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Microsystem Technologies

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-018-4022-z (0123456789().,-volV)(0123456789().
,- volV)

TECHNICAL PAPER

Dual-wavelength transmission system using double micro-resonator


system for EMI healthcare applications
I. S. Amiri1,2 • M. Bunruangses3 • K. Chaiwong4 • R. Udaiyakumar5 • R. Maheswar5 • M. N. Hindia6 •

K. B. Dimyati6 • P. Yupapin1,7

Received: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 June 2018


Ó Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Abstract
To meet the 5G requirements for higher bandwidth, the focus has been shifted to millimeter waves paving the way to radio
over fiber (RoF) in order to minimize radio losses. Dual wavelength transmission within RoF for electromagnetic immunity
interference (EMI) can be utilized within local area network and long-haul transmission. Health care services will also be
able to utilize the technology to transmit health-related data from thousands of patients to the specific destination by
connecting to the long-haul fiber optic cable connection. To make dual-wavelength transmission stable and reliable, the
formation of the two-wavelength light source is proposed in this paper by means of the double coupled micro-ring
resonators. The proposed RoF system will be able to transmit EMI signals of patients over 300 km of optical fiber link and
3 m wireless link without the need for any intermediate signal amplifying device. All the patient’s data will be available to
any doctor in any hospital securely by integrating with currently available wireless and the internet of things systems.

1 Literature review elevation of the communication network and protocol in


aspects of efficient spectrum utilization, fast response,
The exponential growth of mobile data and applying new constrained bandwidth (Faheem and Gungor 2017; Sto-
applications such as the internet of things (IoT), smart grid jkoska and Trivodaliev 2017). In order to improve the
applications in macro networks have endeavored the capacity of transmission, the cell architecture based on the
mobile cell is required things (Chen et al. 2017) because
those mobile network configurations constructed as micro,
& I. S. Amiri pico and even for femtocells (Akinlabi and Joseph 2017).
irajsadeghamiri@tdt.edu.vn
While deploying those cells, the care must be taken for
& P. Yupapin remote cells who having consistency in energy distribution.
preecha.yupapin@tdt.edu.vn
In addition, intellectual functionality would have been
1
Computational Optics Research Group, Advanced Institute of delegated to the central network station from where
Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, information has been shared with many sub-base stations
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (Burg et al. 2018).
2
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, The primary role of the network is used to share the
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam information to the distributed network hub stations and the
3
Faculty of Industrial Education, Rajamangala University of initial configuration has been coagulated using local area
Technology Phranakorn, Bangkok 10300, Thailand communications (LAN) which follows the IEEE 802.11
4
Faculty of Industrial Technology, Leoi Rajabhat University, standard (Matsumura et al. 2017). The main characteristics
Leoi 42000, Thailand of LAN having less latency on pocket arrival, efficient
5
Department of Electronics and Communication, Sri Krishna acknowledgment utility, and energy constraint upon the
College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 042, India number of users. The data transfer protocol of wireless
6
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of LAN (WLAN) gives the specific network and channel
Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, capacity following WLAN IEEE 802.11 g and it provi-
Malaysia sionally holds the data capacity up to 54 Mb/s (Pandi and
7
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Manickam 2017). Further, an improvement on the data
Thang University, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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Table 1 Parameter values of the dual ring resonator Alavi et al. 2014a, b, 2015; Amiri et al. 2016). In that
Parameter Values
elevation, another structural modification with material
level (air-semiconductor) gives the strong adherence with
GaAs (core) (0.5 lm) (n1 = 3.368) respect to low loss (Alavi et al. 2016; Amiri et al.
AlGaAs (cladding) (0.3 lm) (n2 = 3.135) 2015a, b, c). Because of the small size, the propagation loss
AlGaAs buffer (1.2 lm) (n2 = 3.135) in the cavity is also negligible. Consequently, both the FSR
Substrate (0.2 lm) and the finesse are much larger for this resonator (Amiri
Nonlinear refractive index 2.7 9 10-16 cm2/W et al. 2012, 2013, 2018). Various types of microring res-
Wavelength 1550 onators have been fabricated such as the single microring
Air cap 0.2 lm, n = 1 resonators owing only a single bus waveguide (Chen et al.
2015; Zhang et al. 2017) owing double bus waveguides,
multiple and racetrack microring resonators. The dimen-
speed could be enhanced by the bandwidth service provider sions of the microring resonator filters can be altered and
whose utility is defined by spectrum assignment for the change in dimension of the structure gives the variation of
user requirement (Heidarpour et al. 2018). In optimal cases, emitted light pulses. In this article, the demonstration is
the bandwidth can be estimated as 40 MHz under the made on the embedding ring resonator with the RoF having
multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) configuration frequency band 90 GHz MMW. The RoF transmitter unit
transmission along the data rate up to 600 Mb/s (Khurana acts as a central station where the photonic energy acts as
et al. 2017). In advancement of WLAN brings the many an optical MMW carrier wave signal and it generates the
attraction in a network application, if so, exactly it is so up-conversion energy directly to propagate through the air
called as LAN-Fifth Generation (WLAN-5G) networks and medium. With this ideology, the proposed ring resonator
it follows the IEEE 802.11 ac and it update the data speed also end up with RoF system delegates whose frequency
than the earlier presence of IEEE 802.11. The main strat- range is bound as 90 GHz. The data validation is also
egy of this kind of WLAN configuration is to be supported verified experimentally, and it has been sent to the desired
by access points reliability with respect to the client sup- fiber length to form and execute the RoF system under the
port (Gawłowicz et al. 2017). For example, a number of existence of ring resonator. The receiver performance is
user demands will reduce the network link stability so that also analyzed by calculating the BER of the particular
time latency will be occurring upon the utilization band- system which instructs the system sensitivity and stable-
width allocation. So, though the number of the user ness for the various wireless communication signals. The
increases with multiple demands, the network link also has primary role of the work is to fetch the electromagnetic
to remain in the stable (Liu et al. 2017). This property of immunity interference (EMI) data from the human body
network configuration is well recognized by the WLAN and drive the data to the RoF system which has not affect
fifth generation group (Funai et al. 2017). In addition, the the system used for EMI measurement whereas it can be
sharing process of information is analyzed in an efficient used effectively for data transmission.
manner as if the network is in under no full load condition.
However, and as the number of WLAN access point is
rapidly increased, the to support the data congestion at the 2 System model
WLAN-5G backhaul and since it is essential to maintain
the delay at the millisecond level as demand for the 5G In health caring aspects, an important role has been taken
network’s applications (Rost et al. 2014). by a sensor which is made a great impact on enabling IoT
To compete for the future generation 5G network (Keyani et al. 2009). In general, the two preliminary pro-
applications, the frequency shifts to millimeter wave cesses are followed to establish the whole WLAN system
(MMW) band is required and the technique known as radio configuration. During the first phases, the object data is
over fiber (RoF) (Alavi et al. 2014a, b; Amiri et al. carefully sensed using proposed ring resonator structure.
2014a, b, c, 2015a, b, c; Soltanian et al. 2015; Xu et al. The object refers to the bioanalytic data such as blood
2014). The salient features provide high tolerance, less pressure, heart rate, brain activities etc. During the second
latency for wireless transmission, good diversity and phases, those collected data has been transferred to the RoF
stable backhaul network. To provide such as a system, the system using WLA where the processed data is easily got
ring bus based waveguide resonators is brought to the sense through the distributed networks. Whenever the data is
as it proves unexpected delegates in the form of various required to refer, it can be recovered from the constructed
components such as a multiplexer, de-multiplexer, splitter RoF system. The convergence of designed RoF follows the
and wavelength selection filter etc. (Ahmad et al. 2015; frequency bound of 90 GHz as shown in Fig. 1a, while the

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Fig. 1 a Coverage area, b the system model for RoF including sensor measurements

Fig. 1b shows the data communications in the RoF dis-


tributed networks.

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Fig. 2 Side view perspective of the dual microring resonators (left) and cross-sectional view of waveguide structure (right). The system
parameters are presented in Table 1

2.1 Schematic representation of microring the received EMI is transmitted through to the RoF system
resonator as explained as following sections.

Figure 2 shows the dual-wavelength passing through 2.2 EMI propagation through the RoF system
microring resonator. The coupling coefficients play an
important role between the two circle whose radius having In this process, the dual-wavelength source is used to
the diameter of 10 lm and the value of coupling coefficient generate the multi-carrier optical signal in which the
will be j = 0.04. Under this construction, the initial pulse desired sidebands are utilized for the millimeter wave
with power 100 mW is applied as input and the important generation as shown in Fig. 3. The high-frequency optical
consideration due to the mW range power is to induce the carrier signal generated by the microring resonator is pro-
non-linearity condition for the proposed structure. As cessed for splitting the sidebands to multi sidebands by
shown in Fig. 2, The waveguide is consisting of several array waveguide grating structure. It is also acting as a
stacked semiconductor materials such as AlGaAs, GaAs demultiplexer. The signal strength relatively needs to
and silicon substrate, where the pulse power is confined improve the power level and it is done by the optical
within the GaAs as the core waveguide. Vertically stacked amplifier. Though a lot of optical amplifiers is sustained,
waveguides have advantages of low-footprint, therefore to erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is used and their
achieve a good performance of the integrated RoF system, amplified spontaneous noise carefully exempted by the
vertically stacked waveguides with active interconnections help of optical bandpass filter (OBPF). The polarization
is necessary. controller (PC) is utilized to adjust the polarization of the
Another crucial factor is nonlinear existence by Kerr generated signal, which is input into the Mach–Zehnder
effect in a high-Q microring resonator since the system has modulator (MZM). The MZM then connected to the vector
100 mW power of input existence. The system can gen- signal generator (PSG). This RoF system is connected to
erate frequency comb in the receiving output spectrum with the designed microring resonator using WLAN. The
minimum power consumption. At the final stage of output, accessed signal is launched to the single mode fiber (SMF)

Fig. 3 The RoF system

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It conveys the minimum impact of losses during the


wireless propagation of RoF based system. Further, the
performances of dual ring resonator and RoF system is
numerically studied.

3 Results and discussion

The throughput output signals (output from port 1) are


shown in Fig. 5. The results show the generation of multi
dual-wavelength with dual-spacing of 86 GHz at the center
frequency (1.55 lm). Generation of various frequency
bands up to 100 GHz have advantages of lower cost, better
performance, economically feasible and greater availability
in optical and electrical communication links. The pho-
Fig. 4 Atmospheric and molecular absorptions
tonics technique can be applied for signal generation and
and goes through the Remote Access Unit (RAU) for the further data remoting within the range as the millimeter-
implementation of wireless communication. The accessed wave communications are preferred due to the bandwidth
signal then opts for the MMW communication with fre- capabilities of the optical fibers and the possibility of
quency up-conversion time bounding of 90 GHz. At the performing the optical signal remote with minimum losses
receiver side, the signal gets down-conversion to recover (Nanzer et al. 2011).
the original signal accessed by the WLAN using a double- The drop port output signals (output from port 2) are
balanced mixer (DBM) and synchronized LO. Finally, the shown in Fig. 6, where it shows the generation of dual-
transmitted WLAN signal is reconstructed with the help of wavelength with dual-spacing of 90 GHz. The spacing of
mixing MMW signal to the local oscillator signal present at the dual-wavelength depends on the microring resonator
the receiver side. It is then received by the end users. length. For many applications, it is preferred to generate
Therefore, the dual microring resonator is integrated into multi-wavelengths or dual-wavelength with a large spacing
the RoF system which is consisting of many components as which required a smaller microring resonator.
described above. Figure 7 shows the fundamental mode propagation
The propagation constant with respect to the presence of through the waveguide. It is numerically analyzed by
attenuation coefficient for RoF has been shown in Fig. 4. It photonic circuit simulator PICWave and Fimmwave soft-
shows that the molecular absorption due to the atmospheric ware which is centered on the time-domain traveling wave
effects around the frequency range of 70–90 GHz is min- (TDTW) method. The power is well confined within the
imum. This frequency band is protected from heavy core waveguide and the strong field intensity shows the
atmospheric absorption, which causes several limitations in maximum power coupling into the waveguide structure.
operating ranges and also unwanted interferences. The software can simulate single and integrated optical
components in a photonic circuit. Using the software, the
light propagations in small and large devices can be

Fig. 5 a Throughput outputs, seven dual-wavelength pulses are generated, b dual-wavelength spacing of 86 GHz seen at the center wavelength
(1.55 lm)

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Fig. 6 a Drop port outputs, seven dual-wavelength pulses are generated, b dual-wavelength spacing of 90 GHz seen at the center wavelength
(1.55 lm)

Fig. 7 a Fundamental mode propagating within the waveguide. b Energy density of the mode propagating, effective index = 3.04, group
index = 3.51, dispersion (ps/nm/km) = - 27, effective area = 0.38 lm2

performed using the Maxwell solvers such as the finite- When the BER increases, the Q-factor decreases, and
difference time-domain (FDTD) and finite element method overall fiber optic system degraded as shown in Fig. 8d. As
(FEM) methods. the BER enables performance of communication systems
The performance of the communication system can be to be analyzed, in order to increase the data rate without
evaluated in many ways such as those are shown in Fig. 8. increasing the input power, more complicated modulation
Figure 8a shows the Q-factor of the system which techniques are required (Mardoyan et al. 2017). In optical
decreases if the fiber link increases. As the value of the systems such as optical fibers, the BER mainly result from
Q-factor increases, it means that the less signal power is imperfections in the components included in the trans-
lost. Figure 8b shows the detected power or the received mission link. Figure 9 shows the eye diagram of the
power versus the fiber link. The losses included in the communication system with respect to the different optical
optical fibers causes significant limitations, especially in fiber link and a fixed wireless distance of 3 m. By ana-
long-distance communications. Interaction of the light lyzing the diagram, several system performance measures
propagating in the optical fibers which are made of glasses can be derived. From the diagram one can observe the
will undergo dispersions and absorptions. The absorption crosstalk and noise effects, thus estimating the system’s
of the light by the fiber is the major component to create strengths and weaknesses. The broadening of the lines
losses. Figure 8c shows the BER versus optical fiber link. shows the fluctuations in the optical power intensity due to
The BER which is the percentage of bits that have errors the dispersion and noises included in the communication
relative to the total number of bits received in a trans- system.
mission system increases according to the optical fiber link. The solid lines are representing the logic ‘‘0’’ and ‘‘1’’
The linear and nonlinear characteristics of the optical fibers levels or the bit current (voltage). Few important parame-
contribute to the high BER which limits the signal trans- ters such as the Q-factor and BER can be extracted from
mission performances, therefore a technique to improve the the diagram. To improve the performance of the commu-
data detection is necessary (Hsu et al. 2017; Li et al. 2017; nication systems, various pulse shaping and modulation
Wang et al. 2017). schemes can be utilized (Nain and Kumar 2017; Tian et al.

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Fig. 8 Transmission link analysis, the wireless distance is fixed to 3 m, while the fiber link varies, a Q-factor versus fiber link, b power received
versus fiber link, c BER versus fiber link, and d BER versus Q-factor

Fig. 9 Eye diagrams related to


different fiber link length of 80,
160, 240 and 300 km, while the
wireless link is fixed to 3 m

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