Current Mode Conttrol

verter

gy using a s-domain model

editoor

Desiggn a genericc topology from

f a .txt ffile

ystem

Moddify data

Openn the dialog

regullators

Savee the currentt project

f to a file

the ccurrent projeect

Expoort to PSIM (schematicc)

o the preeviously ex

xported

schem

matic

Maxiimize activee window

Tile w

windows

nels

View

w input dataa

Sm

martCtrl 9

Main Menus and Toolbars

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the plant

transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the sensor

transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the control

to output without compensator transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the sensor

compensator transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the

compensator transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the

discrete compensator transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the control

to output transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the control

to output transfer function with digital control

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the

reference to output transfer function

Display the frequency response (Bode plot) of the

reference to output transfer function with digital control

View additional transfer functions toolbar

step

Display the transient response due to an input voltage

step

Display inner loop results

calculation method toolbox

10 SmartCtrl

Main Mennus and Too

olbars

weep

2.7.1

1 SmartCtrl additio

onal transffer functio

ons

All tthose transsfer functioons coloredd in grey are a not allowed for tthe design.. The

nomeenclature off the transfeer functions is as follow

ws:

1 denotees that the transfer

t funnction has beeen evaluated in closedd loop; otheerwise

it refeers to open loop.

l

Subsccript 2 referss to the pertturbed magn

nitude:

iD: diode current.

vo: outpu

ut voltage

Subsccript 3 referss to the pertturbing mag

gnitude:

3 io: outputt current.

vi: input voltage.

v

nctions are:

SmartCtrl 11

Main Menus and Toolbars

vo

Gvvi Open loop Audiosusceptibility

vi

vo

Gvio Open loop Output impedance

io

i

GiLvi L Open loop Input voltage to inductor current transfer function.

vi

i

GiLio L Open loop Output current to inductor current transfer function.

io

iD

GiDvi Open loop Input voltage to diode current transfer function.

vi

Closed loop transfer functions.

vo

Gtvvi Closed loop Audiosusceptibility

vi

v

Gtvio o Closed loop Output impedance

io

Gtivi Closed loop Input voltage to inductor current or diode current transfer

function

Gtiio Closed loop Output current to inductor current or diode current transfer

function

Example 1: Open loop transfer function.

L Zo

Io

Vin C R Vout

‐

d

v Load resistor is included within de output impedance transfer

Gvio o

io function

12 SmartCtrl

Main Menus and Toolbars

L

Io

+

Ra

Vout

Vin C R

Rb

‐

+ Vref

vo

Gtvio Closed loop Output impedance transfer function

io

SmartCtrl 13

Main Menus and Toolbars

14 SmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

Cha

apter 3: Dessign a prredefine

ed topollogy

pologies aree available as pre-defined topologgies, in ord

der to

ease their designn.

DC-DDC convertter - Single lloop (Voltaage mode co

ontrol and cuurrent modee

Conttrol).

DC-D

DC convertter - Peak cuurrent modee control.

DC-D

DC convertter - Averagge current mode

m controll.

PFC Boost conv

verter

3.1 DC‐DC C

Converte

er ‐ Single

e loop

3.1.1

1 Single L

Loop

The single loopp is formeed by threee different transfer fu

unctions: pllant, sensorr and

comppensator, whhich must be

b selected ssequentially

y.

The first step too define the system is tthe selection n of the plaant.The plannt can be eitther a

pre-ddefined onee or a userr own one. This is, th he user can n import a generic traansfer

functtion by meaans of a .txt file or selecct one of thee pre-defineed topologiees.

SmartCtrl 15

Design a predefined topology

are the following:

Buck

Buck-Boost

Boost

Flyback

Forward

Once the plant has been selected, regardless the magnitude to be controlled is voltage or

current, the program will display the appropriate type of sensor.

available are the following:

Voltage Divider.

Embedded Voltage

Divider.

Isolated Voltage

Sensor.

Current Sensor.

Hall Effect Sensor.

Compensator types:

Type 3

Type 3 Unattenuated

Type 2

Type 2 unattenuated

PI

PI unattenuated

Single Pole

Single Pole

unattenuated

16 SmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

c th

he stable soolution spaace in

whicch all the poossible com mbinations oof crossoverr frequency and phase margin thatt lead

to staable solutionns are show

wn graphicallly. It is called Solution

ns Map.

The ddesigner is asked to seelect a pointt within the solution sp

pace to conttinue. To do

o that,

just cclick on Sett and select a point withhin the whitte zone.

d the program w will automatically

show

w the perforrmance of thhe system inn terms of frequency

f response, traansient resp

ponse.

(See Graphic annd text panels window ffor detailed

d information).

3.2 DC‐DC C

Converte

er ‐ Peak C

Current M

Mode Control

The im

mplementattion of the peeak current m

mode contro

ol includes fivve different eelements wh

hich

are described alo

ong the follow

wing paragraaphs:

DC/DC converter

c (p

pre-defined topologies)).

Current sensor (imp

plemented bby means off a resistor).

Modulattor.

Voltage sensor.

Compennsator.

The program will

w guide you y throughh the param

meterization

n of the diffferent elem

ments,

whicch must be carried

c out sequentially

s y.

The ffirst step to define the system

s is too select the plant

p from an

a existing library.

SmartCtrl 17

Design a predefined topology

are the following:

Buck

Buck-Boost

Boost

Flyback

Forward

Once the plant has been selected, the value of the resistor that implements the current sensor

must be set.

Resistance

Next, the modulator must be configured (see section 8.1)

18 SmartCtrl

Design a predefined topology

Modulators available:

Modulator (Peak

Current Mode Control).

Voltage devider.

Embedded Voltage

Divider

The last element that must be set is the compensator.

SmartCtrl 19

Design a predefined topology

Regulator types:

Type 3

Type 3 Unattenuated

Type 2

Type 2 unattenuated

PI

PI unattenuated

Finally the user must select the control loop initial characteristics (cross frequency and phase

margin), aided by the Solutions Map. After that, click OK and the program will automatically

show the graphics panels.

20 SmartCtrl

Design a predefined topology

The average current control is formed by an inner current loop and an outer voltage

mode loop. As well as the single loop, the double loop setup must be built sequentially.

The program will guide you to built it, enabling the following step and keeping

everything else disabled.

In all the available plants, the outer loop is a voltage mode control (VMC), while the

inner loop is a current controlled one. Depending on the selected plant, the current is

sensed either on the inductance (LCS) or on the diode (DCS). The DC/DC plant must be

selected among the following list.

are the following:

Buck (LCD-VMC)

Buck-Boost (LCS-

VMC)

Boost (LCS-VMC)

Boost (DCS-VMC)

Flyback (DCS-VMC)

Forward(LCS-VMC)

Next, the inner control loop will be configured. This is, the current sensor and the

regulator type must be selected.

are the following:

Current Sensor

Hall Effect Sensor

SmartCtrl 21

Desiggn a predeffined topology

Regulator

R tyypes:

Typee 3

Typee 2

PI

Singlle Pole

nsfer functioons have been defined, the cross frrequency an

nd the

phasee margin must

m be seleected. Undeer the namee of Solution Map, Sm martCtrl proovides

the stable solutioon space in which all tthe possiblee combinatio

ons of cut ooff frequency and

phasee margin thhat lead to stable solututions are sh hown graph

hically. Justt clicking on

o the

"Soluutions map (inner loop p)" button thhe solution map corresp

ponding to the inner looop is

displlayed.

The designer is asked to select the crrossover freequency and

d the phasee margin ju

ust by

clickking within the

t white zo

one to contiinue.

Oncee the cross frequency and the ph ase margin have been n selected, tthe solution

n map

will be shown on the righ ht of the sside of the DC-DC av verage currrent controll data

winddow. If, at any

a time, thhe two aforrementioned d parameterrs need to bbe changedd, just

clickk on the show

wn solution

n map. (See next figuree).

22 SSmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

Now

w, the outer loop

l can be defined.Firrst, the voltaage sensor must

m be seleected.

are the followinng:

Voltagee Divider

Embeddded Voltagee

Dividerr

l compeensator mustt be selected

d.

SmartCtrl 23

Desiggn a predeffined topology

Com

mpensator ttypes:

Type 3

Type 3 Unattenuatted

Type 2

Type 2 unattenuateed

PI

PI unatttenuated

Single PPole

Single PPole

unattennuated

As w he inner looop, the crosss frequency and the phhase margin must

well as in thhe case of th

be seelected. Alsso in this caase, the soluution map is availablee to help thee selection of an

stablle solution.

Presss the "Soluttion map (o outer loop)"" button an

nd the soluttion map w

will be displlayed.

Thenn select a pooint just by clicking

c witthin the white area.

It should be rem

marked thatt, due to staability consstraints, the crossover ffrequency of

o the

outerr loop cannot be greateer than the crossover frequency

f of the inner loop. In ord

der to

preveent the sellection of an

a outer looop fc greaater than th he inner looop one, a pink

shadoowed area has

h been inccluded in thhe solutions map of the outer loop..

Oncee the crossoover frequeency and thhe phase maargin have been selectted, the sollution

map will be shoown on the right of thee side of thee DC-DC avverage curre

rent control input

data window. Iff, at any timme, the twoo aforementtioned param

meters needd to be chaanged,

just cclick on the shown solu

ution map. ((See next figure)

24 SSmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

Noww accept thhe selected configurattion and co onfirm the design, thhe program m will

autommatically shhow the peerformance of the sysstem in terms of freqquency resp ponse,

transsient responnse.(See Graaphic and teext panels window

w for detailed

d infoormation).

3.4 Power F

Factor Co

orrector

The ppower factoor corrector based on a boost topology has a double

d conttrol loop, fo

ormed

by ann inner currrent loop an

nd an outer vvoltage mod

de loop. Thee double looop setup muust be

built sequentiallly. The program will gguide you tot build it, enabling thhe followingg step

and kkeeping eveerything elsee disabled.

The aavailable pllant is a booost converteer. The outeer loop is a voltage

v modde control, while

the innner loop iss a current controlled

c onne, and the current is sensed on thhe inductancce.

The ffirst step chhooses betw

ween the twoo types of multiplier

m an

nd Vrms feeed-forward:

Multiplieer: It corressponds by deefault the Hall

H Effect resistance H

H(s).

UC38544A Multiplieer: It correspponds by deefault the cu

urrent sensoor resistancee

R(s).

SmartCtrl 25

Design a predefined topology

Depending on the first choice, there are two different options to generate the power

factor corrector.

If the selection is a Generic Multiplier, the current is sensed by the Hall Effect sensor

H(s).

Otherwise, if the selection is UC3854A multiplier, the current sensor is a resistor Rs.

26 SmartCtrl

Design a predefined topology

It is followed by the choice of the plant. The predefined plants are the following:

Boost PFC (Resistive load)

Boost PFC (Constant power load)

Next, the inner control loop will be configured: since the current sensor has been

already configured, it is necessary to select the inner loop compensator.

SmartCtrl 27

Desiggn a predeffined topology

Com

mpensator tyypes:

Type 3 (It

( is only av

vailable for Multiplier option)

Type 2

PI

Oncee all the innner loop traansfer functtions have been

b defineed, the crosssover frequ

uency

and tthe phase margin

m musst be selectted. Under the name ofo Solution Map, SmaartCtrl

proviides the staable solutionn space in which all thhe possiblee combinatioons of crosssover

frequuency and phase

p marg a shown ggraphically. Just

gin that leadd to stable solutions are

clickking on the "Solutions map (innerr loop)" buttton the solu ution map ccorrespondiing to

the innner loop iss displayed.

s the crrossover freequency and the phasee margin ju

ust by

clickking within the

t white zo

one to contiinue.

28 SSmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

Oncee the crossoover frequeency and thhe phase maargin have been selectted, the sollution

map will be shhown on the right of the side off the PFC Boost convverter inputt data

winddow. If, at any

a time, th he two aforrementioned d parameterrs need to bbe changed

d, just

clickk on the show

wn solution

n map. (See next figuree).

Now

w, the outer loop

l can be defined. Fiirst, the volttage sensor must be sellected.

The vvoltage sensors availab

ble are the ffollowing:

For Multtiplier optio

on:

o Isolate V sen

nsor

For UC33854A Multtiplier optioon:

o Voltage

V Div

vider

o Embedded

E Voltage

V Divvider

SmartCtrl 29

Design a predefined topology

Compensator types:

Type 2 Type 2 Type 2 Unattenuated

PI PI PI unattenuated

Single Pole Single Pole Single Pole unattenuated

As well as in the case of the inner loop, the crossover frequency and the phase margin

must be selected. Also in this case, the solution map is available to help the selection of

a stable solution.

Press the "Solution map (outer loop)" button and the solution map will be displayed.

Then select a point just by clicking within the white area.

30 SmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

It should be rem

marked thatt, due to staability consstraints, the crossover ffrequency of

o the

outerr loop cannot be greateer than the crossover frequency

f of the inner loop. In ord

der to

preveent the sellection of an

a outer looop fc greaater than th he inner looop one, a pink

shadoowed area has

h been inccluded in thhe solutions map of the outer loop..

Oncee the crossoover frequeency and thhe phase maargin have been selectted, the sollution

map will be shoown on the right of thee side of thee DC-DC av rent control input

verage curre

data window. Iff, at any timme, the twoo aforementtioned param

meters needd to be chaanged,

just cclick on the shown solu

ution map. ((See next figure)

SmartCtrl 31

Desiggn a predeffined topology

Noww accept thhe selected configurattion and co onfirm the design, thhe programm will

autommatically shhow the perrformance oof the system

m in terms of frequenccy responsee, line

curreent shape... (See Graph

hic panels w

window for detailed

d info

ormation).

Oncee the designn has been generated,

g ttwo possiblle warning messages ccan appear in

i the

soluttion map wiindow:

In the caase of a sing

gle pole commpensator in n the outer loop,

l whichh is a typicall

compenssator for pow wer factor ccorrectors, the

t gain at low frequenncy may be low.

A warninng appears when

w the esstimated Vo o (shown in the methodd panel) difffers

from thee specified one

o in more than 10%.IIn these cases, a compeensator with ha

higher gain at low frequency

f iss recommen nded.

The line current wav veform is c alculated asssuming thaat the currennt loop follo

ows

perfectlyy well the reeference gennerated by the

t outer looop. Howeveer, in some

occasionns there is a zero-cross distortion and

a the actual line curreent would differ

d

from thee one represented. In thhese cases, a warning message

m apppears. The crross-

frequenccy of the innner loop commpensator should

s be in

ncreased to m minimize th his

problem.

In thhe method panel,

p additiional inform

mation is prrovided both

h for the innner loop an

nd the

outerr loop:

Attenuattion (fsw)(ddB). This is the attenuattion in dB achieved

a byy the open looop

transfer function at the switchinng frequenccy. It should

d be low forr the inner loop

and the outer

o loop.

Attenuattion (2fl)(dB

B) . This is tthe attenuattion in dB achieved

a by the open lo

oop

transfer function at twice the linne frequenccy (100 Hz or 120 Hz).. It should be

b

high for the inner lo

oop and loww for the outter loop.

Estimateed Vo (V). This

T is the eestimated ou utput voltag

ge of the connverter. Thiis

quency gain of the openn loop transfer

parameteer is important becausee, if the freq

function is not high enough, theere will be a steady-staate error andd the estimaated

32 SSmartCtrl

Design a predefined topology

output voltage can be different from the specified output voltage. As mentioned

above, if the estimated Vo (shown in the method panel) differs from the

specified one in more than 10%, there is a warning.

Finally, the flowchart to generate the types of the power factor is the following:

POWER FACTOR CORRECTOR

MULTIPLIER

INNER INNER OUTER OUTER

& Vrms

LOOP PLANT LOOP LOOP LOOP

FEED‐

SENSOR REGULATOR SENSOR REGULATOR

FORWARD

Type 2

Type 2

Boost PFC (Constant power load) Type 3

Multiplier Hall effect sensor Type 3 Isolate V sensor

Boost PFC (Resistive load) PI

PI

Single Pole

H(s)

Type 2

Voltage divider PI

Single Pole

UC3854A Boost PFC (Constant power load) Type 2

Resistive sensor

Multiplier Boost PFC (Resistive load) PI

Regulator Type 2_unatt

Rs

Embedded PI_unatt

Voltage Divider Single Pole_unatt

The Boost PFC is based on a double loop control scheme, and therefore the output

voltage and a current through the inductor are sensed simultaneously. There are four

options for the plant, depending on the load and the multiplier:

SmartCtrl 33

Design a predefined topology

The current loop is designed considering a piecewise linear model of the plant: using

quasi-static assumption, the small signal model for each operating point is calculated as

in a DC-DC boost converter.

The input data variables are listed and defined below:

Input data

Vin(rms) Input Voltage (V)

RL Equivalent Series Resistor of the Inductance (Ohms)

L Inductance (H)

Rc Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

C Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

Vo Output Voltage (W)

R Load Resistor (Ohms)

Po Output Power (W)

wta Line angle(º). The current loop is designed considering the plant

calculated for this operating point. This line angle is indicated as a

red dot in the output panel that represents the Rectified voltage and

external compensator output(See Graphic and text panels window for

detailed information)

FSW Switching frequency (Hz)

Line frequency Line frequency (Hz)

The window is divided in six different panels:

34 SmartCtrl

Design a predefined topology

Bode plot Magnitude (dB)

Bode plot Phase (º)

Polar plot

Line current

Oscillator ramp and internal compensator

Rectified voltage and external compensator output

This graphic panel provides information about the output of the inner control

compensator (blue line) compared to the oscillator ramp (red line). The output of the

internal compensator is represented for the line angle corresponding to the maximum

current ripple through the inductor. This line angle is identified by means of a blue dot

in the Rectified voltage and external compensator output graphical panel.

This comparison can be useful to determine whether there could be oscillations. If the

slopes of both functions are too similar, there could be more than one intersection per

period.

This graphic panel provides information about the line current and its harmonic

distortion. The line current waveform is calculated assuming that the current loop

follows perfectly the reference generated by the outer loop. However, in some occasions

there is a zero-cross distortion and the actual line current would differ from the one

represented. In these cases, a warning message would appear in the solution map

window.

SmartCtrl 35

Design a predefined topology

3.4.2.3 Rectified voltage and external compensator output

This graphic panel provides information about the external compensator output voltage.

Its phase shift compared to the rectified voltage can be assessed. If the compensator

output voltage has not an appropriate phase shift compared to the rectified voltage

(reference), the line current distortion will increase.

The current loop is designed considering a piecewise linear model of the plant. The

current plant represented in the Bode plot panels (see Graphic panels window)

corresponds to the operating point marked with a red dot in the rectified voltage. The

small signal model for the plant is calculated as in a DC-DC boost converter for this

operating point. This dot can be moved by clicking and dragging with the mouse,

resulting in a variation of the operating point. As the dot changes its position, the Bode

plot corresponding to the inner loop varies, as well as the attenuation information in the

K-factor panel refreshes according to the indicated operating point.

The blue dot in the rectified voltage represents the operating point that corresponds to

the maximum current ripple through the inductor. The graphics in the Oscillator ramp

and internal compensator panel have been represented for this operating point.

36 SmartCtrl

Design a preddefined topo

ology

3.4.3

3 Multipliers

3.4.3

3.1 Multip

plier

Usinng feed-forw

ward:

The m

multiplier has

h the follo

owing param

meters:

KB Gain

G of the current

c referrence for the inner loop

p.

Km Multiplier

M gaain.

And,, when the use

u of feed-forward is sselected:

KFF G

Gain of the feed-forwaard. It is th

he ratio betw

ween the rm

ms input vo

oltage

a the averrage input vvoltage to th

and he multiplier.

1st Ratio

R betweeen the ampplitude of th monic of thhe rectified input

he first harm

m.rip.(%) voltage

harm v and its averagee value.

Km Multiplier

M gain.

g

SmartCtrl 37

Desiggn a predeffined topology

3.4.3

3.2 UC385

54 Amplifie

ers

The U

UC3854A multiplier

m has

h the follow

wing param

meters:

ween the rm

ms input voltage

and the aveerage input vvoltage to thhe multiplieer.

Km Multiplier gain.

g

nt reference for the inneer loop (Oh

Rac Resistance to introducee the curren hms)

ut current into a volltage

reference fo

or the inner compensattor (Ohms)

38 SSmartCtrl

Design a ggeneric topo

ology

Cha

apter 4: Dessign a ge

eneric to

opology

y

SmarrtCtrl not only helps the desiigner when n a pre-deefined pow wer convertter is

consiidered, it also allows th

he design off the control loop of an

ny generic cconverter.

To ccarry out thhe design ofo the contrrol when th he plant is not a pre--defined DC C-DC

convverter, the plan

p must bee provided either by means

m of ann s-domain ttransfer fun

nction

or im

mporting thhe plant freqquency respponse from m a .txt file. Dependinng of the deesired

inputt method, thhe designer must selectt between:

s

s-domain mo

odel editor.

Im

mport frequ

uency respoonse data fro

om a .txt filee

The s-domain model

m edito

or providess two differrent optionss in order to define the

t s-

domaain transfer function pllant:

s

s-domain mo

odel (equatiion editor)

s

s-domain mo

odel (polynnomial coeffficients)

In booth cases, thhe user mustt select the control straategy.

SmartCtrl 39

Design a generic topology

The s-domain model editor (equation editor) provides two different options depending

on wether the defined plant transfer function is intended for:

Voltage mode control (VMC)

Current mode control (CMC)

When the power converter is defined through its s-domain transfer function, the design

procedure is as follow:

First, the user must define the s-domain transfer function of the plant, To do that are two

different options:

Import a previous design (click on open)

Define a new transfer function (click on editor).

To check the syntax rules of the equation editor, please refer to Chapter

12: Equations editor.

Once the equation has been introduced:

Click on "Save" to save the mathematical equations in a text file with

extension .tromod

Click on "compile" to continue.

If desired, the frequency response of the transfer function can be

exported as a .txt file by clicking on "Export transfer function".

If default option "Bode plot" is selected, the frequency response of the previously

defined transfer function is shown on the right hand side panels.

40 SmartCtrl

Design a ggeneric topo

ology

To ccheck the gain, phase and rectanggular components of the frequenccy responsee at a

particcular frequuency, the option "Onne frequency" is prov vided. As depicted in n the

following figuree: first "onee frequency"" must be selected, seccondly the ffrequency sh

hould

be sspecified annd finally, click on compile and a the gaain, phase and rectan ngular

compponents at thhe specifiedd frequencyy are shown below.

SmartCtrl 41

Desiggn a genericc topology

When the s-dom main modeel is intendded for Volltage Modee Control (V

VMC), then the

outpuut voltage and the sw

witching freqquency mu

ust be specified. As hiighlighted in

i the

next picture:

42 SSmartCtrl

Design a ggeneric topo

ology

c r.

SmartCtrl 43

Design a generic topology

And finally select the cross frequency and the phase margin on the Solutions Map.

When the power converter is defined through its s-domain transfer function, the design

procedure is as follow:

First, the user must define the s-domain transfer function of the plant, choosing amongst

two different options:

Import a previous design (click on open)

Define a new transfer function (click on editor). To check the syntax

rules of the equation editor, please refer to Chapter 12: Equations editor.

Once the equation has been introduced:

44 SmartCtrl

Design a ggeneric topo

ology

C matical equations in a ttext file witth

e

extension .trromod

C

Click on "co

ompile" to ccontinue.

IIf desired, the frequenccy response of the transsfer functionn can be

e

exported as a .txt file byy clicking on

o "Export transfer funcction".

If deefault optioon "Bode plot"

p is seleected, the frequency

f response

r off the previiously

definned transfer function is shown on tthe right han

nd side panels.

To ccheck the gain, phase and rectanggular components of the frequenccy responsee at a

particcular frequuecy, the option

o "Onne frequenccy" is prov vided. As depicted in n the

following figuree: first "onee frequency"" must be selected, seccondly the ffrequency sh

hould

be sspecified annd finally, click on compile and a the gaain, phase and rectan ngular

compponents at thhe specifiedd frequencyy are shown below.

SmartCtrl 45

Desiggn a genericc topology

When the s-dom main modeel is intendded for Currrent Modee Control (C

CMC), then the

curreent to be controlled

c value

v and the switchiing frequen

ncy must bbe specified

d. As

highllighted in thhe next pictu

ure:

46 SSmartCtrl

Design a ggeneric topo

ology

c r.

SmartCtrl 47

Design a generic topology

And finally select the cross frequency and the phase margin on the Solutions Map.

SmartCtrl offers the possibility of describing the data of the plant introducing the

coefficients of its transfer function. This feature is only available for single loop

designs, and two options are available:

Voltage mode controlled (Shift+L)

Current mode controlled (Shift+U)

48 SmartCtrl

Design a generic topology

The coefficients of the s-domain transfer function have to be introduced. The maximum

order of the transfer function is 10. The coefficients in the numerator are n0 to n10 and

the coefficients in the denominator are d0 to d10.

It is also possible to introduce the transfer function data by using the option Plant

wizard.

Some additional data must be specified:

The frequency range (minimum frequency and maximum frequency) to consider

in Hertz.

The switching frequency (Fsw) in Hertz.

The desired output voltage (Vo) in Volts. (Only if the plant is voltage mode

controlled).

SmartCtrl 49

Design a generic topology

and phase) that corresponds to the introduced transfer function in the selected frequency

range.

The plant wizard is an assistant that allows to introduce a every coefficient of the

transfer function (n0,n1,…,n10, d0, d1,…,d10) as a symbolic expression.

Global block

The “Global block” corresponds to the definition ofthe variables and expressions that

are common for most coefficients of the transfer function.By clicking on the button

Edit, a new edition box is opened (Edit box), which helps the user to introduce the data

and the equations with the appropriate format.

50 SmartCtrl

Design a generic topology

Coefficients block

selected in the combo box. These equations can use the global variables defined in the

“Global block” or new ones can be defined that will be available only locally for the

selected coefficient.

By clicking on the button Edit, a new edition box is opened (Edit box), which helps the

user to introduce the data and the equations with the appropriate format.

Once the equations have been introduced, it is recommended to click the button

“Compile”. This way, the numerical value of the coefficient is calculated by means of

the mathematical expression in the return assignment, considering all the variables

previously assigned both in the “Global block” and the “Coefficients block”.

If the compilation is successful, the numerical value of the selected coefficient will be

displayed in the “Value” box. Otherwise an error message will appear.

1. There are two types of instructions: assignment and return.

2. Only one instruction per line is permitted (whether it is assignment or return).

3. Blank lines are allowed.

4. The syntax of the assignment statements is: Var = Expr, where 'Var' is the name

of a variable and 'Expr' represents a mathematical expression.

5. Regarding the variable names in the assignments:

a. They must begin with an alphabetic character.

b. They can consist of alphabetic or numeric characters, or underscore.

c. The names sqrt, pow, return and PI are reserved names that cannot be

used as variable names.

6. Regarding the mathematical expressions:

a. Algebraic expressions are expressions where valid operators are +, -, *,

/.

SmartCtrl 51

Design a generic topology

b. Expressions can use the function sqrt(a), which calculates the square

root of a, and the function pow(a, b), which calculates 'a' raised to 'b'.

c. Expressions can use grouping parentheses.

7. The syntax of the return statements is: return Expr, where 'Expr' represents a

mathematical expression.

8. The overall block can only contain assignment statements.

9. In the “Coefficients block”, each coefficient can have assignment statements,

but it is mandatory to have at least one return statement, which will always be the

last instruction in the block. This return statement defines the mathematical value of

that particular coefficient.

10. Comments can be included as annotations made by the designer in order to

make the text readable. Comments start with the delimiter doble slash ‘//’ and

continue until the end of the line. These annotations are ignored by the compiler.

In the block “All coefficients”, some commands can be executed that affect all

coefficients:

Compile: the numerical values of all the coefficients are calculated. If an error

occurs, a message will be displayed.

Save as: the contents of the “Global block” and the “Coefficients block” are

stored in a file with extension .trowfun.

Load: the data stored in the files with extension .trowfun is loaded. Therefore,

the “Global block” and the “Coefficients block” will be updated with the loaded

information.

View: the content of the “Global block” and the “Coefficients block”, as well as

the numerical value of the coefficients, is displayed in a new window.

All the warning messages are displayed in the “Results” edit box.

Once the “OK” button in pressed, all the coefficients are automatically recalculated. If

an error occurs, a warning message will be displayed. If the calculation is successful,

52 SmartCtrl

Design a generic topology

the coefficient values are displayed in the Plant from s-domain transfer function

window.

The single loop is formed by three different transfer functions: plant, sensor and

regulator, which must be selected sequentially. Whether the imported plant is voltage

mode controlled or current mode controlled, the single loop design process is the same

in any case. The only differences are the sensors available in each case.

To perform the single loop design from an imported plant transfer function, just enter

the data menu and select imported transfer function. It is also available at.

SmartCtrl allows the designer to import his own transfer plant function and design an

appropriate control loop. This feature is only available for single loop designs. To

define the imported transfer function the user must specify the intended control type:

Take into account that, wether the imported plant is current mode controlled or voltage

mode controlled, the single loop design process will be the same. The only difference is

related to the available sensors, which are different for each case.

Once the control type has been selected, the file that contains the plant frequency

response must be selected. SmarCtrl is able to load the following file formats: *.dat,

*.txt, *.fra

SmartCtrl 53

Design a generic topology

Once the file has been selected, the data is loaded to SmartCtrl and the magnitude and

phase are displayed as depicted in the next figure.

And some additional data such as the output voltage (only in voltage mode control) and

the switching frequency must be specified.

Click OK to continue.

Depending upon it is a current mode controlled or voltage mode controlled, the

available sensors are the following:

54 SmartCtrl

Design a generic topology

Voltage divider

Embedded Voltage

Divider

Isolated V. sensor

Current sensor

Hall effect sensor

Compensator types:

Type 3

Unattenuated

Type 2

Type 2

unattenuated

PI

PI unattenuated

Single Pole

Single Pole

unattenuated

Once the system has been defined, SmartCtrl calculates the solutions map in which all

the possible combinations of crossover frequency and phase margin that lead to stable

solutions are shown graphically.

To continue, click on set and the solutions map will be displayed. After that, select a

point within the stable solutions area (white area) and then click OK.

SmartCtrl 55

Desiggn a genericc topology

a y show thee performan

nce of

the ssystem in teerms of freequency ressponse, tran

nsient respo

onse. (See G

Graphic and

d text

panels window forf detailedd informatioon).

56 SSmartCtrl

Desiign a generiic control sy

ystem

Cha

apter 5: Dessign a ge

eneric ccontrol ssystem

SmarrtCtrl allowws the desig gn of a genneric contro ol system regardless thhe nature of

o the

systeem, since it is possible to define thhe whole sysstem with th

he equationn editor.

d off all the sysstem compo

onents

transsfer functionns is needeed. The defifinition of each

e compo onent can bbe carried out

o by

meanns of the deffinition of the

t algebraicc s-domain transfer fun nction.

First, the user must

m define the

t s-domaiin transfer function

f of the

t plant, chhoosing am

mongst

two ddifferent opptions:

Import a previous design

d (clickk on open)

Define a new transffer function (click on edditor).

To checkk the syntax

x rules of thhe equation editor,

e please refer to C

Chapter 12:

Editor Box.

B

Additionnally, there is a predefinned transferr function th

hat can be looaded by

clicking on "set defa

faults".

SmartCtrl 57

Design a generic control system

Click on "Save" to save the mathematical equations in a text file with extension

.tromod

Click on "compile" to continue and the Bode plot will appear on the right side of

the window.

If desired, the frequency response of the transfer function can be exported as a

.txt file by clicking on "Export transfer function".

If default option "Bode plot" is selected, the frequency response of the previously

defined transfer function is shown on the right hand side panels.

To check the gain, phase and rectangular components of the frequency response at a

particular frequency, the option "One frequency" is frequency is provided. As depicted

in the following figure: first "one frequency" must be selected, secondly the frequency

should be specified and finally, click on compile and the gain, phase and rectangular

components at the specified frequency are shown below.

58 SmartCtrl

Desiign a generiic control sy

ystem

Righht afterwards of the plaant definitionn, the samee process is needed to ddefine the sensor

s

transsfer functionn by means of the equaation editor.

SmartCtrl 59

Design a generic control system

And finally, the compensator must be selected to complete the definition of the system

components.

Once the compensator type is set, the Solutions Map will help the user to select the

phase margin and the crossover frequency.

60 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

P

Cha

apter 6: DC‐‐DC Plan

nts

ow allows the user to sselect the deesired

inputt parameters and alsso providess useful in nformation such as tthe steady state

coperating poinnt. For any of the considered DC-DC topologies, t the input data

correespond to thhe white shaadowed boxxes, and the additional information

i n provided byb the

progrram will bee shown in th he grey shaadowed boxes.

Let´ss consider any

a of the available

a coonverters. In

I the follow wing picturre it can bee seen

that the parameeters which define thee steady-statte dc operaating point are placed right

beloww the conveerter image. Dependingg on the topology consiidered in eaach case, som me of

them

m will be inpput data and

d some otherrs will be ouutput data.

The D

DC-DC avaailable plantts are the foollowing:

Buck

Boost

Buck-Booost

Flyback

Forward

SmartCtrl 61

DC-DC Plants

6.1 Buck

When a single loop control scheme is used, the magnitude to be controlled in a buck

converter can be either the output voltage or the inductance current. Both possibilities

have been included in SmartCrl. If the control technique is peak current mode control,

the current is sensed in the inductor, as shown in the table. The schematics are shown

below.

VoltageModeControlledBuck L‐CurrentSensedBuck

Peak Current Mode Control

In the case of an average current control scheme, two magnitudes must be sensed

simultaneously, a current and the output voltage. The resultant buck scheme is the

following:

Buck (LCS‐VMC)

The input data window allows the user to select the desired input parameters and

provides useful information such as the steady state dc operating point. This information

is placed right below the converter image.

Two examples of the input data window are shown below, in each of them, the white

shadowed boxes correspond to the input data boxes while the grey shadowed ones

correspond to the additional information provided by the program.

Please, note that the input data is different in case of a voltage controlled plant (output

voltage is an input) or a current controlled plant (in this case the current to be controlled

is the input data). An example of the input data windows is provided below:

62 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

P

In

nput Data Window off a Voltage Mode Controlled Bucck

a Window oof a Peak C

Input Data Current Model Controll

In

he input datta windows are defined

d below:

p

Conductiion Mode It can be C

Continuous or

o Discontin

nuous

D

Duty Cycle ton/T of thee active swittch

urrent (A)

IL min Minimum value of thee inductancee switchingg ripple (A)

Io avg Output aveerage curren

nt (A)

SmartCtrl 63

DC-DC Plants

Vin Input Voltage (V)

RL Equivalent Series Resistor of the Inductance (Ohms)

L Inductance (H)

Rc Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

C Output Capacitor (F)

R Load Resistor (Ohms)

Po Output Power (W)

FSW Switching frequency (Hz)

64 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

6.2 Boost

There are three possible magnitudes to be controlled in the boost converter when a

single loop control scheme is selected. This is the output voltage, the inductor current

and the diode current. The corresponding schematics are the following:

Voltage Mode Controlled Boost Converter

L‐current sensed Boost Converter

Diode Current Sensed Boost Converter

In the case of a peak current mode control (PCMC), the output voltage and a current

must be sensed simultaneously.

Boost (PCMC)

In the case of an average current control scheme, the output voltage and a current must

be sensed simultaneously. The available plants for an average current mode control are

included below:

Boost (LCS‐VMC)

Boost (DCS‐VMC)

SmartCtrl 65

DC-D

DC Plants

The input data window allowsa the uuser to sellect the dessired input parameterss and

proviides useful informationn such as thhe steady staate dc operaating point. T

This inform

mation

is plaaced right below

b the co

onverter imaage.

Two examples of o the input data winddow are sho own below, in each off them, the white

shadoowed boxees correspon nd to the iinput data boxes

b while the grey shadowed ones

correespond to thhe additionaal informatioon provided

d by the program.

Pleasse, note thaat the input data is diffeferent in casse of a voltaage controllled plant (o

output

voltaage is an inpput) or a currrent controolled plant (in

( this case the currentt to be contrrolled

is thee input dataa). An examp ple of the innput data windows

w is provided

p bellow:

In

nput Data W

Window of a Voltage Mode Conttrolled Booost

an

nd of a Pea k Current M

Mode Control

In

nput Data W

Window of a Current Mode Conttrolled Booost

he input datta windows are defined

d below:

p

Condu us or Discon

ntinuous

66 SSmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

IL avg Inductance average current (A)

IL max Maximum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

IL min Minimum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

Io avg Output average current (A)

Vo Output voltage (V)

Vin Input Voltage (V)

RL Equivalent Series Resistor of the Inductance (Ohms)

L Inductance (H)

Rc Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

C Output Capacitor (F)

R Load Resistor (Ohms)

Po Output Power (W)

FSW Switching frequency (Hz)

SmartCtrl 67

DC-DC Plants

6.3 Buck‐oost

In a single loop control scheme there are three possible magnitudes to be controlled in

the buck-boost converter. This is the output voltage, the inductor current and the diode

current. The corresponding schematics are the following:

Voltage Mode Controlled Buck‐Boost Converter

L‐current sensed Buck‐Boost Converter

Diode Current Sensed Buck‐Boost Converter

In the case of an average current mode control scheme or a peak current mode control

(PCMC), the magnitudes sensed are the output voltage and the L current.

Buck‐Boost (LCS‐VMC)

Buck‐Boost (PCMC)

The input data window allows the user to select the desired input parameters and

provides useful information such as the steady state dc operating point. This information

is placed right below the converter image.

Two examples of the input data window are shown below, in each of them, the white

shadowed boxes correspond to the input data boxes while the grey shadowed ones

correspond to the additional information provided by the program.

Please, note that the input data is different in case of a voltage controlled plant (output

voltage is an input) or a current controlled plant (in this case the current to be controlled

is the input data). An example of the input data windows is provided below:

68 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

Input Data Window of a Voltage Mode Controlled Buck‐Boost

and for a Buck‐Boost with a Peak Current Mode Control

Input Data Window of a Current Mode Controlled Buck‐Boost

The parameters shown in the input data windows are defined below:

Conduction Mode It can be Continuous or Discontinuous

Duty Cycle ton/T of the active switch

IL avg Inductance average current (A)

IL max Maximum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

IL min Minimum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

SmartCtrl 69

DC-DC Plants

Vo Output voltage (V)

Vin Input Voltage (V)

RL Equivalent Series Resistor of the Inductance (Ohms)

L Inductance (H)

Rc Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

C Output Capacitor (F)

R Load Resistor (Ohms)

Po Output Power (W)

FSW Switching frequency (Hz)

70 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

6.4 Flyback

In a single loop control scheme, the magnitude to be controlled in a Flyback converter

can be either the output voltage or the diode current. Both possibilities have been

included in SmartCtrl. The schematics are shown below:

Voltage Mode Controlled Flyback Diode Current Sensed Flyback

In the case of a peak current mode control scheme(PCMC), the magnitudes sensed are

the output voltage and the MOSFET current.

Flyback (PCMC)

In the case of an average current mode control scheme, the magnitudes sensed are the

output voltage and the diode current.

Flyback (DCS‐VMC)

The input data window allows the user to select the desired input parameters and

provides useful information such as the steady state dc operating point. This information

is placed right below the converter image.

Two examples of the input data window are shown below, in each of them, the white

shadowed boxes correspond to the input data boxes while the grey shadowed ones

correspond to the additional information provided by the program.

Please, note that the input data is different in case of a voltage controlled plant (output

voltage is an input) or a current controlled plant (in this case the current to be controlled

is the input data). An example of the input data windows is provided below:

SmartCtrl 71

DC-DC Plants

Input Data Window of a Voltage Mode Controlled Flyback

and also for a Peak Current Mode Control Technique.

Input Data Window of a Current Mode Controlled Flyback

The parameters shown in the input data windows are defined below:

Conduction Mode It can be Continuous or Discontinuous

Duty Cycle ton/T of the active switch

IL avg Inductance average current (A)

IL max Maximum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

IL min Minimum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

Io avg Output average current (A)

Vo Output voltage (V)

Other parameters of the converter

72 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

RL Equivalent Series Resistor of the Inductance (Ohms)

L Inductance (H)

Rc Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

C Output Capacitor (F)

R Load Resistor (Ohms)

Po Output Power (W)

FSW Switching frequency (Hz)

N1 is the transformer primary side number of turns

6.5 Forward

The magnitude to be controlled in a Forward converter can be either the output voltage

or the inductance current. Both possibilities have been included in SmartCrl. The

schematics are shown below:

Voltage Mode Controlled Forward L‐Current Sensed Forward

In the case of a peak current mode control(PCMC) scheme, the magnitudes sensed are

the output voltage and the L current (sensed in the MOSFET).

Forward (LCS‐VMC)

In the case of an average current mode control scheme, the magnitudes sensed are the

output voltage and the L current.

SmartCtrl 73

DC-DC Plants

Forward (LCS‐VMC)

provides useful information such as the steady state dc operating point. This information

is placed right below the converter image.

Two examples of the input data window are shown below, in each of them, the white

shadowed boxes correspond to the input data boxes while the grey shadowed ones

correspond to the additional information provided by the program.

Please, note that the input data is different in case of a voltage controlled plant (output

voltage is an input) or a current controlled plant (in this case the current to be controlled

is the input data). An example of the input data windows is provided below:

Input Data Window of a Voltage Mode Controlled Forward

and for Peak Current Mode Control.

74 SmartCtrl

DC-DC Plants

Input Data Window of a Current Mode Controlled Forward

The parameters shown in the input data windows are defined below:

Steady-state dc operating point

Conduction Mode It can be Continuous or Discontinuous

Duty Cycle ton/T of the active switch

IL avg Inductance average current (A)

IL max Maximum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

IL min Minimum value of the inductance switching ripple (A)

Io avg Output average current (A)

Vo Output voltage (V)

Other parameters of the converter

Vin Input Voltage (V)

RL Equivalent Series Resistor of the Inductance (Ohms)

L Inductance (H)

Rc Equivalent Series Resistor of the output capacitor (Ohms)

C Output Capacitor (F)

R Load Resistor (Ohms)

Po Output Power (W)

FSW Switching frequency (Hz)

(*)N2 is the transformer secondary side number of turns.

N1 is the transformer primary side number of turns

SmartCtrl 75

DC-DC Plants

76 SmartCtrl

Seensors

Cha

apter 7: Sen

nsors.

7.1 Voltage

e Divider

The

T Voltagee Divider measures

m and

d adapts thee output voltage

level to the rregulator vo

oltage refereence level.

Its transfer ffunction corrresponds to

o the follow

wing equatio

on:

Vref

K ( s)

Vo

Where:

Vref is thhe compensaator referencce voltage

Vo is thee DC-DC co

onverter outp

tput voltage

7.2 Embedd

ded volta

age divid er

The two resistoors that forrm the volttage dividerr (R11,Rar)) are embeedded withiin the

regullator. So, non sensor is i represent

nted in the correspondding box. A

And the vo

oltage

dividder resistorss are highlig

ghted in the compensato

or figure:

v thee compensattor referencce voltage aand the vallue of

R11, SmartCtrl calculates the

t resistor Rar. the transfer functiion of the vvoltage divid

der at

0Hz is the followwing:

Vo Rar

Vrref Rar R11

SmartCtrl 77

Sensors

7.3 Isolated

d Voltage

e Sensor

The Isolated vooltage senso or is a volttage sensorr that proviides electriccal isolation. Its

transsfer functionn is described below. IIt is available for the fo

orward and the flyback k DC-

DC ttopologies.

Gain n 20∙lo

og(K)

gain [dB]

K ( s)

s ‐

‐20 dB/dc

1

2· · fpK

f

Where:

F

Freq [Hz]

Gain is thee sensor gaain at 0dB

G B, its

phase [o]

givenn by the output

o and

d the refereence 0o

voltaage. ‐45o /dc

Vo ‐90o

Gainn

Vref

F

Freq [Hz]

fpK is the pole frequency

f in

n Hertz

7.4 Resistiv

ve Sensorr (Powerr Factor C

Correctorr)

If thee current is sensed using a resistoor Rs, the current sensor gain willl be the vallue of

this rresistor: Rs..

K ( s ) Rs

r in the pictuure of the po

ower plant, Rs:

UC385

54A multipliier + Boost PFC

P (resistivee load).

UC3854A

A multiplier + Boost PFC (constant po

ower load).

78 SSmartCtrl

Sensors

The resistator measures the inductor

current and transforms the current into an

equivalent voltage.

The sensor gain corresponds to its

characteristic resistance value (Rs).

G=Rs

7.6 Hall effect sensor

The Hall effect is a current sensor represented through a generic transfer function box.

Internally, its transfer function corresponds to the following equation:

Gain 20∙log(K)

gain [dB]

K ( s)

s ‐20 dB/dc

1

2· · fpK

Freq [Hz]

Where:

phase [o]

0o

Gain is the sensor gain at 0dB. ‐45o /dc

fpK is the pole frequency in Hertz ‐90o

Freq [Hz]

The current sensor is represented by a

generic transfer function box. Internally,

the transfer function corresponds to a

constant gain in V/A.

K ( s ) Gain

For example, if the current is sensed using a resistor Rs, the current sensor gain will be

the value of this resistor:

K ( s ) Rs

SmartCtrl 79

Sensors

80 SmartCtrl

Modu

ulator

Cha

apter 8: Mod

dulatorr

8.1 Modula

ator (Peak

k Curren

nt Mode C

Control)

From

m top to botttom, the mo

odulator inpput signals are

a defined as

a follow:

Vramp · Is the

V t characteeristic comp pensation slo ope used wiith this typee of

thhis control technique.

t T

This compeensation slop pe is added to the senseed

c

current in orrder to ensuure the systeem stability

y with duty ccycles abov

ve

5

50%.

V

Vsensed · Iss the equivaalent voltagee of the senssed inductorr current.

V · Is the sensed regullator output voltage.

Vc

From

m top to botttom, the mo

odulator dessign criteriaa are defined

d as follow:

S

Sn The inductor

i chaarge slope.

S

Sf The inductor

i disscharge slop

pe.

Se

S Is thee slope of thhe compensation ramp, it is compuuted as funcction

o Sn and S

of

A

Att Is thee attenuationn applied to

o the regulattor output vvoltage.

SmartCtrl 81

Moddulator

8.2 Modula

ator (PWM

M)

The P

PWM moduulator is dissplayed as ppart of the reegulator.

V

Vp Peak voltage

V

Vv Valleey voltage

trr Risin

ng time

F

Fsw Switcching frequeency

T

Tsw Switcching periodd

82 SSmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

Chapter 9: Compensators

Input Data

R11(ohms) Its default value is 10 k

Vp(V) Peak value of the ramp voltage (carrier signal of the PWM modulator)

Vv(V) Valley value of the ramp voltage

Tr(s) Rise time of the ramp voltage

Tsw(s) Switching period

Output Data

The compensator components values (C1, C2, C3, R1, R2) are calculated by the

program and displayed in the corresponding text panel

SmartCtrl 83

Graphic and text panels

The voltage divider needed in order to adapt the sensed output voltage to the reference

voltage is embedded within the compensator. It corresponds to R11 and Rar. This

compensator configuration eliminates the attenuation due to the external voltage

divider.

Input Data

R11(ohms) Its default value is 10 k

Vp(V) Peak value of the ramp voltage (carrier signal of the PWM modulator)

Vv(V) Valley value of the ramp voltage

Output Data

The compensator components values (C1, C2, C3, R1, R2) and the resistor Rar are

calculated by the program and displayed in the corresponding text panel

84 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

Input Data

R11(ohms) Its default value is 10 k

Vp(V) Peak value of the ramp voltage (carrier signal of the PWM modulator)

Vv(V) Valley value of the ramp voltage

Tr(s) Rise time of the ramp voltage

Tsw(s) Switching period

Output Data

The compensator components values (C2, C3, R2) and the resistor Rar are calculated by

the program and displayed in the corresponding text panel.

SmartCtrl 85

Graphic and text panels

The voltage divider needed in order to adapt the sensed output voltage to the reference

voltage is embedded within the compensator. It corresponds to R11 and Rar. This

compensator configuration eliminates the attenuation due to the external voltage

divider.

Input Data

R11(ohms) Its default value is 10 k

Vp(V) Peak value of the ramp voltage (carrier signal of the PWM modulator)

Vv(V) Valley value of the ramp voltage

Tr(s) Rise time of the ramp voltage

Tsw(s) Switching period

Output Data

The compensator components values (C1, C2, C3, R1, R2) and the resistor Rar are

calculated by the program and displayed in the corresponding text panel

86 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

9.1.5 PI compensator

Input Data

R11(ohms) Its default value is 10 k

Vp(V) Peak value of the ramp voltage (carrier signal of the PWM modulator)

Vv(V) Valley value of the ramp voltage

Tr(s) Rise time of the ramp voltage

Tsw(s) Switching period

Output Data

The compensator components values (C2, R2) are calculated by the program and

displayed in the corresponding text panel.

SmartCtrl 87

Graphic and text panels

The voltage divider needed in order to adapt the sensed output voltage to the reference

voltage is embedded within the compensator. It corresponds to R11 and Rar. This

compensator configuration eliminates the attenuation due to the external voltage

divider.

Input Data

R11(ohms) Its default value is 10 k

Vp(V) Peak value of the ramp voltage (carrier signal of the PWM modulator)

Vv(V) Valley value of the ramp voltage

Tr(V) Rise time of the ramp voltage

Tsw(s) Switching period

Output Data

The compensator components values (C2, R2) and the resistor Rar are calculated by the

program and displayed in the corresponding text panel.

88 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Vsat Saturation voltage of the op-amp. In the case of the power factor

corrector using a UC3854A multiplier, this value is equal to 6.0 V

Output Data

The compensator components values (C3, R2) are calculated by the program and

displayed in the corresponding text panel.

The voltage divider needed in order to adapt the sensed output voltage to the reference

voltage is embedded within the compensator. It corresponds to R11 and Rar. This

SmartCtrl 89

Graphic and text panels

divider.

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Vref Reference voltage. In the case of the power factor corrector using a

UC3854A multiplier, this value is equal to 7.5 V

Vsat Saturation voltage of the op-amp. In the case of the power factor

corrector using a UC3854A multiplier, this value is equal to 6.0 V

Output Data

The compensator components values (C3, R2) and the resistor Rar are calculated by the

program and displayed in the corresponding text panel.

90 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Output Data

The regulator components values (C1, C2, C3, R1, R2) and the resistor Rar are

calculated by the program and displayed in the correspondingtext panel.

SmartCtrl 91

Graphic and text panels

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Output Data

The compensator components values (C1, C2, C3, R1, R2) and the resistor Rar are

calculated by the program and displayed in the correspondingtext panel.

92 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Output Data

The compensator components values ( C2, C3, R2) and the resistor Rar are calculated by

the program and displayed in the corresponding text panel.

SmartCtrl 93

Graphic and text panels

The voltage divider needed in order to adapt the sensed output voltage to the reference

voltage is embedded within the compensator. It corresponds to R11 and Rar. This

compensator configuration eliminates the attenuation due to the external voltage

divider.

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Output Data

The compensator components values (C2, C3, R2) and the resistor Rar are calculated by

the program and displayed in the corresponding text panel.

94 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

9.2.7 PI compensator

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Output Data

The compensator components values (C2, R2) are calculated by the program and

displayed in the corresponding text panel.

SmartCtrl 95

Graphic and text panels

The voltage divider needed in order to adapt the sensed output voltage to the reference

voltage is embedded within the regulator. It corresponds to R11 and Rar. This regulator

configuration eliminates the attenuation due to the external voltage divider.

Input Data

R11 Its default value is 10 k

Output Data

The compensator components values (C2, R2) and the resistor Rar are calculated by the

program and displayed in the correspondingtext panel.

96 SmartCtrl

Graphicc and text panels

p

Cha

apter 10

0: Gra

aphic an

nd text p

panels

our of them

m are graphiic panels an

nd the

two oother are texxt panels.

The grapphic panels are:

B

Bode plot Magnitude

M (ddB)

B

Bode plot Ph

hase (º)

P

Polar plot

T

Transient ressponse plot

The text panels are:

Innput Data

O

Output Data

10.1

1 Bode pllots

The Bode plot is i used to characterize

c ncy responsse of the syystem. It consists

the frequen

of tw

wo differentt graphs, th he gain or m

module plott and the ph

hase plot vversus frequuency.

Frequuency is plootted in a lo

og axe.

ot (dB) Plo

Maagnitude plo ots the maggnitude of a given transsfer functionn in decibels (dB)

versus frequeency. It is reepresented in

i the uppeer left panell of the

Sm

martCtrl winndow.

plot (º) Plo

Phase p ots the phaase of a givven transferr function iin degrees versus

freequency. Itt is represeented in th

he bottom left panel of the

SmmartCtrl winndow.

SmartCtrl 97

Grapphic and texxt panels

In SmmartCtrl theere are seveen different transfer funnctions thatt can be plootted in the Bode

plot. To represennt any of th

hem, just cliick on the correspondin ng icon of thhe View To oolbar

or seelect the corrresponding transfer funnction withiin the View

w Menu.

Man

nual placem

ment of poless and zeross

Addiitionally, when

w a type 3 or type 2 is used, poles

p and zeeros of the compensato

or are

repreesented by means

m of thrree little squuares.

Yellowcorresponds to fz

Red corresponds to fp

Blue corresponds to fi

The pplacement of

o the aforeementioned zeros and poles

p can bee varied by the designeer just

o each squuare. To enaable this option manuaal method ttag in

by cllicking and dragging on

the d

design methhod box must be selecteed.

Crosss frequencyy

The ccross frequeency of the open loop iis shown by

y means of a pair of dasshed lines on

o the

openn loop transffer function

n of the systeem.

Clickk on right button

b

By riight clickingg on each plot a new w

window is op

pened with some additiional option

ns.

Copy Copy de Bode Plot to clipboard

Export This option

n allows exp

porting the data of the all

frequencies response in

i several foormats.

Help Link to thee on-line Sm

martCtrl helpp

directly on

n the plot

Meassurement toools

Ctrl + m ve the mouuse. Two crrossed red

lin

nes are dispplayed and the

t two coo ordinates off the point on which

thee mouse is pplaced are given.

g You can measurre at any po

oint within

thee graph areaa.

mouse Keeep the Shiift key presssed and pllace the moouse near one

Shift+m o of the

dissplayed moodule tracess. The curso

or will trackk itself to that

t trace,

and the cursoor will measure simultaneously thhe phase an nd module

of the trackedd trace.

If you want too track the cursor to other

o trace, jjust left clicck on that

traace.

Addditionally, if the seleected trace is open looop transfer function,

Sm

martCtrl willl measure simultaneou

s usly on bothh Bode plotts (module

and phase) annd on the Ny yquist diagrram.

98 SSmartCtrl

Graphicc and text panels

p

10.2

2 Nyquistt diagram

m

The N Nyquist diaagram, togeether with thhe Bode plo

ots, is a graaphical repreesentation of

o the

frequuency respoonse of a linear system.

For eeach , thee resulting open

o loop ttransfer fun presented ass Im(T) vs R(T).

nction is rep

So, tthe gain at this

t is th

he distance from the represented

r point to thee origin, an

nd the

phasee is the corrresponding angle.

olar Nyquistt diagram provides

p a graphic

g and easy to evaaluate

criterrion of the closed loop p system sttability baseed on the open

o loop syystem frequuency

respoonse. This is,

i if the opeen loop trannsfer functioon is stable (no RHP ppoles), the closed

c

loop system will be unstablle for any enncirclementt of the poin nt (-1, j0).

In SmmartCtrl thee designer can determ

mine the sysstem stabilitty at a glannce since a unity

circlee is provideed (in blue).

SmartCtrl 99

Grapphic and texxt panels

Poless and zeros of the comp

pensator aree representeed by meanss of three litttle squares.

Yellowcorresponds to fz

Red corresponds to fp

Blue corresponds to fi

How

wever, unlikee in the Bod

de plots, theey cannot bee placed maanually.

Zoom

m

A zooom-in and zoom-out tool t has beeen implemeented by lefft-clicking aand draggin ng the

mousse within thhe white areea of the pollar plot. The relative sccale is givenn by the rad

dio of

the oouter circle both

b in dB and

a natural scale.

Copyy to clipboaard

The same way as a in the Bo ode plots annd the transiient responsse plots, a ccopy to clipb

board

optioon is availabble throughh right clickk on the po

olar plot aree that will aallow the usser to

copyy the currentt graph to th

he clipboardd.

Clickk on right button

b

By riight clickingg on each plot a new w

window is op

pened with some additiional option

ns.

Help Link to thee on-line Sm

martCtrl helpp

Quick Help

Q Shows a shhort explanaations aboutt how to meeasure

directly on

n the plot

100 SmartCtrl

Graphicc and text panels

p

Meassurement toools

Ctrl + m ve the mousse. Two crrossed red

lines are displaayed and thee two coord

dinates of thhe point on which the

mouuse is placeed are givenn. You can measure

m at any point within

w the

grap

ph area.

mouse Keeep the Shift

Shift+m ft key presssed and plaace the moouse near one

o of the

disp

played moduule traces. The

T cursor will

w track ittself to that trace, and

the cursor will measure siimultaneoussly the phasse and mod dule of the

track

ked trace.

If you want to track the cursor

c to otther trace, j ust left clicck on that

trace.

Addditionally, iif the seleccted trace is

i open looop transfer function,

SmaartCtrl will measure siimultaneoussly on bothh Bode plotss (module

and phase) andd on the Nyq quist diagram

m.

Sma

artCtrl 101

Grapphic and texxt panels

10.3

3 Transie

ent respo

onse plot

Trannsient responnse specificcations, suchh as setting time and vo

oltage peak transient vaalues,

are uusually criticcal specificaations whenn designing the control stage of a ppower conv

verter.

Therrefore, proviiding a quicck view to tthe transientt response of

o the conveerter may grreatly

help the designeer during thee design proocess.

In SmmartCtrl thee three mosst significannt transient responses have

h been ddeveloped. They

can bbe plotted just by cliicking on tthe correspo onding icon ns of the V bar or

View Toolb

seleccting the corrresponding

g transient reesponse witthin the Vieew Menu.

nsient respoonse plot, th

he following

g options arre displayed

d.

Expoort

This option alloows the useer to exporrt the curreent transientt responsess to a file which

w

couldd be either .txt or .smvv format. It is placed within

w the menu displayyed through

h right

clickk on the trannsient respon

nse panel.

Time shiift:

This optiions allows the user to shift the tim

me axis

Print step

ep:

This opttion allows modifying the numberr of points to be expoorted. If the print

step is multiplied

m y 2, only onne point perr two ones will be saveed. This helps to

by

reduce thhe size of th

he output fille.

102 SmartCtrl

Graphicc and text panels

p

Copyy

This allows the user to copy

y the currennt graphs in the clipboaard

Moddify transien

nt parameteers

This option alloows the usser to custoomize the transient

t response plott as well as

a the

param

meters of thhe computattion algorithhm

SmarrtCtrl makees an autom matic selecttion of thee parameters as the usser modifiees his

desiggn. By rightt clicking on the transiient plot and d selection the Customm option, a set of

slideers are displaayed so thatt the user iss able to cusstomize the settings listted bellow.

ws modifyinng the time interval between data points.

Freqquency resoolution: Thee transient response computation

c n is based oon samplinng the

frequuency respoonse of the power connverter. Thee higher thee resolutionn, the higheer the

numbber of samppled points, which meaans higher accuracy

a bu

ut also longeer computattional

time.. Therefore,, the trade-o

off can be coonsidered by

b the user.

Sma

artCtrl 103

Grapphic and texxt panels

a the user to mo odify the tim

me period displayed ini the

winddow. The maximum

m vaalue is limiited by the time step multiplied

m bby the frequ

uency

resollution.

A zooom effect could

c be obbtained by ddecreasing the “shown n time”, deccreasing alsso the

“timee step” paraameter and finally

f increeasing the “frequency

“ resolution”

r if necessary

y.

In adddition, the following in

nformation is displayed

d for inform

mative purpooses.

Freqquency step:: The frequency separaation betweeen two sam

mpled frequeency pointss. It is

deterrminate byy the frequuency resollution and the bandw width. An excessive high

frequuency step may

m lead to an incorrecct transient plot.

p

Banddwidth: It determinates

d s the maxim

mum sampled frequenccy and is diirectly relatted to

the time step seelected by the

t user. Ann excessiveely low valu

ue may leadd to an incoorrect

transsient plot.

104 SmartCtrl

Graphicc and text panels

p

10.4

4 Steady‐state waveform

The "steady-staate waveforrm" panel displays th he most sig gnificant waaveforms of

o the

poweer plant andd the modulaator once thhe steady staate is reacheed.

Power stage wavefforms.

The

T available

e wave formss are:

Induc

ctor voltage

Induc

ctor and diodde current

Output voltage

PWM modulator

m waveforms.

w

The

e available waveforms

w arre:

Mod(V)): Modulatingg signal

PWM (V): MOSFET

T gate

voltage

e

The

e available wave forms arre:

Vc(t): Modulating

M siggnal

Vcr(t): Compensatin

C ng ramp

Vsensed(t): Sensedd MOSFET

current or inductor ccurrent.

In th

he case of Forward convverter,

Vsill(t) signal is also

a plotted tto show the

outp uctor current..

put filter indu

PWM (V V): MOSFET

T gate

voltage

Sma

artCtrl 105

Grapphic and texxt panels

Measurement ttools

Two different tyypes of curssors are avaailable:

es are

mouse dissplayed andd the two cooordinates o

of the pointt on which tthe mouse iis placed

aree given. You

u can measuure at any p

point within the graph area.

moodule tracess. The cursoor will trackk itself to tha

at trace, annd the curso

or will

meeasure the ttwo coordinnates.

If yyou want to

o track the ccursor to other trace, just left clickk on that traace.

Expo

orting tools

availlable. In it, the

t copy an

nd export opptions are av

vailable.

Copy: coopies the graphic panell to the clipb

board.

Export: automatical

a lly redirectss the user to the export option withhin the File

Menu.

10.5

5 Text pa

anels

Two text panelss are availaable to provvide a comp plete list of the numeriical values of all

the eelements thaat compose the whole ccircuit as weell as some selection p arameter su

uch as

type of regulatorr, type of seensor, etc.

Text panels aree shown thrrough the V

View Menu

u or by cliccking on thhe correspon

nding

buttoons in the main

m toolbar:

View menu

u Main

M tool baar

Icon

n Opens Input Dataa Panel

Icon

n Openss Output Daata Panel

106 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

The Input Data Panel summarizes the input parameters of the converter such as the

power stage parameters, the steady-state dc operating point, the regulator parameters,

etc...

The Output Data Panel shows the numerical information about the design of the

compensator. The regulator resistors and capacitors values as well as the frequencies of

its poles and zeroes, are updated in real time. In addition, the most important loop

characteristics. That is, the phase margin, gain margin and attenuation at the switching

frequency.

The following example shows the text panels contents for a Forward converter with

double loop control. Therefore, input and output information regarding the inner and

outer loop is provided

The following example shows the text panels contents for a Forward converter with

double loop control. Therefore, input and output information regarding the inner and

outer loop is provided

Text shown in the panel Description

INPUT DATA Frequency range

DC-DC double loop (outer loop) Minimum and maximum frequency to be plotted in the graphic

panels.

--------------------------------------

SmartCtrl 107

Graphic and text panels

Cross frequency (Hz) = 10 k Selected crossover frequency for the open loop gain of the outer

loop (0 dB crossing frequency).

Phase margin (°) = 65

Phase margin

Plant

Selected phase margin for the open loop gain.

--------------------------------------

(inner loop)

Plant

The type of converter is shown. In the case of double loop

control, the outer loop plant is the inner loop closed loop

transfer function.

INPUT DATA PANEL (Cont I)

Sensor Sensor

-------------------------------------- The type of outer loop voltage sensor is shown. In the

Isolated voltage sensor case isolated voltage sensor, the sensor gain and the cut-

off frequency are provided.

Vref/Vo = 0.0892857

When a voltage divider is used as voltage sensor, the

HFPole(Hz)= 500 G

resistor values (Ra, Rb) and its power dissipation are

given:

Sensor:

VO

--------------------------------------

Ra Pa

VFB

Ra (Ohms) = 30.3413

Rb (Ohms) = 94.8168 Rb Pb

Pa (Watts) = 21.0933 m

Pb (Watts) = 65.9166 m

Compensator

The type of outer loop compensator is shown. User´s

input values are shown: Input impedance resistor, R11,

Compensator

the reference voltage, Vref and the error amplifier

saturation voltage are provided.

--------------------------------------

Type 3

Steady-state dc operating point

R11(Ohms) = 10000

The initial conditions for the regulator capacitors are

Vref(V) = 2.5

provided.

Vsat_minimum(V) = 13

--------------------------------------

IC_C3(V) = -7.5

IC_C2(V) = -7.5

IC_C1(V) = 0

108 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

INPUT DATA Frequency range

DC-DC double loop (inner loop) Minimum and maximum frequency to be plotted in the

graphic panels.

--------------------------------------

Frequency range (Hz) : (1, 999 k)

Cross frequency (Hz) = 20 k

Phase margin (°) = 60

Plant Cross frequency

-------------------------------------- Selected crossover frequency for the open loop gain of

Forward (LCS_VMC) the inner loop (0 dB crossing frequency).

R (Ohms) = 2.8

L (H) = 14 u Phase margin

RL(Ohms) = 1 n Selected phase margin for the open loop gain.

C (F) = 2.2 m

RC(Ohms) = 1 n

Plant

Vin (V) = 270

The type of converter and the type of control are shown.

Vo (V) = 28 The abbreviation LCS-VMC is referred to “inductor

Fsw (Hz) = 100 k current sensed – Voltage mode Control”. The values of

power stage parameters are provided.

Nt = 218 m

Steady-state dc operating point

Steady-state dc operating point

--------------------------------------

Mode indicates de conduction mode of the converter.

Mode = Continuous

Duty cycle= 0.475705 Vcomp is the steady state voltage at the output of the

operational amplifier of the regulator.

Vcomp(V) = 2.18926

IL is the average value of the inductor current.

IL (A) = 10

ILmax is the maximum value of the inductor current.

ILmax(A) = 15.2429

ILmin(A) = 4.75705

ILmin is the minimum value of the inductor current.

Sensor Sensor

-------------------------------------- The type of inner loop current sensor voltage sensor is

Current sensor shown. In the case of “current sensor”, the sensor gain is

provided.

Gain = 1

Compensator

-------------------------------------- The type of outer loop compensator is shown. User´s

input values are shown:

Type 3

Input impedance resistor: R11i,

Gmod = 0.4

Ramp parameters: Peak voltage value (Vp), valley

SmartCtrl 109

Graphic and text panels

R11i(Ohms)= 10000 voltage value (Vv), rise time (Tr). Gmod is the small

Vp(V) = 3 signal gain of the modulator.

Vv(V) = 1

tr(sec) = 8e-006 Steady-state dc operating point (regulator initial

conditions)

The initial conditions for the regulator capacitors are

provided.

--------------------------------------

IC_C3_i(V) = 7.81074

IC_C2_i(V) = 7.81074

IC_C1_i(V) = 0

RESULTS Components values

Regulator (Analog): The resistor and capacitor values are provided.

--------------------------------------

R1 (Ohms) = 6.03942 k

R2 (Ohms) = 902.951 k

C1 ( F ) = 1.61707 n

C2 ( F ) = 28.7245 p

C3 ( F ) = 17.3479 p Poles and zeroes frequencies

The frequencies of the regulator poles and zeroes are given

accordingly to expression (1).

fz1 ( Hz ) = 6.13625 k

fz2 ( Hz ) = 6.13625 k

s s (1)

1 1

fp1 ( Hz ) = 16.2966 k

2 fz1 2 fz2

R ( s)

fp2 ( Hz ) = 16.2966 k T3 s s s

1 1

fi ( Hz ) = 345.445 k 2 fi 2 fp1 2 fp2

are given:

b0 = 1

b2 s 2 b1 s 1 (2)

R ( s)

T3 3 2

a3 s a 2 s a1 s 1

a3 ( s^3) = 4.39429e-017

a2 ( s^2) = 8.99901e-012

a1 ( s ) = 4.60725e-007 Loop performance parameters

180º.

GM. Gain margin

Loop performance parameters:

Atte. Attenuation of the gains product sensor x regulator at the

-------------------------------------- switching frequency.

PhF ( Hz ) = 23.6721 k

GM ( dB ) = 11.506

Atte( dB ) = 6.55592

110 SmartCtrl

Graphic and text panels

RESULTS Regulator (Digital).

Compensator (Analog): Only in SmartCtrl - Pro

--------------------------------------

z-domain coefficients

R1 (Ohms) = 2.32153 k

R2 (Ohms) = 36.6071 k

The Type 3 regulator in z-domain can be expressed as the

following transfer function:

C1 ( F ) = 2.36137 n

C2 ( F ) = 794.811 p

b0 z3 b1 z 2 b2 z b3

R ( z)

C3 ( F ) = 184.518 p T3 a0 z3 a1 z 2 a 2 z a3

fz1 ( Hz ) = 5.47005 k

When a0 = 1, the output y and the input u can be

fz2 ( Hz ) = 5.47005 k expressed by the following difference equation:

fp1 ( Hz ) = 29.0323 k

y n b0 u n b1 u n 1 b 2 u n 2 b3 u n 3

fp2 ( Hz ) = 29.0323 k

fi ( Hz ) = 16.2514 k

a1 y n 1 a 2 y n 2 a3 y n 3

b2 ( s^2) = 8.4656e-010

b1 ( s ) = 5.81914e-005

b0 = 1

a3 ( s^3) = 2.94311e-016

a2 ( s^2) = 1.07374e-010

a1 ( s ) = 9.79329e-006

a0 = 0

Compensator (Digital):

--------------------------------------

b0 = 3.54492

b1 = -2.625

b2 = -3.48438

b3 = 2.68359

a0 = 1

a1 = -1.92383

a2 = 1.13672

a3 = -0.212891

SmartCtrl 111

Graphic and text panels

Sensor:

--------------------------------------

Ra (Ohms) = 30.3413

Rb (Ohms) = 94.8168

Pa (Watts) = 21.0933 m

Pb (Watts) = 65.9166 m

--------------------------------------

PhF ( Hz ) = 2.63194 k

GM ( dB ) = -36.5853

Atte( dB ) = 2.73095

112 SmartCtrl

Solutionss Map

Cha

apter 11

1: Solu

utions M

Maps

o fcross and P

PM is one of

o the key isssues for looop optimizaation.

In orrder to easee the first attempt

a wheen designinng a controll loop, an eestimation of o the

stablle solutions space has been develooped underr the name of o solutionss map. Baseed on

the sselected plaant, sensor and type oof regulatorr, the soluttions map pprovides a “safe

operaating area” of the different combinnations of fcross

c and PM

M that lead too stable sysstems.

The ttwo parameeters involveed are repreesented as PM

P vs frequency.

Just by clicking

c with

hin the whitte area, a seet of (fcross and

a PM) thaat lead to an

n

stable soolution is selected.

The inpuut boxes (wh

hite backgroound) are au

utomatically

y updated

And so is

i the attenu

uation achievved at fsw box. It is an output paraameter (grey

y

backgrouund) and reppresents thee attenuation

n achieved by the openn loop at thee

switchinng frequency

y.

Addiitionally, whhen any of the three afforementionned values is uncommoonly low or high,

the bboxes backgground is red

d-colored inn order to drraw the designer attenttion.

Boun

ndaries

The bboundaries,, that determ

mine the vaalid area (white area), represent

r thhe maximum

m and

minim

mum phasee margin thaat can be achhieved for any

a kind of compensatoor.

The simpple integrato

or is a parti cular case of

o any regullator, therefo

fore it provides

the loweer PM limit by adding 990 degrees to t the phasee of the openn loop transsfer

function without reggulator (plan

ant, sensor and

a modulattor) (green lline).

The uppeer limit of the solution map is giveen by the maximum

m phhase boost

providedd by each kiind of comppensator (bluue line).

In terrms of frequuency, the solutions

s sppace is limited by the sw

witching freequency, fsww.

Sma

artCtrl 113

Solutions Map

When the first design point has been selected within the “Solution Map”, SmartCtrl

shows its main screen. In the main screen the solutions Map will be shown as a floating

window. The position of this window can be changed by the user by right clicking on

the Solution Map window plus mouse move. Important Warning messages will be

shown in the bottom part of the Solution Map window.

114 SmartCtrl

Equations editor

The definition of the desired transfer function can be carried out by means of the definition of

the algebraic s‐domain transfer function.

First, the user must define the s‐domain transfer function, choosing amongst two different

options:

Import a previous design (click on open)

Define a new transfer function (click on editor). Check the editor rules in the next

chapter.

Additionally, there is a predefined transfer function that can be loaded by clicking on

"set defaults".

Once the equation has been introduced:

Click on "Save" to save the mathematical equations in a text file with extension

.tromod

Click on "compile" to continue Bode plot will appear on the right side of the window.

If desired, the frequency response of the transfer function can be exported as a .txt

file by clicking on "Export transfer function". Afterwards it can be recalled through the

Import (merge) function and displayed in the bode plot graphic panel.

If default option "Bode plot" is selected, the frequency response of the previously defined

transfer function is shown on the right hand side panels.

SmartCtrl 115

Equaations editorr

To check the gaain, phase and rectanggular compo onents of th

he frequenccy response at a

particcular frequeency, the opption "One ffrequency" is provided. As depictedd in the following

figuree: first "one frequency" m must be seleected, secondly the frequ uency shouldd be specifie ed and

finallyy, click on compile

c and

d the gain, pphase and rectangular

r componentss at the spe ecified

frequuency are sho own below.

116 SmartCtrl

Editor box

1. There are two types of instructions: assignment and return.

2. Only one instruction per line is permitted (whether it is assignment or return).

3. Blank lines are allowed.

4. Rules for naming variables in assignment instruction:

a. The names must begin with an alphabetic character.

b. The name can be formed of alphabetic or numeric characters, or underscore.

c. The names sqrt, pow, return and PI are reserved names that cannot be used

as variable names.

5. Rules related to mathematical expressions:

a. Valid operator for algebraic expressions are +, -, *, /.

b. Expressions can use grouping parentheses.

c. The available built-in functions are:

sqrt(a) calculates the square root of a

pow(a, b) calculates 'a' raised to 'b'.

d. Algebraic expressions can include the built-in functions.

SmartCtrl 117

Editor box

118 SmartCtrl

Import and export

14.1 Export

SmartCtrl provide three different exporting options which are available under the export

item of the File Menu. The first of the exporting options is export transfer functions

which is also available through left click on the icon placed in the main toolbar.

Any of the transfer functions available can be exported to a .txt file. To do that, the

designer must select the function to export within the available list and set the options of

the file in the corresponding dialogue box.

The addressed file is formed by three columns containing the frequency vector, the

module in dB and the phase in degrees respectively.

The file options and characteristics are contained in the "Exporting transfer function

dialogue box" and they are described below:

SmartCtrl 119

Import and export

Export function between The designer is able to set the frequency range of the

exported transfer function

Number of points Number of points to be saved in the file

Logarithmic scale in the frequency axis

Decimal scale in the frequency axis

tabs

spaces

commas

14.1.2 Export to PSIM

SmartCtrl provides a link with PSIM software. Once the regulator has been designed,

the power stage and the compensator can be exported to PSIM, providing an automatic

generation of the schematic and/or an exportation of the parameters of the design

performed in SmartCtrl. This schematic can be used to validate the design using PSIM.

In the File Menu, it is available the export option To PSIM. The user can select between

exporting the eschematic, only the parameters file or just update a previously exported

parameters file.

120 SmartCtrl

Import and export

The designer is able to export the parameters of the design to a PSIM schematic that is

automatically generated by the program.

In the first step the user will be asked to select the path and the name of the PSIM file in

which the schematic will be inserted. If the file has not already been created, a new

PSIM file will be created with the name provided by the user.

In the next step, the user will be asked to choose between different options:

SmartCtrl 121

Impoort and expoort

Comp

mpensator exxporting wa

ay

“Compo

onents (R1, C1, ... aree given)”: the schemaatic and paarameters of

o the

compennsator will be exporteedwith an analog im mplementatiion (Operattional

amplifieer and passsive compponents) lik ke in the following example.C Check

“simulattion issues”” in this seection in orrder to get some tips to speed up

u the

PSIM siimulations.

122 SmartCtrl

Im

mport and export

e

nd parameters of the com

ompensator will

w

be exporrted in the form

f of PSIIM control blocks,

b like in the folloowing example.

“z-domaain coefficieents”: the scchematic and parameterrs of the com mpensator will

w

be exporrted in the form

fo of a z-ddomain tran nsfer functioon. Thereforre it is neceessary

to configgure the "Diigital Settinngs" before selecting

s the z-domainn format for

exportatiion to PSIM

M.Besides thhe z-domain transfer fu unction thatt represents the

digital coompensatorr, additionall blocks are added:

o T

Time-delay block: it reppresents thee accumulated delay off the controll loop

m

minus the tim

me delay coorrespondin ng to the mo

odulator, i.e.., the ADC delay

a the calcu

and ulations dellay.

o L

Limiter befo

ore the compparator of th he modulato

or which ennsures that the

d

duty cycle iss at least low

wer than 97

7%.

mulation wiith z-domain

n coefficiennts is provid

ded in

the sectioon Chapter 17: Digital control of this

t documeent.

Note: when

w the selected senssor is "Emb

bedded V.d

div." the sschematic isi not

exportedd to PSIM because thhis sensor is especiallly orientedd to the analog

implemeentation with

h componennts.

Sma

artCtrl 123

Import and export

The schematic and parameters of the power stage and the sensors will be exported.

Initial conditions

The initial voltage across the output capacitor and the initial current through the

inductor will be exported. This way the initial transient of the simulation can be

reduced.

Only the text file with the necessary parameters will be exported to a PSIM schematic

previously generated. Similarly to the previous option, SmartCtrl will ask the designer

to select the path of the PSIM schematic to which the parameters file must be exported.

Then the designer will have to select the exporting options (regulator exporting way,

power stage and sensors and initial conditions).

Once one of the previously described options has been configured, only the updating of

the existing parameter file is needed. When the designer clicks, the previously inserted

parameter file will be updated automatically.

Simulation issues

14.1.3 Export transient responses

SmartCtrl provides three different exporting options which are available under the

export item of the File Menu. The third of the exporting options is "export transient

functions" which export any of the available transient responses to a file.

124 SmartCtrl

Im

mport and export

e

o the transiient responsse graphic panel.

p

The corresponding dialogu ue box is diisplayed bellow. It showws the transsient responnse to

be exxported as well

w as the following

f paarameters:

s a custommized time sshift (in secconds) if

necessarry, and thee transient response will be trranslated

accordinngly along thhe time axiss.

N. off points to b d SmartCttrl shows thee total numb

be exported ber of pointts of the graaph.

Print step oint will

be exporrted to the file.

f If it is 4,

4 only one out of 4 points will

be savedd. This help ps to reducee the size oof the resulttant file.

The twoo buttons placed at bo oth sides off the pint step

s box

allow to increase (xx2) or decreaase (/2) the print step easily.

e

Clickk Apply to update the parameterss and OK to continue. At this pooint, the pro

ogram

will aask you the name and location

l of tthe file.

14.1

1.4 Export Global.

From

m the File menu

m it is po

ossible to sellect Export Global.

Sma

artCtrl 125

Import and export

This option allows the user to export to text files different information regarding the

design. Depending on the selected information, the text files will have different names,

shown below the corresponding check boxes.

126 SmartCtrl

Import and export

Input and output data of the design.

Transients: time (s) and magnitude (V or A) of a transient step.

Transference functions: frequency (Hz), magnitude (dB) and phase (deg) of the

basic transfer functions.

Additional transfer functions: frequency (Hz), magnitude and phase (deg) of

additional transfer functions, like audiosusceptibility, impedances, etc.

The designer is asked to configure the file format for the transference functions, like in

Export transfer functions.

Finally, the user is asked for the path to save the file/s.

14.1.5 Export waveforms

SmartCtrl provides three different exporting options which are available under the

export item of the File Menu. The third of the exporting options is export waveforms.

Any of the waveforms available can be exported to a .txt file. To do that, the designer

must select the signal to be exported within the available list and set the options of the

file in the corresponding dialogue box.

The addressed file is formed by two columns containing the time in seconds and the

current/voltage instantaneous value, respectively.

The file options and characteristics are described below:

SmartCtrl 127

Import and export

File Header It contains the name of the two columns of the file.

Time shift (sec) The user is able to set a customized time shift (in seconds) if

necessary, and the transient response will be translated

accordingly along the time axis.

spaces

commas

Import (Merge) data of another file with the data of the existing file for display. The

curves of these two files will be combined. The Merge function is available within the

File Menu and through click on . Itis oriented to the comparison of frequency

response curves (Bode plots).

The file to be merged with the current one can be either a .tro file, a .txt file or a .fra file.

This is, the comparison of the current file results can be compared with the results

previously saved by the SmartCtrl Program, with any transfer function saved in a .txt

format or with a PSIM frequency AC analysis, respectively.

Neither the .tro file or the .fra file need to be formatted in order to be used by the merge

function. However, if a .txt file is going to be used the following considerations must be

taken into account:

The file must be organized in three columns (from left to right)

128 SmartCtrl

Im

mport and export

e

ponds to thee frequency

y values

Second column

c corrrespond to tthe module in dB

Third column corresspond to thee phase in degrees

d

The firstt line of the file correspponds to thee columns heeadings

The next steps will guide you to addd, modify or o delete traansfer functtions to/from

m the

compparison, eithher from a .tro file or a .txt file.

11. Merge

You can select the Merge function bboth from th

he File Menu or throuugh left clicck on

from

m the main tooolbar.

You can choosee among the following aavailable acctions:

Add Add

ds a new traansfer functiion to the co

omparison

odify Mod

Mo

dify the seettings of a previouslly added tr

transfer fun

nction

(chaange color, ffile of origiin...)

elete Deleetestheselecctedfunction

De n

eteall Deleeteallthefunnctions

Dele

A

Apply plythecurrenntsettings

App

ply the curreent settings and close th

OK App he merge w

window

b don't apply any chaange

Help Disp

playthehelppwindow

14.2

2.1 Add Fun

nction

The Add functiion to merrge allows the user to

o add a neew transfer function to

t the

compparison.

11. SelecttheeFunctionTy

ype

Sma

artCtrl 129

Impoort and expoort

Where::

G(s) Plant Transfer

Function

K(s) Sensoor Transfer

Fucntion

A(s) = G(s))·K(s)

R(s) Regullator Transffer

Function

K(s)·R(s)

T(s) = A(s))·R(s) Open n

loop transffer function

CL(s) Clossed loop traansfer

function

22. Select thhe color

Load funnction from either a .troo file or a teext file (.txt))

44. OK

And the transfer function will be added to

t the modu

ule and phaase panels of

o the

Bode Ploots.

130 SmartCtrl

Im

mport and export

e

14.2

2.2 Modify Function

The Modify funnction allow ws the userr to Modify y the settin

ngs of a preeviously merged

transsfer functionn (change co

olor, file off origin...)

11. Select thee Function too be modifiedd

b

33. Modifyseettings

Sma

artCtrl 131

Impoort and expoort

The

T user is able to moddify

the

t followinng parameteers:

Loadd a new filee

Chanange the tracce

coloor

However,

H iff the user

modifies

m thee function type,

t

a new file m

must be load ded

132 SmartCtrl

Design meethods

Cha

apter 15

5: Dessign Metthods

y clicking on

o the icon of theeView

Toollbar.

The ddesign methhod box inccludes the foollowing utiilities:

Desiggn method tags

Eachh tag corresspond to on ne of the tthree differrent design methods aavailable fo

or the

regullator calculaation, this iss:

K-methood

K plus method

m

Manual

Atten

nuation at switching

s frequency

fr

This output boxx displays th

he attenuatiion achieved

d by the op

pen loop tran

ansfer functiion at

the sw

witching freequency.

Solutions map

Baseed on the selected plantt, sensor annd type of reegulator, thee solutions m

map provid

des an

estim

mation if thee stable solu

utions spacee that lead to

t stable sollutions. Thee two param

meters

invollved are reppresented ass PM vs freqquency.

Two change thee considereed cross freequency an nd the phasee margin, tthe designeer can

eitheer change thheir values in

i the whitee-coloured boxes,

b use the

t sliders oor just click

k on a

different point within

w the so

olutions maap.

Sma

artCtrl 133

Desiggn methodss

15.1

1 K‐factorr Method

d

The K factor allow the dessigner to chhoose a partticular open n loop crosss-over frequuency

and pphase margin, and then n determinee the necesssary componnent values to achieve these

resullts. In SmarttCtrl, the reegulator com

mponent vallues are disp

played withhin theresultts text

panel.

The two input parameters of the K factor (fc, PM) can be

b easily chhanged in the

t K

methhod tag of thhe design method

m box.

s m and thee K method

map d will

recallculate the regulator

r to fit the new values. Rem

member thaat the stable solutions area

a is

the w

white one.

od for both

h, the Typee 2 and Ty

ype 3

regullators.

K facctor for Typpe 3 regulattor

A Tyype 3 regulaator is form

med by two zzeroes, two poles and a low frequeency pole. When

W

a Tyype 3 regulaator is chossen, the K factor methhod assumees that a doouble pole and

a a

doubble zero musst be placed

d to design tthe compenssator.

f

The doubble zero is placed

p at frequency

y

K

The doubble pole is placed

p at f · K frequeency

Where K is deefined as th quency to tthe double zero

he ratio off the doublle pole freq

frequuency and the frequen ncy f is thee geometricc mean betw

ween the ffrequency of

o the

doubble zero andd the frequen

ncy of the ddouble pole.

134 SmartCtrl

Design methods

So, the maximum open loop phase boost is achieved at frequency f, and it is assumed

that the regulator is designed so that the open loop cross-over occurs at frequency f also.

K factor for Type 2 regulator

A Type 2 regulator is formed by a single zero, a single pole and a low frequency pole.

When a Type 2 regulator is selected the pole and the zero are placed as follows:

f

The zero is placed at

K

The pole is placed at f ·K

Where the K factor is defined as the square root of the ratio of the pole frequency to the

zero frequency andf is the geometric mean of the zero frequency and the pole frequency.

The maximum phase boost from the zero-pole pair occurs at frequency f, and it is

assumed that the regulator is designed so that the open loop cross-over occurs at

frequency f also.

The Kplus method is based on the K‐factor and the inputs are the same:

The desired cross-over frequency (fc)

The target phase margin (PM)

However, unlike K-factor method, cross-over frequency is no longer the geometric

mean of the zeroes and the poles frequencies.

The Kplus method provides an additional design freedom degree with respect to the

conventional Kfactor method, since the Kplus method places the double zero frequency

f

fz a factor “α” below fcross ( f Z C ) and the poles a factor “β” above fcross ( f Z fC · ).

Where “α” is set from fcross and phase margin. This parameter allows the designer to

select the exact frequency in which the zeroes will be placed. After that, “β” is

automatically calculated.

The additional degree of freedom obtained with Kplus can be used as follows:

If “α” is set to be lower than K (from the K-factor method), higher gain at low

frequencies but less attenuation at switching frequency (fsw) are obtained.

On the contrary, if “α” is set higher than K (from the K-factor method), the

control loop has less gain at low frequency but more attenuation at fsw. It should

be remarked that the phase margin is the same in all cases.

When “α” is equal to K, both methods are equivalent.

Therefore, the Kplus method can be used to improve the overall performance of the

control loop in those cases where a slightly larger high frequency ripple could be

admitted at the input of the PWM modulator.

SmartCtrl 135

Desiggn methodss

In thhe same wayy as the K method, whhen the Kp plus tag is selected,

s thee user can easily

e

channge the input parametters, phase margin an nd cross-ov ver frequenccy And alsso an

addittional param

meter, Kpluss, which corrresponds to

o the aforem

mentioned ““α” factor.

b modified by clickingg on the solutions map p and the Kpplus method d will

recallculate the regulator

r to fit the new values. Rem

member thaat the stable solutions area

a is

the w

white one.

15.3

3 Manuall

This method alllows placingg poles andd zeroes ind

dependentlyy from eachh other. It iss used

whenn the desiggner would like to reffine the ressults obtain

ned from thhe K and KplusK

methhods or wheen these auto

omatic methhods do nott provide a valid

v solutioon.

The manual meethod is provided for bboth the typ

pe 3 and typ pe 2 regulat

ators. Their poles

and zeroes freqquencies can

n be variedd by directlly dragging

g and droppping them ini the

Bodee plots.

Or tyyping the frequencies

f of poles aand zeroes in corresp

ponding inpput boxes of

o the

desiggn methods box.

pe 3 regulattor, the desiigner can ad

djust

the frequuency valuess of:

T

The two zero

oes,

T

The two polees

And the low frequency pole

A

pe 2 regulattor, the avaiilable

frequenccies are:

T

The zero

T

The pole

A

And the low frequency pole

136 SmartCtrl

Design methods

15.4 PI tuning

The PI tuning method input parameters are the same as in the K-factor method:

Phase margin

Cross-over frequency

From these two input parameters, SmartCtrl calculates the both the proportional (Kp)

and integral (Kint) gains and shows them in the corresponding output boxes.

The same as in the other automatic calculation methods, the phase margin and cross-

over frequency can be set directly by clicking in the solutions map.

Additionally, there is a Kp and Ti Solution Map that allows the tuning of the PI

regulator by directly tuning its parameters Kp and Ti.

A Proportional Integral controller(PI) is defined by the following transfer function:

G( s) Kp · where

Ti·s Ti :is the time constant of the PI controller, in seconds.

The constant time Ti is located on the x-axis of the graphic and the gain Kp is placed on

the y-axis. Any change will involve an instantaneous update of the rest of the windows

of the graphic panel, as well as in the solution map.

Every point in the recommended area of the Solution Mapbox has an equivalent point in

the Kp and Ti Solution Map control box, which is also expected to be stable.

However, several points of the Kp and Ti Solution Map control box might correspond

to an unique point in the Solution Map.

SmartCtrl 137

Desiggn methodss

a Ti that lead to a coompensatorr with

the ssame dynammic performmance, somee areas of the

t Kp and d Ti Solutioon Map co ontrol

box hhave been coloredin

c orrder to avoidd a complex

x definition of the relattionship bettween

pointts of theKp and Ti Sollution Map p control boox and Solution Mapboox.

The rrecommendded design space

s corressponds to th

he white areea in betweeen the green and

the bblue lines. These

T liness represent the limits of

o the set ofo Kp and T Ti variables that

correespond to feasible

fe PI regulators.

r The rest off colored reegions repreesent a weighted

averaage of gainn margin, ph hase marginn and attennuation. Red d region haas to be avooided.

Yelloow and pinnk area in between

b thee green andd the blue lines

l corresp

spond to feaasible

comppensators which

w attenuuation at swiitching freq

quency is hig gher than 0 dB.

15.5

5 Single P

Pole tunin

ng

The I tuning meethod is the equivalent oof the manu b for integgral regulattors.

ual method but

The simple integrator is formed by a single pole, which freq quency musst be selected by

the ddesigner. Given

G this frequency,, the assocciated phase margin iis automatically

calcuulated by the program.

m of an in ntegrator is a single lin

ne that repreesents the aaddition of 90º

9 to

the oopen loop without

w regu

ulator transsfer function n. So, the designer

d cann also deterrmine

the ccross-over frequency

fr by he same waay as in the other

y clicking iin the solutiions map, th

desiggn methods..

138 SmartCtrl

Parametric sweep

The parametric sweep can be accessed either through the Data Menu or the View

Toolbar icons. The SmartCtrl program distinguish among two different parametric

sweeps:

It allows the variation of all the input parameters of the system. These are:

General Data

Plant

Sensor

Regulator

It allows to vary the component values of the compensator. This is, the resistances and

capacitances that conform the regulator.

To access the input parameters parametric sweep the user can either click must click on

the button , placed within the View toolbaror through the Data Menu > Parametric

Sweep > Input parameters.

The functions available within the input parameters parametric sweep are the following:

Loop to be modified Select which loop would you like to modify. This

option is only available in the case of a double

loop design, where the designer can select

amongst the inner loop or the outer loop

Tick box "calculate regulator" When this box is selected, the regulator is

recalculated for each new set of parameters along

the parametric sweep. If it is not selected, the

regulator is fixed to the last one calculated

display. This option is only available in the case of

a double loop design, where the designer can

select amongst the inner loop or the outer loop.

The parameters to be varied are related to the open

loop parameters. The designer is asked to provide

a range of variation. The available parameters are:

Cross Frequency (Hz)

Phase Margin (º)

SmartCtrl 139

Parametric Sweep

Tag "General Data"

The parameters to be varied are related to the

open loop parameters. The designer is asked

to provide a range of variation. The available

parameters are:

Cross Frequency (Hz)

Tag "Plant"

related to the plant input parameters. The user

must introduce a minimum and a maximum

value for the variable selected, in order to

provide its range of variation. Only one

parameter can be varied at a time

140 SmartCtrl

Parametric sweep

Tag "Sensor"

Two different sensor are available for variation. The voltage divider and the Hall effect

sensor. The parameter to be varied in the voltage divider is its voltage gain (Vref/Vo). In

the case of the Hall effect sensor there are to available parameters: its gain at 0Hz and

the pole frequency.

SmartCtrl 141

Parametric Sweep

Tag "Compensator"

modulator gain and the Resistor R11.

142 SmartCtrl

Parametric sweep

To access the compensator components parametric sweep the user can either click on

the button , placed within the view toolbar or through the Data Menu > Parametric

Sweep >Compensator components.

The compensator components parametric sweep is oriented to the variation of the

resistances and capacitances values that conform the regulator. The parametric sweep is

available for Type 3 and Type2 regulators. For instance, in the figure below a

parametric sweep window for a type 2 is shown.

SmartCtrl 143

Parametric Sweep

144 SmartCtrl

Digital co

ontrol

Cha

apter 17

7: Dig

gital con

ntrol

The D

Digital conttrol feature is only avaiilable in thee SmartCtrl 2.0 Pro

17.1

1 Introdu

uction to Digital C

Control

Digittal control module of SmartCtrrl allows calculating

c the coefficcients of digital

d

comppensators inn order to be implem

mented by means

m of digital

d deviices (as specific

hardwware in FPGA or ASIIC, or as a program in

n a microprrocessor, mmicrocontrolller or

DSP)).

Digittal regulatoors are obtaained by diiscretization

n of analog

g compensaators, which are

calcuulated follow

wing the an

nalog approaach of SmarrtCrtl.

Three specifics factors are taken

t into aaccount on digital

d contrrol calculatiions:

Sampling frequency

y of the reguulator.

Number of bits to reepresent in ffixed point the coefficiients of the obtained

compenssators.

Overall time

t delay in

i the controol loop.

It is a good pracctice to com

mpare the diiscretized compensator

c r with the ooriginal analogue

one.

17.2

2 Digital S

Settings

t calculation of the ddigital regullators.

This option is ennabled afterr the calculaation of an analog regu

ulator. Digittal regulators are

calcuulated in SmartCtrl by y discretizaation of an nalog regulaators usingg the bilineear or

Tustiin transform

mation.

When starting the calculaations of ddigital regu ulators, threee specific parameterrs are

requiired: sampliing frequency, bits num

mber and acccumulated delay(s).

Sma

artCtrl 145

Digital control

sampling period Tsamp=1/fsamp is the time between two consecutive samples of the

output signal of the regulator.

In many applications, the sampling frequency (fsamp) of the regulator is equal to the

switching frequency (fsw) of the power converter. In SmartCtrl the user can select

different values for switching and sampling frequency, but the sampling frequency

must be a multiple or submultiple of the switching frequency.This parameter is used

to calculate the digital regulator by means of discretization of the analog regulator.

In current loops, the controlled quantity in the converter has a significant ripple.

Therefore, it is recommended to use a Hall Effect sensor that includes a first order low

pass filter that can act as an antialiasing filter.

Bits number. It is the number of bits used to represent the coefficients of the digital

compensator considering a fixed point representation. The obtained coefficients are

rounded to the nearest number that can be represented with the specified number of bits.

One bit is used to represent the sign, and the rest to represent the integer part and the

decimal part.

A low number of bits can result in a digital regulator significantly different from the

analog regulator. It is recommended to check the similarity between the analog and

digital regulator. If analog and digital responses are too much different, especially at

low and medium frequencies, it is recommended to increase the “Bits number”.

Accumulated delay(s). It represents the total time delay in the control loop (modulator

delay, calculation delay, ADC delay, etc).

This delay affects the actual phase margin obtained with the designed digital regulator.

The delay is a negative phase that is subtracted to the phase of the open loop transfer

function in the Bode plot. As the original (analog) regulator is calculated without

considering the time delay, the obtained phase margin will be lower than the obtained in

the analog regulator. This phase margin loss can be compensated by selecting a higher

phase margin in the specification of the analog regulator.

It is recommended to check the effect of the delay in the Bode plot of the open loop

transfer function and the closed loop transfer function. The accumulated delay is not

represented in the Bode plot of the discretized compensator.

When exporting a design of SmartCtrl to PSIM, a time delay block appears in the

schematic, to take into account the different time delays of the control loop. This time

delay block represents only the ADC delay and calculation delay, since the modulator

delay is included in the behavior of the implemented PWM modulator. Therefore, the

“accumulated delay” specified by the user must be equal at least to the modulator delay.

Otherwise, inaccurate simulation results may be obtained. For the trailing edge

modulator used in the proposed PSIM circuit, the time delay due to the modulator tpwm

is:

tpwm=DutyCycle/fsw - floor(DutyCycle*fsamp/fsw)/fsamp if fsamp>=fsw

146 SmartCtrl

Digital co

ontrol

tpwm

m=DutyCyccle/fsw + (fssw/fsamp-1))/2/fsw if fsamp<

<fsw

17.3

3 Parame

etric sweep in diggital control

The three specific parametters of digiital regulato

ors can be swept:

s samp

mpling frequ

uency,

numbber of bits and

a accumuulated time ddelay.

A waarning box informs thee user abouut limit cyclling. From the four coonditions off limit

cycliing referredd in the tech

hnical literatture [1], [2]], the two depending ollny the regu

ulator

calcuulation are considered.

c

m are eevaluated and

a warninng appears in case off non

comppliance of thhe limit cyccling condittions [1], [2

2].When a warning

w apppears, if thee limit

cycliing effect neeeds to be removed, reddesign of thhe regulator needs to bee done.

When limit cyclling can occcur becausee a too low gain margin n, it must bbe increased

d. It is

sugggested to inccrease the deesired phasee margin in order to achieve a highher gain maargin.

When limit cyccling can occuro becauuse a too high

h integrral gain, it is suggested to

decreease the dessired cross over

o frequenncy in orderr to need a lower

l integrral gain.

Sma

artCtrl 147

Digittal control

[1] A

A.V.Peterchhev, S.R.San

nders, “Quaantization reesolution an

nd limit cyccling in dig

gitally

contrrolled PWMM converterrs,” IEEE TTransactionns on Poweer Electroniics, Volum me 18,

No.1, Jan. 2003, pp.301-30

08

[2] H

H.Peng; D.M Maksimovicc, A.Prodic,, E.Alarcon

n, “Modelin

ng of quantiization effects in

digitaally controllled DC-DC

C converterss,” IEEE PE

ESC 2004, pp.4312-431

p 18.

m are eevaluated and

a ng appears in case off non

warnin

comppliance of the limit cycling

c connditions (reeferences 1 and 2). W

When a waarning

appears, if the limit cyclin

ng effect neeeds to be removed, redesign

r off the regulaator is

recommmended.

References:

(1) A

A.V.Peterchhev, S.R.San

nders, “Quaantization reesolution an

nd limit cyccling in dig

gitally

contrrolled PWMM converterrs,” IEEE TTransactionns on Poweer Electroniics, Volum me 18,

No.1, Jan. 2003, pp.301-30

08

(2) H

H.Peng; D.M Maksimovicc, A.Prodic,, E.Alarcon

n, “Modelin

ng of quantiization effects in

digitaally controllled DC-DC

C converterss,” IEEE PE

ESC 2004, pp.4312-431

p 18

17.4

4 Simulattion issue

es with d

digital con

ntrol

When a digital controller design is e xported to PSIM in order to be simulated, some

consiiderations should

s be taken

t into account. Inn some cases there m may appear some

probllems with the start of the

t converteer. One possible solutio on to be useed it to incllude a

limitter block just after the z-domain bblock, whicch values arre in the casse of singlee loop

contrrol (see nexxt figure):

• Upper lim

mit: 0.97*V

Vp-Vref

• Lower limit: -Vref

148 SmartCtrl

Digital control

In the case of double loop control, this additional limiter can be added both in the inner

control loop and/or in the outer control loop. In the case of the outer control loop de

limits suggested for the limiter are:

• Upper limit: 5-Vref

• Lower limit: -Vref

In the case of inner control loop, the reference is not fixed. It is suggested to start with

these limits:

• Upper limit: 0.97*Vp

• Lower limit: -5

SmartCtrl 149

Digital control

150 SmartCtrl

Frequency settings

It allows defining the minimum and maximum frequency of the range to be considered

in the calculation of the Bode plots, solutions map, etc.

SmartCtrl 151

Frequency settings

152 SmartCtrl

Layout settings

It allows the user to define whether or not the graphic and text panels will be restored to

their default size and appearance after the following two actions:

After loading a new document

After any modification on the solutions map

SmartCtrl 153

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