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BBRC4103

BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WITH HONOURS

SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2017

BBRC4103

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (ASSIGNMENT 2)

MATRICULATION NO : 791016145081001

IDENTITY CARD NO. : 791016-14-5081

TELEPHONE NO. : 019-6641264

E-MAIL : arman_saad@yahoo.com

LEARNING CENTRE : SHAH ALAM

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

Introduction 3–4

The Sampling Design


Simple Random Sampling 5

Stratified Sampling 6

Cluster Sampling 6

Multistage Sampling 7

Data Collection
Direct Observation 8

Questionnaire & Interviews 8–9

Focus Group 9

Survey Method
Survey Design 10 – 11

Survey Adminstration 11

Data Analysis
Exploratory Data Analysis 12 – 13

Descriptive Statistics ` 14

Inferential Statistics 14

Reference 15

Conclusion 16

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INTRODUCTION
Attitude towards work has a great importance on organizational development, because of this;
poor attitude has been and is still a source of concern to owners, regulators, customers and some
co-workers. Consequently, in a professional work setting, poor attitude can affect everyone and
cause conflicts among workers. In some instances poor attitude might be ignored by the majority
of the workers and a good worker with a slight poor attitude does not affect the corporation.
According to worker regardless of his discipline, have a moral attitude to play in an organization.
Poor attitude to work might include laziness, rudeness, tardiness, rumour mongering or any other
activity or behaviour that deter the overall organizational goals, vision and mission. Stated that if
one worker begins complaining his discontent might spread to other workers. Hence poor
attitude can have a detriment effect on work, causing workers to become apathetic and
despondent which would resulted to occurrence of mistakes more often, and output would likely
to be down. Most at times, group of workers can cause poor attitude to work by underlying for
general discontent. Furthermore, involvement of human beings in running the affairs of any
formal corporation is of significant importance, many writers have highlighted that workers are
one of the primary element aspect that promote organizational effectiveness. Many other factors
may cause poor attitude to work such as external factors, work culture and machine condition.
It is obvious that TripleA organizations are faced with poor level of attitudes such as
Erratic provision of services has become an increasing persistent problem facing the corporation
and seriously affecting the general public, Careless and casual handling of the existing tools and
machines and General nonchalant attitude of staff in the discharge of their duties. In an attempt
to conceptualize critically and on concrete basis on why there is poor attitude by workers
towards the corporations, it is necessary to analyse and examine the causes of poor attitude to
work. In an attempt to analyse the causes of poor attitude to work, several researches have been
done before on workers attitude. Work related attitudes such as job involvement and
organizational commitment has a positive relationship with employees work behaviours. The
experience of behavioural attitude will reduce the workers interest in their works, become
sensitive, arising communication problem and caused unhappy feeling which in turn causing
negative work outcome. Attitudes toward real life work play a vital role in the translation of
aggressive feelings into aggressive behaviour. In a research conducted among TripleA’s
employees showed that the implication on the level of job satisfaction among workers consists of
Human Resource Management System, opportunities, leadership and policies. Based on the
study of the effects of worker productivity, commitment, leadership style, organizational success,
and well-being in general, are key in promoting qualities that are instrumental in guiding an

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organization to job satisfaction. As a manager of TripleA’s company need to foster intrapersonal,


interpersonal, stress management, general mood and adaptability and effectively guide
employees through the use of these skills. Training and Development is an important aspect that
must take place in most of the organization such as TripleA for the purpose of achieving the
desired goals and objectives. Training of workers is frequently used as a means to address
negative attitude and increase performance. In other words, training and retraining is quite often
necessary for new and existing workers in order to adapt with their new skills or jobs that rapidly
and consistently changing with influx of new technologies. Efforts are being made to measure
the effect of training on workers and identifying factors which contribute to effective training.
Hence, all organization must have a training program to ensure that their workers are introduced
to the higher level of skills and knowledge. In a study conducted on The Effectiveness of
Training suggested that TripleA had increase their concern with regards to the effectiveness of
training and development since it is critical to enhanced on-the-job performance in order to
achieve Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for each employees. With the transformation of
knowledge society, training and development has been identified as a strategic tool for
competitive positioning. Training can be considered as ineffective if the targeted group of
workers is deterred from gaining access to it. Inadequate training assessment and analysis is due
to lack of expertise and it is irrespective of the size of firms. Furthermore, organizations in many
countries have embarked on reformation, restructuring, layoff and downsizing in order to reduce
labor cost and improve profitability. Restructuring of organization through mergers, workers laid
off and closing of companies has impact on thousands of workers worldwide through
unemployment. Perception of potential threat to continuity in his or her current job (Poor
attitude) is a product of workers interpretations of job insecurity and reactions to changes
concerning their jobs. In the research found that if the workers perceived that their job security
was threatened and in jeopardy, this will affect their job satisfaction and well-being, thus,
affecting their job performance. The findings of the study of indicated that there is a negative
relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Today poor attitude among workers is an
important problem almost for TripleA’s Company. Even though, reasons might be attached to
different perception of workers on the security of their job. However, workers perception may
depend on the number of considerations such as labour market characteristics, family
responsibility, age, gender etc. highlighted that restructuring, downsizing or redesigning. The
new job responsibilities may include new tasks, technologies, and job specifications (knowledge,
skills).

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THE SAMPLING DESIGN


Increasingly, job attitudes researchers have responded to this problem through the use of
experience-sampling design methodology.
Simple Random Sampling
 It is often not necessary to survey the entire population. Instead, you can select a
random sample of employees and survey just them.
 We can draw conclusions about how the entire population of employees would
respond based on the responses from this randomly selected group of people.
 If we are simply looking at one large group of employees as a whole, the process
of determining a random sample is pretty straightforward. We will need to know
how many total numbers of employees are in the entire group and how "accurate"
we want the results to be.
 When we survey a portion of a population the employees in TripleA Company,
there will be some margin of error in the results, but when the margin of error is
reduced to just a few percentage points, it often becomes of little concern. As the
population size increases, the percentage of people needed to achieve a high level
of accuracy decreases rapidly.
 In other words, to achieve the same level accuracy:
Large population = smaller percentage of employees survey
Smaller population = larger percentage of employees survey
 Employee Survey:
Should I use simple random sample?
For employee survey, for large companies such as TripleA, random sampling can
be an option to consider when conducting an employee survey. Keep in mind,
however, that many of the most critical employee engagement or employee
satisfaction problems are often found in small subgroups within the organization.
Random sampling can make it difficult or impossible to identify these hidden
pockets of discontent since there won't be enough employees selected within
those small groups to measure local employee attitudes.

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Stratified Sampling

 We not only want to examine the result from the overall employees, but also
understand the differences between key demographic subgroups within the
population of the employees.
 From here, we can to understand the differences between different groups of
employees, like senior managers vs. regular employees.
 To using this stratified sampling, we need to select a separate random sample
from each of the subgroups rather than just taking a single random sample from
the entire group. The process is slightly more time consuming and will require to
survey a greater number of people overall, but this technique can be very
valuable.
 To conduct a stratified random sample, think carefully about the single most
relevant demographic division that can be made between employees within your
population
 If we wanted to look at employee survey results and by level and job function,
we would need to look at each level/function combination and we might find very
small numbers of employees within some of these areas.

Cluster Sampling
 In cluster sampling, in TripleA Company are randomly selected, and all
employees of selected clusters are included in the sample.
 For example, suppose that TripleA Company is trying out a new system to
improve the management of company. If we want to use cluster sampling, we can
consider each division as a cluster and select and assign divisions at random to
the new system or to the old system. The system in the selected divisions would
then be the focus of the survey.

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Multistage Sampling
 The sample will be selected in TripleA Company and if this group of the
employees is too geographically dispersed, a sub selection geographical cluster
will be made. The sample will consist of 60 clusters each of 50 employees.
 The area sample will be based on the same geographic regions, both for reasons
of minimising interviewer travel and to provide a suitable control group for the
sample of employees. While the level of clustering is yet to be finalised and it
may prove practical to spread the sample further, the current proposal is to select
10 divisions with an average of 15 employees controlled by a manager.
 As increase the numbers of clusters, can decrease the size of the sample within
each.

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DATA COLLECTION
Data collection is the process of gathering the specific information used to answer the research
questions. Depending on the discipline or field, the nature of the information being sought, and
the objective or goal of users, the methods of data collection will vary and suitable method for
TripleA Company as below:

1. Direct Observation
We prefer systematic, direct observation of behavior as the most accurate and desirable
method of recording the behavior of employees. Using direct observation, we observe
and record the behaviors of the employees rather than relying on reports from colleagues
or manager. Observational techniques vary on several dimensions.
o Naturalness of the Settings. The setting for the observations can vary from
natural environments (such as workplace). Qualitative researchers do
observations almost exclusively in natural settings. Quantitative researchers use
the whole range of settings. Degree of Observer Participation. This dimension
varies from situations in which the manager is a participant to situations in which
the manager is entirely unobtrusive. Most observations, however, are done in
situations in which the participants know that that manager is observing them and
have agreed to it. Such manager attempt to be unobtrusive, perhaps by observing
from behind a one-way mirror.

2. Questionnaires and Interviews


- Questionnaires are written questions to which the employees are asked to respond in
writing, often by checking or circling responses. Both questionnaires and interviews
can be highly structured, but it is common for interviews to be more open-ended,
allowing the employees to provide detailed answers. Open-ended questions do not
provide choices for the employees to select rather; they must formulate an answer in
their own words. This type of question requires the least effort to write, but they can
be difficult to code and they are demanding for participants, especially if responses
have to be written or concern issues that the person has not considered. Closed-ended
items ask employees to choose among discrete categories and select whom one best
reflects their opinion or situation. Questions with ordered choices are common on
questionnaires and are often similar to the individual items in a personality inventory

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or a summated attitude scale. These questions may in fact be single Likert-type items
which the employees are asked to rate from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
- Interviews are a series of questions presented orally by an interviewer and are usually
responded to orally by the employees. Two main types of interviews are telephone
and face-to-face. Telephone interviews are almost always structured and usually
brief, whereas face-to-face interviews can vary from what amounts to a highly
structured, oral questionnaire with closed ended answers to in-depth interviews,
preferred by qualitative researchers. In-depth interviews are usually tape-recorded
and transcribed so that the employee’s comments can be coded later. All types of
interviews are relatively expensive because of their one-to-one nature.

3. Focus Groups

Focus group method is basically an interview method, but done in a group discussion
setting. When the object of the data is behaviors and attitudes, resources for one-on-one
interviews are limited, using the focus group approach is highly recommended. Ideally,
the focus group should have at least 3 people and a moderator to around 10 to 13 people
maximum, plus a moderator. The member of the group should have something in
common based on data being sought. From this method, we can conduct a study on the
problem among the employees in TripleA Company based on (1) age (2) gender (3)
single (4) married and (5) employment status. The topic that data will be collected about
will be presented to the group, and the moderator will open the floor for a debate.
o There may be a small group of employees with different department and level,
but the setup or framework of data being delivered and shared makes it possible
to come up with a wide variety of answers.
o We (the collector data) may also get highly detailed and descriptive data by using
a focus group.
o Much of the success of the discussion within the focus group lies in the hands of
the moderator. He must be highly capable and experienced in controlling these
types of interactions.

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SURVEY METHOD

1. Survey Design
It is time for the actual design of the Survey. Surveys are data collection techniques used
to obtain information from people. Human resource professionals or the designers must
ask from which people, how often and when should the survey be administered? As soon
as you raise such questions, you must become concerned with the sample and design of
the survey. The sample is the number of people in the survey. The designers need to
consider when and how often the survey should take place (just once, cross-sectional
over time, or should it be longitudinal?). At the beginning, have a general information
section covering the survey’s purpose. Define any terms/definitions that the employees
need to know, how to respond, anonymity, etc. Fear of reprisal is an issue that highlights
an important distinction between organizational surveys versus those used for social,
political polling, or marketing purposes. The department/unit manager and the Survey
Administrator need to spend extra time to assure anonymity and if fear still exists, the
option of not taking the survey should be available. The designers should list any specific
or special meanings of terms that the employees need to know to better answer the
questions. Terms such as “Boss” or “Supervisor,” “Work Group,” “Here” “Around here,”
and so on should be clearly defined. The employees should not have to guess what the
words mean. It would be helpful to walk through the definitions so that each employee
clearly understands and this will ensure they all are aware of what the questions are
asking and how to respond. The four basic characteristics of questions and answers that
are fundamental to a good measurement process:
o Questions need to be consistently understood.
o Employees need to have access to the information required to answer each
question.
o The way in which employees are asked to answer the questions must provide an
appropriate way to report what they have to say.
o Employees must be willing to provide the answers called for in the question.

As part of the questions, list several steps to follow in expressing feelings about each
question. A sample of directions for these steps could be as follows: Read each item
before starting to mark you answer, pick the one answer which most nearly says what
you or how you feel, and feel free to change your answer(s). Provide directions that you

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believe will be of importance to assure the accuracy of the data provided. For example: “I
enjoy the weather in this town.” If you tend to agree with this statement, you would circle
the answer number under AGREE. Alternatively, you can indicate how much you
AGREE 0R DISAGREE with each statement. Each question should be completed by
circling one of the available choices or options.

2. Survey Administration
Survey administration questionnaires require a great deal of preparation. Administered
surveys typically provide a high degree of anonymity and confidentiality and are often
the method of choice for surveys containing sensitive items. The department/unit
manager should personally meet with all survey respondents to explain the purpose and
use of the survey. Great emphasis should be placed on the anonymity or confidentiality of
their responses and that the survey is voluntary. Explicit explanations of the steps
involved in the survey process should be shared. It is recommended that the Program
Administrator be present and introduced and be open to answering any questions. The
preparation of this meeting is very important and can be a deciding factor in many
employees’ minds as to the worth and sincerity of the survey. It is recommended that the
survey be administered on TripleA Company time and in a private office, preferably with
a door. Prior to the survey administration, great care should be given by management that
opinions expressed by the respondents are not to be taken personally or used against the
respondents in any way.

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DATA ANALYSIS
Once the data is cleaned, it can be analysed. The statistical analyses methods used will be the
exploratory, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics.
1. Exploratory Data Analysis
Data used in this study has been collected and it contained the working attitude
employee’s information in TripleA Company. The working attitude employees include
questions related to:
Level of work stress (10 questions)
Employees perception on the work load (10 questions)
Job satisfaction (10 questions)

In the analysed dataset, the variable related to working attitude employees in TripleA
known as “separation types”, has 6 possible values:
Salary
Benefit
Facilities
Promotion
Increment
Work Environment

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We notice the most frequent separation type is salary. This information is so valuable for Human
Resources Department and it necessary to analyse and study the reasons for this salary is the big
problem that related with working attitude among the employees in TripleA.

Analysing separation types and their relation with gender, the following figure shows a higher
percentage above is female.

Regarding the age range, we notice employees who are between 21-30 years old have more
probability to have problem with negative attitude, whereas employees who are over 51 have
major probability to promotion issues.

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2. Descriptive Statistics
The descriptive analysis will be used to analyse the mean and standard deviation of
independent variables and dependent variable. The results show that from the sample of
237 respondents, the mean for job attitude is 113.20 with a standard deviation (SD) of
14.30. This computation demonstrates that many employees still have a less-than-optimal
attitude to their jobs, as indicated by the lower value of the standard deviation. A low
score on job attitude indicates that the level of satisfaction is also low. In addition, the
calculated arithmetic means for job environment, remuneration, administration, and job
progress are less than the calculated arithmetic mean for work colleagues. Since the
average level of satisfaction is represented by a mean of 36, it is evident that many
employees have a low score for job attitude because they are not satisfied with the salary,
benefit, facilities, promotion, increment and work environment. Employees were greatly
satisfied by their colleagues (mean = 38.24, SD = 3.13) than the salary (mean = 32.12,
SD = 6.30), work environment (mean = 27.20, SD = 5.30), increment (mean = 24.35, SD
= 4.22) and promotion (mean = 23.10, SD = 4.80).

3. Inferential Statistics
Inferential statistics were used to establish the relationship that exists between job
commitment and job attitude among employees; in addition, inferential statistics were
used to ascertain the connection between employee commitment, job attitude and
provision of quality service. Major correlations between salary and attitude (r = 0.598, p
< 0.01), work environment and attitude (r = 0.585, p < 0.01), work colleagues and job
attitude (r = 0.386, p < 0.01) and increment and attitude (r = 0.268, p < 0.05). There was
no significant relationship between the nature of the job and job satisfaction (r = 0.113, p
> 0.05). The most significant relationship occurs between sex and job attitude (r = 0.67, p
< 0.01). In addition, the age of respondents and job attitude were strongly correlated (r =
0.50, p < 0.01). There was also a significant relationship between job status and job
attitude (r = 0.45, p < 0.01), and job level and job attitude (r = 0.37, p < 0.01).

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CONCLUSION

The main objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between employee
commitment and job attitude and its effect on service quality in the TripleA Company. The
objectives were satisfied by collecting and analysing pertinent data using various statistical
techniques. The finding from this research concludes that salary, benefit, facilities, promotion,
increment and work environment is the determinant of job performance.
From the sampling design, we have choose (1) simple random sampling whereas is
the basic sampling technique where we select a group of employees (a sample) for study from all
employees in TripleA Company (a population). (2) Stratified Sampling is a probability sampling
technique wherein we divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then
randomly selects the final employees proportionally from the different strata. (3) Cluster
Sampling is a technique in which clusters of employees that represent the population are
identified and included in the sample and (4) Multistage Sampling (also known as multi-stage
cluster sampling) is a more complex form of cluster sampling which contains two or more stages
in sample selection. From large cluster of all employees in TripleA divided into small clusters in
several stages in order to make primary data collection more manageable.
In data collection method, we have chosen (1) direct observation is a method of
collecting evaluative information in which the evaluator watches the subject in his or her usual
environment without altering that environment. (2) Questionnaire and Interviews which a
questionnaire is a series of questions often as part of a survey and usually in writing or online
and an interviews consists of a series of questions + two-way conversation in the context of a
job application or in the context of a journalistic inquiry, often face to face or on the telephone.
(3) Focus Group is a small group of employees whose response to this research is studied to
determine the response that can be expected from all employees.
For survey method, it the best to choose survey design and survey administration. We
prefer the survey design because we getting the results as we need and survey administration
including study design, questionnaire writing, sampling, survey programming, survey hosting,
list management, data tabulations and reporting services. Our goal is to provide an easy and
enjoyable survey administration process for our clients and their survey participants.
The purpose of analysing data is to obtain usable and useful information. To describe,
present and summarize the data, we choose exploratory data analysis, descriptive and inferential
statistics to helpful TripleA to take the next step for further action.

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