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RENR2418-02
November 2005

Troubleshooting
C7 and C9 Industrial Engines
JRA1-Up (Engine)
JSC1-Up (Engine)
MBD1-Up (Engine)
JTF1-Up (Engine)
i01658146

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also
have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool,
procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar
is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that
the product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
RENR2418-02 3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Flash Codes .......................................................... 52


Diagnostic Codes .................................................. 52
Diagnostic Code Cross Reference ....................... 53
CID 0001 FMI 05 Cylinder #1 Injector open
Troubleshooting Section circuit ................................................................... 56
CID 0001 FMI 06 Cylinder #1 Injector short ......... 56
Electronic Troubleshooting
CID 0002 FMI 05 Cylinder #2 Injector open
System Overview .................................................... 5
circuit ................................................................... 57
Electronic Service Tools .......................................... 6
CID 0002 FMI 06 Cylinder #2 Injector short ......... 57
Replacing the ECM ................................................. 9
CID 0003 FMI 05 Cylinder #3 Injector open
Self-Diagnostics .................................................... 10
circuit ................................................................... 57
Sensors and Electrical Connectors ........................ 11
CID 0003 FMI 06 Cylinder #3 Injector short ......... 57
Engine Wiring Information .................................... 15
CID 0004 FMI 05 Cylinder #4 Injector open
circuit ................................................................... 58
Programming Parameters
CID 0004 FMI 06 Cylinder #4 Injector short ......... 58
Programming Parameters ..................................... 17
CID 0005 FMI 05 Cylinder #5 Injector open
Customer Passwords ............................................ 17
circuit ................................................................... 58
Factory Passwords ............................................... 17
CID 0005 FMI 06 Cylinder #5 Injector short ......... 59
Factory Passwords Worksheet ............................. 18
CID 0006 FMI 05 Cylinder #6 Injector open
Flash Programming .............................................. 18
circuit ................................................................... 59
Injector Trim File ................................................... 19
CID 0006 FMI 06 Cylinder #6 Injector short ......... 59
Service Information Report ................................... 19
CID 0041 FMI 03 8 Volt DC Supply short to +batt .. 59
CID 0041 FMI 04 8 Volt DC Supply short to
System Configuration Parameters
ground ................................................................. 60
System Configuration Parameters ........................ 21
CID 0042 FMI 05 Injector Actuation Valve open
circuit ................................................................... 60
Troubleshooting without a Diagnostic Code
CID 0042 FMI 06 Injector Actuation Valve short to
Alternator (Charging Problem) .............................. 28
ground ................................................................. 60
Battery .................................................................. 28
CID 0091 FMI 08 Throttle Position signal
Can Not Reach Top Engine RPM ......................... 28
abnormal ............................................................. 61
Coolant in Engine Oil ............................................ 30
CID 0091 FMI 13 Throttle Position calibration
Coolant Temperature Is Too High ......................... 30
required ............................................................... 61
ECM Will Not Accept Factory Passwords ............. 31
CID 0094 FMI 03 Fuel Pressure open/short to
ECM Will Not Communicate with Other Systems or
+batt .................................................................... 61
Display Modules .................................................. 31
CID 0094 FMI 04 Fuel Pressure short to ground .. 61
Electronic Service Tool Will Not Communicate with
CID 0100 FMI 03 Engine Oil Pressure open/short to
ECM .................................................................... 31
+batt .................................................................... 62
Engine Cranks but Will Not Start .......................... 32
CID 0100 FMI 04 Engine Oil Pressure short to
Engine Has Early Wear ........................................ 34
ground ................................................................. 62
Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable ........ 35
CID 0100 FMI 10 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
Engine Oil in Cooling System ............................... 36
abnormal rate of change ..................................... 62
Engine Oil Temperature Is Too High ..................... 36
CID 0102 FMI 03 Boost Pressure Sensor short to
Engine Stalls at Low RPM .................................... 37
+batt .................................................................... 63
Engine Vibration ................................................... 37
CID 0102 FMI 04 Boost Pressure Sensor short to
Engine Will Not Crank ........................................... 38
ground ................................................................. 63
Excessive Black Smoke ........................................ 39
CID 0102 FMI 10 Boost Pressure Sensor abnormal
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption ...................... 40
rate of change ..................................................... 63
Excessive Fuel Consumption ............................... 40
CID 0110 FMI 03 Engine Coolant Temperature
Excessive Valve Lash ........................................... 41
open/short to +batt .............................................. 64
Excessive White Smoke ....................................... 41
CID 0110 FMI 04 Engine Coolant Temperature short
Exhaust Temperature Is Too High ......................... 42
to ground ............................................................. 64
Fuel in Cooling System ......................................... 43
CID 0111 FMI 02 Engine Coolant Level Sensor Loss
Fuel Dilution of Engine Oil .................................... 43
of Signal .............................................................. 64
Intermittent Engine Shutdown ............................... 44
CID 0164 FMI 02 Injector Actuation Pressure signal
Intermittent Low Power or Power Cutout .............. 45
erratic .................................................................. 65
Low Engine Oil Pressure ...................................... 46
CID 0164 FMI 03 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage
Low Power/Poor or No Response to Throttle ....... 46
high ..................................................................... 65
Mechanical Noise (Knock) in Engine .................... 48
CID 0164 FMI 04 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage
Noise Coming from Cylinder ................................. 49
low ....................................................................... 65
Poor Acceleration or Response ............................ 49
CID 0164 FMI 11 Injector Actuation Pressure system
Valve Rotator or Spring Lock Is Free .................... 51
fault ..................................................................... 66
CID 0168 FMI 00 System Voltage High ................ 66
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code
CID 0168 FMI 01 System Voltage Low ................. 67
4 RENR2418-02
Table of Contents

CID 0168 FMI 02 System Voltage intermittent/ Digital Sensor Supply Circuit - Test .................... 120
erratic .................................................................. 67 Electrical Connectors - Inspect ........................... 124
CID 0172 FMI 03 Intake Manifold Air Temp open/short Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test ................. 129
to +batt ................................................................ 67 Engine Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit -
CID 0172 FMI 04 Intake Manifold Air Temp short to Test ................................................................... 133
ground ................................................................. 68 Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test ........ 141
CID 0190 FMI 08 Engine Speed signal abnormal .. 68 Engine Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit -
CID 0247 FMI 09 J1939 Data Link Test ................................................................... 147
communications .................................................. 68 Ether Injection System - Test .............................. 155
CID 0253 FMI 02 Personality Module mismatch .. 68 Injection Actuation Pressure - Test ..................... 160
CID 0261 FMI 13 Engine Timing Calibration Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit -
required ............................................................... 69 Test ................................................................... 167
CID 0262 FMI 03 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor - Test ......... 172
short to +batt ....................................................... 69 Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test ............................ 177
CID 0262 FMI 04 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply Maintenance Due Lamp Circuit - Test ................. 184
short to ground .................................................... 69 PTO Switch Circuit - Test .................................... 188
CID 0268 FMI 02 Check Programmable Switch Circuits - Test .......................................... 193
Parameters ......................................................... 70 Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test ................ 197
CID 0274 FMI 03 Atmospheric Pressure open/short Warning Lamp Circuit - Test ................................ 201
to +batt ................................................................ 70
CID 0274 FMI 04 Atmospheric Pressure short to Calibration Procedures
ground ................................................................. 70 Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate ............ 205
CID 0342 FMI 08 Secondary Engine Speed signal Throttle Position Sensor - Calibrate .................... 207
abnormal ............................................................. 71
CID 0617 FMI 05 Air Inlet Heater Relay open/current Index Section
below normal ....................................................... 71
CID 0617 FMI 06 Air Inlet Heater Relay Index ................................................................... 210
grounded/current above norm ............................. 71
CID 1835 FMI 03 Auxiliary Pressure Sensor
open/short to +batt .............................................. 72
CID 1835 FMI 04 Auxiliary Pressure Sensor short to
ground ................................................................. 72
CID 1836 FMI 03 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor
open/short to +batt .............................................. 72
CID 1836 FMI 04 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor short
to ground ............................................................. 72
CID 2417 FMI 05 Ether Injection Control Solenoid
current low .......................................................... 73
CID 2417 FMI 06 Ether Injection Control Solenoid
current high ......................................................... 73

Troubleshooting with an Event Code


Event Codes ........................................................ 74
E096 High Fuel Pressure ...................................... 75
E360 Low Engine Oil Pressure ............................. 76
E361 High Engine Coolant Temperature .............. 77
E362 Engine Overspeed ....................................... 78
E443 High Auxiliary Pressure ............................... 79
E445 High Auxiliary Temperature ......................... 80
E539 High Intake Manifold Air Temperature ......... 81
E2143 Low Engine Coolant Level ......................... 81

Diagnostic Functional Tests


5 Volt Engine Pressure Sensor Supply Circuit -
Test ..................................................................... 83
Air Inlet Heater Circuit - Test ................................. 91
Air Shutoff System - Test ...................................... 98
CAN Data Link Circuit - Test ............................... 105
Cat Data Link Circuit - Test ................................. 109
Coolant Level Sensor Circuit - Test ..................... 112
Diagnostic Lamp Circuit - Test ............................. 116
RENR2418-02 5
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting Section Fuel Injection


The ECM controls the amount of fuel that is
injected by varying the signals to the injectors. The
Electronic Troubleshooting injectors will pump fuel only if the injector solenoid is
energized. The ECM sends a high voltage signal to
the solenoid. This high voltage signal energizes the
i02439954 solenoid. By controlling the timing and the duration of
the high voltage signal, the ECM can control injection
System Overview timing and the amount of fuel that is injected.
SMCS Code: 1900 The ECM limits engine power during cold mode
operation and the ECM modifies injection timing
System Operation during cold mode operation. Cold mode operation
provides the following benefits:
The engine utilizes a Hydraulic Electronic Unit
Injector (HEUI) fuel system. A solenoid on each • Increased cold weather starting capability
injector meters the amount of fuel that is delivered
by the injector. An axial piston pump that is referred • Reduced warm-up time
to as the unit injector hydraulic pump pressurizes
oil in order to activate the injector. An Electronic • Reduced white smoke
Control Module (ECM) sends a signal to the injection
actuation pressure control valve in order to control Cold mode is activated whenever the engine coolant
injection pressure. Another electrical signal is sent to temperature falls below 18 °C (64 °F). Cold mode
each injector solenoid in order to inject fuel. remains active until the engine coolant temperature
rises above 20 °C (68 °F) or until the engine has
Electronic Controls been running for 14 minutes.

The electronic system for the engine consists of the The flash file inside the ECM sets certain limits on
ECM, the wiring harness, the engine sensors, the the amount of fuel that can be injected. The “FRC
switches, the injection actuation pressure control Fuel Limit” is used to control the air/fuel ratio for
valve, the unit injector hydraulic pump, the HEUI control of emissions. The “FRC Fuel Limit” is a limit
injectors and the interface for a particular application. that is based on the turbocharger outlet pressure.
The ECM is the computer. The flash file is the A higher turbocharger outlet pressure indicates that
software for the computer. The flash file contains there is more air in the cylinder. When the ECM
the operating maps. The operating maps define the senses a higher turbocharger outlet pressure, the
following characteristics of the engine: ECM increases the “FRC Fuel Limit”. When the ECM
increases the “FRC Fuel Limit”, the ECM allows
more fuel into the cylinder. The “FRC Fuel Limit” is
• Horsepower programmed into the flash file at the factory. The
“FRC Fuel Limit” cannot be changed.
• Torque curves
The ECM determines the timing and the amount The “Rated Fuel Limit” is a limit that is based on the
of fuel that is delivered to the cylinders. This power rating of the engine and on the engine speed.
determination is based on the actual conditions and The “Rated Fuel Limit” is similar to the rack stops
the desired conditions at any given time. and the torque spring on a mechanically governed
engine. The “Rated Fuel Limit” provides the power
The ECM compares the desired engine speed to curves and the torque curves for a specific engine
the actual engine speed. The actual engine speed is family and for a specific engine rating. The “Rated
determined via a signal from the engine speed/timing Fuel Limit” is programmed into the flash file at the
sensor. If the desired engine speed is greater than factory. The “Rated Fuel Limit” cannot be changed.
the actual engine speed, the ECM injects more fuel
in order to increase the actual engine speed. Once the ECM determines the amount of fuel that
is required, the ECM must determine the timing
of the fuel injection. The ECM determines the top
center position of each cylinder from the engine
speed/timing sensor’s signal. The ECM calculates
when fuel injection should occur relative to the top
center position. The ECM also provides the signal
to the injector at the desired time. The ECM adjusts
timing for optimum engine performance, optimum
fuel economy, and optimum control of white smoke.
6 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Injection Actuation Pressure Control • Data link communications


System
Required Service Tools
The injection actuation pressure control valve
(IAPCV) that is internal to the unit injector hydraulic The tools that are listed in Table 1 are required in
pump is a precision displacement control actuator. order to enable a service technician to perform the
This actuator changes the pump outlet flow that test procedures that are found in this manual.
is based on the control current that is supplied by
the ECM. The variable displacement unit injector Table 1
hydraulic pump pressurizes only the amount of high Required Service Tools
pressure oil that is needed by the injectors.
Part Description
Number
Starting Aids
N/A 4 mm Allen Wrench
The following devices (if equipped) are used in order
6V-2197 Transducer
to improve the starting of the engine in cold weather
conditions. 7X-1171 Transducer Adapter
7X-1695 Cable As
• Air inlet heater
146-4080 Digital Multimeter Gp (RS232)
• Ether injection 7X-1710 Multimeter Probes
The ECM controls the air inlet heater. The ether 7X-6370 Adapter Cable As (3-PIN BREAKOUT)
injection system can be controlled by the ECM or by
the operator. 208-0059 Adapter Cable As (70-PIN BREAKOUT)
257-8718 Adapter Cable As (120-PIN BREAKOUT)
Programmable Parameters 167-9225 Harness (SERVICE TOOL ADAPTER)

Certain parameters that affect the engine operation 1U-5804 Crimp Tool (12−AWG TO 18−AWG)
may be changed with electronic service tools. 175-3700 Connector Repair Kit (DEUTSCH DT)
The parameters are stored in the ECM, and the
parameters are protected from unauthorized changes
by passwords. Two short jumper wires are needed to check the
continuity of some wiring harness circuits by shorting
two adjacent terminals together in a connector. A
Passwords long extension wire may also be needed to check the
continuity of some wiring harness circuits.
Several system configuration parameters and
most logged events are protected by passwords.
Refer to programming parameters Troubleshooting, Optional Service Tools
“Customer Passwords” and refer to programming
parameters Troubleshooting, “Factory Passwords”. Table 2 lists the optional service tools that may be
needed during testing or repair.

i02437007

Electronic Service Tools


SMCS Code: 0785

Caterpillar electronic service tools are designed to


help the service technician perform the following
tasks:

• Information access
• System diagnostics
• System calibrations
• System configurations
RENR2418-02 7
Troubleshooting Section

Table 2 Note: For more information regarding the use of


Optional Service Tools
Cat ET and the PC requirements for Cat ET, refer to
the documentation that accompanies your Cat ET
Part Number Description software.
198-4240 Digital Pressure Indicator
or Connecting Cat ET
1U-5470 Engine Pressure Group
Connecting with the Communication Adapter II
4C-4075 Crimp Tool (4−AWG TO 10−AWG)
4C-4911(1) Battery Load Tester Table 4 lists the standard hardware that is required in
order to connect Cat ET.
5P-7277 Voltage Tester
6V-9130(2) Temperature Adapter (MULTIMETER) Table 4

8T-5319 Connector Tool Group Standard Hardware for the Use of Cat ET

155-5176 AC/DC Current Probe Part Number Description


(1) Refer to Special Instructions, SEHS9249, “Use of 4C-4911 N/A Personal Computer (PC)
Battery Load Tester for 6, 8, and 12 Volt Lead Acid Batteries”
and Special Instructions, SEHS7633, “Battery Test Procedure”. Communication Adapter
(2) Refer to Special Instructions, SEHS8382, “Use of the 6V-9130 171-4400(1) Gp (CAT ET TO ECM
Temperature Adapter Group”. INTERFACE)
237-7547(2) Adapter Cable As
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (1) The 7X-1700 Communication Adapter Gp may also be used.
(ET) (2) The 237-7547 Adapter Cable As is required to connect to the
Universal Serial Bus (USB) on computers that are not equipped
Cat ET can display the following information: with a RS232 serial port.

• Parameters
• Event codes
• Diagnostic codes
• Engine configuration
Cat ET can be used by the technician to perform the
following functions:

• Diagnostic tests
• Calibrations
• Flash programming
• ECM configuration
Table 3 lists the software that is required in order to
use Cat ET. Illustration 1
g01178796

Table 3 Connecting Cat ET


(1) Personal computer (PC)
Software Requirements for Cat ET (2) 196-0055 Adapter Cable As
(3) 171-4401 Communication Adapter As
Part Description (4) 207-6845 Adapter Cable As
Number

JERD2124 Single user license for Cat ET Note: Items (2), (3), and (4) are part of the 171-4400
Communication Adapter Gp.
Data Subscription for All Engines and
JERD2129
Machines Use the following procedure in order to connect Cat
ET and the Communication Adapter II.

1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.


8 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

2. Connect cable (2) between the “COMPUTER”


end of communication adapter (3) and the RS232
serial port of PC (1).

Note: The 237-7547 Adapter Cable As is required


to connect to the USB port on computers that are not
equipped with a RS232 serial port.

3. Connect cable (4) between the “DATA LINK” end


of communication adapter (3) and the service tool
connector.

4. Place the keyswitch in the ON position. If


Cat ET and the communication adapter do
not communicate with the Electronic Control
Module (ECM), refer to troubleshooting without
a diagnostic code Troubleshooting, “Electronic
Service Tool Will Not Communicate with ECM”.

Communicating with the Wireless Communication


Adapter
g01178799
Illustration 2
Table 5 lists the optional hardware that is needed (1) Personal computer (PC)
in order to connect Cat ET by using a wireless (5) 261-4867 Card (PCMCIA)
connection. (6) 239-9955 Communication Radio Gp
(7) 259-3183 Data Link Cable As
Table 5
Optional Hardware for the Use of Cat ET Note: Items (5), (6), and (7) are part of the 261-3363
Wireless Communication Adapter Gp.
Part Number Description
Use the following procedure in order to connect the
N/A Personal Computer (PC) wireless communication adapter for use with Cat ET.
Wireless Communication
261-3363(1) 1. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.
Adapter Gp
(1) Refer to Tool Operating Manual, “Using the 261-3363 2. Ensure that the computer has been correctly
Wireless Communication Adapter Gp” for information that is
related to the installation and the configuration. configured for the 261-4867 Card (PCMCIA).
Verify that the PC card is installed in the
computer’s PCI expansion slot.

3. Connect cable (7) between communication radio


(6) and the service tool connector.

4. Restore the electrical power to the ECM. If Cat ET


and the communication radio do not communicate
with the ECM, refer to troubleshooting without
a diagnostic code Troubleshooting, “Electronic
Service Tool Will Not Communicate with ECM”.
RENR2418-02 9
Troubleshooting Section

i02411078 a. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector.


Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service
Replacing the ECM Tools”.
SMCS Code: 1901-510 b. Print the parameters from the “Configuration”
screen on Cat ET. If a printer is unavailable,
NOTICE record all of the parameters. Record any
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained logged diagnostic codes and logged event
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- codes for your records. Record the injector
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to codes from the “Calibrations” screen in the
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- “Service” menu on Cat ET.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. Note: The injector trim code is a number that is found
on each of the unit injectors. The ECM uses this
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar number to compensate for manufacturing variations
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” for tools and supplies between individual injectors. If you replace any of the
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar unit injectors, you must reprogram the trim code for
products. the new injectors. Also, if you replace the ECM, you
must reprogram all of the trim codes.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. c. Use the “Copy Configuration/ECM
Replacement” feature that is found under the
“Service” menu on Cat ET. Select “Load from
NOTICE ECM” in order to copy the configuration data
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. from the suspect ECM.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Note: If the “Copy Configuration” process fails and
component life. the parameters were not obtained in Step 1.b, the
parameters must be obtained elsewhere. Some of the
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) contains no parameters are stamped on the engine information
moving parts. Replacement of the ECM can be plate. Most of the parameters must be obtained from
costly. Replacement can also be a time consuming the factory.
task. Follow the troubleshooting procedures in this
manual in order to be sure that replacing the ECM 2. Remove the ECM:
will correct the problem. Verify that the suspect ECM
is the cause of the problem. a. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

Note: Ensure that the ECM is receiving power and b. Disconnect the P1 and P2 connectors from
that the ECM is properly wired to the negative battery the ECM.
circuit before a replacement of the ECM is attempted.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power Supply NOTICE
Circuit - Test”. Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
A test ECM can be used to determine if the ECM
is faulty. Install a test ECM in place of the suspect
ECM. Flash program the correct flash file into the test NOTICE
ECM. Program the parameters for normal operation. Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
The parameters must match the parameters in the clean the area around a fuel system component that
suspect ECM. Refer to the following test steps for will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over discon-
details. If the test ECM resolves the problem, connect nected fuel system component.
the suspect ECM. Verify that the problem returns.
If the problem returns when the suspect ECM is
c. Remove the fuel lines (if equipped) from the
connected, replace the suspect ECM.
ECM.

NOTICE d. Disconnect the ECM ground strap.


If the flash file and engine application are not matched,
engine damage may result. e. Remove the mounting bolts from the ECM.

3. Install the replacement ECM:


Perform the following procedure in order to replace
the ECM:
a. Use the old mounting hardware to install the
replacement ECM.
1. Record the configuration data:
10 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

b. Connect the fuel lines (if equipped). • Diagnostic


c. Verify that the fuel lines are installed correctly. • Event
The fuel lines must not put tension on the ECM.
Rubber grommets are used to protect the ECM Diagnostic Code – When a problem with the
from excessive vibration. The ECM should electronic system is detected, the ECM generates a
move slightly in the rubber grommets. If the diagnostic code. This indicates the specific problem
ECM cannot be moved slightly, check that the with the circuitry.
fuel lines are not pulling the ECM against one
side of the grommets. Diagnostic codes can have two different states:

d. Connect the ECM ground strap. • Active


e. Connect the P1 and P2 connectors. Tighten • Logged
the allen head screws for each ECM connector
to the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting, Active Code
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for the correct
torque values. An active diagnostic code indicates that an active
problem has been detected. Active codes require
4. Configure the replacement ECM: immediate attention. Always service active codes
prior to servicing logged codes.
a. Flash program the flash file into the ECM.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Flash Programming” Logged Code
for the correct procedure.
Every generated code is stored in the permanent
b. Use Cat ET to match the engine application memory of the ECM. The codes are logged.
and the interlock code if the replacement ECM
was used for a different application. Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is
needed. The problem may have been temporary. The
c. If the “Copy Configuration” process from problem may have been resolved since the logging
Step 1.b was successful, return to the “Copy of the code. If the system is powered, it is possible
Configuration/ECM Replacement” screen on to generate an active diagnostic code whenever a
Cat ET and select “Program ECM”. Proceed to component is disconnected. When the component is
Step 4.e when programming is complete. reconnected, the code is no longer active. Logged
codes may be useful to help troubleshoot intermittent
d. If the “Copy Configuration” process from Step problems. Logged codes can also be used to review
1.b was unsuccessful, manually program the the performance of the engine and of the electronic
ECM parameters. The parameters must match system.
the parameters from Step 1.b.
Event Code
e. Program the engine monitoring system, if
necessary. An event code is generated by the detection of an
abnormal engine operating condition. For example,
f. Calibrate the fuel injectors. Refer to an event code will be generated if the oil pressure is
Troubleshooting, “Injector Code - Calibrate”. too low. In this case, the event code indicates the
symptom of a problem.
g. Calibrate the timing. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate”.

i02378227

Self-Diagnostics
SMCS Code: 1901

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has the ability


to detect problems with the electronic system and
with engine operation. When a problem is detected, a
code is generated. An alarm may also be generated.
There are two types of codes:
RENR2418-02 11
Troubleshooting Section

i02428849

Sensors and Electrical


Connectors
SMCS Code: 1900-NS; 7553-WW

Table 6
Connector Function
J1/P1 ECM Connector (70−Pin)
J2/P2 ECM Connector (120−Pin)
J61/P61 Customer Connector (40-Pin)(1)
J63 Engine Service Tool Connector(1)
J66 Customer Supplied Service Tool
Connector
J100/P100 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
J103/P103 Intake Manifold Air Temperature
Sensor
J142/P142 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor
J200/P200 Boost Pressure Sensor
J201/P201 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
J203/P203 Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
J204/P204 Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor
J209/P209 Fuel Pressure Sensor
J220/P220 Auxiliary Pressure Sensor
J300/P300 Injector Solenoid Harness
P400 Engine Timing Calibration
J401/P401 Primary Engine Speed/Timing
Sensor
J402/P402 Secondary Engine Speed/Timing
Sensor
J403/P403 Throttle Position Sensor
J500/P500 Injection Actuation Pressure Control
Valve
J501/P501 Air Inlet Heater Relay
J800/P800 Engine Coolant Level Sensor
(1) This connector is part of the optional 194-1091 Electronic
Control Wiring Gp.
12 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01213751
Illustration 3
Components for the engine’s control system
RENR2418-02 13
Troubleshooting Section

Cross-Reference for the P1 ECM (Table 7, contd)

Connector and the J61 Customer Cross-Reference for the P1 ECM Connector
and the J61 Customer Connector
Connector
Description Terminal
P1 J61
Auxiliary temperature sensor 16 11
Ether starting aid switch 22 38
Diagnostic lamp 28 24
Warning lamp 29 25
Maintenance due lamp 30 13
J1939 (−) 34 18
PTO interrupt switch 41 19
J1939 shield 42 16
Remote shutdown switch 44 27
Intermediate engine speed switch 45 28
+Battery 48 1
Coolant level sensor 49 36
J1939 (+) 50 17
+Battery 52 31
+Battery 53 32
Overspeed verify switch 54 40
PTO enable switch 56 29
g01120826
Illustration 4
PTO ramp up switch
Terminal locations on the P1 ECM connector and J61 customer 58 30
PTO set switch
connector
PTO ramp down switch
60 39
Table 7 provides a cross-reference between the P1 PTO resume switch
ECM connector and the J61 customer connector.
-Battery 61 N/C(1)
Table 7 -Battery 63 N/C(1)
Cross-Reference for the P1 ECM Connector -Battery 65 N/C(1)
and the J61 Customer Connector
Throttle position 66 10
Description Terminal
Air shutoff solenoid 67 5
P1 J61
Keyswitch 70 26
+5 VDC for the pressure sensors 2 14
(1) No connection
Return for the analog sensors 3 15
+8 VDC for the digital sensors 4 8
Return for the digital sensors 5 9
Maintenance clear switch 6 12
Torque limit switch 7 2
CAT Data Link + 8 7
CAT Data Link − 9 6
Ether relay 10 22
Air shutoff solenoid 11 4
Auxiliary pressure sensor 15 33
(continued)
14 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Component Location

g01120750
Illustration 5
Component locations for C9 industrial engines
(1) Engine coolant temperature sensor (10) Service tool connector
(2) Connector for the injection actuation (11) Customer connector
pressure control valve (12) Optional 194-1091 Electronic Control
(3) Air inlet heater relay Wiring Gp
(4) Injection actuation pressure sensor (13) P400 connector for engine timing
(5) Boost pressure sensor calibration
(6) Intake manifold air temperature sensor (14) J2/P2 connector
(7) Connector for the injector solenoid (15) J1/P1 connector
harness (16) Primary engine speed/timing sensor
(8) Atmospheric pressure sensor (17) Secondary engine speed/timing sensor
(9) Ground stud (18) Engine oil pressure sensor
RENR2418-02 15
Troubleshooting Section

Table 8
Color Codes for the Harness Wire
Color Code Color Color Code Color
BK Black GN Green
BR Brown BU Blue
RD Red PU Purple
OR Orange GY Gray
YL Yellow WH White
PK Pink

For example, a wire identification of A701-GY on the


schematic would signify a gray wire with the circuit
number A701. A701-GY identifies the power circuit
for the No. 1 Injector solenoid.

Another wire identification on the schematic is the


size of the wire. The size of the wire will follow the
wire color. Wire size or gauge is referred to as AWG
(Americal Wire Gauge). AWG is a description of the
diameter of the wire.

For example, a code of 150-OR-14 on the schematic


would indicate that the orange wire in circuit 150 is a
14 AWG wire.

If the gauge of the wire is not listed, the wire is 16


AWG.

Conversion of AWG Numbers to Metric


Illustration 6
g01120762 Measurements
The location of the fuel pressure sensor depends on the engine’s
configuration.
Table 9 shows the various AWG numbers that are
used for the wires. The metric equivalent for the
(19) Fuel pressure sensor
diameter of each AWG number are also shown.

Table 9
i02157279
Metric Equivalents for AWG Numbers
Engine Wiring Information
AWG Diameter AWG Diameter
SMCS Code: 1408 Number (mm) Number (mm)
20 0.8 14 1.6
The wiring schematics are revised periodically. The
wiring schematics will change with updates to the 18 1.0 12 2.0
harness wire. For the most current information, 16 1.3 4 3.2
always check the revision number of the schematic.
Use the schematic with the latest revision number.

Harness Wire Identification


Caterpillar identifies all wires with eleven solid colors.
The circuit number is stamped on the wire at a 25 mm
(1 inch) spacing. Table 8 lists the wire colors and the
color codes.
16 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Welding on a Machine that is Equipped 3. Connect the welding ground cable as close
with an Electronic Engine Control System as possible to the area that will be welded.
Components which may be damaged by welding
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order include bearings, hydraulic components, and
to avoid damage to the engine’s electronic control electrical/electronic components.
module, sensors, and associated components. The
component that requires welding should be removed. 4. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
When welding on a machine that is equipped with and from spatter.
an electronic engine control system and removal
of the component is not possible, the following 5. Weld the materials by using standard welding
procedure must be followed. This procedure provides methods.
the minimum amount of risk to the electronic
components.

NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other com-
ponents.

Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the com-


ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos-
sibility of damage.

1. Stop the engine. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF


position.

2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the


battery. If a battery disconnect switch is installed,
open the switch.

g01100101
Illustration 7
The welding current will not cause damage to any of the associated
components.
RENR2418-02 17
Troubleshooting Section

Programming Parameters 5. When the “Read Customer Passwords” screen


appears, record the customer passwords. The
customer passwords may then be used to change
i02253984 parameters that are customer programmable.
Programming Parameters
i02170317
SMCS Code: 1901
Factory Passwords
The Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) can be
used to view certain parameters that can affect the SMCS Code: 0785
operation of the engine. Cat ET can also be used
to change certain parameters. The parameters are NOTICE
stored in the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Some Operating the engine with a Personality Module not
of the parameters are protected from unauthorized designed for that engine will damage the engine. Be
changes by passwords. Parameters that can be sure the Personality Module is correct for your engine.
changed have a tattletale number. The tattletale
number shows if a parameter has been changed. Note: Factory passwords are provided only to
Caterpillar dealers.
i02419716
Factory passwords are required to perform each of
Customer Passwords the following functions:

SMCS Code: 0785 • Program a new Electronic Control Module (ECM).


Customer passwords may be used to protect When an ECM is replaced, the system
customer parameters from being changed. The configuration parameters must be programmed
passwords are programmed into the Electronic into the new ECM. A new ECM will allow these
Control Module (ECM) with the Caterpillar Electronic parameters to be programmed once without factory
Technician (ET). One password may be programmed passwords. After the initial programming, some
or both passwords may be programmed. If parameters are protected by factory passwords.
customer passwords are not programmed, customer
parameters may be changed by anyone. • Clear event codes.
To obtain customer passwords, contact the owner of Most event codes require the use of factory
the engine. If the owner has forgotten the customer passwords to clear the code once the code has
passwords, customer passwords may be read by been logged. Clear these codes only when you are
using Cat ET. Factory passwords are required in certain that the problem has been corrected.
order to read customer passwords.
• Unlock parameters.
Use the following procedure in order to read customer
passwords with Cat ET: If a parameter has been locked out, factory
passwords are required to unlock the parameter.
1. Select the “Information” menu. Then select Refer to Troubleshooting, “System Configuration
“Passwords”. Parameters” for additional information.

2. When the “Factory Password” screen appears, Since factory passwords contain alphabetic
record the information that is listed on the “Factory characters, the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)
Passwords Worksheet”. Refer to programming must be used to perform these functions. In order to
parameters Troubleshooting, “Factory Passwords obtain factory passwords, proceed as if you already
Worksheet” for additional information. have the password. If factory passwords are needed,
Cat ET will request the factory passwords and
3. Obtain the factory passwords. The information Cat ET will display the information that is required
that is recorded on the “Factory Passwords to obtain the passwords. For the worksheet that
Worksheet” must be provided. When you obtain is used for acquiring factory passwords, refer to
the factory passwords, a permanent record of your Troubleshooting, “Factory Passwords Worksheet”.
access is generated at Caterpillar.

4. From the “Factory Password” screen, enter the


factory passwords.
18 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

i02334692 i02419726

Factory Passwords Worksheet Flash Programming


SMCS Code: 0785 SMCS Code: 1901-591

Note: A mistake in recording these parameters will Flash Programming – This is a method of
result in incorrect passwords. programming or updating the flash file in an engine’s
Electronic Control Module (ECM).
Some of the following information is required to
obtain factory passwords: Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) is used to flash
program a file into the memory of the engine’s ECM.
Table 10
Dealer Code If you do not have the flash file, use the “Flash File
Search” tool on the Service Technician Workbench
Customer’s Name (STW) to obtain the flash file for your engine.
Address Alternatively, use the “Service Software Files” feature
on SIS Web to obtain the flash file for your engine.
You must have the engine serial number in order to
search for the flash file. After locating the correct
flash file, download the flash file to your PC. Write
Telephone Number
down the name of the flash file for future reference.
Information From Engine Information Plate
Engine Serial Number Programming a Flash File
Full Load Setting
1. Establish communication between Cat ET and the
Full Torque Setting engine’s ECM.
Information From Engine Hour Meter 2. Select “WinFlash” from the “Utilities” menu on Cat
Engine Hours ET.
Information From Factory Password Entry Note: If “WinFlash” will not communicate with the
Screen on ET
ECM, refer to troubleshooting without a diagnostic
Electronic Service Tool code Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Will
Serial Number Not Communicate with ECM”.
Engine Serial Number
3. Program the flash file into the ECM.
ECM Serial Number
a. Select the engine ECM under the “Detected
Total Tattletale
ECMs”.
Reason Code
b. Press the “Browse” button in order to select the
From Interlock(1)
name of the flash file that will be programmed
To Interlock(1) into the ECM.
Factory Passwords
c. When the correct flash file is selected, press
Factory Password (No. 1) the “Open” button.
Factory Password (No. 2)
d. Verify that the “File Values” match the
(1) This parameter is required when the engine is being rerated. application. If the “File Values” do not match
This parameter is displayed only when the engine is being the application, obtain the correct flash file.
rerated.
e. When the correct flash file is selected, press
the “Begin Flash” button.

f. Cat ET will indicate when flash programming


has been successfully completed.

4. Start the engine and check for proper operation.


Repair any active diagnostic or event codes.
RENR2418-02 19
Troubleshooting Section

“WinFlash” Error Messages • Service


If you receive any error messages during flash • Calibrations
programming, click on the “Cancel” button in order
to stop the process. Access the information about • Injector Trim Calibration
the “ECM Summary” under the “Information” menu.
Make sure that you are flashing the correct file for 7. Select the appropriate cylinder.
your engine.
8. Click on the “Change” button.
i02428583
9. Select the appropriate injector trim file from the
Injector Trim File PC.

SMCS Code: 1290 10. Click on the “Open” button.

The Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) is used to 11. If you are prompted by Cat ET enter the injector
load the injector trim files into the Electronic Control confirmation code into the field.
Module (ECM).
12. Click on the “OK” button.
The injector trim files must be loaded into the ECM if
any of the following conditions occur: The injector trim file is loaded into the ECM.

13. Repeat the procedure for each cylinder, as


• An injector is replaced. required.
• The ECM is replaced.
i02278907
• “Injector Code” is displayed below a 268-02
diagnostic code on Cat ET. Service Information Report
• Injectors are exchanged between cylinders. SMCS Code: 0336

Exchanging Injectors After verifying the correct repair has been performed
on the engine, it is critical to provide brief, detailed
Exchanging injectors can help determine if a information. This information helps Caterpillar better
combustion problem is in the injector or in the serve you and the customer.
cylinder. If two injectors that are currently installed
in the engine are exchanged between cylinders, Recommendations
the injector trim files can also be exchanged. Press
the “Exchange” button at the bottom of the “Injector
Trim Calibration” screen on Cat ET. Select the two Customer’s Complaint
injectors that will be exchanged and press the “OK”
button. The tattletale for the injectors that were Obtain as much information from the customer
exchanged will increase by one. as possible. Investigate any written information
that is available and document any information
Note: The injector serial number and the injector that is gathered from the customer. The following
confirmation code are located on the injector. information is of particular importance:

1. Record the injector serial number and the injector • Indicate if the diagnostic lamp was flashing.
confirmation code for each injector.
• Indicate if the warning lamp was flashing, or if the
2. Click on “Service Software Files” in SIS Web. lamp was on continuously.

3. Enter the serial number for the injector in the • Indicate the symptoms of engine operation that are
search field. present.

4. Download the injector trim file to the PC. Repeat Be as specific as possible.
this procedure for each injector, as required.

5. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. Refer


to electronic troubleshooting Troubleshooting,
“Electronic Service Tools”.

6. Select the following menu options on Cat ET:


20 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Cause of Failure
Comments on the cause of failure should include
the number of diagnostic codes that were logged.
Comments should also indicate if the code was an
active code. Indicate the source of the problem. Also
indicate the method that was used to discover the
problem. Examples of the methods that were used to
discover the problem could be one of the following
methods:

• A specific procedure in the manual was followed.


• A visual inspection indicated that wire abrasion on
the engine harness existed.

• An engine dynamometer test indicated that the


power was below the specification at 1700 rpm
due to the loss of the no. 4 injector and an engine
dynamometer test indicated that the power was
below the specification at all engine speeds above
1700 rpm due to the loss of the no. 4 injector.

Be as specific as possible.

Repair Procedure
Comments on the repair procedure should include
the following types of information:

• The wiring harness was repaired.


• The Full Load Setting (FLS) was changed per the
factory’s instructions.

Be as specific as possible.
RENR2418-02 21
Troubleshooting Section

System Configuration “Top Engine Limit” (TEL)


Parameters
i02213820

System Configuration
Parameters
SMCS Code: 1901

System configuration parameters affect the emissions


and the power of the engine. Default values for the
parameters are programmed at the factory. Some
parameters may be changed by the customer in
order to suit the needs of the specific application.

Parameter Descriptions
“Equipment ID”
g00763900
“Equipment ID” allows the customer to enter a Illustration 8
description into the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
in order to identify the machine. A maximum of “TEL” is a customer programmable parameter that
17 characters may be entered in the field. This defines the maximum allowable engine speed for
parameter is only for reference by the customer. This maximum power. “TEL” can be programmed up to
parameter is not required. the maximum rated engine speed. “TEL” is defined
along the engine’s lug curve.
“Engine Serial Number”
“Engine Accel. Rate”
Program the “Engine Serial Number” to match the
engine serial number that is stamped on the engine “Engine Accel. Rate” determines the rate of change
information plate. If the ECM is replaced, the engine of the engine speed (acceleration or deceleration)
serial number from the engine information plate must during PTO operation. This rate of change is also
be programmed into the new ECM. used to achieve intermediate engine speed.

Note: When you are requesting factory passwords, “Low Idle Speed”
always use the engine serial number that is
programmed in the ECM. “Low Idle Speed” is the minimum allowable operating
speed for the engine. This parameter can be
“Rating Number” programmed between 600 and 1400 rpm.

The “Rating Number” corresponds to the selected “PTO Mode”


set of performance maps for the application. This
selected set of performance maps comes out of “PTO Mode” allows the ECM to be programmed to
several unique sets of maps that are resident in the either one of the two PTO configurations that are
flash file. The dealer and/or the OEM will need to available.
select the appropriate rating tier, if more than one
rating tier is present. The rating tiers are A through E. “Ramp Up/Ramp Down” – When “PTO Mode” is
programmed to “Ramp Up/Ramp Down”, the ECM
Note: Factory passwords are required in order to allows PTO operation with traditional features.
change the “Rating Number”.
“Set/Resume” – When “PTO Mode” is programmed
to “Set/Resume”, the ECM allows PTO operation with
enhanced features.
22 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

“High Idle Speed” “Maximum Engine Torque Limit”

g00763900 g00817759
Illustration 9 Illustration 10

“High Idle Speed” is the maximum no-load engine “Engine Torque Limit” can be used to limit torque
speed when the throttle or the PTO switch is in the output to the programmed value when the torque
maximum position. limit switch is activated.

Note: “High Idle Speed” cannot be programmed “FLS” (Full Load Setting)
lower than “TEL”.
“FLS” is a number that represents the adjustment to
“Intermediate Engine Speed” the fuel system that was made at the factory in order
to fine tune the fuel system. The correct value for
“Intermediate Engine Speed” defines the speed this parameter is stamped on the engine information
for the engine when the intermediate engine plate. Factory passwords are required in order to
speed switch is activated. This parameter can be change this parameter.
programmed to any engine speed between “Low Idle
Speed” and “TEL”. Engine speed will increase or “FTS” (Full Torque Setting)
engine speed will decrease at the rate that is defined
by the programmed value for “Engine Accel. Rate”. “FTS” is similar to “FLS”. Factory passwords are
required in order to change this parameter.

“Ether Control”
Program the “Ether Control” to “Enabled” if an
ether injection system is installed on the engine.
This allows the ECM to control ether injection. If
the engine is not equipped with ether, program this
parameter to “Disabled”.

“Air Shutoff”
“Air Shutoff” allows the ECM to be programmed for
operation of an air shutoff system. If this parameter
is programmed to “Installed”, the ECM will activate
the air shutoff solenoid in the event of an engine
overspeed condition.
RENR2418-02 23
Troubleshooting Section

Note: If an engine overspeed occurs and “Air Shutoff” “Aux Temp Sensor Installation Status”
is programmed to “Enabled”, the switched power to
the ECM must be cycled and the air shutoff solenoid Program “Aux Temp Enable” to “Installed” if an
must be manually reset before the engine will restart. auxiliary temperature sensor is installed. This will
allow the display for the Engine Monitoring System
“Maintenance Indicator Mode” (EMS) to monitor the temperature of another system.
Program this parameter to “Not Installed” if an
The ECM records data that is related to equipment auxiliary temperature sensor is not installed.
maintenance. The ECM will activate the maintenance
indicator lamp when scheduled maintenance is
due. The maintenance indicator lamp can be reset
by actuating the maintenance clear switch. The
maintenance interval may be based on operating
hours or on fuel consumption. The ECM provides
information that pertains to maintenance intervals
and the last maintenance that was performed.

“PM1 Interval”
“PM1 Interval” allows the customer to define the
maintenance interval if “Maintenance Indicator Mode”
is programmed to one of the manual options. Refer
to the engine’s Operation and Maintenance Manual
for more information.

“Throttle Position Sensor”


Program the “Throttle Position Sensor” to “Installed”
if a throttle position sensor is used for desired speed
control. Otherwise program this parameter to “Not
Installed”.

“Coolant Level Sensor”


Program the “Coolant Level Sensor” to “Installed”
if a coolant level sensor is installed on the engine.
Otherwise program this parameter to “Not Installed”.

“Direct Fuel Control Mode”


Program the “Direct Fuel Control Mode” to “Enabled”
if an external governor is used. Once this parameter
is enabled, the governing system in the ECM is
disabled. Otherwise program this parameter to
“Disabled”.

“Aux Press Sensor Installation Status”


Program “Aux Press Enable” to “Installed” if an
auxiliary pressure sensor is installed. This will allow
the display for the Engine Monitoring System (EMS)
to monitor the pressure of another system. Program
this parameter to “Not Installed” if an auxiliary
pressure sensor is not installed.
24 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

System Configuration Parameters


Table 11

System Configuration Parameters


Required
Parameter Available Range or Options Default
Password
ECM Identification Parameters
“Equipment ID” 17 alphanumeric characters “NOT PROGRAMMED” None
“Engine Serial Number” 0XX00000 or XXX00000 0XX00000 None
“ECM Serial Number” “Read Only” (1)

“Personality Module Part Read Only (1)


Software Dependent
Number”
“Software Gp Release Date” Software Dependent Read Only (1)

Selected Engine Rating


“Rating Number” Software Dependent Customer
“Rated Power” Software Dependent Read Only (1)

“Rated Peak Torque” Software Dependent Read Only (1)

“Top Engine Speed Range” Software Dependent Read Only (1)

“Test Spec” Software Dependent Read Only (1)

“Top Engine Limit” Software Dependent Customer


“Engine Accel. Rate” 50 to 1000 50 None
“Low Idle Speed” 600 to 1400 700 None
“Ramp Up/Ramp Down”
“PTO Mode” “Ramp Up/Ramp Down” None
“Set/Resume”
“High Idle Speed” 1800 to 2310 2310 Customer
“Intermediate Engine Speed” Programmed “Low Idle” to “TEL” 1100 None
“Maximum Engine Torque Limit” Software Dependent None
“Customer Password #1” 8 alphanumeric characters Blank Customer
“Customer Password #2” 8 alphanumeric characters Blank Customer
“FLS” (Full Load Setting) - 128 to 127 0 Factory
“FTS” (Full Torque Setting) -128 to 127 0 Factory
“No Ether”
“Ether Control” “No Ether” None
“Continuous Flow”
“Enabled”
“Air Shutoff” “Disabled” None
“Disabled”
“OFF”
“Auto Fuel”
“Maintenance Indicator Mode” “Auto Hour” “OFF” None
“Man Fuel”
“Man Hour”
100 to 750 Hours 250 Hours
“PM1 Interval” or or None
3785 to 28390 L (1000 to 7500 US gal) 9463 L (2500 US gal)
“Installed”
“Throttle Position Sensor” “Not Installed” None
“Not Installed”
(continued)
RENR2418-02 25
Troubleshooting Section

(Table 11, contd)


System Configuration Parameters
Required
Parameter Available Range or Options Default
Password
“Installed”
“Coolant Level On” “Not Installed” None
“Not Installed”
“Installed”
“Direct Fuel Control Mode” “Not Installed” Factory
“Not Installed”
“Last Tool to change Customer
Read Only (1)
Parameters”
“Last Tool to change System
Read Only (1)
Parameters”
“Aux Temp Sensor Installation “On”
“Off” None
Status” “Off”
“Aux Press Sensor Installation “On”
“Off” None
Status” “Off”
“Total Tattletale” Read Only (1)

(1) The parameter can only be viewed. No changes are allowed.

(Table 12, contd)


Parameters Worksheet
Engine Parameters
Note: A mistake in recording this information will
“Low Idle Speed”
result in incorrect passwords.

Table 12 “PTO Mode”


Engine Parameters
“High Idle Speed”
ECM Identification Parameters
“Equipment ID” “Intermediate Engine
Speed”
“Engine Serial Number” “Maximum Engine Torque
Limit”
“ECM Serial Number” “Customer Password #1”

“Personality Module Part “Customer Password #2”


Number”
“Software Gp Release “FLS”
Date”
Selected Engine Rating “FTS”
“Rating Number”
“Ether Control”
“Rated Power”
“Air Shutoff”
“Rated Peak Torque”
“Maintenance Indicator
Mode”
“Top Engine Speed Range”
“PM1 Interval”
“Test Spec”
“Throttle Position Sensor”
“Top Engine Limit”
“Coolant Level Sensor”
“Engine Accel Rate”
(continued)
(continued)
26 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

(Table 12, contd) • Engine coolant temperature sensor


Engine Parameters
• Engine speed/timing sensors
“Direct Fuel Control Mode”
• Inlet air temperature sensor
“Last Tool to change
Customer Parameters” • Boost pressure sensor
“Last Tool to change
System Parameters” • Coolant level sensor
“Aux Press Temp • Fuel temperature sensor
Installation Status”
“Aux Press Sensor • Fuel pressure sensor
Installation Status”
• Auxiliary temperature sensor
“Total Tattletale”
• Auxiliary pressure sensor
Information from Engine Information Plate
The monitoring system can be locked out. In order
“Engine Serial Number” to change the settings, the monitoring system must
be unlocked. Access the “Parameter Lockout” under
“FLS” the “Service” menu on the Caterpillar Electronic
Technician (ET) in order to unlock the monitoring
“FTS” system.

Injector Codes
Warnings, derates, and shutdowns can be disabled
for any parameter or for all of the parameters.
Injector Code (1)

Injector Code (2)

Injector Code (3)

Injector Code (4)

Injector Code (5)

Injector Code (6)

Note: Compare the FLS and the FTS from the


ECM with the values that are listed on the engine
information plate. Only change the FLS and the FTS
because of a mechanical change in the engine. The
use of the wrong parameters could cause damage to
the engine. The use of the wrong parameters may
also void the Caterpillar warranty.

Monitoring System
The monitoring system determines the level of action
that is taken by the ECM in response to a condition
that can damage the engine. The monitoring of the
various sensors by the ECM can be turned “On” or
“Off”. These conditions are identified by the ECM
from the signals that are produced from the following
sensors:

• Engine oil pressure sensor


RENR2418-02 27
Troubleshooting Section

Table 13
Settings for the Monitoring System
Time Delay in
Event Default Set Points
Parameter Action Seconds
Code Value
Range Default Range Default
E057 Derate On 1 to 54 10
“Low Coolant Level” E058 Shutdown Off 1 to 54 10 None
E059 Warning On 1 to 54 10
“High Fuel Pressure” E096 Warning On None 8 Maps are not programmable. (1)

Warning
On 8
“Low Engine Oil Pressure” E360 Derate None Maps are not programmable.(1)
Shutdown Off 4
85 °C (185 °F)
110 °C
Warning None 10 to
(230 °F)
110 °C (230 °F)
On
86 °C (187 °F)
“High Engine Coolant
E361 Derate 1 to 54 10 to
Temperature”
111 °C (232 °F) 111 °C
87 °C (189 °F) (232 °F)
Shutdown Off 1 to 54 10 to
111 °C (232 °F)
C11/
C13 1800-2600 2600
Warning
C15
C18 1800-2500 2500
“Engine Overspeed” E362 On None 1
C11/
C13 1800-2800 2800
Shutdown
C15
C18 1800-2700 2700
70 °C (158 °F)
Warning 1 to 54 30 to 90 °C (194 °F)
On 90 °C (194 °F)
“High Fuel Temperature” E363
Derate 1 to 54 10 71 °C (160 °F)
to 91 °C (196 °F)
Shutdown Off 1 to 54 10 91 °C (196 °F)
Warning On 1 to 54 4
0 kPa (0 psi)
1500 kPa
“High Auxiliary Pressure”(2) E443 Derate 1 to 54 3 to
Off (218 psi)
3150 kPa (457 psi)
Shutdown 1 to 54 3
105 °C
Warning On 1 to 54 4
(221 °F)
0 °C (0 °F)
“High Auxiliary 106 °C
E445 Derate 1 to 54 4 to
Temperature”(2) (223 °F)
Off 140 °C (284 °F)
107 °C
Shutdown 1 to 54 4
(224 °F)

“High Engine Air Inlet Warning None 8 75 °C (167 °F)


E539 On None
Temperature” Derate 1 to 54 8 79 °C (174 °F)
(1) The maps may be different. The maps depend on the model of the engine.
(2) The engine must be equipped with the appropriate sensor.
28 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting without a Alternator or Regulator


Diagnostic Code Verify that the alternator or the regulator is operating
correctly. Refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354,
“Charging System Troubleshooting” for the proper
i02121176 testing procedures. Repair the alternator or replace
the alternator, as needed.
Alternator
(Charging Problem) i02349055

SMCS Code: 1405-035 Battery


SMCS Code: 1401-035

The connection of any electrical equipment and Refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354, “Charging
the disconnection of any electrical equipment may System Troubleshooting” for the proper testing
cause an explosion hazard which may result in in- procedures.
jury or death. Do not connect any electrical equip-
ment or disconnect any electrical equipment in an Probable Causes
explosive atmosphere.
• Worn battery
Refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354, “Charging
System Troubleshooting” for the proper testing • Switched battery circuit
procedures.
Recommended Actions
Probable Causes
Worn Battery
• Alternator drive belts
1. Verify that the battery is no longer able to hold a
• Charging circuit charge.

• Regulator 2. Replace the battery.

• Alternator Switched Battery Circuit

Recommended Actions 1. Verify that a switched battery circuit drained the


battery by being left in the ON position.
Alternator Drive Belts 2. Charge the battery.
1. Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belts.
3. Verify that the battery is able to maintain a charge.
If the alternator drive belts are worn or damaged,
replace the belts.
i02370484
2. Check the tension on the alternator drive belts.
Adjust the tension, if necessary. Can Not Reach Top Engine
RPM
Charging Circuit
SMCS Code: 1915-035
Inspect the battery cables, wiring, and connections in
the charging circuit. Clean all connections and tighten Note: If this problem occurs only under load, refer to
all connections. Replace any faulty parts. Troubleshooting, “Low Power/Poor or No Response
to Throttle”.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Event codes
RENR2418-02 29
Troubleshooting Section

• Programmable parameters Note: There are no event codes that are associated
with the altitude derate.
• Cold mode
Throttle Signal
• Altitude derate
Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. View
• Throttle signal the status for the throttle position on the status
screen. Operate the throttle from the Low Idle
• Rated fuel position and/or FRC fuel position position to the High Idle position. The status should
be 0 percent at low idle and the status should be 100
• Boost pressure sensor percent at high idle. If the status can not operate
in the full range, refer to Troubleshooting, “Throttle
• Fuel supply Position Sensor - Calibrate”.

• Air inlet and exhaust system Diagnostic codes that are related to the J1939 data
link will prevent correct operation of the throttle if the
• Accessory equipment throttle position is transmitted over the data link. If
there is a problem with the data link, the engine will
Recommended Actions remain at low idle until the data link is repaired.

Diagnostic Codes and Event Codes Boost Pressure Sensor, Rated Fuel
Position and/or FRC Fuel Position
Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may
cause poor performance. Connect the Caterpillar 1. With the engine at full load, monitor “Fuel Position”
Electronic Technician (ET) and check for active codes and “Rated Fuel Limit” on the status screen. If
and logged codes. Troubleshoot any codes that are “Fuel Position” does not equal “Rated Fuel Limit”
present before continuing with this procedure. then check air inlet manifold pressure.

Programmable Parameters 2. Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes


that are associated with the boost pressure sensor
Check the following parameters on Cat ET: or with the atmospheric pressure sensor.

• “Throttle Position Sensor” 3. Monitor boost pressure and atmospheric pressure


on the status screen for normal operation.
• “Desired Speed Input Configuration”
Note: Atmospheric pressure is not a default
• “Direct Fuel Control Mode” parameter on a status screen. You must manually
select the parameter for the atmospheric pressure in
Determine the type of throttle that is used in the order to monitor the atmospheric pressure sensor.
application. Program the parameters to match the
type of throttle that is used. Refer to Troubleshooting, Fuel Supply
“Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test” for more
information. 1. Check the fuel lines for the following problems:
restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If
Note: The engine will have poor performance if the problems are found with the fuel lines, repair the
parameters are not programmed correctly. lines and/or replace the lines.

Cold Mode 2. Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may
block the fuel supply.
Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. Verify
that the engine has exited cold mode. A status flag 3. Check for air in the low pressure fuel supply
will appear if the engine is operating in cold mode. system if any of the following procedures have
This may limit engine speed. been performed:

Altitude Derate • Replacement of the fuel filters

The engine may be derated due to high elevation. • Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit
Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. Check
for an active engine derate on the status screens. • Replacement of unit injectors
30 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

4. Prime the low pressure fuel supply circuit. Refer Recommended Actions
to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
System - Prime” for the correct procedure. Engine Oil Cooler Core
Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is 1. Check for leaks in the oil cooler core. If a leak is
helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. found, install a new oil cooler core. Refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly manual.
5. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics
of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and 2. Drain the crankcase and refill the crankcase with
Maintenance Manual for information on improving clean engine oil. Install new engine oil filters.
the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
operation.

6. Check the fuel pressure during engine cranking. Cylinder Head Gasket
Check the fuel pressure on the outlet side of
the fuel filter. Refer to Specifications for correct 1. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to the
pressure values. If the fuel pressure is low, Disassembly and Assembly manual.
replace the fuel filters. If the fuel pressure is still
low, check the following items: fuel transfer pump, 2. Check the cylinder liner projection. Refer to the
fuel transfer pump coupling, and fuel pressure Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting manual.
regulating valve.
3. Install a new cylinder head gasket and new water
seals in the spacer plate. Refer to the Disassembly
Air Inlet and Exhaust System and Assembly manual.
1. Clean plugged air filters or replace plugged air
filters. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Cylinder Head
Manual.
Check for cracks in the cylinder head. If a crack
2. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for is found, repair the cylinder head and/or replace
restrictions and/or leaks. Refer to Testing and the cylinder head. Refer to the Disassembly and
Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Exhaust System”. Assembly manual.

Accessory Equipment Cylinder Liner

Check all accessory equipment for problems that Check for cracked cylinder liners. Replace any
may create excessive load on the engine. Repair cracked cylinder liners. Refer to the Disassembly and
any damaged components or replace any damaged Assembly manual.
components.
Cylinder Block
i02381103 Inspect the cylinder block for cracks. If a crack is
found, repair the cylinder block or replace the cylinder
Coolant in Engine Oil block.
SMCS Code: 1348-035; 1395-035
i02194394

Probable Causes Coolant Temperature Is Too


• Engine oil cooler core High
• Cylinder head gasket SMCS Code: 1395-035

• Cylinder head Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,


“Cooling System - Check” for information on
• Cylinder liner determining the cause of this condition.

• Cylinder block
RENR2418-02 31
Troubleshooting Section

i02419115 • Electronic Control Module (ECM)


ECM Will Not Accept Factory
Recommended Actions
Passwords
1. Check for correct installation of the connectors for
SMCS Code: 1901-035 the Electronic Control Module (ECM) J1/P1, J2/P2
and J3/P3. Refer to the diagnostic functional
Probable Causes test Troubleshooting, “Inspecting Electrical
Connectors”.
One of the following items may not be recorded
correctly on the Caterpillar Electronic Technician 2. Connect the electronic service tool to the
(ET): service tool connector. If the ECM does not
communicate with the electronic service tool,
• Passwords refer to troubleshooting without a diagnostic code
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Will Not
• Serial numbers Communicate with ECM”.

• Total tattletale 3. Troubleshoot the Cat Data Link for possible


problems. Refer to the diagnostic functional test
• Reason code Troubleshooting, “Cat Data Link Circuit - Test”.

4. Troubleshoot the CAN data link (if equipped)


Recommended Actions for possible problems. Refer to the diagnostic
functional test Troubleshooting, “CAN Data Link
1. Verify that the correct passwords were entered. Circuit - Test”.
Check every character in each password. Remove
the electrical power from the engine for 30
seconds and then retry. i02429900

2. Verify that Cat ET is on the “Factory Password” Electronic Service Tool Will
screen. Not Communicate with ECM
3. Use Cat ET to verify that the following information SMCS Code: 0785-035; 1901-035
has been entered correctly:

• Engine serial number Probable Causes


• Serial number for the electronic control module • Configuration for the communications adapter

• Serial number for Cat ET • Electrical connectors

• Total tattletale • Communication adapter and/or cables

• Reason code • Electrical power supply to the service tool


connector

i02424497 • Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) and related


hardware
ECM Will Not Communicate
with Other Systems or Display • Electrical power supply to the Electronic Control
Module (ECM)
Modules
• Flash file
SMCS Code: 1901-035
• Cat Data Link
Probable Causes
• Wiring and/or electrical connectors
• Cat Data Link
• CAN data link (if equipped)
32 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Recommended Actions Electrical Power Supply to the Service


Tool Connector
Start the engine. If the engine starts, but the ECM
will not communicate with Cat ET, continue with Verify that battery voltage is present between
this procedure. If the engine will not start, refer terminals A and B of the service tool connector. If the
to the troubleshooting without a diagnostic code communication adapter is not receiving power, the
procedure Troubleshooting, “Engine Cranks but Will display on the communication adapter will be blank.
Not Start”. If the engine will not crank, refer to the
troubleshooting without a diagnostic code procedure
Troubleshooting, “Engine Will Not Crank”.
Cat ET and Related Hardware
In order to eliminate Cat ET and the related hardware
Configuration for the Communications as the problem, connect Cat ET to a different engine.
Adapter If the same problem occurs on a different engine,
check Cat ET and the related hardware in order to
1. Access “Preferences” under the “Utilities” menu determine the cause of the problem.
on Cat ET.
Electrical Power Supply to the Electronic
2. Verify that the correct “Communications Interface
Device” is selected.
Control Module (ECM)
Check power to the ECM. Refer to the diagnostic
3. Verify that the correct port is selected for use by
functional test Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power
the communication adapter.
Supply Circuit - Test”.
Note: The most commonly used port is “COM 1”.
Note: If the ECM is not receiving battery voltage, the
ECM will not communicate.
4. Check for any hardware that is utilizing the
same port as the communications adapter. If any
devices are configured to use the same port, exit Flash File
or close the software programs for that device.
Ensure that the correct flash file is properly installed
in the ECM.
Electrical Connectors
Note: A new ECM is not programmed to any specific
Check for correct installation of the J1/P1 and
engine until a flash file has been installed. The engine
J2/P2 ECM connectors and of the service tool
will not start and the engine will not communicate
connector. Refer to the diagnostic functional test
with Cat ET until the flash file has been downloaded.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
Refer to programming parameters Troubleshooting,
“Flash Programming”.
Communication Adapter and/or Cables
1. If you are using a “Communication Adapter II”,
Cat Data Link
ensure that the firmware and driver files for the
Troubleshoot the Cat Data Link for possible
communication adapter are the most current files
problems. Refer to the diagnostic functional test
that are available. If the firmware and driver files
Troubleshooting, “Cat Data Link Circuit - Test”.
do not match, the communication adapter will not
communicate with Cat ET.
i02431479
2. Disconnect the communication adapter and the
cables from the service tool connector. Reconnect Engine Cranks but Will Not
the communication adapter to the service tool
connector.
Start
SMCS Code: 1000-035
3. Verify that the correct cable is being used between
the communication adapter and the service tool
connector. Refer to electronic troubleshooting Probable Causes
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.
• Fuel supply
• Diagnostic codes and event codes
RENR2418-02 33
Troubleshooting Section

• Electrical power to the Electronic Control Module 7. Check the fuel pressure during engine cranking.
(ECM) Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer
to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel
• Starting aids System” for the correct pressure values. If the fuel
pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. If the fuel
• Engine shutdown switches pressure is still low, check the following items: fuel
transfer pump, fuel transfer pump coupling, and
• Air shutoff system fuel pressure regulating valve.

• Starting motor, solenoid, or starting circuit Diagnostic Codes and Event Codes
• Engine speed/timing Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may
prevent the engine from starting. Connect the
• Unit injector Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) and check for
active codes and/or for logged codes. Troubleshoot
• Combustion any codes that are present before continuing with
this procedure.
Recommended Actions
Electrical Power Supply to the ECM
Fuel Supply
If the ECM is not receiving battery voltage, the ECM
1. Visually check the fuel level. Do not rely on the fuel will not operate. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical
gauge only. If necessary, add fuel. If the engine Power Supply Circuit - Test”.
has been run out of fuel, it will be necessary
to purge the air from the fuel system. Refer to Starting Aids
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
- Prime” for the correct procedure. If cold ambient conditions exist, check operation of
starting aids. Verify that the ether system is operating
2. Check the fuel lines for the following problems: correctly. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Ether Injection
restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If System - Test”.
problems are found with the fuel lines, repair the
lines and/or replace the lines. Engine Shutdown Switches
3. Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may The engine shutdown switches must be in the RUN
block the fuel supply. position in order to start the engine. Use Cat ET to
verify the status of the shutdown switches. When an
4. Prime the fuel system if any of the following engine shutdown switch is used to shut down the
procedures have been performed: engine, the keyswitch must be turned to the RUN
position for at least 15 seconds before restarting the
• Replacement of the fuel filters engine.
• Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit Air Shutoff System
• Replacement of unit injectors Check the air shutoff mechanism. If an engine
Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is overspeed has occurred, the keyswitch must be
helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. Refer to Testing cycled. There may be a manual reset for the air
and Adjusting for more information. shutoff mechanism that is on the engine. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Air Shutoff System - Test” for
5. Check the fuel filters. information.

6. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics Starting Motor, Solenoid, or Starting
of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and Circuit
Maintenance Manual for information on improving
the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather Remove the starter and visually inspect the pinion of
operation. the starter and the flywheel ring gear for damage.

Test the operation of the starting motor solenoid.


Check the condition of the engine wiring for the
starting motor solenoid. Test the operation of the
starting motor.
34 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

If necessary, repair the starter or the starter circuit. Recommended Actions


Engine Speed/Timing Incorrect Engine Oil
1. Crank the engine and observe the engine speed Use engine oil that is recommended and change the
on the Cat ET status screen. If Cat ET indicates engine oil at the interval that is recommended by the
zero rpm, refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine engine’s Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test”.
Contaminated Engine Oil
Note: Upon initial cranking, the status for engine
speed may indicate that the engine speed signal is Drain the crankcase and refill the crankcase with
abnormal. This message will be replaced with an clean engine oil. Install new engine oil filters. Refer
engine speed once the ECM is able to calculate a to the engine’s Operation and Maintenance Manual
speed from the signal. for more information.
2. If an engine speed is present, check the sensor If the oil filter bypass valve is open, the oil will not be
installation. If the sensor is not properly installed, filtered. Check the oil filter bypass valve for a weak
the ECM may read engine speed, but the ECM spring or for a broken spring. If the spring is broken,
cannot determine the tooth pattern. The ability for replace the spring. Refer to the engine’s Disassembly
the ECM to read the tooth pattern is necessary and Assembly manual. Make sure that the oil bypass
to determine the cylinder position. Engine speed valve is operating correctly.
is present when engine speed is greater than
50 rpm. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine
Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test”. Contaminated Air
Inspect the air inlet system for leaks. Inspect all of
Unit Injector the gaskets and the connections. Repair any leaks.
1. Ensure that the valve cover connectors for the Inspect the air filter. Replace the air filter, if necessary.
injector harnesses are fully connected and free of
corrosion.
Contaminated Fuel
2. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on Cat ET in
order to determine if all of the injector solenoids Inspect the fuel filter. Replace the fuel filter, if
are being energized by the ECM. Refer to necessary.
Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”
for additional information. Contaminants in the fuel such as hydrogen sulfide
and sulfur can lead to the formation of acids in the
crankcase. Obtain a fuel analysis.
Combustion
Check the engine for combustion problems. Low Oil Pressure
When some components of the engine show bearing
i02170800 wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in
a passage for engine oil.
Engine Has Early Wear
An indicator for the engine oil pressure may indicate
SMCS Code: 1000-035 sufficient pressure, but a component is worn due
to a lack of lubrication. In such a case, look at the
Probable Causes passage for the engine oil supply to the component.
Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,
• Incorrect engine oil “Lubrication System” for additional information.

• Contaminated engine oil


• Contaminated air
• Contaminated fuel
• Low oil pressure
RENR2418-02 35
Troubleshooting Section

i02424560 Electrical Connectors


Engine Misfires, Runs Rough Check the connectors for the Electronic Control
or Is Unstable Module (ECM) and the connectors for the
unit injectors for correct installation. Refer to
SMCS Code: 1000-035 Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

Note: If the symptom is intermittent and the symptom Cold Mode


cannot be repeated, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Intermittent Low Power or Power Cutout”. If the Use Cat ET to verify that the engine has exited cold
symptom is consistent and the symptom can be mode. Cold mode operation may cause the engine to
repeated, continue with this procedure. run rough and the engine power may be limited.

Probable Causes Throttle Signal

• Diagnostic codes Monitor the throttle signal on Cat ET. Verify that the
throttle signal is stable from the low idle position to
• Programmable parameters the high idle position.

• Electrical connectors Unit Injectors


• Cold mode 1. Use Cat ET to determine if there are any active
diagnostic codes for the unit injectors.
• Throttle signal
2. Perform the injector solenoid test on Cat ET in
• Unit injectors order to determine if all of the injector solenoids
are being energized by the ECM. Refer to
• Fuel supply Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”
for the proper procedure.
• Air inlet and exhaust system
3. Perform the cylinder cutout test on Cat ET in order
Recommended Actions to identify any injectors that might be misfiring.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid
Note: If the symptom only occurs under certain Circuit - Test” for the proper procedure.
operating conditions (high idle, full load, engine
operating temperature, etc), test the engine under Fuel Supply
those conditions. Troubleshooting the symptom
under other conditions can give misleading results. 1. Check the fuel lines for the following problems:
restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If
Diagnostic Codes problems are found with the fuel lines, repair the
lines and/or replace the lines.
Check for active diagnostic codes on the Caterpillar
Electronic Technician (ET). Troubleshoot any active 2. Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may
codes before continuing with this procedure. block the fuel supply.

3. Prime the fuel system if any of the following


Programmable Parameters procedures have been performed:
Check the following parameters on Cat ET:
• Replacement of the fuel filters
• Throttle Position Sensor • Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit
• Direct Fuel Control Mode • Replacement of unit injectors
Determine the type of throttle that is used in the Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is
application. Program the parameters to match the helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel.
type of throttle that is used. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test” for more 4. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics
information. of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for information on improving
Note: The engine will have poor performance if the the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather
parameters are not programmed correctly. operation.
36 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

5. Check the fuel pressure during engine cranking. 3. Install a new cylinder head gasket and new water
Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer seals in the spacer plate. Refer to Disassembly
to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel and Assembly, “Cylinder Head - Install” for the
System” for the correct pressure values. If the fuel correct procedure.
pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. If the fuel
pressure is still low, check the following items: fuel
i02424562
transfer pump, fuel transfer pump coupling, and
fuel pressure regulating valve. Engine Oil Temperature Is Too
Air Inlet and Exhaust System High
1. Check for an air filter restriction. Clean plugged air SMCS Code: 1348-035-TA
filters or replace plugged air filters. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual for additional Probable Causes
information.
• Oil specifications
2. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for
restrictions and/or for leaks. Refer to Systems • Engine oil temperature reading
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and
Exhaust System”. • Engine oil cooler bypass valve

i02173692
• High coolant temperature

Engine Oil in Cooling System • Engine oil cooler

SMCS Code: 1348-035; 1350-035 Recommended Actions


Probable Causes Oil Specifications
• Engine oil cooler core Inspect the engine oil level. If necessary, add the
correct engine oil. Check the condition of the engine
• Cylinder head gasket oil.

For information on oil specifications and/or


Recommended Actions information on oil analysis, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance manual .
Engine Oil Cooler Core
1. Inspect the engine oil cooler core for leaks. If a
Engine Oil Temperature Reading
leak is found, replace the oil cooler core. Refer to
Compare the engine oil temperature reading from
Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Cooler -
the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) to the
Remove”.
temperature from a 6V-9130 Temperature Adapter.
Verify that the readings are reasonably close.
2. Drain the crankcase and refill the crankcase with
clean engine oil. Install new engine oil filters.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual Engine Oil Cooler Bypass Valve
for more information.
Clean the engine oil cooler bypass valve and inspect
the engine oil cooler bypass valve. Clean the bore for
Cylinder Head Gasket the valve. Ensure that the bypass valve is not stuck
in the open position. Replace the bypass valve, if
1. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly
necessary. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly.
and Assembly, “Cylinder Head - Remove” for the
correct procedure.
High Coolant Temperature
2. Check the cylinder liner projection. Refer to
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting for the Check for a high coolant temperature. Resolve
correct procedure. any problems with active event codes before
proceeding. If necessary, refer to troubleshooting
without a diagnostic code Troubleshooting, “Coolant
Temperature Is Too High”.
RENR2418-02 37
Troubleshooting Section

Engine Oil Cooler


NOTICE
Check for a damaged engine oil cooler or for Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
blockage in the engine oil cooler. Look for a restriction 30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
in the passages for engine oil in the engine oil cooler. minutes before cranking the engine again.
Clean the engine oil cooler core or replace the engine
oil cooler core.
4. Prime the fuel system if any of the following
procedures have been performed:
i02429936

Engine Stalls at Low RPM • Replacement of the fuel filters

SMCS Code: 1915-035


• Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit
• Replacement of unit injectors
Probable Causes
Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is
• Unit injectors helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. Refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting.
• Fuel supply
5. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics
• Air supply of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
• Accessory equipment
6. Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter
while the engine is being cranked. For the
Recommended Actions correct pressure values, refer to the Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting manual. If the
Unit Injectors fuel pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. If the
fuel pressure is still low, check the following items:
1. Check for correct installation of the J1/P1 and fuel transfer pump, fuel transfer pump coupling,
J2/P2 connectors for the Electronic Control and fuel pressure regulating valve.
Module (ECM). Check for correct installation of the
J300/P300 connectors for the unit injectors. Refer
to the diagnostic functional test Troubleshooting,
Air Supply
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
Check for restrictions in the air inlet system. Refer to
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting.
2. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” with the
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) in order to
determine if all of the injector solenoids are being Accessory Equipment
energized by the ECM.
Check all accessory equipment for problems that
3. Perform the “Cylinder Cutout Test” with Cat ET may create excessive load on the engine. Repair
in order to identify any injectors that might be any damaged components or replace any damaged
misfiring. Refer to the diagnostic functional test components.
Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.
i02419766
Fuel Supply
Engine Vibration
1. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting. SMCS Code: 1000-035

2. Check the fuel lines for the following problems: Probable Causes
restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If
problems are found with the fuel lines, repair the • Vibration damper
lines and/or replace the lines.
• Engine supports
3. Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may
block the fuel supply. • Driven equipment
• Engine misfiring or running rough
38 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Recommended Actions Recommended Actions


Vibration Damper Batteries and/or Battery Cables
Check the vibration damper for damage. Install a 1. Inspect the main power switch, battery posts,
new vibration damper, if necessary. Inspect the and battery cables for loose connections and
mounting bolts for damage and/or for wear. Replace for corrosion. If the battery cables are corroded,
any damaged bolts. Refer to the Disassembly and remove the battery cables and clean the battery
Assembly manual. cables. Tighten any loose connections.

Engine Supports 2. Inspect the batteries.

Inspect the mounts and the brackets while you run a. Charge the batteries. Refer to Special
the engine through the speed range. Look for mounts Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
and brackets that are loose and/or broken. Tighten Procedure”.
all of the mounting bolts. Install new components, if
necessary. b. Load test the batteries. Refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS9249, “Use of 4C-4911
Battery Load Tester for 6, 8 and 12 Volt Lead
Driven Equipment Acid Batteries”.
Check the alignment and the balance of the driven
equipment. Starting Motor Solenoid or Starting
Circuit
Engine Misfiring or Running Rough
1. Test the operation of the starting motor solenoid.
Refer to troubleshooting without a diagnostic code
Troubleshooting, “Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or 2. Check the wiring to the starting motor solenoid.
Is Unstable”.
Starting Motor or Flywheel Ring Gear
i02214238
1. Test the operation of the starting motor.
Engine Will Not Crank 2. Inspect the starter motor pinion and the flywheel
SMCS Code: 1000-035 ring gear for damage.

Transmission or Engine Accessories


Probable Causes
1. Ensure free movement of the driveline.
• Batteries
2. Ensure that the timing pin was not left in the
• Battery cables flywheel housing.
• Starting circuit 3. Remove any engine accessories that may lock up
the engine and inspect any engine accessories
• Starting motor solenoid that may lock up the engine.
• Starting motor The following list illustrates examples of engine
accessories that may lock up the engine:
• Flywheel ring gear
• Hydraulic pump that is driven from the rear gear
• Transmission group
• Engine accessories • Air compressor
• Hydraulic cylinder lock • Engine oil pump
• Internal engine problem • Other components that are driven by the engine
RENR2418-02 39
Troubleshooting Section

Hydraulic Cylinder Lock 4. Repair any leaks that were found. Remove
any restrictions that were found. Replace any
Check for fluid in the cylinders (hydraulic cylinder damaged components that were found.
lock) by removing the individual unit injectors.
Engine Speed/Timing
Note: Drain the fuel from the cylinder head. Fuel will
flow from the cylinder head into the cylinders when 1. Check the calibration of the engine speed/timing
the unit injector is removed. sensor. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine
Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate”.
Internal Engine Problem
2. Verify that the crankshaft and the camshaft drive
Disassemble the engine. Refer to the Disassembly gears are set with the proper orientation. Refer to
and Assembly manual. Inspect the internal the Disassembly and Assembly manual.
components for the following conditions:
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
• Seizure
1. Remove the sensor.
• Broken components
2. Remove debris, moisture, or ice from the sensor.
• Bent components
3. Install the sensor.
i02432467
4. Check the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)
Excessive Black Smoke for active diagnostic codes on the sensor. If no
active diagnostic code exists, the sensor may be
SMCS Code: 1088-035 used. The correct reading for the atmospheric
pressure is between 50 kPa (7.25 psi) and
100 kPa (14.5 psi).
Probable Causes
• Air inlet or exhaust system Boost Pressure Sensor, “Fuel Position”,
and/or “FRC Fuel Limit”
• Engine speed/timing sensor
1. Monitor the status of “Fuel Position” and “Rated
• Atmospheric pressure sensor Fuel Limit” while the engine is operating under full
load. If “Fuel Position” equals “Rated Fuel Limit”
• Boost pressure sensor and “Fuel Position” is less than “FRC Fuel Limit”,
the Electronic Control Module (ECM) is providing
• “Fuel Position” and/or “FRC Fuel Limit” the correct control. Otherwise, proceed to the next
Step.
• Flash file
2. Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes for
• Fuel quality the boost pressure sensor.

• Valve adjustment 3. Monitor the status of “Boost Pressure” and


“Atmospheric Pressure” on Cat ET. When the
engine is not running, “Boost Pressure” should be
Recommended Actions 0 kPa (0 psi).
Air Inlet or Exhaust System Note: A problem with the “FRC Fuel Limit” will only
cause black smoke during acceleration. A problem
1. Check the air inlet system for restrictions and/or with the “FRC Fuel Limit” will not cause black smoke
for leaks. during steady state operation.
a. Check for an air filter restriction.
Flash File
b. Perform a visual inspection of the system for
Verify that the correct flash file is installed. Refer
restrictions and/or for leaks in the air inlet
to Troubleshooting, “Flash Programming” for
piping .
information.
2. Ensure that the turbocharger is in good repair.

3. Check the exhaust system for restrictions.


40 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Fuel Quality Internal Engine Wear


Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of Internal engine wear can cause excessive oil leakage
the fuel. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual into the combustion area of the cylinders. Excessive
for information on improving the characteristics of the wear on the following components may cause oil
fuel during cold weather operation. consumption:

Valve Adjustment • Piston rings

Check the valve adjustment. Refer to Systems • Valve guides


Operation/Testing and Adjusting for information on
valve adjustments. Check for excessive crankcase blowby at the
engine crankcase breather. Refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting.
i02410997

Excessive Engine Oil i02430014

Consumption Excessive Fuel Consumption


SMCS Code: 1348-035 SMCS Code: 1250-035

Probable Causes Probable Causes


• Oil leaks • Engine operation
• Oil level • Fuel leaks
• Turbocharger seal • Fuel quality
• Internal engine wear • Engine speed/timing

Recommended Actions • Unit injectors

Oil Leaks • Air inlet and exhaust system

Check the engine compartment for oil leaks. Repair • Accessory equipment
any oil leaks that are identified.
Recommended Actions
Oil Level
Engine Operation
Check the engine oil level. Too much oil in the engine
crankcase can cause the engine to consume oil. Use the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) to
Remove excessive engine oil from the crankcase. check the “Current Totals” for excessive idle time
and/or for a high load factor which would be indicative
Ensure that the dipstick is properly calibrated of poor operating habits.
and/or that the dipstick is correct for the application.
Calibrate the dipstick and/or replace the dipstick. Note: Engine operation may also be affected by
environmental conditions such as wind and snow.
Turbocharger
Fuel Leaks
Check for turbocharger shaft seal leakage. Remove
the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet piping from Check the fuel pressure during engine cranking.
the turbocharger. Check the compressor wheel and Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer
the turbine for evidence of an oil leak. If necessary, to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting for the
repair the turbocharger or replace the turbocharger. correct pressure values. If the fuel pressure is low,
Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting. replace the fuel filters. If the fuel pressure is still low,
check the following items: fuel transfer pump, fuel
transfer pump coupling, and fuel pressure regulating
valve.
RENR2418-02 41
Troubleshooting Section

Fuel Quality Recommended Actions


Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics Lubrication
of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for information on improving the 1. Remove the valve mechanism covers. Refer to
characteristics of the fuel during cold weather the engine’s Disassembly and Assembly manual.
operation.
2. Check the lubrication in the valve compartment.
Engine Speed/Timing Ensure that there is adequate engine oil flow in
the valve compartment. The passages for the
Perform a speed/timing sensor calibration. Refer to engine oil must be clean.
the calibration procedure Troubleshooting, “Engine
Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate”. Valve Lash
Unit Injectors Adjust the engine valve lash. Refer to the engine’s
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting manual.
1. Check for correct installation of the J1/P1
and J2/P2 Electronic Control Module (ECM) Valve Train Components
connectors and the unit injector connectors. Refer
to the diagnostic functional test Troubleshooting, 1. Inspect the following components of the valve
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. train:
2. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on Cat ET in • Rocker arms
order to determine if all of the injector solenoids
are being energized by the ECM. • Pushrods
3. Perform the “Cylinder Cutout Test” on Cat ET • Valve lifters
in order to identify any injectors that might be
misfiring. Refer to the diagnostic functional test • Camshaft
Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.
• Valve stems
Air Inlet and Exhaust System
• Rocker shafts
1. Inspect the air filter for a restriction. If the air filter
shows signs of being plugged, clean the air filter 2. Check the components for the following conditions:
or replace the air filter. abnormal wear, excessive wear, straightness, and
cleanliness. Replace parts, if necessary.
2. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for
restrictions and/or for leaks. Refer to Systems Note: If you replace the camshaft, you must also
Operation/Testing and Adjusting. replace the valve lifters.

Accessory Equipment 3. Adjust the engine valve lash. Refer to the engine’s
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting manual.
Check all accessory equipment for problems that
may create excessive load on the engine. Repair i02312564
any damaged components or replace any damaged
components. Excessive White Smoke
SMCS Code: 1088-035
i02424626

Excessive Valve Lash Note: Some white smoke may be present during
cold start-up conditions when the engine is operating
SMCS Code: 1105-035 normally. If the white smoke persists, there may be
a problem.
Probable Causes
Probable Causes
• Lubrication
• Starting aids
• Valve lash
• Water temperature regulators
• Valve train components
42 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Unit injectors 2. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Systems


Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System
• Flash file Pressure - Test”.

• Fuel supply 3. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
Refer to the engine’s Operation and Maintenance
• Cooling system Manual for the correct procedure.

• Component wear 4. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

Recommended Actions 5. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics


of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for information on improving
Starting Aids the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather
operation.
Air Inlet Heater (If Equipped)

Ensure that the air inlet heater is functioning properly. Cooling System
For additional information, refer to Troubleshooting,
Check for an internal coolant leak. Check for coolant
“Air Inlet Heater Circuit - Test”.
in the engine oil, coolant in the cylinders, and
coolant in the exhaust system. Refer to Systems
Ether Injection System (If Equipped)
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling System -
Ensure that the ether injection system is programmed Test”.
to “On”.
Component Wear
Ensure that the ether injection system is functioning
properly. For additional information, refer to Check the following components for excessive wear:
Troubleshooting, “Ether Injection System - Test”.
• Valves
Water Temperature Regulators
• Pistons
Check the water temperature regulators for correct
operation. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and • Rings
Adjusting, “Cooling System” for the proper procedure.
• Cylinder liners
Unit Injectors
i02332993
Use Cat ET to perform the cylinder cutout test. Try
to simulate the conditions for the test that were Exhaust Temperature Is Too
experienced during operation. Cut out each cylinder High
individually for approximately one minute in order
to isolate any misfiring cylinders. If the misfire SMCS Code: 1088-035-TA
can be isolated to a specific cylinder, proceed to
Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.
Probable Causes
Flash File • Diagnostic codes
Verify that the correct flash file is installed in the
Engine Control Module (ECM).
• Electrical connectors
• Air inlet and exhaust system
Fuel Supply
1. Monitor the exhaust for smoke while the engine
is being cranked.

If no smoke is present, there may be a problem


with the fuel quality or there may be a problem
with the fuel supply.
RENR2418-02 43
Troubleshooting Section

Recommended Actions i02119587

Diagnostic Codes
Fuel Dilution of Engine Oil
SMCS Code: 1348-035
Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)
and check for active diagnostic codes. Troubleshoot
any active diagnostic codes before continuing with Probable Causes
this procedure.
• Leaking seals on the case of the unit injector or on
Electrical Connectors the barrel of the unit injector

Check for correct installation of the J2/P2 Electronic • Leaking seals on the fuel line adapter for the
Control Module (ECM) connector and of the cylinder head
J300/P300 connector that is for the injectors. Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” • Excessive leakage from the unit injector tip or
for more information. breakage of the unit injector tip

Air Inlet and Exhaust System • Cracked fuel supply manifold

1. Check the air inlet manifold pressure. Check for


• Leaking seal on the fuel transfer pump
air inlet restrictions and/or leaks. Refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Recommended Actions
Exhaust System” for more information.
Leaking Seals on the Case of the Unit
2. Check for leaks between the exhaust manifold Injector or on the Barrel of the Unit
and the turbocharger. Check for exhaust
restrictions. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing Injector
and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Exhaust System” for
more information. Look for signs of damage to the seals for the unit
injectors. Replace any seals that are leaking.

i01405833 Leaking Seals on the Fuel Line Adapter


Fuel in Cooling System for the Cylinder Head

SMCS Code: 1350-035 Look for signs of damage to the seals on the fuel line
adapter for the cylinder head. Repair any leaking fuel
lines or components and/or replace any leaking fuel
Probable Causes lines or components.
• Internal cylinder head Excessive Leakage from the Unit Injector
Tip or Breakage of the Unit Injector Tip
Recommended Actions
Look for signs of damage to the unit injectors. If
Internal Cylinder Head necessary, repair the unit injectors or replace the unit
injectors.
1. Remove the valve mechanism covers.
Cracked Fuel Supply Manifold
2. Remove the fuel supply and the fuel return line
from the cylinder head. Look for signs of damage to the fuel supply manifold.
3. Cap the fuel return connector and apply 700 kPa
(100 psi) maximum air pressure to the fuel supply Leaking Fuel Transfer Pump Seal
connector. Check for fuel leakage around the unit
injectors. If leakage is present, remove the unit Ensure that the weep hole is not plugged. If
injector and install a new O-ring seal. necessary, repair the fuel transfer pump or replace
the fuel transfer pump.
44 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

i02432824 Electrical Connections


Intermittent Engine Shutdown 1. Check the following connectors for proper
installation:
SMCS Code: 1000-035
• J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors for the Electronic
Note: Use this procedure only if the engine shut Control Module (ECM)
down completely and it was necessary to restart the
engine. • J61/P61 Customer connectors
Probable Causes • J300/P300 Connectors for the injector solenoid
harness
• Diagnostic codes or event codes
• J401/P401 and J402/P402 Engine speed/timing
• Operating conditions sensor connectors

• Electrical connections 2. Check the associated wiring for the following


conditions: damage, abrasion, corrosion, and
• Faulty remote shutdown incorrect attachment.

• Circuit breakers Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors


- Inspect”.
• Fuel supply
Note: Aftermarket engine protection devices usually
• Faulty overspeed verify switch interrupt power to the ECM. Check for correct
installation and for operation of aftermarket engine
Note: If the problem only occurs under certain protection devices. It may be necessary to bypass
conditions such as high engine speed, full load or the aftermarket devices in order to continue testing.
engine operating temperature, then perform the test
under those operating conditions. Faulty Remote Shutdown

Recommended Actions 1. Access the status screen that displays the remote
shutdown switch status. The remote shutdown
switch status on Cat ET is called “User Shutdown”.
Diagnostic Codes or Event Codes
2. Refer to Table 14. Measure the voltage between
Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes each terminal that is listed and the engine ground.
may cause the engine to shutdown. Connect the
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) and check for Table 14
active codes and/or for logged codes. Troubleshoot
any codes that are present before continuing with Measured Voltage at
“User Shutdown” Status
J1-44 or P61-27
this procedure.
ON <0.9 VDC
Operating Conditions OFF >10 VDC

The engine may be shut down due to low pressure


levels or other factors. Connect Cat ET and check for 3. If the voltage is not in the proper range, refer to
active shutdowns or diagnostic codes. Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test”.

If a shutdown is active, “Injection Disabled” will Circuit Breakers


appear in the third box of any status screen on Cat
ET. Check the circuit breakers. The circuit breakers may
exceed the trip point due to overheating. Reset the
An engine shutdown event will appear on a J1939 circuit breakers if the circuit breakers are tripped.
device if the device is capable of displaying diagnostic
codes.
RENR2418-02 45
Troubleshooting Section

Fuel Supply Throttle Signal


Check for a problem with the fuel supply. Verify View the status for the throttle position on the
that the fuel pressure is correct. Verify that the status screen. Operate the throttle from the low idle
fuel pressure sensor is installed. Refer to Systems position to the high idle position. The status should
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System” for be 0 percent at low idle and the status should be
additional information. 100 percent at high idle. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Throttle Position Sensor - Calibrate” if either value
Faulty Overspeed Verify Switch (If is incorrect.
Equipped) Diagnostic codes that are related to the J1939 data
link will prevent correct operation of the throttle if the
The overspeed verify switch allows the service
throttle position is transmitted over the data link. If
technician to quickly verify that the overspeed
there is a problem with the data link, the engine will
protection system is operating correctly. When the remain at low idle until the data link is repaired.
overspeed verify switch is activated, the engine
will shut down when the engine speed reaches 75
percent of the overspeed setpoint. Electrical Connectors

A problem with the circuit for the overspeed verify 1. Inspect the battery wires from the Electronic
feature may be causing the engine to shut down. Control Module (ECM) back to the battery
There are no diagnostic codes or event codes that compartment. Refer to the Electrical System
are associated with the overspeed verify feature. Schematic. Inspect the wires and the power relay.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test”. Check the power and ground connections to
the ECM. Refer to the diagnostic functional test
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power Supply Circuit
i02433196 - Test” for more information.
Intermittent Low Power or Injection Actuation Pressure
Power Cutout
Ensure that the injection actuation system is
SMCS Code: 1000-035 operating properly. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Injection Actuation Pressure - Test”.
Note: Use this procedure only if the engine does not
shut down completely. Fuel Supply
Probable Causes 1. Check the fuel lines for the following problems:
restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If
• Diagnostic codes problems are found with the fuel lines, repair the
lines and/or replace the lines.
• Event codes
2. Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may
• Throttle signal block the fuel supply.

• Electrical connectors NOTICE


Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
• Injection actuation pressure 30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
• Fuel supply
3. Prime the fuel system if any of the following
Recommended Actions procedures have been performed:

Diagnostic Codes and Event Codes • Replacement of the fuel filters


Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may • Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit
cause poor performance. Connect the Caterpillar
Electronic Technician (ET) and check for active codes • Replacement of unit injectors
and logged codes. Troubleshoot any codes that are
present before continuing with this procedure. Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is
helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. Refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System” for
more information.
46 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

4. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics Engine Oil Filters and Oil Filter Bypass
of the fuel. Refer to Special Publication, Valve
SEBU6250, “Caterpillar Machine Fluids
Recommendations” for information on improving Check the service records of the engine for
the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather information that is related to the last oil change. If
operation. necessary, perform an oil change on the engine and
replace the engine oil filters.
5. Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter while
the engine is being cranked. Refer to Systems Check the operation of oil filter bypass valve. Clean
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System the bypass valve and the housing. If necessary,
Pressure - Test” for the correct pressure values. install new parts.
If the fuel pressure is low, replace the fuel filters.
If the fuel pressure is still low, check the following
items: fuel transfer pump, fuel transfer pump
Engine Oil Pump
coupling, and fuel pressure regulating valve. Refer
Check for blockage of the inlet screen for the engine
to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel
oil pump. Check the components of the engine oil
System” for additional information.
pump for excessive wear. If necessary, repair the oil
pump or replace the oil pump.
i02430113
Oil Cooler
Low Engine Oil Pressure
Check the engine’s oil cooler for plugging or
SMCS Code: 1348-035-LP blockage. Clean the engine oil cooler core(s) and/or
install new engine oil cooler core(s).
NOTICE
Do not operate engine with low oil pressure. Engine
damage will result. If measured engine oil pressure is
Fuel Dilution
low, discontinue engine operation until the problem is
Check for presence of fuel in lubricating oil. Refer
corrected.
to the troubleshooting without a diagnostic code
procedure Troubleshooting, “Fuel Dilution of Engine
Probable Causes Oil”.

• Engine oil level Engine Wear

• Engine oil filters and oil filter bypass valve Inspect the camshaft and/or camshaft bearings
for excessive wear. Inspect the crankshaft and/or
• Engine oil pump crankshaft bearings. Excessive wear to discrete
components may be an indication of a blocked oil
• Engine oil cooler passage. Use an oil pressure gauge to check the
oil pressure at the main oil gallery. This will help
• Fuel dilution determine if the excessive wear is from low system
pressure or from passages that are blocked.
• Engine wear
i02214503
Recommended Actions
Low Power/Poor or No
Engine Oil Level Response to Throttle
Inspect the engine oil level. If engine oil is low add SMCS Code: 1000-035
engine oil. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual.
Probable Causes
• Programmable parameters
• Diagnostic codes
• Event codes
RENR2418-02 47
Troubleshooting Section

• Injector trim codes Engine Rating


• Engine rating Verify that the correct engine rating is being used for
the application.
• Programmable parameters
Programmable Parameters
• Cold mode
Check the following parameters on Cat ET:
• Altitude derate
• Throttle Position Sensor
• Electrical connectors
• Desired Speed Input Configuration
• PTO enable switch
• Direct Fuel Control Mode
• Intermediate speed switch
Determine the type of throttle that is used in the
• Throttle signal application. Program the parameters to match the
type of throttle that is used. Refer to Troubleshooting,
• Circuit for electronic unit injectors “Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test” for more
information.
• Fuel supply
Note: The engine will have poor performance if the
• Boost pressure sensor (intake manifold air), rated parameters are not programmed correctly.
fuel position and/or FRC fuel position
Cold Mode
• Air inlet and exhaust system
Monitor the status screen on Cat ET in order to verify
Recommended Actions that the engine has exited cold mode. Observe the
reading for coolant temperature on Cat ET. Refer to
Note: If the problem only occurs under certain Troubleshooting, “System Overview” for additional
conditions, test the engine under those conditions. information.
Examples of certain conditions are high rpm, full load
and engine operating temperature. Troubleshooting Altitude Derate
the symptoms under other conditions can give
misleading results. The engine may be derated due to high elevation.
Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. Check
Programmable Parameters for an active engine derate on the status screens.

Verify that the complaint is not due to a normal Note: There are no event codes that are associated
operation such as a programmed parameter. with the altitude derate.
Connect the electronic service tool and verify that the
parameters are programmed correctly. Electrical Connections to the ECM
Diagnostic Codes and Event Codes 1. Check the following connectors for proper
installation:
Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may
cause poor performance. Connect the Caterpillar • J1/P1 and J2/P2 ECM connectors
Electronic Technician (ET) and check for active codes
and for logged codes. Troubleshoot any codes that • J61/P61 Customer connectors
are present before continuing with this procedure.
• J300/P300 Connectors for the injector solenoid
Injector Trim Codes harness

If any of the injectors or the Electronic Control Module • J401/P401 and J402/P402 Engine
(ECM) have been replaced, ensure that the injector Speed/Timing Sensor connectors
trim codes have been programmed to the correct
values. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Code - 2. Check the associated wiring for the following
Calibrate” for additional information. conditions: damage, abrasion, corrosion, and
incorrect attachment.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors


- Inspect”.
48 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Note: Aftermarket engine protection devices usually Fuel Supply


interrupt power to the ECM. Check for correct
installation and for operation of aftermarket engine Check for a problem with the fuel supply. Verify
protection devices. It may be necessary to bypass that the fuel pressure is correct. Verify that the fuel
the aftermarket devices in order to continue testing. pressure sensor P209/J209 is installed. For further
information, refer to Systems Operation/Testing and
PTO Enable Switch Adjusting, “Fuel System”.

Verify that the “PTO Enable Switch” is “Not Engaged”. Boost Pressure Sensor, Rated Fuel
If the value of the parameter does not match the Position and/or FRC Fuel Position
position of the switch, there is a problem with
the circuit for the PTO enable switch. Refer to 1. With the engine at full load, monitor “Fuel Position”
Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test”. and “Rated Fuel Limit” on the status screen. If
“Fuel Position” does not equal “Rated Fuel Limit”,
If the value of the “PTO Enable Switch” parameter then check the boost pressure.
matches the position of the switch, continue to next
step. 2. Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes
that are associated with the boost pressure sensor
Intermediate Speed Switch or with the atmospheric pressure sensor.

Verify that the value of the “Intermediate Speed 3. Monitor the boost pressure and the atmospheric
Switch” matches the position of the switch. If the pressure for normal operation on the status
value of the parameter does not match the position screen.
of the switch, there is a problem with the circuit
for the switch for the intermediate speed. Refer to Note: Atmospheric pressure is not a default
Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test”. parameter on the status screen.

If the value of the “Intermediate Speed Switch” Air Inlet and Exhaust System
parameter matches the position of the switch,
continue to next step. Check the air inlet and exhaust systems for
restrictions and for leaks. Refer to Systems
Throttle Signal Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and
Exhaust System”. Replace the plugged air filters
View the status for the throttle position on the status or clean the plugged air filters according to the
screen. Operate the throttle from the low idle position guidelines in the engine’s Operation and Maintenance
to the high idle position. The status should be 0 Manual. Repair any leaks that are found in the
percent at low idle and the status should be 100 system.
percent at high idle. If the status cannot operate in
the full range, refer to Troubleshooting, “Throttle
i02281043
Position Sensor - Calibrate”.

Diagnostic codes that are related to the J1939 data


Mechanical Noise (Knock) in
link will prevent correct operation of the throttle if the Engine
throttle position is transmitted over the data link. If
there is a problem with the data link, the engine will SMCS Code: 1000-035
remain at low idle until the data link is repaired.
Probable Causes
Circuit for the Electronic Unit Injector
• Driven equipment
Inspect the J2/P2 ECM connector and the J300/P300
unit injector connector for proper connections. Refer • Cylinder head and related components
to Troubleshooting, “ Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
Cut out each cylinder in order to isolate the misfiring • Gear train
cylinder or cylinders. If the results are inconclusive,
shut off half of the cylinders and repeat the cylinder • Crankshaft and related components
cutout test on the active cylinders that are remaining
in order to locate those cylinders that are missing. • Piston
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit -
Test”.
RENR2418-02 49
Troubleshooting Section

Recommended Repairs Recommended Actions


Driven Equipment Diagnostic Codes
Inspect the alignment and the balance of the driven Check for active diagnostic codes on the Caterpillar
equipment. Inspect the coupling. If necessary, Electronic Technician (ET). Troubleshoot any active
disconnect the driven equipment and test the engine. codes before continuing with this procedure.

Cylinder Head and Related Components Fuel Quality


Inspect the components of the valve train for good Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for
condition. Check for signs of damage and/or wear information on the characteristics of the fuel.
to the valves, cylinder head gasket, etc. Inspect the
condition of the camshafts. If a camshaft is replaced, Unit Injectors
new valve lifters must be installed.
1. Check the connectors at the Electronic Control
Gear Train Module (ECM). Check for correct installation of
the J1/P1 and J2/P2 ECM connectors. Also,
Inspect the condition of the gear train. thoroughly inspect the unit injector wiring harness
from the ECM to the J300/P300 valve cover entry
Inspect the engine oil filters for nonferrous material. connector. Refer to the diagnostic functional test
Flaking of nonferrous material could indicate worn Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
gear train bearings.
2. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on Cat ET in
Crankshaft order to determine if all of the injector solenoids
are being energized by the ECM.
Inspect the crankshaft and the related components.
Inspect the connecting rod bearings and the bearing 3. Perform the “Cylinder Cutout Test” on Cat ET
surfaces on the crankshaft. Make sure that the in order to identify any injectors that may be
bearings are in the correct position. misfiring. Refer to the diagnostic functional test
Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.
Look for worn thrust plates and wear on the
crankshaft. Valve Lash
Check the counterweight bolts. Check the engine valve lash settings. Check
damage to valve train components which may cause
Piston excessive valve lash. Repair any problems that are
found. Refer to troubleshooting without a diagnostic
Make sure that the piston pin is correctly installed. code Troubleshooting, “Excessive Valve Lash”.

Inspect the condition of the pistons according i02433203


to Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operations. Poor Acceleration or Response
SMCS Code: 1000-035
i02424645

Noise Coming from Cylinder Probable Causes


SMCS Code: 1000-035 • Engine “Derated”
Probable Causes • Cold mode operation

• Diagnostic codes • Flash file

• Fuel quality • Throttle position sensor

• Unit injectors • Electrical connectors

• Valve lash • Unit injectors


50 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Fuel Position, Rated Fuel Limit, and FRC Fuel Fuel Position, Rated Fuel Limit, and FRC
Position Fuel Position
• Air inlet and exhaust system 1. Monitor the status of “Fuel Position” and “Rated
Fuel Limit” while the engine is operating under full
• Fuel supply load. If “Fuel Position” equals “Rated Fuel Limit”
and “Fuel Position” is less than “FRC Fuel Limit”,
Recommended Actions the electronics are operating correctly. Otherwise,
proceed to the next Step.
Engine “Derated”
2. Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes for
the boost pressure sensor.
The engine may be derated due to dirty air filters
or other factors. Use the Caterpillar Electronic
Technician (ET) in order to check for engine derates. 3. Monitor the “Boost Pressure” and “Atmospheric
Pressure” for normal operation. When the engine
is not running, “Boost Pressure” should be 0 kPa
Cold Mode Operation (0 psi).
Monitor the status screen on Cat ET in order to verify
that the engine has exited cold mode. Observe the
Air Inlet and Exhaust System
reading for coolant temperature on the Cat ET. Refer
1. Check for an air filter restriction indicator. Clean
to Troubleshooting, “System Overview” for additional
plugged air filters or replace plugged air filters.
information.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Flash File 2. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for
restrictions and/or leaks. Refer to Systems
Verify that the correct flash file is installed. Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and
Exhaust System”.
Throttle Position Sensor
Fuel Supply
Monitor “Throttle Status” on Cat ET. Verify that the
throttle position is stable and that the engine is able 1. Check the fuel lines for the following problems:
to reach high idle rpm. Refer to Troubleshooting, restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If
“Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test” for the proper problems are found with the fuel lines, repair the
troubleshooting procedure. lines and/or replace the lines.

Electrical Connectors 2. Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may
block the fuel supply.
Check for correct installation of the J1/P1 and J2/P2
connectors for the Electronic Control Module (ECM). NOTICE
Check for correct installation of the JH300/P300 Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
unit injector connectors. Refer to Troubleshooting, 30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. minutes before cranking the engine again.

Unit Injectors
3. Prime the fuel system if any of the following
1. Use Cat ET to determine if there are any active procedures have been performed:
diagnostic codes for the unit injectors.
• Replacement of the fuel filters
2. Perform the injector solenoid test on Cat ET in
order to determine if all of the injector solenoids • Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit
are being energized by the ECM. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test” • Replacement of unit injectors
for the proper procedure.
Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is
3. Perform the cylinder cutout test on Cat ET in order helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. Refer to Testing
to identify any injectors that might be misfiring. and Adjusting for more information.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid
Circuit - Test” for the proper procedure.
RENR2418-02 51
Troubleshooting Section

4. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics


of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for information on improving
the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather
operation.

5. Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter while


the engine is being cranked. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting for the correct pressure values. If the
fuel pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. If
the fuel pressure is still low, check the following
items: fuel transfer pump, fuel transfer pump
coupling, and fuel pressure regulating valve. Refer
to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting for
more information.

i01405939

Valve Rotator or Spring Lock


Is Free
SMCS Code: 1109-035

Probable Causes
• Cracked valve rotator
• Broken spring locks
• Broken valve spring(s)
• Broken valve

Recommended Actions
1. Determine the cause of an engine overspeed that
would crack the valve rotator. Repair the condition.

2. Inspect the following components for damage:

• Valve rotators
• Spring locks
• Valve springs
• Valves
Note: Ensure that the valve has not contacted the
piston. If the valve has contacted the piston, check
the exhaust system for debris.

3. Replace any damaged components.


52 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting with a Suspect Parameter Number (SPN) – The SPN is a


three digit code which is assigned to each component
Diagnostic Code in order to identify data via the data link to the ECM.
This is used on the diagnostics for the CAN data link.

i02085761 Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Code Cross


Reference” for the complete list of the diagnostic
Flash Codes codes and a description of each code. There is a
troubleshooting procedure for every diagnostic code.
SMCS Code: 1900 Refer to Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting With A
Diagnostic Code”.
Flash codes are a simple way to alert the operator
that a problem exists with the engine’s control system When a diagnostic code is activated, the Electronic
or with the engine’s operation. Each flash code is Control Module (ECM) transmits information about
a two digit number. The diagnostic lamp flashes in the code over the J1939 data link. Some J1939
order to identify the flash code. devices may display the code. However, the code
will be displayed with a SPN-FMI code. Refer to
EXAMPLE Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Code Cross Reference”
for a cross-reference between SPN-FMI codes and
Note: Flash Code 27 would flash on the diagnostic diagnostic codes.
lamp in the following manner:
Do not confuse diagnostic codes with event codes.
• Two short flashes Event codes alert the operator that an abnormal
operating condition such as low oil pressure or high
• Hesitation coolant temperature has been detected. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting with an Event
• Seven short flashes Code” for additional information on event codes.
For the descriptions of the flash codes, refer to
Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Code Cross Reference”.

i02432846

Diagnostic Codes
SMCS Code: 1900

Diagnostic Codes
Diagnostic codes alert the operator that a problem in
the electronic system has been detected. Diagnostic
codes also indicate the nature of the problem to
the service technician. The Caterpillar Electronic
Technician (ET) is a software program that is
designed to run on a personal computer. Diagnostic
codes may be viewed on a personal computer that
has Cat ET software. Diagnostic codes consist of
the component identifier (CID) and the failure mode
identifier (FMI).

Component Identifier (CID) – The CID is a number


with three or four digits. The CID indicates the
component that generated the code. For example,
the CID number 0001 identifies the fuel injector for
the number one cylinder.

Failure Mode Identifier (FMI) – The FMI is a two


digit code that indicates the type of failure.
RENR2418-02 53
Troubleshooting Section

Logged Diagnostic Codes


When the ECM generates a diagnostic code, the
ECM logs the code in permanent memory. The
ECM has an internal diagnostic clock. Each ECM
will record the following information when a code is
generated:

• The hour of the first occurrence of the code


• The hour of the last occurrence of the code
• The number of occurrences of the code
This information is a valuable indicator for
troubleshooting intermittent problems.

A code is cleared from memory when one of the


following conditions occur:

• The service technician manually clears the code.


• The code does not recur for 100 hours.
• A new code is logged and there are already ten
codes in memory. In this case, the oldest code is
cleared.

Some diagnostic codes may be easily triggered.


Some diagnostic codes may log occurrences that
did not result in complaints. The most likely cause
of an intermittent problem is a faulty connection
or damaged wiring. The next likely cause is a
component failure. The least likely cause is the failure
Illustration 11
g01117578 of an electronic module. Diagnostic codes that are
logged repeatedly may indicate a problem that needs
Output voltage from a typical analog temperature sensor
special investigation.
Illustration 11 indicates the signal range for a typical Note: Always clear logged diagnostic codes after
analog sensor. Diagnostic codes will be generated if investigating and correcting the problem which
the sensor’s output signal is below 0.2 VDC or above generated the code.
4.8 VDC.

Active Diagnostic Codes i02428890

An active diagnostic code represents a problem with


Diagnostic Code Cross
the electronic control system. Correct the problem Reference
as soon as possible.
SMCS Code: 1900
When the ECM generates an active diagnostic code,
the “Active Alarm” indicator (“Engine Control Alarm Problems with the electronic control system are
Status” on Cat ET) is activated in order to alert the reported via these types of codes: flash codes,
operator. If the condition that generated the code SPN/FMI codes, diagnostic codes, and event codes.
is momentary, the message disappears from the
list of active diagnostic codes. The diagnostic code For information on flash codes, refer to
becomes logged. Troubleshooting, “Flash Codes”.

For information on SPN/FMI codes, refer to


Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Codes”.

For information on diagnostic codes, refer to


Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Codes”.
54 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

For information on event codes, refer to


Troubleshooting, “Event Codes”.

Use Table 15 as a cross-reference between the


various types of codes.

Table 15

Cross Reference for Diagnostic Codes


Diagnostic Code
Flash Code SPN(1)/FMI Code or Description of Code
Event Code
1835-15 High Auxiliary Pressure Warning
1835-16 E443(2) High Auxiliary Pressure Derate
1835-00 High Auxiliary Pressure Shutdown
1836-15 High Auxiliary Temperature Warning
1836-16 E445(2) High Auxiliary Temperature Derate
1836-00 High Auxiliary Temperature Shutdown
N/A 626-05 2417-05 Ether Injection Control Solenoid open/short to +batt
626-06 2417-06 Ether Injection Control Solenoid short to ground
1835-03 1835-03 Auxiliary Pressure Sensor open/short to +batt
1835-04 1835-04 Auxiliary Pressure Sensor short to ground
1836-03 1836-03 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor open/short to +batt
1836-04 1836-04 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor short to ground
111-02 111-02 Engine Coolant Level Sensor Loss of Signal
678-03 41-03 8 Volt DC Supply short to +batt
678-04 41-04 8 Volt DC Supply short to ground
620-03
21 262-03 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply short to +batt
1079-03
620-04
262-04 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply short to ground
1079-04
100-03 100-03 Engine Oil Pressure open/short to +batt
24 100-04 100-04 Engine Oil Pressure short to ground
100-10 100-10 Engine Oil Pressure abnormal rate of change
102-03 102-03 Boost Pressure Sensor short to +batt
25 102-04 102-04 Boost Pressure Sensor short to ground
102-10 102-10 Boost Pressure Sensor abnormal rate of change
108-03 274-03 Atmospheric Pressure open/short to +batt
26
108-04 274-04 Atmospheric Pressure short to ground
110-03 110-03 Engine Coolant Temperature open/short to +batt
27
110-04 110-04 Engine Coolant Temperature short to ground
28 91-13 91-13 Throttle Position calibration required
32 91-08 91-08 Throttle Position signal abnormal
(continued)
RENR2418-02 55
Troubleshooting Section

(Table 15, contd)


Cross Reference for Diagnostic Codes
Diagnostic Code
Flash Code SPN(1)/FMI Code or Description of Code
Event Code
190-08 190-08 Engine Speed signal abnormal
34
723-08 342-08 Secondary Engine Speed signal abnormal
190-15 Engine Overspeed Warning
35 E362(2)
190-00 Engine Overspeed Shutdown
94-03 94-03 Fuel Pressure open/short to +batt
37
94-04 94-04 Fuel Pressure short to ground
105-03 172-03 Intake Manifold Air Temp open/short to +batt
38
105-04 172-04 Intake Manifold Air Temp short to ground
164-02 164-02 Injector Actuation Pressure signal erratic
164-03 164-03 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage high
39
164-04 164-04 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage low
164-11 164-11 Injector Actuation Pressure system fault
42 637-13 261-13 Engine Timing calibration required
100-17 Low Engine Oil Pressure Warning
46 100-18 E360(2) Low Engine Oil Pressure Derate
100-01 Low Engine Oil Pressure Shutdown
729-05 617-05 Air Inlet Heater Relay open/current below normal
49
729-06 617-06 Air Inlet Heater Relay grounded/current above norm
168-00 168-00 System Voltage high
51 168-01 168-01 System Voltage low
168-02 168-02 System Voltage intermittent/erratic
56 630-02 268-02 Check Programmable Parameters
58 639-09 247-09 J1939 Data Link communications
110-15 High Engine Coolant Temperature Warning
61 110-16 E361(2) High Engine Coolant Temperature Derate
110-00 High Engine Coolant Temperature Shutdown
62 111-17 Low Engine Coolant Level Warning
111-18 E2143(2) Low Engine Coolant Level Derate
111-01 Low Engine Coolant Level Shutdown
63 94-15 E096 High Fuel Pressure Warning
1636-15 High Inlet Air Temperature Warning
64 E539(2)
1636-00 High Inlet Air Temperature Shutdown
174-15 High Fuel Temperature Warning
65 174-16 E363(2) High Fuel Temperature Derate
174-00 High Fuel Temperature Shutdown
651-05 001-05 Cylinder #1 Injector open circuit
71
651-06 001-06 Cylinder #1 Injector short
(continued)
56 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

(Table 15, contd)


Cross Reference for Diagnostic Codes
Diagnostic Code
Flash Code SPN(1)/FMI Code or Description of Code
Event Code
652-05 002-05 Cylinder #2 Injector open circuit
72
652-06 002-06 Cylinder #2 Injector short
653-05 003-05 Cylinder #3 Injector open circuit
73
653-06 003-06 Cylinder #3 Injector short
654-05 004-05 Cylinder #4 Injector open circuit
74
654-06 004-06 Cylinder #4 Injector short
75 655-05 005-05 Cylinder #5 Injector open circuit
655-06 005-06 Cylinder #5 Injector short
656-05 006-05 Cylinder #6 Injector open circuit
76
656-06 006-06 Cylinder #6 Injector short
(1) Suspect Parameter Number
(2) Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display the number 1, 2, or 3 after the event code in order to designate a warning, a derate,
or a shutdown.

i02430358 i02430360

CID 0001 FMI 05 Cylinder #1 CID 0001 FMI 06 Cylinder #1


Injector open circuit Injector short
SMCS Code: 1290-038 SMCS Code: 1290-038

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to
to operate the injector. The ECM detects an open operate the injector. The ECM detects a short circuit
circuit in the circuit for the injector. in the circuit for the injector.

System Response: System Response:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged. code has been logged.

Possible Performance Effect: Possible Performance Effect:

• The engine may misfire. • The engine may misfire.


• The engine may experience low power. • The engine may experience low power.
Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test” Solenoid Circuit - Test”

Results: Results:

• OK – STOP. • OK – STOP.
RENR2418-02 57
Troubleshooting Section

i02430362 Troubleshooting:
CID 0002 FMI 05 Cylinder #2 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Injector open circuit Solenoid Circuit - Test”

SMCS Code: 1290-038 Results:

Conditions Which Generate This Code: • OK – STOP.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting i02430365


to operate the injector. The ECM detects an open
circuit in the circuit for the injector. CID 0003 FMI 05 Cylinder #3
System Response: Injector open circuit
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will SMCS Code: 1290-038
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Possible Performance Effect: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting


to operate the injector. The ECM detects an open
circuit in the circuit for the injector.
• The engine may misfire.
System Response:
• The engine may experience low power.
Troubleshooting: The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector code has been logged.
Solenoid Circuit - Test”
Possible Performance Effect:
Results:
• The engine may misfire.
• OK – STOP.
• The engine may experience low power.
i02430363 Troubleshooting:
CID 0002 FMI 06 Cylinder #2 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Injector short Solenoid Circuit - Test”

SMCS Code: 1290-038 Results:

Conditions Which Generate This Code: • OK – STOP.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to i02430366


operate the injector. The ECM detects a short circuit
in the circuit for the injector. CID 0003 FMI 06 Cylinder #3
System Response: Injector short
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will SMCS Code: 1290-038
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Possible Performance Effect: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to


operate the injector. The ECM detects a short circuit
in the circuit for the injector.
• The engine may misfire.
System Response:
• The engine may experience low power.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged.
58 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: i02430370

• The engine may misfire. CID 0004 FMI 06 Cylinder #4


Injector short
• The engine may experience low power.
SMCS Code: 1290-038
Troubleshooting:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test” The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to
operate the injector. The ECM detects a short circuit
Results: in the circuit for the injector.

• OK – STOP. System Response:

i02430368
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
CID 0004 FMI 05 Cylinder #4 code has been logged.
Injector open circuit Possible Performance Effect:
SMCS Code: 1290-038
• The engine may misfire.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
• The engine may experience low power.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting Troubleshooting:
to operate the injector. The ECM detects an open
circuit in the circuit for the injector. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test”
System Response:
Results:
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged.
• OK – STOP.

Possible Performance Effect: i02430371

• The engine may misfire. CID 0005 FMI 05 Cylinder #5


Injector open circuit
• The engine may experience low power.
SMCS Code: 1290-038
Troubleshooting:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test” The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting
to operate the injector. The ECM detects an open
Results: circuit in the circuit for the injector.

• OK – STOP. System Response:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged.

Possible Performance Effect:

• The engine may misfire.


• The engine may experience low power.
RENR2418-02 59
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting: Possible Performance Effect:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector • The engine may misfire.
Solenoid Circuit - Test”
• The engine may experience low power.
Results:
Troubleshooting:
• OK – STOP.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test”
i02430373

CID 0005 FMI 06 Cylinder #5 Results:

Injector short • OK – STOP.


SMCS Code: 1290-038
i02430376

Conditions Which Generate This Code:


CID 0006 FMI 06 Cylinder #6
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to Injector short
operate the injector. The ECM detects a short circuit
in the circuit for the injector. SMCS Code: 1290-038

System Response: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the operate the injector. The ECM detects a short circuit
code has been logged. in the circuit for the injector.

Possible Performance Effect: System Response:

• The engine may misfire. The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
• The engine may experience low power. code has been logged.

Troubleshooting: Possible Performance Effect:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector • The engine may misfire.
Solenoid Circuit - Test”
• The engine may experience low power.
Results:
Troubleshooting:
• OK – STOP.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test”
i02430375

CID 0006 FMI 05 Cylinder #6 Results:

Injector open circuit • OK – STOP.


SMCS Code: 1290-038
i02419277

Conditions Which Generate This Code:


CID 0041 FMI 03 8 Volt DC
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting Supply short to +batt
to operate the injector. The ECM detects an open
circuit in the circuit for the injector. SMCS Code: 5574-038

System Response: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will The voltage level of the 8 volt supply is above normal.
continue to attempt to operate the injector after the
code has been logged.
60 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: i02275031

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the CID 0042 FMI 05 Injector
diagnostic code. The ECM flags all digital sensors Actuation Valve open circuit
as invalid data and all digital sensors are set to the
respective default values. SMCS Code: 1714-038
Possible Performance Effect: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

• The engine may experience low power. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an
open circuit in the circuit for the injection actuation
Troubleshooting: pressure control valve (IAPCV).
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Digital System Response:
Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”
The diagnostic code may be viewed on a display
Results: module or on the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET).
• OK – STOP.
Possible Performance Effect:
i02419278
• Engine misfires
CID 0041 FMI 04 8 Volt DC
Supply short to ground • Low power

SMCS Code: 5574-038


• Reduced engine speed (rpm)

Conditions Which Generate This Code:


• Engine shutdown
Troubleshooting:
The voltage level of the 8 volt supply is below normal.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injection
System Response: Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit - Test”
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) logs the Results:
diagnostic code. The ECM flags all digital sensors
as invalid data and all digital sensors are set to the
respective default values.
• OK – STOP.

Possible Performance Effect: i02275041

• The engine may experience low power. CID 0042 FMI 06 Injector
Troubleshooting:
Actuation Valve short to
ground
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Digital
Sensor Supply Circuit - Test” SMCS Code: 1714-038

Results: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

• OK – STOP. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects


excessive current flow in the circuit for the injection
actuation pressure control valve (IAPCV).

System Response:

The diagnostic code may be viewed on a display


module or on the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET).
RENR2418-02 61
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: System Response:

• Engine misfires The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the
diagnostic code. The ECM flags the throttle position
• Low power as invalid data and a default value of zero percent
is used.
• Reduced engine speed (rpm)
Possible Performance Effect:
• Engine shutdown
• The engine speed is limited to low idle.
Troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injection
Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit - Test” Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Throttle
Position Sensor - Calibrate”
Results:
Results:
• OK – STOP.
• OK – STOP.
i02417388

CID 0091 FMI 08 Throttle


i02416290

Position signal abnormal CID 0094 FMI 03 Fuel Pressure


open/short to +batt
SMCS Code: 1913-038
SMCS Code: 1718-038
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an
incorrect frequency on the throttle signal. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
signal voltage from the sensor that is above normal.
System Response:
System Response:
The code is logged. The ECM flags the throttle
position as invalid data and a default value of zero The code is logged. The ECM flags fuel pressure as
percent is used. invalid data and a default value is used.

Possible Performance Effect: Possible Performance Effect:

• The engine speed is limited to low idle. • None


Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Throttle Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Position Sensor Circuit - Test” Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”

Results: Results:

• OK – STOP. • OK – STOP.

i02426246 i02416295

CID 0091 FMI 13 Throttle CID 0094 FMI 04 Fuel Pressure


Position calibration required short to ground
SMCS Code: 1913-038 SMCS Code: 1718-038

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The duty cycle of the signal from the throttle that is The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
connected to the primary throttle input is incorrect. signal voltage that is below normal.
62 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: System Response:

The code is logged. The ECM flags fuel pressure as The code is logged. The ECM flags oil pressure as
invalid data and a default value is used. invalid data and a default value is used.

Possible Performance Effect: Possible Performance Effect:

• None • None
Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test” Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”

Results: Results:

• OK – STOP. • OK – STOP.

i02416374 i02437737

CID 0100 FMI 03 Engine Oil CID 0100 FMI 10 Engine Oil
Pressure open/short to +batt Pressure Sensor abnormal
SMCS Code: 1924-038
rate of change
SMCS Code: 1924-038
Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a Conditions Which Generate This Code:
signal voltage that is above normal.
This code indicates that the 5 volt supply is missing
System Response: from the sensor connector.

During normal engine operation, the oil pressure


The code is logged. The ECM flags oil pressure as
invalid data and a default value is used. fluctuates slightly. When the 5 volt supply is missing
from the oil pressure sensor, the signal from the
oil pressure sensor goes to a midrange value. The
Possible Performance Effect:
signal does not fluctuate. If the signal from the oil
pressure sensor remains abnormally steady for more
• None than 30 seconds, the Engine Control Module (ECM)
Troubleshooting: activates this code.

System Response:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
A snapshot is triggered. The ECM uses a default
value for the oil pressure.
Results:
Possible Performance Effect:
• OK – STOP.
• There are no performance effects.
i02416377
Troubleshooting:
CID 0100 FMI 04 Engine Oil
Pressure short to ground Repair the Open Circuit

SMCS Code: 1924-038 A. Repair the supply wire or replace the supply wire
between the ECM and the sensor.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Expected Result:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
signal voltage that is below normal. The problem is resolved.
RENR2418-02 63
Troubleshooting Section

Results: Possible Performance Effect:

• OK – The problem is resolved. STOP. Low power

• Not OK – The problem is not resolved. Troubleshooting:

Repair: Replace the sensor. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
STOP.
Results:
i02411901
• OK – STOP.
CID 0102 FMI 03 Boost
Pressure Sensor short to +batt i02433370

SMCS Code: 1917-038


CID 0102 FMI 10 Boost
Pressure Sensor abnormal
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
rate of change
The signal voltage from the boost pressure sensor is
SMCS Code: 1917-038
above normal.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
System Response:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the This code indicates that the 5 volt supply is missing
from the sensor connector.
diagnostic code. The ECM will flag the boost pressure
as invalid data and a default value is used for the
boost pressure. System Response:

During normal engine operation, the boost pressure


Possible Performance Effect:
fluctuates slightly. When the 5 volt supply is missing
from the boost pressure sensor, the signal from the
Low power
boost pressure sensor goes to a midrange value.
Troubleshooting: The signal does not fluctuate. If the signal from the
boost pressure sensor remains abnormally steady for
more than 30 seconds, the Engine Control Module
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test” (ECM) activates this code.

A snapshot is triggered. The ECM sets the value of


Results:
the boost pressure to 100 kPa (14.5 psi).
• OK – STOP. Possible Performance Effect:

i02411905 The engine power is reduced.

CID 0102 FMI 04 Boost Troubleshooting:


Pressure Sensor short to Repair the Open Circuit
ground
A. Repair the open circuit on the supply wire between
SMCS Code: 1917-038 the ECM and the sensor.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Expected Result:

The signal voltage from the boost pressure sensor is The problem is resolved.
below normal.
Results:
System Response:
• OK – The problem is resolved. STOP.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the
diagnostic code. The ECM will flag the boost pressure • Not OK – The problem is not resolved.
as invalid data and a default value is used for the
boost pressure.
64 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Replace the sensor. i02214871

STOP. CID 0110 FMI 04 Engine


Coolant Temperature short to
i02214851 ground
CID 0110 FMI 03 Engine SMCS Code: 1906-038
Coolant Temperature
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
open/short to +batt
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
SMCS Code: 1906-038 following conditions:
Conditions Which Generate This Code: The engine has been running for more than seven
minutes.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: The signal voltage from the engine coolant
temperature sensor is less than 0.2 VDC for more
• The engine has been running for more than seven than eight seconds.
minutes.
System Response:
• The signal voltage from the engine coolant
temperature sensor is greater than 4.95 VDC for The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The check
more than eight seconds. engine lamp will illuminate after a delay.
System Response: The ECM will set the value of the coolant temperature
to a default value.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code if the engine
has been running for more than seven minutes. The The engine will not go into cold mode while the
check engine lamp will illuminate after a delay. diagnostic code is active.
The ECM will set the value of the coolant temperature The ECM will activate the cooling fan after this code
to a default value. has been active for more than eight seconds.
The engine will not go into cold mode while this Troubleshooting:
diagnostic code is active.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
The ECM will activate the cooling fan after this code Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
has been active for more than eight seconds.
Results:
Possible Performance Effect:

None
• OK – STOP.

Troubleshooting: i02290633

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine CID 0111 FMI 02 Engine
Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test” Coolant Level Sensor Loss of
Results: Signal
• OK – STOP. SMCS Code: 5574-038-CLT

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The signal from the coolant level sensor is missing.


RENR2418-02 65
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: Troubleshooting:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injection
diagnostic code. The diagnostic code may be viewed Actuation Pressure Sensor - Test”
on a display module or on the electronic service tool.
Results:
Troubleshooting:
• OK – STOP.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Coolant
Level Sensor Circuit - Test”
i02427705

Results: CID 0164 FMI 03 Injector


• OK – STOP. Actuation Pressure voltage
high
i02388568
SMCS Code: 1925-038
CID 0164 FMI 02 Injector
Actuation Pressure signal Conditions Which Generate This Code:

erratic The signal from the injection actuation pressure


sensor is above normal. Cold mode is not active.
SMCS Code: 1925-038
System Response:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the diagnostic code. The ECM will flag injection actuation
following conditions: pressure as invalid data and a default value is used.
The ECM will set the current for the control valve to a
If the engine is not running, the following fixed value.
conditions must be met.
Possible Performance Effect:
• The actual injection actuation pressure remains
above 3 MPa (435 psi) for at least three seconds. • The engine may experience low power.
• Cold mode is not active. • The engine may experience poor idle quality.
If the engine is running, the following conditions Troubleshooting:
must be met.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
• The actual injection actuation pressure and the Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
desired injection actuation pressure differ by more
than 2 MPa (290 psi) for at least ten seconds. Results:

• The change in injection actuation pressure was • OK – STOP.


not consistent with the change in the current to the
control valve.
i02427714

• Cold mode is not active. CID 0164 FMI 04 Injector


System Response: Actuation Pressure voltage
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The status
low
of “Injection Actuation Pressure” on Caterpillar
SMCS Code: 1925-038
Electronic Technician (ET) will revert to a default
value.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Possible Performance Effect: The signal from the injection actuation pressure
sensor is below normal. Cold mode is not active.
• Low power
66 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: • Difficult to start at normal operating temperatures


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the • Easy to start below normal operating temperatures
diagnostic code. The ECM will flag injection actuation
pressure as invalid data and a default value will be Troubleshooting:
used. The ECM will set the current for the control
valve to a fixed value. Note: The problem may only exist at operating
temperature. Air may be trapped in the injection
Possible Performance Effect: actuation system if the system has been serviced
recently. Start the engine and run the engine at 1500
• The engine may experience low power. rpm for a few minutes in order to remove the trapped
air.
• The engine may experience poor idle quality.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injection
Troubleshooting: Actuation Pressure - Test”

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine Results:


Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
• OK – STOP.
Results:
i02424772
• OK – STOP.
CID 0168 FMI 00 System
i02120334 Voltage High
CID 0164 FMI 11 Injector SMCS Code: 1401-038
Actuation Pressure system
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
fault
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
SMCS Code: 1925-038 following condition:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
• For 12 volt systems, the ECM reads battery voltage
that is above 16 VDC.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one of
the following conditions:
• For 24 Volt systems, the ECM reads battery
voltage that is above 32 VDC.
• The actual injection actuation pressure and the
desired injection actuation pressure differ by more
Note: Excessive voltage to the ECM may damage
than 3 MPa (435 psi). the ECM.
• The current to the injection actuation pressure System Response:
control valve is at either the maximum output or the
minimum output for an excessive period of time.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code.
Note: The diagnostic code indicates a mechanical Possible Performance Effect:
problem. The ECM and the electronic control system
are operating correctly.
• There are no performance effects.
System Response:
Troubleshooting:
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic Perform the following diagnostic procedure:
code may be viewed on a display module or on the
“Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test”
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).
Results:
Possible Performance Effect:
• OK – STOP.
• Low power
• Unstable idle
RENR2418-02 67
Troubleshooting Section

i02437120 Possible Performance Effect:


CID 0168 FMI 01 System The engine may experience the following
Voltage Low performance effects:

SMCS Code: 1401-038 • Engine misfire

Conditions Which Generate This Code: • Engine shutdown

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has been Troubleshooting:


powered for at least three seconds. The ECM detects
the following condition: Perform the following diagnostic procedure:
“Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test”
• For 12 volt systems, the ECM reads battery voltage
that is below 9 VDC. Results:

• For 24 volt systems, the ECM reads battery voltage • OK – STOP.


that is below 18 VDC.
i02258949
System Response:
CID 0172 FMI 03 Intake
The ECM will log the diagnostic code.
Manifold Air Temp open/short
Possible Performance Effect: to +batt
• Engine misfires SMCS Code: 1921-038

• Engine shutdown Conditions Which Generate This Code:

• Hard starting The engine coolant temperature is above −10 °C


(14 °F). The signal voltage from the intake manifold
• Clattering noise from the starting motor during air temperature sensor is greater than 4.95 VDC for
engine cranking more than eight seconds.

Troubleshooting: System Response:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the
“Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test” diagnostic code. The ECM flags engine coolant
temperature as invalid data and a default value of
Results: 40 °C (104 °F) is used.

• OK – STOP. Possible Performance Effect:

None
i02415969

CID 0168 FMI 02 System Troubleshooting:


Voltage intermittent/erratic Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
SMCS Code: 1401-038
Results:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
• OK – STOP.
While the engine is running, the battery voltage drops
below 9 VDC intermittently, or the battery voltage
drops below 9 VDC three times in a seven second
period.

System Response:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the


diagnostic code.
68 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

i02424787 Troubleshooting:
CID 0172 FMI 04 Intake Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Manifold Air Temp short to Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test”

ground Results:

SMCS Code: 1921-038 • OK – STOP.


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
i02048968
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
signal voltage that is below normal. CID 0247 FMI 09 J1939 Data
Link communications
System Response:
SMCS Code: 1901-038
The code is logged. The ECM will flag the intake
manifold air temperature as invalid data and the Conditions Which Generate This Code:
intake manifold air temperature is set to a default
value. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has detected a
loss of communications with the J1939 data link.
Possible Performance Effect:
System Response:
• The engine may experience hard starting and/or
rough running. The ECM will log the diagnostic code.

• The engine may smoke. Possible Performance Effect:

Troubleshooting: The engine may not operate properly. The equipment


may not have engine speed control.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test” Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “CAN
Data Link Circuit - Test”
Results:
Results:
• OK – STOP.
• OK – STOP.
i02421359

CID 0190 FMI 08 Engine Speed i02428636

signal abnormal CID 0253 FMI 02 Personality


Module mismatch
SMCS Code: 1907-038
SMCS Code: 1902-038
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) receives erratic
data from the engine speed/timing sensor. The flash file that is used for replacement is for
a different engine family or for a different engine
System Response: application.

The code is logged. System Response:

Possible Performance Effect: Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will not be able
to clear the code.
• The engine may not start.
Possible Performance Effect:
• The engine will run rough.
• The fuel injection system is disabled and the
engine will not start.
RENR2418-02 69
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting: • Reduced engine speed


Check the Part Number of the Flash File • White exhaust smoke
A. Restore the electrical power to the Electronic • Increased exhaust emissions
Control Module (ECM).
Troubleshooting:
B. Verify that the part number for the flash file agrees
with the latest update that is available on Service Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Technician Workbench (STW), or on SIS Web. Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate”

Expected Result: Results:

The correct flash file is installed in the ECM. • OK – STOP.


Results:
i02416460

• OK – The correct flash file is installed in the ECM. CID 0262 FMI 03 5 Volt Sensor
Repair: The engine will not start until the 253-02 DC Power Supply short to
diagnostic code is cleared. Clearing this code
requires factory passwords.
+batt
SMCS Code: 5574-038
Acquire factory passwords. Clear the 253-02
diagnostic code. Return the engine to service.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
STOP.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an
above normal voltage on the 5 volt supply.
• Not OK – The correct flash file is not installed in
the ECM.
System Response:
Repair: Flash program the ECM with the correct The code is logged. The check engine lamp will
flash file. Refer to programming parameters
illuminate while this diagnostic code is active. The
Troubleshooting, “Flash Programming”. Verify that
ECM sets all of the pressure sensors to the default
the problem is resolved. values.
STOP.
Possible Performance Effect:

i02348802 • The engine power is derated.


CID 0261 FMI 13 Engine Timing Troubleshooting:
Calibration required Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “5 Volt
Engine Pressure Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”
SMCS Code: 1912-038

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Results:

The timing has not been calibrated since the • OK – STOP.


Electronic Control Module (ECM) was installed or the
calibration is incorrect. i02416463

System Response: CID 0262 FMI 04 5 Volt Sensor


The ECM will log the diagnostic code.
DC Power Supply short to
ground
The ECM uses default timing.
SMCS Code: 5574-038
Possible Performance Effect:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
• Engine misfires
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
• Low power below normal voltage on the 5 volt supply.
70 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: Load any missing injector trim files, if necessary.


Refer to programming parameters Troubleshooting,
The code is logged. The check engine lamp will “Injector Trim File”.
illuminate while this diagnostic code is active. The
ECM sets all of the pressure sensors to the default Results:
value.
• OK – The problem is resolved. STOP.
Possible Performance Effect:
i02281091
• The engine power is derated.
Troubleshooting:
CID 0274 FMI 03 Atmospheric
Pressure open/short to +batt
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “5 Volt
Engine Pressure Sensor Supply Circuit - Test” SMCS Code: 1923-038

Results: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

• OK – STOP. The signal voltage from the atmospheric pressure


sensor is above 4.8 VDC for at least eight seconds.
i02437740 System Response:
CID 0268 FMI 02 Check The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log
Programmable Parameters the diagnostic code. The ECM flags atmospheric
pressure as invalid data and a default value of
SMCS Code: 1901-038 100 kPa (15 psi) is used.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Possible Performance Effect:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one of Low power


the following conditions:
Troubleshooting:
• One or more of the programmable parameters has
not been programmed. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
• One or more of the injector trim files are not
programmed. Results:

System Response: • OK – STOP.


The diagnostic code will only be active. The check
i02397806
engine lamp is illuminated while this diagnostic code
is active. CID 0274 FMI 04 Atmospheric
Possible Performance Effect: Pressure short to ground
Engine performance may be affected by SMCS Code: 1923-038
unprogrammed parameters. The unprogrammed
parameters determine the action that is taken by the Conditions Which Generate This Code:
ECM. The ECM may use a default torque map or the
ECM may limit the engine to low idle. The signal voltage from the atmospheric pressure
sensor is below normal.
Troubleshooting:
System Response:
Check the Programmable Parameters
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log
Program the missing parameters, if necessary. the diagnostic code. The ECM flags atmospheric
Refer to Troubleshooting, “System Configuration pressure as invalid data and a default value is used.
Parameters”.
RENR2418-02 71
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: i02424828

Low power CID 0617 FMI 05 Air Inlet


Heater Relay open/current
Troubleshooting:
below normal
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test” SMCS Code: 4493-038

Results: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

• OK – STOP. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an


open circuit while attempting to energize the air inlet
heater relay.
i02286859
System Response:
CID 0342 FMI 08 Secondary
Engine Speed signal abnormal The ECM logs the diagnostic code. The air inlet
heater will be disabled or the air inlet heater will run
SMCS Code: 1907-038 continuously.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Possible Performance Effect:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the • The engine may experience hard starting and/or
following conditions: the engine may emit excessive white smoke.

• The engine speed is greater than 120 rpm. Troubleshooting:

• The pattern for the timing ring is incorrect for five Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Air Inlet
seconds. Heater Circuit - Test”

System Response: Results:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM flags • OK – STOP.
the secondary engine speed signal as invalid data
and a default value of zero rpm is used.
i02424832

Possible Performance Effect: CID 0617 FMI 06 Air Inlet Heater


• Engine misfires Relay grounded/current above
norm
• Engine shutdown
SMCS Code: 4493-038
Note: The engine will shut down only if the primary
engine speed/timing sensor and the secondary Conditions Which Generate This Code:
engine speed/timing sensor are abnormal.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects
Troubleshooting: excessive current while attempting to energize the
air inlet heater relay.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test” System Response:
Results: The ECM logs the diagnostic code. The air inlet
heater will be disabled or the air inlet heater will run
• OK – STOP. continuously.

Possible Performance Effect:

• The engine may experience hard starting and/or


the engine may emit excessive white smoke.
72 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting: Possible Performance Effect:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Air Inlet • There are no performance effects.
Heater Circuit - Test”
Troubleshooting:
Results:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
• OK – STOP. Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”

Results:
i02427110

CID 1835 FMI 03 Auxiliary • OK – STOP.


Pressure Sensor open/short to
i02214960
+batt
CID 1836 FMI 03 Auxiliary
SMCS Code: 5574-038-PX
Temperature Sensor
Conditions Which Generate This Code: open/short to +batt
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a SMCS Code: 5574-038-TA
signal voltage that is above normal.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
System Response:
The signal voltage from the auxiliary temperature
The ECM logs the diagnostic code. The value of the sensor is greater than 8.5 VDC.
auxiliary pressure is set to a default value.
System Response:
Possible Performance Effect:
The ECM logs the diagnostic code. The value of the
• There are no performance effects. auxiliary temperature is set to a default value.

Troubleshooting: Possible Performance Effect:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine • None


Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine
Results: Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”

• OK – STOP. Results:

i02427111
• OK – STOP.

CID 1835 FMI 04 Auxiliary i02427113

Pressure Sensor short to CID 1836 FMI 04 Auxiliary


ground Temperature Sensor short to
SMCS Code: 5574-038-PX ground
Conditions Which Generate This Code: SMCS Code: 5574-038-TA

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a Conditions Which Generate This Code:
signal voltage from the auxiliary pressure sensor that
is below normal. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
signal voltage from the auxiliary temperature sensor
System Response: that is below normal.

The ECM logs the diagnostic code. The value of the


auxiliary pressure is set to a default value.
RENR2418-02 73
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: System Response:

The ECM logs the diagnostic code. The value of the The code is logged.
auxiliary temperature is set to a default value.
Possible Performance Effect:
Possible Performance Effect:
• The engine may be difficult to start.
• There are no performance effects.
Troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Ether
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Engine Injection System - Test”
Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”
Results:
Results:
• OK – STOP.
• OK – STOP.

i02418270

CID 2417 FMI 05 Ether Injection


Control Solenoid current low
SMCS Code: 5479-038

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects low


current in the circuit.

System Response:

The code is logged.

Possible Performance Effect:

• The engine may be difficult to start.


Troubleshooting:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Ether


Injection System - Test”

Results:

• OK – STOP.

i02418652

CID 2417 FMI 06 Ether Injection


Control Solenoid current high
SMCS Code: 5479-038

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects


excessive current flow in the circuit.
74 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting with an
Event Code
i02275527

Event Codes
SMCS Code: 1901

Event codes alert the operator that an abnormal


engine operating condition such as low oil pressure or
high coolant temperature has been detected. When
the event code is generated, the event is active.

Active Event Codes


An active event code represents a problem with
engine operation. Correct the problem as soon as
possible.

Active event codes are listed in ascending numerical


order. The code with the lowest number is listed first.

When certain event codes are activated, the


Electronic Control Module (ECM) also generates a
flash code that will be displayed on the diagnostic
lamp. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Code
Cross Reference” for a cross-reference between
event codes and flash codes.

Illustration 12 is an example of the operating range of


an oil temperature sensor. Do not use the Illustration
to troubleshoot the oil temperature sensor. g01139661
Illustration 12
Example of the typical operating range of an oil temperature sensor
(1) This area represents the normal temperature range for the
engine oil. The normal output voltage of the sensor is between
0.2 VDC and 4.2 VDC.
(2) In this area, the oil temperature above 107 °C (225 °F) is higher
than normal. The output voltage of the sensor will generate an
event code. The sensor does not have an electronic problem.
(3) In these areas, the output voltage of the sensor is too high
or too low. The voltage is outside of the normal range. The
electronic problem will generate a diagnostic code. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for
additional information on diagnostic codes.

The following format is used for event codes:

“EXXX (Y) Description of the event”

The “E” means that the code is an event code. The


“XXX” represents a numeric identifier for the event
code. The “(Y)” represents a numeric identifier for the
severity of the event. This is followed by a description
of the event. Refer to the following example:

“E004 (3) Engine Overspeed Shutdown”


RENR2418-02 75
Troubleshooting Section

In this example, the number 3 indicates the severity 1. Obtain the following information about the
of the event. The ECM has three levels of response complaint from the operator:
to events:
• The event and the time of the event
Warning (1) – This condition represents a serious
problem with engine operation. However, this • Determine the conditions for the event. The
condition does not require a derate or a shutdown. conditions will include the engine rpm and the
load.
Derate (2) – For this condition, the ECM reduces
the engine’s power in order to help prevent possible • Determine if there are any systems that were
engine damage. installed by the dealer or by the customer that
could cause the event.
Shutdown (3) – For this condition, the ECM shuts
down the engine in order to help prevent possible • Determine whether any additional events
engine damage. occurred.

Responses to certain events may be programmed 2. Verify that the complaint is not due to normal
into the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “System engine operation. Verify that the complaint is not
Configuration Parameters”. due to error of the operator.

3. Narrow the probable cause. Consider the operator


Logged Event Codes information, the conditions of operation, and the
When the ECM generates an event code the ECM history of the engine.
logs the code in permanent memory. The ECM has
4. Perform a visual inspection. Inspect the following
an internal diagnostic clock. The ECM will record
the following information when an event code is items:
generated:
• Fuel supply
• The hour of the first occurrence of the code
• Oil level
• The hour of the last occurrence of the code
• Oil supply
• The number of occurrences of the code
• Wiring
Logged events are listed in chronological order. The
most recent event code is listed first. • Connectors

This information can be helpful for troubleshooting Be sure to check the connectors. This is very
important for problems that are intermittent. Refer to
intermittent problems. Logged codes can also be
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
used to review the performance of the engine.
If these steps do not resolve the problem, identify
Clearing Event Codes the procedures in this manual that best describe the
event. Check each probable cause according to the
A code is cleared from memory when one of the tests that are recommended.
following conditions occur:

• The code does not recur for 100 hours. i02231322

• A new code is logged and there are already ten


E096 High Fuel Pressure
codes in memory. In this case, the oldest code is
SMCS Code: 1250-038-HQ
cleared.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
• The service technician manually clears the code.
The following conditions occur:
Always clear logged event codes after investigating
and correcting the problem which generated the
code. • The engine has been running for 65 seconds.
• The fuel pressure is at least 758 kPa (110 psi) for
Troubleshooting eight seconds.

For basic troubleshooting of the engine, perform the


following steps in order to diagnose a malfunction:
76 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Note: The warning will be cancelled if the fuel • Engine oil pressure is in the “DERATE/SHUTDOWN
pressure drops below 733 kPa (106 psi) for four REGION” in Illustration 13 for eight seconds.
seconds.
Note: The derate will be cancelled if the oil pressure
System Response: rises 21 kPa (3 psi) above the set point for 20
seconds.
The ECM will log the code.
360-3
Possible Performance Effect:
• The engine has been running for at least ten
Engine operation is not affected. seconds.

Troubleshooting: • There are no active diagnostic codes for the oil


pressure sensor or for the atmospheric pressure
Check the Fuel System sensor.

Check the pressure of the fuel system. Refer to • Engine oil pressure is in the “DERATE/SHUTDOWN
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel REGION” in Illustration 13 for four seconds.
System Pressure - Test” for more information.

Results:

• OK – STOP.

i02116608

E360 Low Engine Oil Pressure


SMCS Code: 1348-038-LP

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The following conditions occur:

360-1

• The engine has been running for at least ten


seconds.
g01104936
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the oil Illustration 13
pressure sensor or for the atmospheric pressure Engine oil pressure versus engine speed
sensor.
System Response:
• Engine oil pressure is in the “WARNING REGION”
in Illustration 13 for eight seconds. 360-1

Note: The warning will be cancelled if the oil pressure The warning lamp will flash while the warning is
rises 21 kPa (3 psi) above the set point for 20 active.
seconds.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will generate a
360-2 46 flash code that will be displayed via the diagnostic
lamp.
• The engine has been running for at least ten
seconds. The ECM will generate a E360-1 event code.

• There are no active diagnostic codes for the oil The ECM will generate a SPN 100-FMI 17 event
pressure sensor or for the atmospheric pressure code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
sensor. displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link.
RENR2418-02 77
Troubleshooting Section

360-2 i02433558

The warning lamp will flash while the derate is active. E361 High Engine Coolant
Temperature
The ECM will generate a 46 flash code that will be
displayed via the diagnostic lamp. SMCS Code: 1395-038-TA
The ECM will generate a E360-2 event code. Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display The following conditions occur:
“Engine Derate” in the first “Engine Status” box on
any Cat ET status screen. 361-1
The ECM will generate a SPN 100-FMI 18 event • The engine has been running for three minutes.
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data • There are no active diagnostic codes for the
link. coolant temperature sensor.
360-3 • The coolant temperature has exceeded the set
point for ten seconds.
The warning lamp will flash.
Note: The warning will be cancelled if the coolant
The ECM will generate a 46 flash code that will be temperature rises 2 °C (36 °F) above the set point
displayed via the diagnostic lamp. for 20 seconds.
The ECM will generate a E360-3 event code. 361-2
The ECM will generate a SPN 100-FMI 01 event • The engine has been running for three minutes.
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data • There are no active diagnostic codes for the
link. coolant temperature sensor.
Possible Performance Effect: • The coolant temperature has exceeded the set
point for ten seconds.
360-1
Note: The derate will be cancelled if the coolant
Engine operation is not affected. temperature rises 2 °C (36 °F) above the set point
for 45 seconds.
360-2
361-3
The ECM will derate power by 17.5 percent per
second up to a maximum of 35 percent while the • The engine has been running for three minutes.
derate is active.
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the
360-3 coolant temperature sensor.
The engine will shut down. • The coolant temperature has exceeded the set
point for ten seconds.
Troubleshooting:
System Response:
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Low Engine Oil Pressure”.
361-1
Results:
The warning lamp will flash while the warning is
• OK – STOP. active.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will generate a


61 flash code that will be displayed via the diagnostic
lamp.

The ECM will generate a E361-1 event code.


78 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

The ECM will generate a SPN 110-FMI 15 event Results:


code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data • OK – STOP.
link.
i02116568
361-2

The warning lamp will flash while the derate is active.


E362 Engine Overspeed
SMCS Code: 7410-038; 7427-038
The ECM will generate a 61 flash code that will be
displayed via the diagnostic lamp. Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The ECM will generate a E361-2 event code. The following conditions occur:
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display 362-1
“Engine Derate” in the first “Engine Status” box on
any Cat ET status screen.
• At least one engine speed/timing sensor does not
have an active diagnostic code.
The ECM will generate a SPN 110-FMI 16 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
• The engine speed has exceeded the set point.
link. Note: The warning will be cancelled if the engine
speed is reduced to 200 rpm below the set point.
361-3
362-3
The warning lamp will flash.

The ECM will generate a 61 flash code that will be


• At least one engine speed/timing sensor does not
have an active diagnostic code.
displayed via the diagnostic lamp.

The ECM will generate a E361-3 event code.


• The engine speed has exceeded the set point.
System Response:
The ECM will generate a SPN 110-FMI 00 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be 362-1
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link. The warning lamp will flash while the warning is
active.
Possible Performance Effect:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will generate a
361-1 35 flash code that will be displayed via the diagnostic
lamp.
Engine operation is not affected.
The ECM will generate a E362-1 event code.
361-2
The ECM will generate a SPN 190-FMI 15 event
The ECM will derate power by 25 percent. The ECM code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
will derate power an additional 25 percent for every displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
1 °C (2 °F) over 111 °C (232 °F). The power will be link.
derated at one percent per second.
362-3
361-3
The warning lamp will flash.
The engine will shut down.
The ECM will generate a 35 flash code that will be
Troubleshooting: displayed via the diagnostic lamp.
Check the cooling system. Refer to Testing and The ECM will generate a E362-3 event code.
Adjusting, “Cooling System - Check”.
RENR2418-02 79
Troubleshooting Section

The ECM will generate a SPN 190-FMI 00 event 443-3


code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data • The engine has been running for three minutes.
link.
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the
Possible Performance Effect: auxiliary pressure sensor.

362-1 • The pressure that is sensed by the auxiliary


pressure sensor has exceeded the set point for
Engine operation is not affected. three seconds.

362-3 System Response:

The engine will be shut down. 443-1

Troubleshooting: The warning lamp will flash while the warning is


active.
Determine the events that caused the overspeed.
Make corrections in order to prevent the overspeed The ECM will generate a E443-1 event code.
from recurring.
The ECM will generate a SPN 1835-FMI 15 event
Results: code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
• OK – STOP. link.

443-2
i02172516

E443 High Auxiliary Pressure The warning lamp will flash while the derate is active.

SMCS Code: 5095-038-AX The ECM will generate a E443-2 event code.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display
“Engine Derate” in the first “Engine Status” box on
The following conditions occur: any Cat ET status screen.

443-1 The ECM will generate a SPN 1835-FMI 16 event


code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
• The engine has been running for three minutes. link.
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the 443-3
auxiliary pressure sensor.
The warning lamp will flash.
• The pressure that is sensed by the auxiliary
pressure sensor has exceeded the set point for
four seconds. The ECM will generate a E443-3 event code.

Note: The warning will be cancelled if the pressure The ECM will generate a SPN 1835-FMI 00 event
falls 40 kPa (6 psi) below the set point for two code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
seconds. displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link.
443-2
Possible Performance Effect:
• The engine has been running for three minutes. 443-1
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the Engine operation is not affected.
auxiliary pressure sensor.
443-2
• The pressure that is sensed by the auxiliary
pressure sensor has exceeded the set point for
three seconds. The ECM will derate power by 25 percent. The power
will be derated at one percent per second.
Note: The derate will be cancelled if the pressure falls
40 kPa (6 psi) below the set point for two seconds. 443-3
80 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

The engine will shut down. • The temperature that is sensed by the auxiliary
temperature sensor has exceeded the set point for
Troubleshooting: four seconds.

Verify that the set points are valid for the application. System Response:

Determine the events that caused the high pressure 445-1


condition. Make corrections in order to prevent the
high pressure from recurring. The warning lamp will flash while the warning is
active.
Results:
The ECM will generate a E445-1 event code.
• OK – STOP.
The ECM will generate a SPN 1836-FMI 15 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
i02433576
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
E445 High Auxiliary link.

Temperature 445-2

SMCS Code: 5095-038-AX The warning lamp will flash while the derate is active.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: The ECM will generate a E445-2 event code.

The following conditions occur: Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display
“Engine Derate” in the first “Engine Status” box on
445-1 any Cat ET status screen.

• The engine has been running for three minutes. The ECM will generate a SPN 1836-FMI 16 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
auxiliary temperature sensor. link.

• The temperature that is sensed by the auxiliary 445-3


temperature sensor has exceeded the set point for
four seconds. The warning lamp will flash.

Note: The warning will be cancelled if the temperature The ECM will generate a E445-3 event code.
falls 2 °C (4 °F) below the set point for two seconds.
The ECM will generate a SPN 1836-FMI 00 event
445-2 code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
• The engine has been running for three minutes. link.

• There are no active diagnostic codes for the Possible Performance Effect:
auxiliary temperature sensor.
445-1
• The temperature that is sensed by the auxiliary
temperature sensor has exceeded the set point for Engine operation is not affected.
four seconds.
445-2
Note: The derate will be cancelled if the temperature
falls 2 °C (4 °F) below the set point for two seconds. The ECM will derate power by 25 percent. The power
will be derated at one percent per second.
445-3
445-3
• The engine has been running for three minutes.
The engine will shut down.
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the
auxiliary temperature sensor.
RENR2418-02 81
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting: The ECM will generate a E539-1 event code.

Verify that the set points are valid for the application. The ECM will generate a SPN 1636-FMI 15 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
Determine the events that caused the high displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
temperature condition. Make corrections in order to link.
prevent the high temperature from recurring.
539-2
Results:
The warning lamp will flash while the derate is active.
• OK – STOP.
The ECM will generate a 64 flash code that will be
displayed via the diagnostic lamp.
i02433579

E539 High Intake Manifold Air The ECM will generate a E539-2 event code.

Temperature Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display


“Engine Derate” in the first “Engine Status” box on
SMCS Code: 1050-038-TA any Cat ET status screen.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: The ECM will generate a SPN 1636-FMI 16 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
The following conditions occur: displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link.
539-1
Possible Performance Effect:
• The engine has been running for three minutes.
539-1
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the intake
manifold air temperature sensor. Engine operation is not affected.

• The intake manifold air temperature is at least 539-2


75 °C (167 °F) for eight seconds.
The ECM will derate power by three percent at 79 °C
Note: The warning will be cancelled if the intake (174 °F). The ECM will derate power an additional 3
manifold air temperature drops below 73 °C (163 °F) percent for every 2 °C (1 °F) above 79 °C (174 °F) up
for four seconds. to a 20 percent derate at 85 °C (185 °F).

539-2 Troubleshooting:

• The engine has been running for three minutes. Check the air inlet system. Refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the intake Exhaust System” for more information.
manifold air temperature sensor.
Results:
• The intake manifold air temperature is at least
79 °C (174 °F) for eight seconds. • OK – STOP.
Note: The derate will be cancelled if the intake
manifold air temperature drops below 77 °C (171 °F) i02221421

for 25 seconds.
E2143 Low Engine Coolant
System Response: Level
539-1 SMCS Code: 1395-038-LO

The warning lamp will flash while the warning is Conditions Which Generate This Code:
active.
The following conditions occur:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will generate a
64 flash code that will be displayed via the diagnostic 2143-1
lamp.
• The engine has been running for one minute.
82 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• There are no active diagnostic codes for the The ECM will generate a 62 flash code that will be
coolant level sensor. displayed via the diagnostic lamp.

• The signal from the coolant level sensor indicates The ECM will generate a E2143-2 event code.
that the coolant level is low.
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) will display
• The low coolant level persists for the programmed “Engine Derate” in the first “Engine Status” box on
period of time. any Cat ET status screen.

2143-2 The ECM will generate a SPN 111-FMI 18 event


code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
• The engine has been running for one minute. displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link.
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the
coolant level sensor. 2143-3

• The signal from the coolant level sensor indicates The warning lamp will flash.
that the coolant level is low.
The ECM will generate a 62 flash code that will be
• The low coolant level persists for the programmed displayed via the diagnostic lamp.
period of time.
The ECM will generate a E2143-3 event code.
Note: The derate will be cancelled if the coolant level
rises above the low level for at least five seconds. The ECM will generate a SPN 111-FMI 01 event
code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
2143-3 displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link.
• The engine has been running for one minute.
Possible Performance Effect:
• There are no active diagnostic codes for the
coolant level sensor. 2143-1

• The signal from the coolant level sensor indicates Engine operation is not affected.
that the coolant level is low.
2143-2
• The low coolant level persists for the programmed
period of time. The ECM will derate power by one percent per
second up to a maximum of 35 percent while the
System Response: derate is active.

2143-1 2143-3

The warning lamp will flash while the warning is The engine will shut down.
active.
Troubleshooting:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will generate a
62 flash code that will be displayed via the diagnostic Check the cooling system. Refer to Systems
lamp. Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling System”.

The ECM will generate a E2143-1 event code. Results:

The ECM will generate a SPN 111-FMI 17 event • OK – STOP.


code on the J1939 data link. The event code may be
displayed on a receiving device on the J1939 data
link.

2143-2

The warning lamp will flash while the derate is active.


RENR2418-02 83
Troubleshooting Section

Diagnostic Functional
Tests
i02289813

5 Volt Engine Pressure Sensor


Supply Circuit - Test
SMCS Code: 5574-038

System Operation Description:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) creates a


regulated voltage of 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC that is supplied
to terminal A of the harness connectors for these
sensors:

• Injection actuation pressure sensor


• Boost pressure sensor
• Atmospheric pressure sensor
• Fuel pressure sensor
• Engine oil pressure sensor
• Auxiliary pressure sensor (if equipped)
This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

• 262-03 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply short to


+batt

• 262-04 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply short to


ground

• 100-10 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor abnormal rate


of change

• 102-10 Boost Pressure Sensor abnormal rate of


change

A +5 V diagnostic code is probably caused by a


short circuit to ground or a short circuit to another
voltage source in the harness. The next likely cause
is a problem with a sensor. The least likely cause is
a problem with the ECM.
84 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01119880
Illustration 14
Schematic for the 5 volt supply

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
RENR2418-02 85
Troubleshooting Section

g01121143
Illustration 15
Left side view
(1) Boost pressure sensor
(2) Atmospheric pressure sensor
(3) J2/P2 connectors
(4) J1/P1 connectors
(5) Engine oil pressure sensor
86 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121144
Illustration 16
The location of the fuel pressure sensor depends on the engine’s
configuration.
(6) Fuel pressure sensor

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (3) and (4).


Thoroughly inspect the connectors for each
pressure sensor. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

g01123205
Illustration 17
P2 terminals that are associated with the 5 volt supply for the
pressure sensors
(P2-17) Return
(P2-54) Return
(P2-72) +5 VDC
(P2-80) +5 VDC
RENR2418-02 87
Troubleshooting Section

g01123208
Illustration 19
J61/P61 terminals that are associated with the 5 volt supply for the
pressure sensors
(14) +5 VDC
(15) Return

g01123207
Illustration 18
P1 terminals that are associated with the 5 volt supply for the
pressure sensors
(P1-2) +5 VDC
(P1-3) Return

g01123211
Illustration 20
Connectors for the sensors
(A) Supply
(B) Return
(C) Signal

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the


wires that are associated with the pressure sensor
supply.
88 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM Results:


connector for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” • Active 03 code – An 03 diagnostic code is active.
for the correct torque values. Proceed to Test Step 3.

E. Check the allen head screw on the customer • Active 04 code – An 04 diagnostic code is active.
connector for the proper torque. Refer to Proceed to Test Step 5.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque value. • Active 10 code – A 10 diagnostic code is active.
Proceed to Test Step 4.
F. Check the harness and the wiring for abrasion
and for pinch points from each sensor back to the • No active codes – None of the above codes are
ECM. active.

Expected Result: Repair: If any of the above codes are logged


and the engine is not running properly, refer to
All of the connectors, pins and sockets are completely Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting Without a
coupled and/or inserted and the harness and wiring Diagnostic Code”.
are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points.
If the engine is running properly at this time, there
Results: may be an intermittent problem in a harness
that is causing the codes to be logged. Refer to
• OK – The harness and connectors appear to be Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
OK. Proceed to Test Step 2.
STOP.
• Not OK – The connectors and/or wiring are not
OK. Test Step 3. Check the Voltage on the +5
V Supply Wire
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.
Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the B. Disconnect the harness connectors for the
repair eliminates the problem. following sensors:

STOP. • Injection actuation pressure sensor J500/P500


Test Step 2. Check for Active Diagnostic • Boost pressure sensor J200/P200
Codes
• Atmospheric pressure sensor J203/P203
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to • Fuel pressure sensor J209/P209
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.
• Engine oil pressure sensor J201/P201
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
• Auxiliary pressure sensor J220/P220 (if
C. Observe the “Active Diagnostic” screen on Cat ET. equipped)
Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes may
become active. Look for these codes: C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

• 262-03 Note: Be sure to wiggle the harness during the


following measurements in order to reveal an
• 262-04 intermittent condition.

• 100-10 D. Measure the voltage between terminals A and B


at each sensor connector on the engine harness.
• 102-10
Expected Result:
Expected Result:
Each voltage measurement is 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC.
One of the above codes is active.
RENR2418-02 89
Troubleshooting Section

Results: • Boost pressure sensor J200/P200


• OK – Each voltage measurement is 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC. • Atmospheric pressure sensor J203/P203
Repair: Connect all of the sensor connectors. • Fuel pressure sensor J209/P209
Clear all diagnostic codes. Check for active
diagnostic codes. If the problem is intermittent, • Engine oil pressure sensor J201/P201
refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
- Inspect”. • Auxiliary pressure sensor J220/P220 (if
equipped)
STOP.
B. Wait for 15 seconds after you disconnect each
• Not OK – At least one voltage measurement is not sensor. Look for the active 262-04 code to
5.0 ± 0.2 VDC. There is a problem with the wiring deactivate.
or with the ECM. Proceed to Test Step 6.
Expected Result:
Test Step 4. Check the Voltage on the +5
V Supply Wire for the Suspect Sensor The 262-04 diagnostic code deactivates when a
particular sensor is disconnected.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Results:
B. Disconnect the harness connectors for the
suspect sensor. • OK – The 262-04 diagnostic code deactivates
when a particular sensor is disconnected.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Repair: Connect the suspect sensor. If the code
Note: Be sure to wiggle the harness during the returns, replace the sensor.
following measurement in order to reveal an
intermittent condition. Connect all of the connectors. Verify that the
problem is resolved.
D. Measure the voltage between terminals A and B
on the harness connector for the suspect sensor. STOP.

Expected Result: • Not OK – The 262-04 diagnostic code remains


after all of the sensors are disconnected. Leave
The voltage measurement is 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC. the sensors disconnected. Proceed to Test Step 6.

Results: Test Step 6. Check the +5 V Supply Wire


for a Short to Engine Ground or a Short
• Yes – The voltage measurement is 5.0 ± 0.2 Circuit
VDC. The 5 volt supply is present at the harness
connector for the suspect sensor. However, there A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
is an active 10 diagnostic code.
B. Disconnect the J2/P2 ECM connector. Disconnect
Repair: Replace the suspect sensor. the J1/P1 ECM connector.

Verify that the problem is resolved. C. Verify that all of the pressure sensors are
disconnected.
STOP.
Note: Wiggle the harness during the following
• No – The voltage measurement is not 5.0 ± 0.2 measurements in order to reveal an intermittent
VDC. The 5 volt supply is not present at the condition.
harness connector. There is a problem with the
wiring or with the ECM. Proceed to Test Step 6. D. Measure the resistance between terminal P2-72
(+5 V Supply) and all of the other terminals on the
Test Step 5. Disconnect the +5 V Pressure P2 connector.
Sensors and Check for Active Diagnostic
Codes E. Measure the resistance between terminal P2-72
and the engine ground.
A. Disconnect the following sensors one at a time:
F. Measure the resistance between terminal P2-80
• Injection actuation pressure sensor J500/P500 (+5 V Supply) and all of the other terminals on the
P2 connector.
90 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

G. Measure the resistance between terminal P2-80 Repair: Repair the wire and/or the connector,
and the engine ground. when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify
that the problem is resolved.
H. Measure the resistance between terminal P1-2
(+5 V Supply) and all of the remaining terminals STOP.
on the P1 connector.
Test Step 8. Check the +5 V Supply at the
a. Measure the resistance between terminal P1-2 ECM
and the engine ground.
A. Remove terminal 72 (+5 V Supply) from the
Expected Result: P2 connector. Install a wire jumper with socket
terminals on both ends into P2-72.
Each resistance measurement indicates an open
circuit. B. Connect ECM connectors J2/P2.

Results: C. Remove terminal 2 (+5 V Supply) from the P1


connector. Install a wire jumper with socket
• OK – Each resistance measurement indicates an terminals on both ends into P1-2.
open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 7.
D. Connect ECM connectors J1/P1.
• Not OK – At least one of the resistance
measurements does not indicate an open circuit. A E. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
+5 V supply wire has a problem. There may be a
problem with a connector. F. Measure the voltage between the wire jumper in
P1-2 and the engine ground.
Repair: Repair the wire and/or the connector,
when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify G. Measure the voltage between the wire jumper in
that the problem is resolved. P2-2 and the engine ground.

STOP. H. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

Test Step 7. Check the +5 V Supply and I. Restore both wires to the original configuration.
the Sensor Common for an Open Circuit
Expected Result:
A. Install a wire jumper between terminals P2-72 (+5
V Supply) and P2-3 (Sensor Common). Both voltage measurements are 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC.

B. Install a wire jumper between terminals P1-2 (+5 Results:


V Supply) and P1-3 (Sensor Common).
• OK – Both voltage measurements are 5.0 ± 0.2
Note: Wiggle the harness during the following VDC.
measurements in order to reveal any intermittent
short condition. Repair: Clear all diagnostic codes. Check for active
diagnostic codes. If the problem is intermittent,
C. Measure the resistance between terminals A and refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
B at the harness connector for each pressure - Inspect”.
sensor.
STOP.
Expected Result:
• Not OK – At least one voltage measurement is
Each resistance measurement is less than ten Ohms. not 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC.

Results: Repair: Replace the ECM. Refer to


Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”.
• OK – Each measurement is less than ten Ohms.
Proceed to Test Step 8. STOP.

• Not OK – At least one resistance measurement is


greater than ten Ohms. The +5 V supply wire or
the return wire has excessive resistance. There
may be a problem in a connector.
RENR2418-02 91
Troubleshooting Section

i02216153 Postheat Cycle – The air inlet heater will cycle


on and off if the coolant temperature is still less
Air Inlet Heater Circuit - Test than 49 °C (120 °F). The heater will turn on for 30
seconds. Then, the heater will turn off for 10 seconds.
SMCS Code: 1090-038 This cycle continues for 15 minutes. The cycle ends
if the coolant temperature exceeds 49 °C (120 °F).
System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect


problems with the air inlet heater circuit.

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

• 617-05 Air Inlet Heater Relay open/current below


normal

• 617-06 Air Inlet Heater Relay grounded/current


above norm

The air inlet heater improves the engine’s ability to


start when the engine is cold. A reduction of white
smoke is also a benefit of the air inlet heater.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) activates the


air inlet heater via the air inlet heater relay. The air
inlet heater is activated according to the following
cycles:

• Power up cycle
• Preheat cycle
• Crank cycle
• Running cycle
• Postheat cycle
Power Up Cycle – The ECM activates the air inlet
heater for two seconds after the ECM is first powered
up regardless of temperature or engine speed.

Preheat Cycle – If the coolant temperature is less


than 49 °C (120 °F), the ECM activates the air inlet
heater for 30 seconds. If the operator attempts to start
the engine before the end of the preheat cycle, the
ECM will begin using the strategy for the crank cycle.

Crank Cycle – When the engine is cranking and


the coolant temperature is less than 49 °C (120 °F),
the air inlet heater will remain on while the engine
is cranking. If the engine fails to start, the ECM will
revert to the preheat cycle.

Running Cycle – The air inlet heater will remain


on after the engine has started. If the coolant
temperature does not reach 49 °C (120 °F) within five
minutes, the ECM will use the postheat cycle.
92 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01118538
Illustration 21
Schematic for the air inlet heater

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
RENR2418-02 93
Troubleshooting Section

g01121147
Illustration 22
Typical component locations for the air inlet heater
(1) Air inlet heater
(2) Air inlet heater relay
(3) Ground connection for the air inlet heater
(4) J2/P2 connectors
(5) Circuit breaker
94 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

B. Thoroughly inspect the J501/P501 air inlet heater D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM connector
relay connectors and connector (4). Inspect the for the proper torque of 6 ± 1 N·m (55 ± 9 lb in).
connections on air inlet heater relay (2) and
air inlet heater (1). Refer to Troubleshooting, E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasion and
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. for pinch points from the air inlet heater back to
the ECM and from the air inlet heater back to the
battery.

Expected Result:

All connectors, pins and sockets are completely


coupled and/or inserted and the harness and wiring
are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points.

Results:

• OK – The harness and the connectors appear to


be OK. Proceed to Test Step 2.

• Not OK – There is a problem with the connectors


and/or the wiring.

Repair: Repair the connectors and/or the wiring.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the
repair eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check for Active Diagnostic


Codes
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

C. Observe the “Active Diagnostic” screen on Cat ET.


Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes may
become active. Look for these codes:

• 617-05
• 617-06
Expected Result:

One of the above codes is active.

Results:
g01123219
Illustration 23
• Active 617-05 code – A 617-05 diagnostic code is
P2 terminals that are associated with the air inlet heater active. Proceed to Test Step 3.
(P2-5) Air inlet heater
(P2-79) Air inlet heater • Active 617-06 – A 617-06 diagnostic code is
active. Proceed to Test Step 5.
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the
wires in the connectors that are associated with
the circuit.
RENR2418-02 95
Troubleshooting Section

• No active codes – None of the above codes are Note: Be sure to wiggle the harness during the
active. There may be a problem with the high following measurements in order to reveal an
power circuit. Proceed to Test Step 6. intermittent condition.

Test Step 3. Check for an Open Circuit B. Measure the resistance between terminals P2-5
to the Relay and P501-1.

C. Measure the resistance between terminals P2-79


and P501-2.

Expected Result:

Both of the resistance measurements are less than


ten Ohms.

Results:

• OK – Both of the resistance measurements are


less than ten Ohms.

Repair: Connect the wires to the relay’s


g01118589
Illustration 24 small terminals. Replace the ECM. Refer to
Small terminals for the typical air inlet heater relay Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”.

A. Disconnect the wires from the small terminals of STOP.


the air inlet heater relay.
• Not OK – At least one of the resistance
B. Install a test lamp across the wires. measurements is more than ten Ohms. There is a
problem with the wiring between the ECM and the
C. Start the “Air Inlet Heater Override” on Cat ET and air inlet heater relay. There may be a problem with
observe the test lamp. a connector.

Note: Do not leave the “Air Inlet Heater Override” Repair: Repair the wire and/or the connector,
ON. This prevents unnecessary cycling of the air inlet when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify
heater and the battery from discharging. The “Air that the problem is resolved.
Inlet Heater Override” has a one minute timer that
disables the test when the time expires. STOP.

D. Stop the “Air Inlet Heater Override” and turn the Test Step 5. Check for a Short Circuit in
keyswitch to the OFF position. the Wiring to the Relay
Expected Result:

The test lamp turned on while the override was active.

Results:

• OK – The test lamp turned on while the override


was active. The open circuit is in the relay.

Repair: Replace the air inlet heater relay. Clear


any diagnostic codes. Verify that the problem is
resolved.

STOP.
g01118589
Illustration 25
• Not OK – The test lamp did not turn on while the Small terminals for the typical air inlet heater relay
override was active. Proceed to Test Step 4.
A. Disconnect the wires from the small terminals for
Test Step 4. Check the Wiring Between the air inlet heater relay.
the ECM and the Relay
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
A. Disconnect the J2/P2 connectors.
96 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

C. Observe the “Active Diagnostic” screen on Cat Repair the wire and/or the connection, when
ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that
may become active. the problem is resolved.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. STOP.

Expected Result: Test Step 7. Check for Voltage Output at


the Relay
The short circuit diagnostic code (617-06) changed
to an open circuit diagnostic code (617-05) when the A. Connect a test lamp between the output terminal
wires to the relay were disconnected. of the air inlet heater relay and the engine ground.

Results: Note: Observe the test lamp. The test lamp should
be off, since the relay is not energized. If the test
• OK – The short circuit diagnostic code (617-06) lamp is on, ensure that the test lamp is connected to
changed to an open circuit diagnostic code the output side of the relay.
(617-05) when the wires to the relay were
disconnected. The short circuit is in the relay. B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

Repair: Replace the relay. Clear the diagnostic C. Run the “Air Inlet Heater Override” on Cat ET and
codes. observe the test lamp.

Verify that the problem is resolved. Note: Do not leave the “Air Inlet Heater Override”
ON. This prevents unnecessary cycling of the air inlet
STOP. heater and the battery from discharging. The “Air
Inlet Heater Override” has a one minute timer that
• Not OK – The short circuit diagnostic code disables the test when the time expires.
(617-06) remained when the wires to the relay
were disconnected. There is a problem in the D. Stop the “Air Inlet Heater Override” and turn the
wiring between the ECM and the relay. There may keyswitch to the OFF position.
be a problem with a connector.
Expected Result:
Repair: Repair the wire and/or the connector,
when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify The test lamp turned on when the “Air Inlet Heater
that the problem is resolved. Override” was enabled.

STOP. Results:

Test Step 6. Check for Battery Voltage at • OK – The test lamp turned on when the “Air Inlet
the Relay Heater Override” was enabled. The air inlet heater
relay and the +Battery connection to the air inlet
A. Connect a test lamp between the +Battery side of heater relay are operating correctly. Proceed to
the air inlet heater relay and the engine ground. Test Step 8.

Expected Result: • Not OK – The test lamp did not turn on when the
“Air Inlet Heater Override” was enabled.
The test lamp turns ON.
Repair: Replace the relay.
Results:
Verify that the problem is resolved.
• OK – The test lamp turns ON. Battery voltage is
reaching the relay. Proceed to Test Step 7. STOP.

• Not OK – The test lamp does not turn ON. Battery


voltage is not reaching the relay.

Repair: Verify that the circuit breaker is not tripped.

If the circuit breaker is not tripped, there is an open


circuit in the wiring between the battery and the
relay. There may be a problem with a connection.
RENR2418-02 97
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 8. Check the Wiring Between Test Step 9. Measure the Current through
the Relay and the Heater and Between the Heater
the Heater and the Engine Block

g01118617
Illustration 27
g01118615 Left side view
Illustration 26
Left side view (1) Wire
(2) Terminal
(1) Wire
(3) Terminal
(2) Bar

A. Measure the resistance of wire (1) that connects A. Connect a 155-5176 AC/DC Current Probe or an
the relay to the air inlet heater. equivalent inductive pickup clamp around wire (1)
between the relay and the air inlet heater.
B. Measure the resistance of bar (2) that connects
the air inlet heater to the engine block. B. Connect the current probe to a multimeter.

Expected Result: C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

Both of the resistance measurements are less than D. Run the “Air Inlet Heater Override” on Cat ET and
ten Ohms. observe the current reading on the multimeter.

Results: Note: Do not leave the “Air Inlet Heater Override”


On. Avoid unnecessary cycling of the air inlet heater
in order to prevent the battery from discharging. The
• OK – Both of the resistance measurements are “Air Inlet Heater Override” has a one minute timer in
less than ten Ohms. Proceed to Test Step 9.
order to disable the test when the time expires.
• Not OK – At least one of the resistance E. While the override is active, measure the voltage
measurements is more than ten Ohms. There is an
open circuit in the wiring. There may be a problem between terminals (2) and (3).
with a connector.
F. Stop the “Air Inlet Heater Override” and turn the
Repair: Repair the wire and/or the connector, keyswitch to the OFF position.
when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify
that the problem is resolved. Expected Result:

STOP. For 12 volt systems, the current reading is between


82 and 102 Amperes. The voltage is reading is
approximately 11 VDC.

For 24 volt systems, the current reading is between


77 and 95 Amperes. The voltage reading is
approximately 22 VDC.

Note: If the voltage reading does not match the


specified value, you will need to adjust the current
value accordingly. For slightly lower voltages, the
current value will be slightly lower. For slightly higher
voltages, the current value will be slightly higher.
98 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Results: Note: If the “Air Shutoff” parameter is set to “Not


Installed”, the functionality for the overspeed verify
• OK – The readings are within the specified ranges. switch remains operational. If the switch is activated
during engine operation, the ECM will disable
Repair: The readings are within the specified injection for any engine speed over 75 percent of
ranges. The air inlet heater circuit appears to be the programmed overspeed setpoint. As the engine
operating correctly at this time. If an intermittent speed drops below 75 percent of the programmed
problem is suspected, refer to Troubleshooting, overspeed setpoint, the injection is again enabled by
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. the ECM. This functionality is not latched by the ECM
and the functionality is disabled when the switch is
STOP. turned off.

• Not OK – The voltage reading and/or the current For some air shutoff systems, after the air shutoff
reading is not within the specified ranges. mechanism has been tripped, a manual reset of the
mechanism may be necessary.
Repair: Replace the air inlet heater.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.

i02433599

Air Shutoff System - Test


SMCS Code: 1078-038

System Operation Description:

This procedure checks the circuits for the air shutoff


system. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) does
not provide diagnostics for the circuits that are for the
air shutoff system.

There are two conditions which can cause the ECM


to activate the air shutoff:

Engine Overspeed – The first condition occurs


when the ECM detects an engine overspeed
condition. The ECM energizes the air shutoff solenoid
and the fuel injection is disabled. The air shutoff
system is latched by the ECM until the keyswitch is
cycled.

System test – The second condition occurs when


a test of the air shutoff system is performed. The
overspeed verify switch can be activated by the
operator in order to perform this test. The engine
speed is then increased to 75 percent of the
programmed overspeed setpoint. The ECM activates
the air shutoff system as the engine speed exceeds
75 percent of the programmed overspeed setpoint.
The ECM energizes the air shutoff solenoid and fuel
injection is disabled. The air shutoff system is latched
by the ECM until the keyswitch is cycled.
RENR2418-02 99
Troubleshooting Section

g01165526
Illustration 28
Schematic for the air shutoff system

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Remove electrical power from the ECM.

B. Verify that the air shutoff mechanisms are set to


the OPEN position.

g01146383
Illustration 30
Customer connector (typical example)
(2) J61 customer connector

g01167488
Illustration 29
ECM connectors (typical example)
(1) J1/P1 ECM connectors
100 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01210157
Illustration 31
Air shutoff mechanism
(3) Terminals for the air shutoff solenoid

C. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2).


Also, thoroughly inspect connections (3) at the
air shutoff solenoid. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

g01212804
Illustration 32
P1 terminals for the air shutoff system
(P1-11) Air shutoff relay
(P1-54) Overspeed verify switch
(P1-67) Return

g01212805
Illustration 33
Terminal locations at the P61 customer connector that are
associated with the air shutoff system
(4) Air shutoff relay
(5) Return
(40) Overspeed verify switch
RENR2418-02 101
Troubleshooting Section

D. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the C. Connect a test lamp between the output of the
wires that are associated with the circuit for the solenoid for the air shutoff relay and engine
air shutoff system. ground.

E. Check the allen head screw on each ECM D. Start the engine.
connector for the proper torque. Also, check the
allen head screw on the customer connector E. Activate the overspeed verify switch.
for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for the correct F. Monitor the test lamp while you increase the
torque values. engine speed past 75 percent of the programmed
overspeed setpoint.
F. Check the harness and the wiring for abrasion
and for pinch points from the air shutoff solenoid G. Stop the engine.
to the ECM.
H. Remove the test lamp from the circuit. Restore the
Expected Result: wiring to the original configuration.

All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely Expected Result:


coupled and/or inserted, and the harness and wiring
are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points. The test lamp illuminated when the engine speed
increased past 75 percent of the programmed
Results: overspeed setpoint.

• OK – The connectors and wiring appear to be OK. Results:


Proceed to Test Step 2.
• OK – The test lamp illuminated. The air shutoff
• Not OK – The connectors and/or wiring are not relay is operating correctly. Proceed to Test Step 3.
OK.
• Not OK – The test lamp did not illuminate. No
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors. voltage is present at the output of the relay.
Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the Proceed to Test Step 4.
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the Test Step 3. Test for Voltage at the Air
problem is resolved. Shutoff Solenoid
STOP. A. Ensure that the keyswitch is in the OFF position.

Test Step 2. Test the Operation of the


Control Solenoid for the Air Shutoff Relay
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

g01212806
Illustration 35
Location of the test lamp

B. Disconnect the wire from the positive terminal of


g01165714
the air shutoff solenoid.
Illustration 34
Location of the test lamp C. Connect a test lamp between the wire for the
positive terminal of the air shutoff relay and engine
B. Remove the wire from the output of the air shutoff ground.
relay.
D. Start the engine.
102 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

E. Activate the overspeed verify switch. Expected Result:

F. Monitor the test lamp while you increase the The test lamp illuminated when the engine speed
engine speed past 75 percent of the programmed increased past 75 percent of the programmed
overspeed setpoint. overspeed setpoint.

G. Stop the engine. Results:

Expected Result: • OK – The test lamp illuminated. Control input


voltage is reaching the relay. Proceed to Test Step
The test lamp illuminated when the engine speed 6.
increased past 75 percent of the programmed
overspeed setpoint. • Not OK – The test lamp did not illuminate. The
voltage from the ECM was not present at the coil
Results: of the air shutoff relay. Restore the wiring to the
original configuration. Proceed to Test Step 5.
• OK – The test lamp illuminated.
Test Step 5. Check the Output Voltage for
Repair: The voltage is present at the air shutoff the Air Shutoff Relay at the ECM
solenoid. Check for continuity of the ground circuit
for the air shutoff solenoid before proceeding. If A. Ensure that the keyswitch is in the OFF position.
the ground circuit is OK, replace the air shutoff
solenoid. Verify that the problem is resolved. B. Disconnect the P1 ECM connector.

STOP. C. Fabricate a jumper wire that is long enough to


reach from the P1-54 ECM connector to engine
• Not OK – The test lamp did not illuminate. ground. Crimp a connector socket to one end of
the jumper wire.
Repair: System voltage was not present at the air
shutoff solenoid. There is a problem in the wiring D. Remove the wire from terminal location P1-54
between the output of the air shutoff relay and the (overspeed verify switch) at the ECM connector.
input of the air shutoff solenoid . There may be a Insert the jumper wire into this terminal location.
problem in a connector. Repair the wiring and/or
the connector. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify E. Fabricate two other jumper wires that can be
that the problem is resolved. used as test leads at the ECM connector. Crimp a
connector socket to one end of each jumper wire.
STOP.
F. Remove the wires from terminal locations P1-11
Test Step 4. Test the Control Input Voltage (air shutoff solenoid) and P1-67 (solenoid return)
at the Air Shutoff Relay at the ECM connector. Insert one of the jumper
wires into each of these terminal locations.
A. Ensure that the keyswitch is in the OFF position.
G. Connect the J1/P1 ECM connectors.
B. Disconnect the wires from the control input of the
air shutoff relay at the relay. H. Connect the loose end of the jumper wire that is in
terminal location P1-54 to the engine ground stud.
C. Connect the test lamp between the two control
wires. I. Connect the leads of the voltage test lamp to the
loose ends of the other two jumper wires that are
D. Start the engine. in the P1 ECM connector.

E. Activate the overspeed verify switch. J. Start the engine.

F. Monitor the test lamp while you increase the K. Monitor the test lamp while you increase the
engine speed past 75 percent of the programmed engine speed past 75 percent of the programmed
overspeed setpoint. overspeed setpoint.

G. Stop the engine. L. Stop the engine.


RENR2418-02 103
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: B. Remove the diode from the air shutoff relay.

The test lamp illuminated when the engine speed C. Select the “Diode Check” function on a digital
increased past 75 percent of the programmed voltmeter.
overspeed setpoint.
D. Refer to Illustration 36. Place the red lead of the
Results: digital voltmeter on the diode at location (A). Place
the black lead of the digital voltmeter on the diode
• OK – The test lamp illuminated. at location (B).

Repair: The ECM is operating correctly. Perform E. Measure the voltage drop across the diode.
the following procedure:
Expected Result:
1. Verify the continuity of the ground circuit for the
overspeed verify switch. The voltage drop across the diode is less than one
volt.
2. Isolate the overspeed verify switch from the
circuit. Close the switch and measure the Results:
continuity across the switch. Open the switch
and measure the continuity across the switch. • OK – The voltage drop across the diode is less
than one volt. The voltage drop across the diode is
3. Verify the continuity of the circuit between OK. Proceed to Test Step 7.
the overspeed verify switch and the P1 ECM
connector. • Not OK – The voltage drop across the diode is
greater than one volt.
4. Restore the wiring to the original configuration.
Repair: The diode is damaged. Replace the diode.
If the overspeed verify switch is OK and the Verify that the problem is resolved.
circuit has continuity from the P1 and the
engine ground stud, there is a problem in the STOP.
wiring between the P1 ECM connector and the
air shutoff relay. Test Step 7. Test the Diode for Current
Flow
Repair the circuit connectors or wiring and/or
replace the circuit connectors or wiring. Verify that A. Reverse the position of the leads for the digital
the problem is resolved. voltmeter.

STOP. B. Measure the voltage drop across the diode.

• Not OK – The test lamp did not illuminate. Expected Result:

Repair: Restore the wiring to the original For a diode that is operating properly, the digital
configuration. There is a problem with the ECM. voltmeter will indicate an OL across the diode.
Replace the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Replacing the ECM”. Results:

STOP. • OK – The digital voltmeter indicates an OL across


the diode for this measurement. The diode is OK.
Test Step 6. Test the Diode for the Control Proceed to Test Step 8.
Circuit
• Not OK – The digital voltmeter does not indicate
an OL across the diode.

Repair: The diode is damaged. Replace the diode.


Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.

Illustration 36
g00761537 Test Step 8. Check the Voltage from the
Diode leads Keyswitch to the Voltage Input of the Air
Shutoff Relay
A. Disconnect the air shutoff relay’s control wires at
the relay. A. Ensure that the keyswitch is in the OFF position.
104 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

D. Measure the voltage between terminal B


(+Battery) of the keyswitch and engine ground.

Refer to Illustration 28 for details.

E. Measure the voltage between terminal R


(keyswitch) of the keyswitch and engine ground.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

Expected Result:

Voltage is present on terminal B (+Battery) and


terminal R (keyswitch) at the keyswitch.
g01165747
Illustration 37 Results:
Location of the test lamp
• OK – Voltage is present on terminal B and terminal
B. Remove the wire at the voltage input of the air R at the keyswitch.
shutoff relay.
Repair: If voltage is present on terminal R, repair
C. Connect the test lamp between the wire for the the wire between the keyswitch and the air shutoff
voltage input and the terminal for the voltage input relay. Verify that the breaker is not tripped. Return
at the air shutoff relay. all wiring to the original configuration. Verify that
the problem is eliminated.
D. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
STOP.
E. Check the test lamp.
• Not OK – Voltage is not present on terminal B at
F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. the keyswitch.

Expected Result: Repair: If voltage is not present on terminal


B, repair the wire between the +Battery and
The test lamp illuminates. the keyswitch. Verify that the breaker is not
tripped. Verify that the battery disconnect switch
Results: is operating correctly. Check the battery’s
no-load voltage. Return all wiring to the original
• OK – The test lamp illuminated. configuration. Verify that the problem is eliminated.

Repair: The relay contacts are not passing the STOP.


secondary voltage to the circuit for the air shutoff
solenoid. Replace the air shutoff relay. Verify that • Not OK – Voltage is not present on terminal R at
the problem is resolved. the keyswitch.

STOP. Repair: If voltage is present on terminal B of the


keyswitch but not present on terminal R, replace
• Not OK – The test lamp did not illuminate. Input the keyswitch. Return all wiring to the original
voltage is not reaching the relay. Proceed to Test configuration. Verify that the problem is eliminated.
Step 9.
STOP.
Test Step 9. Check the Harness between
the Keyswitch and the Air Shutoff Relay
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

B. Remove the wire from terminal R (keyswitch) of


the keyswitch.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.


RENR2418-02 105
Troubleshooting Section

i02433602

CAN Data Link Circuit - Test


SMCS Code: 1901-038

System Operation Description:

The CAN data link is used to communicate


information between the Electronic Control Module
(ECM) and other modules. Use this procedure to
troubleshoot any suspect problems with the CAN
data link.

This procedure covers the 247-09 J1939 Data Link


communications.

This procedure identifies the following problems:

• Faulty connectors
• Missing termination resistors
• Short circuits
• Open circuits
• Faulty J1939 display

g01119843
Illustration 38
Schematic for the CAN data link

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
106 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01167488
Illustration 39
Engine view (typical example)
(1) J1/P1 ECM conntctors

g01215698
Illustration 41
P1 terminals that are associated with the CAN data link
(P1-34) CAN data link −
(P1-42) CAN shield
(P1-50) CAN data link +

g01149983
Illustration 40
Engine view (typical example)
(2) J61 customer connector
(3) J63 service tool connector

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1), (2), and (3).


Thoroughly inspect the connectors for each
module that is connected to the CAN data link.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
- Inspect”.
RENR2418-02 107
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connectors and/or the wiring.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the
problem is resolved.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check for Active Diagnostic


Codes
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

C. Observe the active diagnostic code screen on


Cat ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any
diagnostic codes may become active. Check for a
247-09 diagnostic code.

Expected Result:

No diagnostic codes are active.

Results:
g01123351
Illustration 42 • OK – No codes are active.
J61/P61 terminals that are associated with the CAN data link
(16) CAN shield Repair: The problem may be intermittent. If the
(17) CAN data link + problem is intermittent, refer to Troubleshooting,
(18) CAN data link − “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the STOP.
wires that are associated with the CAN data link.
• Not OK – A 247-09 diagnostic code is active.
D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM Proceed to Test Step 3.
connector for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” Test Step 3. Verify the Proper Installation
for the correct torque values. of the CAN Data Link
E. Check the allen head screw on the customer A. Disconnect the J1939 display.
connector for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” B. Disconnect the P1 connector and measure the
for the correct torque value. resistance between terminals P1-50 (CAN data
link +) and P1-34 (CAN data link -).
F. Check the wiring harnesses for abrasion, for
corrosion and for pinch points. Expected Result:
Expected Result: The resistance is between 57 and 63 Ohms.
All connectors, pins and sockets are completely Results:
coupled and/or inserted. The harness and wiring are
free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points. • OK – The resistance is between 57 and 63 Ohms.
Proceed to Test Step 6.
Results:
• Not OK – The resistance is between 114 Ohms
• OK – The harness and the wiring appear to be and 126 Ohms. A terminating resistor is missing.
OK. Proceed to Test Step 2.

• Not OK – There is a problem in the wiring harness.


108 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Verify that two terminating resistors exist • Not OK – At least one check of the resistance
on the data link. One resistor must be located on does not indicate an open circuit. There is a short
each end of the data link. The engine is shipped circuit in a harness. There may be a problem with
with one terminating resistor that is installed a connector.
between the ECM and the customer connector.
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
Refer to the appropriate electrical schematic in Replace part, if necessary. Verify that the problem
order to determine the missing resistor. Replace is resolved.
the missing resistor. Verify that the problem is
resolved. STOP.

STOP. Test Step 5. Check for an Open Circuit


• Not OK – The resistance is less than 57 Ohms. A. Verify that all of the connections are disconnected.
Proceed to Test Step 4.
B. Fabricate a jumper wire. Use the jumper wire in
• Not OK – The resistance is greater than 126 order to create a short circuit between terminals G
Ohms. Proceed to Test Step 5. and F on the service tool connector.

Test Step 4. Check for a Short Circuit C. Measure the resistance between terminals P1-50
(CAN data link +) and P1-34 (CAN data link -).
A. Disconnect the J1/P1 ECM connector.
D. Remove the jumper wire from the service tool
B. Remove the terminating resistors from the CAN connector.
data link.
Expected Result:
C. If a J1939 display is installed, disconnect the
display. The resistance is less than ten Ohms.

D. Measure the resistance between the points that Results:


are listed in Table 16. Be sure to wiggle the wires
in the harnesses as you make each resistance • OK – The resistance is less than ten Ohms. There
measurement. is not an open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 6.

Table 16 • Not OK – The resistance is more than ten Ohms.


Resistance Measurements for the CAN Data Link There is an open circuit or excessive resistance in
the circuit. There may be a problem in a connector.
Connector and Terminal
Terminal Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
P1-50 (CAN data link +) All of the other terminals on Replace part, if necessary. Verify that the problem
the P1 connector is resolved.
Engine ground
STOP.
P1-34 (CAN data link -) All of the other terminals on
the P1 connector Test Step 6. Check the J1939 Display
Engine ground
A. Connect the J1939 display to another engine.

Expected Result: B. Operate the engine and monitor the J1939 display.

Each check of the resistance indicates an open Expected Result:


circuit.
The J1939 display operates properly.
Results:
Results:
• OK – Each check of the resistance indicates an
open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 5. • OK – The J1939 display operates properly on
another engine.
RENR2418-02 109
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Connect the display to the original engine.


If the display operates correctly, there may be
a problem with an electrical connector. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

If the display does not operate correctly on the


original engine, there may be a problem with the
ECM.

It is unlikely that the ECM has failed. Perform


this entire procedure again. Replace the ECM if
the display does not operate correctly. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”.

STOP. g01167527
Illustration 43

• Not OK – The J1939 display does not operate Schematic for the Cat Data Link
properly on another engine.
Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical
Repair: Replace the J1939 display. Verify that the Connectors and the Wiring
problem is resolved.
A. Remove the electrical power from the (engine)
STOP. ECM.

i02403866

Cat Data Link Circuit - Test


SMCS Code: 1901-038

System Operation Description:

Note: This procedure checks for an open circuit


or for a short circuit in the Cat Data Link. If you
are experiencing problems with communications
between the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM), refer
to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Will
Not Communicate with ECM” before you use this
procedure.

The Cat Data Link is the standard data link that


is used by the ECM to communicate with Cat ET.
The ECM communicates with Cat ET in order to
g01167488
share status information and diagnostic information. Illustration 44
Cat ET can also be used to configure the ECM Engine view (typical example)
parameters. This information will not be available if (1) J1/P1 ECM connectors
communication fails between the ECM and Cat ET.
110 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01149983
Illustration 45
Engine view (typical example)
(2) P61 customer connector
(3) P63 service tool connector

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1), (2), and (3).


Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
- Inspect”.

g01202018
Illustration 46
P1 terminals that are associated with the Cat Data Link
(P1-8) Cat Data Link +
(P1-9) Cat Data Link −
RENR2418-02 111
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connectors and/or the wiring.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the
original problem is resolved.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check for a Short Circuit


A. Disconnect the J1 connector.

B. Disconnect Cat ET from the service tool connector.

C. Measure the resistance between the points that


are listed in Table 17. Be sure to wiggle the wires
in the harnesses as you make each resistance
measurement.

Table 17
Resistance Measurements for the Cat Data Link
Connector and Terminal
Terminal
P1-8 (Cat Data Link +) All of the other terminals on
the P1 connector
Ground stud
g01119122
Illustration 47 P1-9 (Cat Data Link -) All of the other terminals on
J61 and P61 terminals that are associated with the Cat Data Link the P1 connector
(6) Cat Data Link − Ground stud
(7) Cat Data Link +

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the Expected Result:


wires that are associated with the Cat Data Link.
Each check of the resistance indicates an open
D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM circuit.
connector for the proper torque. Also, check the
allen head screw on the customer connector Results:
for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for the correct • OK – Each check of the resistance indicates an
torque values. open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 3.

Expected Result: • Not OK – At least one check of the resistance


does not indicate an open circuit. There is a short
All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely circuit in the harness or in a connector.
inserted and coupled. The harness and wiring are
free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points. Repair: Repair the connectors and/or the wiring.
Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the original
Results: problem is resolved.

• OK – The harness and the connectors appear to STOP.


be OK. Proceed to Test Step 2.
Test Step 3. Check for an Open Circuit
• Not OK – The connectors and/or the wiring are
not OK. A. Fabricate a jumper wire. Use the jumper wire in
order to create a short circuit between terminals
J63-D (Cat Data Link +) and J63-E (Cat Data Link
−).

B. Measure the resistance between P1-8 (Cat Data


Link +) and P1-9 (Cat Data Link −).
112 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: When the sensor is immersed in coolant, an internal


switch is closed. When the internal switch closes,
Each check of the resistance is less than ten Ohms. the signal for the engine coolant level is grounded
through the sensor return. The Electronic Control
Results: Module (ECM) detects the ground on the input for the
engine coolant level. If the signal is not present, an
• OK – Each check of the resistance is less than event code is generated.
ten Ohms.
Verify that the coolant level has been programmed
Repair: Perform the following procedure: to “Enabled” on the configuration screen on the
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET). If the coolant
1. Connect the J1/P1 connectors. Connect Cat ET level is not programmed, Cat ET will display
to the service tool connector. “Unavailable” for the parameter.

2. Check the Cat Data Link for proper operation. If


the Data Link does not operate correctly, there
may be a problem with the ECM.

Temporarily install a new ECM. Check the Cat


Data Link again. If the new ECM solves the
problem, install the original ECM and verify that
the original problem returns. If the new ECM
operates correctly and the original ECM does
not operate correctly, replace the original ECM.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.

• Not OK – At least one check of the resistance is


greater than ten Ohms. There is an open circuit or
excessive resistance in the harness. There may be
a problem with a connector.

Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.


Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the original
problem is resolved.

STOP.

i02433613

Coolant Level Sensor Circuit


- Test
SMCS Code: 5574-038-CLT

System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect


problems with the engine coolant level sensor.

The engine coolant level sensor provides a means of


monitoring the engine coolant level in order to warn
the operator in the event that the coolant level is low.
The engine coolant level sensor is usually located in
the top tank of the radiator. The sensor should be
immersed in coolant at all times.
RENR2418-02 113
Troubleshooting Section

g01119821
Illustration 48
Schematic of the engine coolant level sensor

Test Step 1. Check the Coolant Level

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-


ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
sure.

A. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.

B. Check the coolant level. Refer to the engine’s


Operation and Maintenance Manual for the proper
procedure.

Expected Result:

The coolant level is low.

Results:

• OK – The coolant level is low.


Repair: Add coolant according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Identify
the source of the coolant leak and fix the problem.
Verify that the original problem is resolved.

STOP.

• Not OK – The coolant is at the proper level.


Proceed to Test Step 2. Illustration 49
g01121173

Engine components for the engine coolant level sensor


Test Step 2. Inspect the Electrical
(1) P61 customer connector
Connectors and the Wiring (2) J1/P1 connectors

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.


114 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01119186
Illustration 50
Rear view of a typical radiator with a engine coolant level sensor

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Inspect


the J800/P800 connectors for the engine coolant
level sensor. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical
Connectors - Inspect”.

g01215707
Illustration 51
P1 terminals that are associated with the engine coolant level
sensor
(P1-3) Return
(P1-4) +8 VDC (digital sensor supply)
(P1-49) Engine coolant level
RENR2418-02 115
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of
the seals are properly connected. Verify that the
original problem is resolved.

STOP.

Test Step 3. Short the Harness and


Monitor the Status of the “Coolant Level”
A. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service
Tools”.

B. Disconnect the J800/P800 connectors for the


engine coolant level sensor.

C. Install a jumper wire between P800-B (Digital


Sensor Return) and P800-C (Coolant Level
Sensor).

D. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

E. Monitor the status of “Coolant Level” on Cat ET


while the jumper wire is installed.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.


g01119200
Illustration 52 G. Remove the jumper wire.
J61 and P61 terminals that are associated with the engine coolant
level sensor H. Connect the J800/P800 connectors.
(8) +8 VDC (digital sensor supply)
(15) Return Expected Result:
(36) Engine coolant level
The status of the “Coolant Level” is “OK” when the
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the wires jumper wire is installed.
in the ECM connector, the customer connector,
and the sensor connector that is associated with Results:
the circuit for the engine coolant level sensor.

D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM


• OK – The status of the “Coolant Level” is “OK”
when the jumper wire is installed. The ECM, the
connector for the proper torque. Refer to signal wire, and the return wire are OK. Proceed
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” to Test Step 4.
for the correct torque values.

E. Check the allen head screw on the customer


• Not OK – The status of the “Coolant Level” is not
“OK” when the jumper wire is installed. Proceed
connector for the proper torque. Refer to to Test Step 5.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque value. Test Step 4. Check the Supply Voltage at
the Sensor Connector
Expected Result:
A. Disconnect the J800/P800 connectors.
All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely
coupled and/or inserted, and the harness and wiring B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
are free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points.
C. Measure the voltage between terminals P800-A
Results: (+8 VDC digital sensor supply) and P800-B
(Return) at the harness connector for the engine
• OK – The connectors and wiring are OK. Proceed coolant level sensor.
to Test Step 3.
D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
• Not OK – There is a problem with the connectors
and/or the wiring.
116 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: Repair: Replace the ECM. Refer to


Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”.
The voltage between terminals A (+8 V digital supply) Verify that the original problem is resolved.
and B (sensor return) is 8.0 ± 0.4 VDC.
STOP.
Results:
i02433636
• OK – The supply voltage is reaching the sensor.
Repair: Replace the engine coolant level sensor.
Diagnostic Lamp Circuit - Test
Verify that the original problem is resolved. SMCS Code: 7431-038-NQ
STOP. System Operation Description:
• Not OK – The supply voltage is not reaching the The diagnostic lamp is used to inform the operator of
sensor. active diagnostic codes and active event codes.
Repair: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Digital The Electronic Control Module (ECM) provides a
Sensor Supply Circuit - Test” for the appropriate path to ground for the diagnostic lamp. When the
troubleshooting procedure. ECM connects the diagnostic lamp to ground the
diagnostic lamp will turn on.
STOP.

Test Step 5. Create a Short Circuit at the


ECM P1 Connector
A. Remove terminals P1-3 and P1-49. Install a
jumper wire into open terminals P1-3 and P1-49.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and monitor


the status of “Coolant Level” on Cat ET while the
jumper wire is installed.

C. Remove the jumper wire. Monitor the status of


“Coolant Level” on Cat ET.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

Expected Result:

The status of the switch is “OK” when the jumper wire


is connected. The status of the switch is “Low” when
the jumper wire is not connected.
g01123371
Illustration 53
Results: Schematic for the diagnostic lamp

• OK – The status of the switch is “OK” when the Test Step 1. Check the Operation of the
jumper wire is connected. The status of the switch Diagnostic Lamp
is “Low” when the jumper wire is not connected.
The ECM is properly reading the switch input. A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
However, the ECM did not detect the jumper wire at
the sensor connector. There is a problem with the B. Monitor the diagnostic lamp.
wiring. There may be a problem with a connector.
Expected Result:
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the original The diagnostic lamp turns on for five seconds. Then,
problem is resolved. the diagnostic lamp turns off. If a diagnostic code is
active, the diagnostic lamp will flash.
STOP.

• Not OK – The ECM is not reading the switch input.


RENR2418-02 117
Troubleshooting Section

Results:

• Yes – The diagnostic lamp turns on for five


seconds. Then, the diagnostic lamp turns off. The
diagnostic lamp appears to be operating correctly
at this time. STOP.

• No – The diagnostic lamp did not turn on for five


seconds. Check the bulb. Replace the bulb if the
bulb is not OK. If the bulb is OK, proceed to Test
Step 2.

Test Step 2. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

g01215717
Illustration 55
P1 terminals that are associated with the diagnostic lamp
(P1-28) Diagnostic lamp
(P1-65) −Battery

g01119456
Illustration 54
Left side view
(1) P61 customer connector
(2) J1/P1 ECM connectors

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Inspect


the connections on the diagnostic lamp. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
118 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Not OK – There is a problem with a connector


and/or the wiring.

Repair: Repair the connector and/or the wiring.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the
problem is resolved.

STOP.

Test Step 3. Test the Diagnostic Lamp


Circuit at the ECM Connector
A. Disconnect the J1/P1 connectors.

B. Connect a jumper wire between terminal P1-28


and engine ground.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and observe


the diagnostic lamp.

D. Remove the jumper wire and observe the


diagnostic lamp.

Expected Result:

g01102219
The diagnostic lamp turned on while the jumper wire
Illustration 56 was connected. The diagnostic lamp turned off when
J61 and P61 terminals that are associated with the diagnostic lamp the jumper wire was removed.
(24) Diagnostic lamp
Results:
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the
wires that are associated with the diagnostic lamp. • OK – The diagnostic lamp turned on while the
jumper wire was connected. The diagnostic lamp
D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM turned off when the jumper wire was removed.
connector for the proper torque. Refer to The circuit for the diagnostic lamp is functioning
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” properly. Proceed to Test Step 6.
for the correct torque values.
• Not OK – The diagnostic lamp did not turn on.
E. Check the allen head screw on the customer There is a problem with the circuit for the diagnostic
connector for the proper torque. Refer to lamp. Proceed to Test Step 4.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque value. Test Step 4. Test the Diagnostic Lamp
Circuit at the Diagnostic Lamp
F. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and
for pinch points from the diagnostic lamp to the A. Disconnect wire F404-RD from the diagnostic
ECM. lamp.

Expected Result: B. Connect a jumper wire between the diagnostic


lamp’s open terminal and engine ground.
All of the connectors, pins, and sockets are
completely coupled and/or inserted, and the harness C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and observe
and wiring are free of corrosion, of abrasion or of the diagnostic lamp.
pinch points.
D. Remove the jumper wire and observe the
Results: diagnostic lamp.

• OK – The connectors and the wiring are OK.


Proceed to Test Step 3.
RENR2418-02 119
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: • Not OK – Voltage is not present on terminal B at


the keyswitch.
The diagnostic lamp turned on while the jumper wire
was connected. The diagnostic lamp turned off when Repair: If voltage is not present on terminal B,
the jumper wire was removed. repair the wire between the +Battery and the
keyswitch. Check the battery’s no-load voltage.
Results: Return all wiring to the original configuration. Verify
that the problem is resolved.
• OK – The diagnostic lamp turned on while the
jumper wire was connected. The diagnostic lamp STOP.
turned off when the jumper wire was removed.
The +Battery side of the circuit for the diagnostic • Not OK – Voltage is not present on terminal R at
lamp is functioning properly. There is a problem the keyswitch.
with the return wire between the diagnostic lamp
and the P1 connector. Repair: If voltage is present on terminal B of the
keyswitch but not present on terminal R, replace
Repair: Repair wire F404-RD between the the keyswitch. Return all wiring to the original
diagnostic lamp and P1-28. Verify that the problem configuration. Verify that the problem is resolved.
is resolved.
STOP.
STOP.
Test Step 6. Check the Operation of the
• Not OK – The diagnostic lamp did not turn on ECM
when the jumper wire was connected. There is a
problem with the +Battery side of the circuit for the A. Remove terminal P1-28.
diagnostic lamp. Proceed to Test Step 5.
B. Fabricate a jumper wire 100 mm (4 inch) long.
Test Step 5. Check the Voltage from the Crimp a Deutsch pin to both ends of the wire.
Keyswitch to the Diagnostic Lamp
C. Insert the jumper into P1-28.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
D. Connect the J1/P1 connectors.
B. Remove the wire from the terminal R of the
keyswitch. E. Connect one probe of a voltage test lamp to the
jumper wire in P1-28.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
F. Connect the other probe of the voltage test lamp
D. Measure the voltage on terminal B of the to +Battery.
keyswitch to engine ground.
G. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Wait for
E. Measure the voltage on terminal R of the ten seconds.
keyswitch to engine ground.
H. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Expected Result:
Expected Result:
The test lamp turned ON for five seconds. Then, the
Voltage is present on terminal B and terminal R at test lamp turned OFF.
the keyswitch.
Results:
Results:
• OK – The test lamp turned ON for five seconds.
• OK – Voltage is present on terminal B and terminal Then, the test lamp turned OFF. The ECM is
R at the keyswitch. operating correctly. The problem appears to be
resolved.
Repair: If voltage is present on terminal R, repair
the wire between the keyswitch and the diagnostic Repair: The problem may be intermittent. If the
lamp. Verify that the breaker is not tripped. Return problem is intermittent, refer to the diagnostic
all wiring to the original configuration. Verify that functional test Troubleshooting, “Electrical
the problem is resolved. Connectors - Inspect”.

STOP. STOP.
120 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Not OK – The test lamp did not turn on for five


seconds. There is a problem with the ECM.

Repair: Temporarily connect a test ECM. Refer


to Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”. Check
the operation of the diagnostic lamp when the test
ECM is installed.

If the problem is resolved with the test ECM,


connect the suspect ECM. If the problem returns
with the suspect ECM, replace the ECM. Verify that
the problem is resolved.

STOP.

i02433728

Digital Sensor Supply Circuit


- Test
SMCS Code: 5574-038

System Operation Description:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) supplies a


regulated voltage of 8.0 ± 0.4 VDC to terminal A
of the engine coolant level sensor. This sensor is
optional equipment.

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

• 041-03 8 Volt DC Supply short to +batt


• 041-04 8 Volt DC Supply short to ground
A +8 V diagnostic code is probably caused by a
short circuit to ground or a short circuit to another
voltage source in the harness. The next likely cause
is a problem with a sensor. The least likely cause is
a problem with the ECM.

g01146754
Illustration 57
Schematic for the digital sensor supply
RENR2418-02 121
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

g01215738
Illustration 59
P1 ECM connector
(P1-4) +8 VDC (digital sensor supply)
(P1-5) Return
g01121173
Illustration 58
Left side view
(1) P61 customer connector
(2) J1/P1 ECM connectors

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Inspect


the connectors for each digital sensor. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for details.
122 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connector and/or the wiring.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the
problem is resolved.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check for Active Diagnostic


Codes
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

C. Observe the active diagnostic code screen on Cat


ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes
may become active. Look for these codes:

• 041-03 8 Volt DC Supply short to +batt


• 041-04 8 Volt DC Supply short to ground
Expected Result:

g01119753
One of the above diagnostic codes is active.
Illustration 60
J61 and P61 customer connectors Results:
(8) +8 VDC (digital sensor supply)
(9) Return • Active 041-03 code – A 041-03 diagnostic code is
active. Proceed to Test Step 3.
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the
wires that are associated with the digital sensor • Active 041-04 code – A 041-04 diagnostic code is
supply. active. Proceed to Test Step 4.

D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM • No active codes – None of the above codes are
connector for the proper torque. Refer to active.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque values. Repair: If any of the above codes are logged
and the engine is not running properly, refer to
E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting Without a
for pinch points from the battery to the ECM. Diagnostic Code”.

Expected Result: If the engine is running properly at this time, there


may be an intermittent problem in a harness
All of the connectors, pins, and sockets are that is causing the codes to be logged. Refer to
completely coupled and/or inserted, and the harness Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
and wiring are free of corrosion, of abrasion or of
pinch points. STOP.

Results: Test Step 3. Check the Voltage on the +8


V Supply Wire
• OK – The connectors and the wiring are OK.
Proceed to Test Step 2. A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

• Not OK – There is a problem with a connector B. Disconnect the harness connectors for the engine
and/or the wiring. coolant level sensor J800/P800.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.


RENR2418-02 123
Troubleshooting Section

D. Measure the voltage between terminals A and B Note: Wiggle the harness during the following
at the harness connector for the sensor. measurements in order to reveal an intermittent
condition.
Expected Result:
D. Measure the resistance between P1-4 (+8 V
The voltage measurement is 8.0 ± 0.4 VDC. supply) and the remaining terminals on the P1
and P2 connectors.
Results:
E. Measure the resistance between P1-4 (+8 VDC
• OK – The voltage measurement is 8.0 ± 0.4 VDC. supply) and the engine ground.

Repair: Connect the sensor connectors. Clear Expected Result:


all diagnostic codes. Check for active diagnostic
codes. If the problem is intermittent, refer to Each check of the resistance indicates an open
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. circuit.

STOP. Results:

• Not OK – The voltage measurement is not 8.0 ± • OK – Each check of the resistance indicates an
0.4 VDC. There is a problem with the wiring or with open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 6.
the ECM. Proceed to Test Step 5.
• Not OK – At least one check of the resistance
Test Step 4. Disconnect the +8 V Digital does not indicate an open circuit. A +8 V supply
Sensor and Check for Active Diagnostic wire has a problem. There may be a problem with
Codes a connector.

A. Disconnect the Engine coolant level sensor. Repair: Repair the wire and/or the connector,
when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify
B. Wait for 15 seconds after you disconnect each that the problem is resolved.
sensor. Look for the active 041-04 diagnostic code
to deactivate. STOP.

Expected Result: Test Step 6. Check the +8 V Supply and


the Sensor Common for an Open Circuit
The 041-04 diagnostic code deactivates when a
particular sensor is disconnected. A. Install a jumper wire between terminals P1-4 (+8
V supply) and P1-5 (Return).
Results:
Note: Wiggle the harness during the following
• OK – The 041-04 diagnostic code deactivates measurement in order to reveal any intermittent short
when a particular sensor is disconnected. condition.

Repair: Connect the suspect sensor. If the B. Measure the resistance between terminals A and
diagnostic code returns, replace the sensor. B at the harness connector for each digital sensor.

Connect all of the connectors. Verify that the C. Remove the jumper wire.
problem is resolved.
Expected Result:
STOP.
Each resistance measurement is less than ten Ohms.
• Not OK – The 041-04 diagnostic code remains
after all of the sensors are disconnected. Leave Results:
the sensors disconnected. Proceed to Test Step 5.
• OK – Each resistance measurement is less than
Test Step 5. Check the +8 V Supply Wire ten Ohms. Proceed to Test Step 7.
for a Short Circuit
• Not OK – At least one resistance measurement
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. is more than ten Ohms. A +8 V supply wire or a
return wire has excessive resistance. There may
B. Disconnect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors. be a problem with a connector.

C. Verify that all of the digital sensors are


disconnected.
124 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the wires and/or the connector, i02378207


when possible. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify
that the problem is resolved. Electrical Connectors - Inspect
STOP. SMCS Code: 7553-040-WW

Test Step 7. Check the +8 V Supply at the System Operation Description:


ECM
Most electrical problems are caused by poor
A. Remove terminal 4 from the P1 connector. Install connections. The following procedure will assist in
a jumper wire with socket terminals on both ends detecting problems with connectors and with wiring.
into P1-4. If a problem is found correct the condition and verify
that the problem is resolved.
B. Remove terminal 5 from the P1 connector. Install
a jumper wire with socket terminals on both ends Intermittent electrical problems are sometimes
into P1-5. resolved by disconnecting and reconnecting
connectors. It is very important to check for diagnostic
C. Connect the P1 connector. codes immediately before disconnecting a connector.
Also check for diagnostic codes after reconnecting
D. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. the connector. If the status of a diagnostic code is
changed due to disconnecting and reconnecting a
E. Measure the voltage between the jumper wires connector, there are several possible reasons. The
in P1-4 and P1-5. likely reasons are loose terminals, improperly crimped
terminals, moisture, corrosion, and inadequate
F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. mating of a connection.

G. Restore all wiring to the original configuration. Follow these guidelines:

Expected Result: • Always use a 1U-5804 Crimp Tool to service


Deutsch HD and DT connectors. Never solder the
The voltage measurement is 8.0 ± 0.4 VDC. terminals onto the wires. Refer to “SEHS9615,
Servicing Deutsch HD and DT Style Connectors”.
Results:
• Always use a 147-6456 Wedge Removal Tool to
• OK – The voltage measurement is 8.0 ± 0.4 VDC. remove wedges from DT connectors. Never use a
screwdriver to pry a wedge from a connector.
Repair: Clear all diagnostic codes. Check for active
diagnostic codes. If the problem is intermittent, • Always use a breakout harness for a voltmeter
refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors probe or a test light. Never break the insulation
- Inspect”. of a wire in order to access to a circuit for
measurements.
STOP.
• If a wire is cut, always install a new terminal for
• Not OK – The voltage measurement is not 8.0 ± the repair.
0.4 VDC.

Repair: Replace the ECM. Refer to


Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”. The connection of any electrical equipment and
the disconnection of any electrical equipment may
STOP. cause an explosion hazard which may result in in-
jury or death. Do not connect any electrical equip-
ment or disconnect any electrical equipment in an
explosive atmosphere.
RENR2418-02 125
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 1. Check Connectors for B. Ensure that the sealing plugs are in place. If any
Moisture and Corrosion of the plugs are missing, replace the plug. Ensure
that the plugs are inserted correctly into the
connector. Refer to Illustration 62.

g01131019
Illustration 63
Seal for a three-pin connector (typical example)

g01131211
Illustration 61
Leaky seal at the connector (typical example)

A. Inspect all wiring harnesses. Ensure that the


routing of the wiring harness allows the wires to
enter the face of each connector at a perpendicular
angle. Otherwise, the wire will deform the seal
bore. Refer to Illustration 61. This will create a
path for the entrance of moisture. Verify that the
seals for the wires are sealing correctly.

g01131165
Illustration 64
Seal for ECM connector (typical example)

C. Disconnect the suspect connector and inspect the


connector seal. Ensure that the seals are in good
condition. If necessary, replace the connector.

D. Thoroughly inspect the connectors for evidence


of moisture entry.

Note: It is normal to see some minor seal abrasion


on connector seals. Minor seal abrasion will not allow
Illustration 62
g01131276 the entry of moisture.
Diagram for the installation of a connector plug (typical example)
(1) Electronic Control Module (ECM) connector
(2) Correctly inserted plug
(3) Incorrectly inserted plug
126 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

If moisture or corrosion is evident in the connector, Test Step 2. Check the Wires for Damage
the source of the moisture entry must be found and to the Insulation
the source of the moisture entry must be repaired.
If the source of the moisture entry is not repaired, A. Carefully inspect each wire for signs of abrasion,
the problem will recur. Simply drying the connector of nicks, and of cuts.
will not fix the problem. Check the following items
for the possible moisture entry path: Inspect the wires for the following conditions:

• Missing seals • Exposed insulation


• Improperly installed seals • Rubbing of a wire against the engine
• Nicks in exposed insulation • Rubbing of a wire against a sharp point
• Improperly mated connectors B. Check all of the wiring harness fasteners in order
to verify that the harness is properly secured. Also
Moisture can also travel to a connector through check all of the fasteners in order to verify that the
the inside of a wire. If moisture is found in a harness is not compressed. Pull back the harness
connector, thoroughly check the connector’s sleeves in order to check for a flattened portion
harness for damage. Also check other connectors of wire. A fastener that has been overtightened
that share the harness for moisture. flattens the harness. This damages the wires that
are inside the harness.
Note: The ECM is a sealed unit. If moisture is found
in an ECM connector, the ECM is not the source of Expected Result:
the moisture. Do not replace the ECM.
The wires are free of abrasion, of nicks, and of cuts
Expected Result: and the harness is properly clamped.

The harness wiring, connectors, and seals are in Results:


good condition. There is no evidence of moisture in
the connectors. • OK – The harness is OK. Proceed to Test Step 3.
Results: • Not OK – There is damage to the harness.
• OK – The harness wiring, connectors, and seals Repair: Repair the wires or replace the wires,
are in good condition. Proceed to Test Step 2. as required. Verify that the repair eliminates the
problem.
• Not OK – A problem has been found with the
harness or the connectors. STOP.

Repair: Repair the connectors or the wiring, as Test Step 3. Inspect the Connector
required. Ensure that all of the seals are properly Terminals
in place. Ensure that the connectors have been
reattached. A. Visually inspect each terminal in the connector.
Verify that the terminals are not damaged.
If corrosion is evident on the pins, sockets or the Verify that the terminals are properly aligned in
connector, use only denatured alcohol to remove the connector and verify that the terminals are
the corrosion. Use a cotton swab or a soft brush properly located in the connector.
to remove the corrosion.
Expected Result:
If moisture was found in the connectors, run the
engine for several minutes and check again for The terminals are properly aligned and the terminals
moisture. If moisture reappears, the moisture is appear undamaged.
wicking into the connector. Even if the moisture
entry path is repaired, it may be necessary to Results:
replace the wires.
• OK – The terminals are OK. Proceed to Test Step
Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. 4.

STOP. • Not OK – The terminals of the connector are


damaged.
RENR2418-02 127
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the terminals and/or replace the Test Step 5. Check Individual Pin
terminals, as required. Retention into the Socket
Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 4. Perform a Pull Test on Each


Wire Terminal Connection

g01131604
Illustration 66
Diagram for testing pin retention (typical example)

A. Verify that the sockets provide good retention for


the pins. Insert a new pin into each socket one
at a time in order to check for a good grip on the
g01131435
pin by the socket.
Illustration 65
Receptacle lock wedge (typical example) Expected Result:

A. Ensure that the locking wedge for the connector The sockets provide good retention for the new pin.
is installed properly. Terminals cannot be retained
inside the connector if the locking wedge is not Results:
installed properly.
• OK – The terminals are OK. Proceed to Test Step
B. Perform the 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each wire. 6.
Each terminal and each connector should easily
withstand 45 N (10 lb) of tension and each wire • Not OK – Terminals are damaged.
should remain in the connector body. This test
checks whether the wire was properly crimped Repair: Use the 1U-5804 Crimp Tool to replace
in the terminal and whether the terminal was the damaged terminals. Verify that the repair
properly inserted into the connector. eliminates the problem.

Expected Result: STOP.

Each terminal and each connector easily withstands Test Step 6. Check the Locking
45 N (10 lb) of pull and each wire remains in the Mechanism of the Connectors
connector body.
A. Ensure that the connectors lock properly. After
Results: locking the connectors, ensure that the two halves
cannot be pulled apart.
• OK – All terminals pass the pull test. Proceed to
Test Step 5. B. Verify that the latch tab of the connector is
properly latched. Also verify that the latch tab of
• Not OK – A wire has been pulled from a terminal the connector returns to the locked position.
or a terminal has been pulled from the connector.
Expected Result:
Repair: Use the 1U-5804 Crimp Tool to replace
the terminal. Replace damaged connectors, as The connector will securely lock. The connector and
required. Verify that the repair eliminates the the locking mechanism are without cracks or breaks.
problem.
Results:
STOP.
• OK – The connectors are in good repair. Proceed
to Test Step 7.
128 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Not OK – The connector’s locking mechanism is


damaged or missing.

Repair: Repair the connector or replace the


connector, as required. Verify that the repair
eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 7. Check the Allen Head Screws


on the Connectors
Visually inspect the allen head screws for the ECM
connectors. Ensure that the threads on each allen
head screw are not damaged. g01132863
Illustration 69
A. Connect the ECM connectors. Allen head screw for the 40 pin ECM connector (typical example)

c. Torque the allen head screw for the 40 pin ECM


connector to 2.25 ± 0.25 N·m (20 ± 2 lb in).

g01132827
Illustration 67
Allen head screw for the 120 pin ECM connector (typical example)

g01133047
a. Torque the allen head bolt for the 120 pin ECM Illustration 70
connector to 7.0 ± 0.5 N·m (60 ± 4 lb in). Allen head screw for the 40 pin customer connector and the 70 pin
customer connector (typical example)

B. Connect the customer connector.

Torque the allen head screw for the 40 pin


customer connector and the 70 pin customer
connector to 2.25 ± 0.25 N·m (20 ± 2 lb in).

Expected Result:

The ECM connector is secure and the allen head


screws are properly torqued.

Results:

Illustration 68
g01132849
• OK – The ECM connectors and the customer
Allen head screw for the 70 pin ECM connector (typical example) connector is properly connected. Proceed to Test
Step 8.
b. Torque the allen head screw for the 70
pin ECM connector to 6.0 + 1.5 - 0.5 N·m • Not OK – The allen head screws for the ECM
(55 + 13 - 4 lb in). connector or the customer connector is damaged.
RENR2418-02 129
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connector or replace the This procedure tests whether proper voltage is being
connector, as required. Verify that the repair supplied to the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
eliminates the problem.
Unswitched battery voltage is supplied through the
STOP. customer connector to the ECM at P1-48, P1-52, and
P1-53. The negative battery is supplied to the ECM
Test Step 8. Perform the “Wiggle Test” on at P1-61, P1-63, and P1-65. The ECM receives the
the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) input from the keyswitch at P1-70 when the keyswitch
is in the ON position or the START position. When
A. Select the “Wiggle Test” from the diagnostic tests the ECM detects battery voltage at this input, the
on Cat ET. ECM will power up. When battery voltage is removed
from this input, the ECM will power down.
B. Choose the appropriate group of parameters to
monitor. The cause of an intermittent power supply to the ECM
can occur on either the positive side or the negative
C. Press the “Start” button. Wiggle the wiring harness side of the battery circuit. Both sides are routed from
in order to reproduce intermittent problems. the ECM to the battery. The three connections for
the unswitched +Battery should be routed through a
If an intermittent problem exists, the status will be dedicated protective device (circuit breaker).
highlighted and an audible beep will be heard.
The engine ECM requires the keyswitch to be in the
Expected Result: ON position in order to maintain communications with
the electronic service tool.
No intermittent problems were indicated during the
“Wiggle Test”.

Results:

• OK – No intermittent problems were found. The


harness and connectors appear to be OK. If you
were sent from another procedure, return to the
procedure and continue testing. If this test has
resolved the problem, return the engine to service.
STOP.

• Not OK – At least one intermittent problem was


indicated.

Repair: Repair the harness or the connector. Verify


that the repair eliminates the problem.

STOP.

i02289857

Electrical Power Supply Circuit


- Test
SMCS Code: 1401-038

System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect


problems with the electrical power supply.

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

• 168-00 System Voltage High


• 168-01 System Voltage Low
• 168-02 System Voltage intermittent/erratic
130 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01102414
Illustration 71
Schematic diagram for the electrical power supply

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
RENR2418-02 131
Troubleshooting Section

g01120079 g01104383
Illustration 72 Illustration 73
Left side view P1 terminals that are associated with the electrical power supply
(1) P61 customer connector (P1-44) Shutdown
(2) J1/P1 ECM connectors (P1-48) +Battery
(P1-52) +Battery
(P1-53) +Battery
B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). (P1-61) −Battery
Inspect the connections for the battery and (P1-63) −Battery
the connections to the keyswitch. Refer to (P1-65) −Battery
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” (P1-70) Keyswitch
for details.
132 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Results:

• OK – The connectors and wiring are okay. Proceed


to Test Step 2.

• Not OK – There is a problem with the connectors


or wiring.

Repair: Repair the connectors or wiring and/or


replace the connectors or wiring. Ensure that all of
the seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check the Battery Voltage at


the ECM
A. Disconnect the J1/P1 ECM connector.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

C. Measure the voltage between P1-52 (Unswitched


Positive Battery) and P1-63 (Negative Battery).

D. Measure the voltage between P1-48 (Unswitched


Positive Battery) and P1-61 (Negative Battery).
g01120091
Illustration 74 E. Measure the voltage between P1-53 (Unswitched
J61 and P61 terminals that are associated with the electrical Positive Battery) and P1-65 (Negative Battery).
power supply
(1) +Battery F. Measure the voltage between P1-70 (Keyswitch)
(2) -Battery and P1-63 (Negative Battery).
(3) -Battery
(9) -Battery
(26) Keyswitch Expected Result:
(27) Shutdown
(31) +Battery The measured voltage is between 11.0 VDC and 13.5
(32) +Battery VDC for a 12 volt system and between 22.0 VDC and
27.0 VDC for a 24 volt system with no suspected
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the intermittent problems at this time.
wires that are associated with the electrical power
supply. Results:
D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM • OK – The ECM is receiving the correct voltage.
connector for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” Repair: If an intermittent condition is suspected,
for the correct torque values. refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
- Inspect”.
E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and
for pinch points from the battery to the ECM. Also, STOP.
check the harness and wiring for abrasions and
for pinch points from the keyswitch to the ECM. • Battery voltage is out of range – Proceed to Test
Step 3.
Expected Result:
• Keyswitch voltage out of range
All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely
coupled and/or inserted, and the harness and wiring Repair: Trace the wiring for the keyswitch from the
are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points. ECM through the keyswitch circuit to the batteries.
Find the problem and repair the problem. Check
the circuit protection for the circuit and for the
wiring.
RENR2418-02 133
Troubleshooting Section

Verify that the repairs eliminate the problem. • Atmospheric pressure sensor
STOP. • Fuel pressure sensor
Test Step 3. Check the Batteries • Engine oil pressure sensor
A. Measure the no-load battery voltage at the battery • Auxiliary pressure sensor (if equipped)
posts.
This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:
B. Load test the batteries. Use the 4C-4911
Battery Load Tester. Refer to Special Instruction, • 094-03 Fuel Pressure open/short to +batt
SEHS9249, “Use of 4C-4911 Battery Load Tester
for 6, 8 and 12 Volt Lead Acid Batteries” and • 094-04 Fuel Pressure short to ground
Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”. • 100-03 Engine Oil Pressure open/short to +batt
Expected Result: • 100-04 Engine Oil Pressure short to ground
The batteries pass the load test. The measured • 102-03 Boost Pressure Sensor short to +batt
voltage is the minimum specification for a 12V or 24V
system. • 102-04 Boost Pressure Sensor short to ground
Results: • 274-03 Atmospheric Pressure open/short to +batt
• OK – The batteries are OK. • 274-04 Atmospheric Pressure short to ground
Repair: Check the wiring between the batteries The troubleshooting procedures for the diagnostic
and the ECM for shorts. codes of each pressure sensor are identical. The
Engine Control Module (ECM) sends a 5 volt supply
Check the connectors between the batteries and to terminal A of each sensor. The sensor common
the ECM for moisture and/or corrosion. connection is connected to terminal B of each sensor.
The signal voltage from terminal C of each sensor is
Repair the wiring and/or the connectors. sent to the appropriate ECM connector.

Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. Pull-up Voltage

STOP. The ECM continuously outputs a pull-up voltage on


the circuit for the sensor signal wire. The ECM uses
• Not OK – The battery voltage is low or the battery this pull-up voltage in order to detect an open in the
did not pass the load test. signal circuit. When the ECM detects the presence of
a voltage that is above a threshold on the signal wire,
Repair: Recharge or replace the faulty batteries. the ECM will generate a -03 diagnostic code.
Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.
If the sensor is disconnected at the sensor connector,
STOP. the presence of pull-up voltage at the sensor
connector indicates that the signal wire and the return
wire from the sensor connector to the ECM are good.
i02433741

Engine Pressure Sensor Open If the sensor is disconnected at the sensor connector,
the absence of pull-up voltage at the sensor
or Short Circuit - Test connector indicates an open in the signal wire, an
open in the return wire, or a short to ground.
SMCS Code: 5574-038-PX
If the sensor is disconnected at the sensor connector
System Operation Description: and the voltage on the signal wire at the sensor
connector is different from pull-up voltage, the signal
Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect wire is shorted to another wire in the harness.
problems with the following sensors:

• Injection actuation pressure sensor


• Boost pressure sensor
134 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01119880
Illustration 75
Schematic for the engine pressure sensors

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
RENR2418-02 135
Troubleshooting Section

g01121143
Illustration 76
Left side view
(1) Boost pressure sensor
(2) Atmospheric pressure sensor
(3) J2/P2 connectors
(4) J1/P1 connectors
(5) Engine oil pressure sensor
136 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121144
Illustration 77
The location of the fuel pressure sensor depends on the engine’s
configuration.
(6) Fuel pressure sensor

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (3) and (4).


Thoroughly inspect the connectors for each
engine pressure sensor. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

g01123383
Illustration 78
P2 terminals that are associated with the engine pressure sensors
(P2-15) Boost pressure
(P2-17) Return
(P2-28) Engine oil pressure
(P2-40) Fuel pressure
(P2-54) Return
(P2-57) Atmospheric pressure
(P2-72) +5 VDC
(P2-80) +5 VDC
(P2-85) Injection actuation pressure
RENR2418-02 137
Troubleshooting Section

g01123211
Illustration 80
Connectors for the sensors
(A) Supply
(B) Return
(C) Signal

g01123384
Illustration 79
P1 terminals that are associated with the engine pressure sensors
(P1-2) +5 VDC
(P1-3) Return
(P1-15) Auxiliary pressure

g01120120
Illustration 81
J61 and P61 terminals that are associated with the engine
pressure sensors
(14) +5 VDC
(15) Return
(33) Auxiliary pressure
138 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
wires that are associated with the engine pressure
sensors. F. Connect all of the sensors.

D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM Expected Result:


connector for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. Each voltage measurement is 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC.

E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and Results:


for pinch points from each sensor back to the
ECM. • OK – Each voltage measurement is 5.0 ± 0.2
VDC. Proceed to Test Step 3.
Expected Result:
• Not OK – At least one voltage measurement is
All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely not 5.0 ± 0.20 VDC.
coupled and/or inserted. The harness and wiring are
free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points. Repair: Refer to Troubleshooting, “5 Volt Engine
Pressure Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”.
Results:
STOP.
• OK – The harness and wiring are OK. Proceed
to Test Step 2. Test Step 3. Check for Active Diagnostic
Codes
• Not OK – There is a problem in the wiring and/or
the connectors. A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors. Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.
Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
connectors are completely coupled.
C. Observe the “Active Diagnostic” screen on Cat ET.
Verify that the problem is resolved. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes may
become active. Look for an active diagnostic code
STOP. for an engine pressure sensor.

Test Step 2. Check the Voltage on the +5 D. Determine if the problem is related to a -03
V Supply Wire diagnostic code or a -04 diagnostic code.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Expected Result:

B. Disconnect the harness connectors for the No diagnostic codes are active.
following sensors:
Results:
• Injection actuation pressure sensor J500/P500
• OK – No diagnostic codes are active for the engine
• Boost pressure sensor J200/P200 pressure sensors.

• Atmospheric pressure sensor J203/P203 Repair: If any of the above codes are logged
and the engine is not running properly, refer to
• Fuel pressure sensor J209/P209 Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting Without a
Diagnostic Code”.
• Engine oil pressure sensor J201/P201
If the engine is running properly at this time, there
• Auxiliary pressure sensor J220/P220 (if may be an intermittent problem in a harness
equipped) that is causing the codes to be logged. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
STOP.
D. Measure the voltage between terminals A (+5
VDC) and B (Return) at each sensor connector • Active -04 code – An 04 diagnostic code is active.
on the engine harness. Proceed to Test Step 4.
RENR2418-02 139
Troubleshooting Section

• Active -03 code – An 03 diagnostic code is active. Expected Result:


Proceed to Test Step 5.
The voltage is 11 ± 2 VDC.
Test Step 4. Disconnect the Suspect
Sensor in Order to Create an Open Circuit Results:

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. • OK – The voltage is 11 ± 2 VDC. The signal wire
to the ECM from the sensor connector is OK.
B. Disconnect the sensor connector of the sensor
with the -04 diagnostic code. Repair: The open circuit is in the sensor or the
wire between the sensor and the sensor connector.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Wait at Temporarily connect a new sensor to the engine
least 15 seconds for activation of the diagnostic harness. Do not install the sensor in the engine.
codes. Verify that no diagnostic codes are active for the
new sensor before you permanently install the
D. Access the “Active Diagnostic Code” screen on sensor.
Cat ET. Check for an active 03 diagnostic code for
the disconnected sensor. STOP.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. • Not OK – The voltage is not 11 ± 2 VDC. Proceed
to Test Step 6.
Expected Result:
Test Step 6. Check the Signal Wire for a
A -03 diagnostic code is now active for the Short Circuit
disconnected sensor.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Results:
B. Disconnect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors.
• OK – A -04 diagnostic code was active before you
disconnected the sensor. A -03 diagnostic code C. Disconnect the harness connector for the suspect
became active after the sensor was disconnected. sensor.

Repair: Temporarily connect a new sensor to the D. Identify the terminal for the signal wire on the
harness, but do not install the new sensor in the ECM connector that is appropriate for the suspect
engine. Verify that there are no active diagnostic sensor. Measure the resistance between the
codes for the sensor. If there are no active appropriate terminal and the remaining terminals
diagnostic codes for the sensor, permanently on both ECM connectors.
install the new sensor. Clear any logged diagnostic
codes. E. Measure the resistance between the appropriate
terminal and the engine ground.
STOP.
F. Connect J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors. Connect
• Not OK – A -04 diagnostic code was active before the connectors for the suspect sensor.
you disconnected the sensor. The -04 diagnostic
code remained after the sensor was disconnected. Expected Result:
Leave the sensor disconnected. Proceed to Test
Step 8. Each resistance measurement indicates an open
circuit.
Test Step 5. Check the Pull-up Voltage at
the Sensor Connector Results:

A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. • OK – Each resistance measurement indicates an


open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 7.
B. Disconnect the suspect sensor.
• Not OK – At least one resistance measurement
C. Measure the voltage between terminals C (signal) does not indicate an open circuit. There is a
and B (sensor return) at the harness connector problem in the wiring for the sensor. There may be
for the sensor. a problem with a connector.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
Replace parts, if necessary.
140 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Verify that the problem is resolved. Test Step 8. Check the Operation of the
ECM
STOP.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Test Step 7. Create a Short at the Suspect
Sensor Connector B. Check the operation of the ECM by creating an
open at the ECM:
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
a. Disconnect the appropriate ECM connector.
B. Install a jumper wire with Deutsch sockets on
each end between terminals B (sensor return) b. Remove the signal wire for the suspect sensor
and C (signal) on the harness connector for the from the ECM connector.
suspect sensor.
c. Remove the return wire for the suspect sensor
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. from the ECM connector.

Note: Monitor the “Active Diagnostic Codes” screen Note: Disconnecting the return wire from the ECM
on the electronic service tool before installing the will generate an open circuit diagnostic code for
jumper wire and after installing the jumper wire. all sensors that are connected to the return wire.
Ignore the additional codes. Troubleshoot the original
D. Observe the “Active Diagnostic Codes” screen diagnostic code and clear the codes when you are
on Cat ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that finished.
any codes may become active. Look for a -04
diagnostic code. d. Connect the ECM connector.

E. Remove the jumper wire. C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. D. Monitor the “Active Diagnostic Code” screen on
Cat ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any
Expected Result: codes may become active.

A -04 diagnostic code was active when the jumper A -03 diagnostic code should be active for the
wire was installed. A -03 diagnostic code became suspect sensor.
active when the jumper wire was removed.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Results:
F. Check the operation of the ECM by creating a
• OK – A -04 diagnostic code was active when the short circuit at the ECM:
jumper wire was installed. A -03 diagnostic code
became active when the jumper wire was removed. a. Disconnect the appropriate ECM connector.
The engine harness and the ECM are OK.
b. Install a jumper wire between the two terminals
Repair: Temporarily connect a new sensor to the for the sensor’s signal wire and the sensor’s
harness, but do not install the new sensor in the return wire.
engine. Verify that there are no active diagnostic
codes for the sensor. If there are no active c. Connect the ECM connector.
diagnostic codes for the new sensor, permanently
install the new sensor. Clear any logged diagnostic G. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
codes.
H. Monitor the “Active Diagnostic Code” screen on
Verify that the problem is resolved. Cat ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any
codes may become active.
STOP.
A short circuit diagnostic code (04) should be
• Not OK – A -04 diagnostic code was active when active when the wire jumper is installed.
the jumper wire was installed. The -04 code
remained when the jumper wire was removed. I. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 8.
J. Remove the jumper wire. Return the wiring to the
original configuration.
RENR2418-02 141
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: The engine uses two engine speed/timing sensors.


Both sensors detect the reference for engine speed
A -03 diagnostic code was active when the signal and timing from a unique pattern on the camshaft
wire was removed from the ECM connector. A -04 gear. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) uses
diagnostic code became active when the signal wire the pattern of the pulses in order to determine the
was connected to the return wire. position of the crankshaft. The ECM measures the
time between the pulses that are created by the
Results: sensors as the gears rotate in order to determine rpm.

• OK – The ECM is operating properly. There is a Under normal operation, the secondary engine
problem in the wiring between the ECM and the speed/timing sensor is used to determine timing
sensor connector. for starting purposes. The secondary engine
speed/timing sensor is used to determine when
Repair: If the code is active for more than one the piston in the No. 1 cylinder is at the top of the
sensor, the problem is most likely in the return wire compression stroke. When the timing has been
for the sensor. The problem may be in a connector. established, the primary engine speed/timing sensor
Repair the return wire and/or the connector. is then used to determine engine speed.
Replace parts, if necessary.
When the timing has been established, the ECM
If the code is only active for one sensor, the triggers each injector in the correct firing order at the
problem is most likely in the signal wire for the correct time. The actual timing and duration of each
sensor. Repair the signal wire and/or the connector. injection is based on engine rpm and on load.
Replace parts, if necessary.
If the engine is running and the signal from one
Verify that the problem is resolved. sensor is lost, no noticeable change in engine
performance will be noticed. If the engine is running
STOP. and the signals from both sensors are lost, fuel
injection will be terminated and the engine will be
• Not OK – One of the following conditions exists: shut down by the ECM.
The -03 diagnostic code is not active when the
signal wire is disconnected. The -04 diagnostic The engine will start when only one sensor signal is
code is not active when the wire jumper is installed. present. The engine will not start if the signals from
both sensors are lost.
Repair: Replace the ECM. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”. Both sensors are magnetic sensors. The two sensors
Verify that the problem is resolved. are not interchangeable. Do not switch the positions
of the sensors. Replace the sensors as a set. If the
STOP. sensors are replaced, a timing calibration is not
necessary.
i02428908
If a replacement of the ECM is required, the ECM
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor parameters and the timing calibration can be
transferred from the suspect ECM to the replacement
Circuit - Test ECM. Timing calibration will not be necessary. This
feature requires the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
SMCS Code: 1912-038 (ET) and this feature is only possible if the existing
ECM can communicate with Cat ET. Use the “Copy
System Operation Description: Configuration - ECM Replacement” feature on Cat
ET.
Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect
problems with the following sensors: Complete all of the following tasks when you
install the speed/timing sensors:
• Primary engine speed/timing sensor
• Ensure that an O-ring is installed on each sensor.
• Secondary engine speed/timing sensor If an O-ring is damaged or missing, replace the
O-ring.
This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:
• Lubricate the O-rings with oil.
• 190-08 Engine Speed abnormal
• Ensure that the sensor assembly is fully seated
• 342-08 Secondary Engine Speed signal abnormal into the engine before tightening the bracket bolt.
142 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Ensure that each electrical connector is latched


on both sides.

• Ensure that the harness is properly secured, and


ensure that each tie-wrap is placed in the correct
location.

g01120211
Illustration 82
Schematic for the engine speed/timing sensors

Test Step 1. Check for Diagnostic Codes • 190-08 or 342-08 code – There is an active
diagnostic code or a logged diagnostic code for
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician the engine speed/timing sensor. Proceed to Test
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to Step 4.
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.
• No codes – Neither code is active or logged.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Repair: Refer to the appropriate symptoms in
C. Start the engine and run the engine until the Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting Without a
engine is at normal operating temperature. Diagnostic Code”.

Note: If the engine will not start, monitor the engine STOP.
rpm on Cat ET while the engine is being cranked. Cat
ET may need to be powered from another battery Test Step 2. Check the Installation of the
while the engine is being cranked. Sensor Assembly
D. Look for these codes on Cat ET: A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

• 190-08
• 342-08
Expected Result:

One or both of the diagnostic codes that are listed


above are logged or active.

Note: If the engine will not start and Cat ET displayed


0 rpm during cranking, select “No Engine rpm”.

Results:

• No Engine rpm – Engine rpm is not indicated on


Cat ET. Proceed to Test Step 2.
RENR2418-02 143
Troubleshooting Section

g01120250 g01142633
Illustration 83 Illustration 84
Left side view Sensor assembly
(1) Engine (4) O-ring
(2) Flanges
(3) Bracket
D. Ensure that one O-ring (4) is installed on each
sensor. Check the O-rings for damage. Replace
B. Visually inspect the sensor assembly without the O-rings, if necessary.
removing the sensor assembly from the engine.
Flanges (2) must be flush against engine (1) in Results:
order to ensure proper operation.

Inspect bracket (3). Verify that the bracket allows


• OK – The sensor assembly’s components are OK.
the flanges to be flush against the engine. Repair: Perform the following procedure in order
to properly install the sensor assembly:
Verify that the bracket is not bent. If the bracket is
bent or if an obstruction is preventing the sensor 1. Lubricate each O-ring with engine oil.
assembly from being installed correctly, the engine
will not start. 2. Fully seat the sensor assembly in the engine.
Note: The bracket cannot be replaced separately. Note: If the sensor assembly will not fully seat into
the engine, replace the sensor assembly.
C. Remove the sensor assembly from the engine.
3. Tighten the bracket bolt.

4. Connect the sensor’s electrical connectors.


Verify that the connectors are latched on both
sides.

5. Ensure that the harness is properly secured,


and that the tie-wraps are placed in the correct
location.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

• Not OK – At least one of the sensor assembly’s


components is not OK.

Repair: Obtain a new sensor assembly. Perform


the following procedure in order to properly install
the sensor assembly:
144 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

1. Lubricate each O-ring with engine oil.

2. Fully seat the sensor assembly in the engine.

Note: If the sensor assembly will not fully seat into


the engine, replace the sensor assembly.

3. Tighten the bracket bolt.

4. Connect the sensor’s electrical connectors.


Verify that the connectors are latched on both
sides.

5. Ensure that the harness is properly secured,


and that the tie-wraps are placed in the correct
location.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.
RENR2418-02 145
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 3. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring

g01120293
Illustration 85
Left side view
(1) P400 connector for engine timing (3) J401/P401 connectors for the primary (4) J402/P402 connectors for the secondary
calibration engine speed/timing sensor engine speed/timing sensor
(2) J2/P2 connectors

A. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1), (2), (3),


and (4). Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical
Connectors - Inspect”.
146 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result:

All of the connectors, pins and sockets are completely


coupled and/or inserted and the harness and wiring
are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points.

Results:

• OK – The harness and connectors appear to be


OK. Proceed to Test Step 4.

• Not OK – The connectors and/or wiring are not


OK.

Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the
repair eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 4. Measure the Sensor


Resistance through the Engine Harness
A. Disconnect the J2/P2 ECM connector.

B. If you are troubleshooting a problem with the


primary engine speed/timing sensor, perform the
following procedure:

a. Measure the sensor’s resistance between


P2-25 (Primary engine speed/timing +) and
P2-35 (Primary engine speed/timing -).

b. Check for an intermittent open circuit or for a


short circuit by moving the harness while you
take the resistance measurement. Pull the
wires that are directly behind the sensor or
shake the wires that are directly behind the
sensor.
g01099116
Illustration 86
P2 terminations for the engine speed/timing sensors Resistance ............................ 75 to 230 Ohms
(P2-25) Primary engine speed/timing −
(P2-26) TDC probe + C. If you are troubleshooting a problem with the
(P2-35) Primary engine speed/timing + secondary engine speed/timing sensor, perform
(P2-36) TDC probe − the following procedure:
(P2-46) Secondary engine speed/timing +
(P2-47) Secondary engine speed/timing −
a. Measure the sensor’s resistance between
B. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of P2-47 (Secondary engine speed/timing +) and
the wires that are associated with the engine P2-46 (Secondary engine speed/timing -).
speed/timing sensors.
b. Check for an intermittent open circuit or for a
C. Check the torque of the allen head screws for short circuit by moving the harness while you
the ECM connectors. Refer to Troubleshooting, take the resistance measurement. Pull the
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. wires that are directly behind the sensor or
shake the wires that are directly behind the
D. Check the harness and the wiring for abrasion sensor.
and for pinch points from each sensor back to the
ECM. Resistance ........................ 600 to 1800 Ohms
RENR2418-02 147
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.


Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the problem
The resistance measurement is within the is resolved.
specifications.
STOP.
Results:
• Not OK – The reading is not within the
• OK – The resistance measurement is within the specification. There is an electrical problem with
specifications. Neither a short circuit nor an open the engine speed/timing sensor.
circuit is indicated.
Repair: Perform the following procedure in order
Repair: Perform the following procedure: to check and install the new sensor assembly:

1. Temporarily install a new ECM. Refer to 1. Before you install the new sensor assembly,
Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”. measure the resistance of the new sensors.

2. Start the engine. Run the engine until the engine If the resistance measurements of the new
is at normal operating temperature. sensors are within the specifications, install the
new sensor assembly in the engine according
3. If the problem is resolved with the test ECM, to the following procedure:
connect the original ECM and verify that the
problem recurs. a. Loosen the bolt and remove the bolt that
holds the sensor assembly to the engine.
4. If the problem returns with the original ECM,
replace the ECM. b. Ensure that O-rings are installed on the new
sensor assembly. Verify that the O-rings are
Verify that the problem is resolved. free of damage.

STOP. c. Seat the sensor assembly and tighten the


bolt.
• Not OK – The readings are not within the
specifications. The sensor resistance is not within If the sensor will not seat, replace the sensor.
the acceptable range when the sensor resistance
is measured through the engine harness. Proceed d. Ensure that the harness is secured in the
to Test Step 5. proper location.

Test Step 5. Measure the Resistance of 2. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.
the Sensor
STOP.
A. Disconnect the harness connector for the suspect
sensor.
i02433750

B. Thoroughly inspect the sensor’s connectors.


Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
Engine Temperature Sensor
- Inspect”. Open or Short Circuit - Test
C. Measure the sensor’s resistance between SMCS Code: 5574-038-TA
terminals A and B.
System Operation Description:
Expected Result:
Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect
For the primary engine speed/timing sensor, the problems with the following sensors:
resistance measurement is between 75 and 230
Ohms. For the secondary engine speed/timing • Coolant temperature sensor
sensor, the resistance measurement is between 600
and 1800 Ohms. • Intake manifold air temperature sensor
Results: • Auxiliary temperature sensor
• OK – The reading is within the specification. There This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:
is a problem with the wiring between the engine
speed/timing sensor and the ECM. There may be • 110-03 Engine Coolant Temperature open/short
a problem with a connector. to +batt
148 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• 110-04 Engine Coolant Temperature short to


ground

• 172-03 Intake Manifold Air Temp open/short to


+batt

• 172-04 Intake Manifold Air Temp short to ground


• 1836-03 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor open/short
to +batt

• 1836-04 Auxiliary Temperature Sensor short to


ground

The troubleshooting procedures for the diagnostic


codes of each temperature sensor are identical.
The temperature sensors are passive sensors that
have two terminals. The temperature sensors do not
require supply voltage from the Electronic Control
Module (ECM).

Pull-up Voltage

The ECM continuously outputs a pull-up voltage on


the circuit for the sensor signal wire. The ECM uses
this pull-up voltage in order to detect an open in the
signal circuit. When the ECM detects the presence of
a voltage that is above a threshold on the signal wire,
the ECM will generate a -03 diagnostic code.

If the sensor is disconnected at the sensor connector,


the presence of pull-up voltage at the sensor
connector indicates that the signal wire and the return
wire from the sensor connector to the ECM are good.

If the sensor is disconnected at the sensor connector,


the absence of pull-up voltage at the sensor
connector indicates an open in the signal wire, an
open in the return wire, or a short to ground.

If the sensor is disconnected at the sensor connector


and the voltage on the signal wire at the sensor
connector is different from pull-up voltage, the signal
wire is shorted to another wire in the harness.
RENR2418-02 149
Troubleshooting Section

g01121181
Illustration 87
Schematic for the engine temperature sensors

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
150 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121203
Illustration 88
Left side view
(1) Engine coolant temperature sensor (3) J61/P61 Customer connector (5) J1/P1 connectors
(2) Intake manifold air temperature sensor (4) J2/P2 connectors

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (3), (4), and


(5). Inspect the sensor connectors. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
RENR2418-02 151
Troubleshooting Section

g01121228
Illustration 90
J1/P1 terminals that are associated with the engine temperature
sensors
(3) Return
(16) Auxiliary temperature

g01120360
Illustration 89
P2 terminations for the engine temperature sensors
(P2-13) Engine coolant temperature
(P2-30) Return
(P2-56) Intake manifold air temperature
152 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result:

All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely


coupled and/or inserted. The harness and wiring are
free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points.

Results:

• OK – The connectors and wiring are OK. Proceed


to Test Step 2.

• Not OK – There is a problem in the connectors


and/or wiring.

Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled.

Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check for Active Diagnostic


Codes
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)
g01121234
to the service tool connector.
Illustration 91
J61/P61 terminals that are associated with the engine temperature B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
sensors
(11) Auxiliary temperature C. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat
(15) Return ET. Check and record any active diagnostic codes.

Note: Wait at least 15 seconds in order for the


diagnostic codes to become active.

D. Look for an 03 diagnostic code or an 04 diagnostic


code.

Expected Result:
g01120369
Illustration 92
Harness connector for the temperature sensors No diagnostic codes are active.
(1) Signal
(2) Return Results:

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the • OK – No diagnostic codes are active.
wires that are associated with the temperature
sensors. Repair: The problem may have been related
to a faulty connection in the harness. Carefully
D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM reinspect the connectors and wiring. Refer to
connectors for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. for additional information.

E. Check the allen head screw on the customer STOP.


connectors for the proper torque of 2.25 ± .25 N·m
(20 ± 2 lb in). • Not OK – An 04 diagnostic code is active at this
time. Proceed to Test Step 3.
F. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and
for pinch points from each sensor to the ECM. • Not OK – An 03 diagnostic code is active at this
time. Proceed to Test Step 4.
RENR2418-02 153
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 3. Disconnect the Suspect Results:


Sensor in Order to Create an Open Circuit
• OK – The voltage is 5.5 ± 0.5 VDC. The correct
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. pull-up voltage is present at the harness connector
for the suspect sensor.
B. Disconnect the suspect sensor from the engine
harness. Repair: The open circuit is in the sensor or the
wire between the sensor and the sensor connector.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Wait at Replace the sensor. Do not install the sensor in
least 15 seconds for activation of the diagnostic the engine. Verify that no diagnostic codes are
codes. active for the suspect sensor before permanently
installing the sensor.
D. Access the “Active Diagnostic Codes” screen on
Cat ET and check for an active 03 diagnostic code STOP.
for the suspect sensor.
• Not OK – The voltage is not 5.5 ± 0.5 VDC.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Proceed to Test Step 5.

Expected Result: Test Step 5. Check the Signal Wire for a


Short Circuit
An 03 diagnostic code is now active for the suspect
sensor. A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

Results: B. Disconnect the P1 and P2 connectors.

• OK – An 04 diagnostic code was active before C. Measure the resistance between the terminal
disconnecting the sensor. An 03 diagnostic code for the suspect sensor’s signal wire at the ECM
became active after the sensor was disconnected. connector and all of the remaining terminals on
the P2 connector.
Repair: Temporarily connect a new sensor to the
harness, but do not install the new sensor in the D. Measure the resistance between the terminal
engine. Verify that there are no active diagnostic for the suspect sensor’s signal wire at the ECM
codes for the sensor. If there are no active connector and all of the remaining terminals on
diagnostic codes for the sensor, permanently the P1 connector.
install the new sensor. Clear any logged diagnostic
codes. E. Measure the resistance between the terminal
for the suspect sensor’s signal wire at the ECM
Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. connector and the engine ground.

STOP. F. Connect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors.

• Not OK – The 04 diagnostic code is still present. Expected Result:


Leave the sensor disconnected. Proceed to Test
Step 7. Each check of the resistance indicates an open
circuit.
Test Step 4. Check the Pull-up Voltage at
the Sensor Connector Results:

A. Disconnect the suspect sensor at the sensor • OK – Each check of the resistance indicates an
connector. open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 6.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. • Not OK – At least one check of the resistance does
not indicate an open circuit. There is a problem
C. Measure the voltage between terminal 1 (signal) with the wiring. There may be a problem with a
and terminal 2 (return) at the harness connector. connector.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.
Replace parts, if necessary.
Expected Result:
Verify that the original problem is resolved.
The voltage is 5.5 ± 0.5 VDC.
STOP.
154 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 6. Create a Short at the Suspect Note: Disconnecting the return wire from the ECM
Sensor Connector will generate an 03 diagnostic code for all sensors
that are connected to the return wire. Troubleshoot
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. the original diagnostic code. Clear the logged
diagnostic codes when you are finished.
B. Install a jumper wire between terminals 1 and 2 on
the harness connector for the suspect sensor. c. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Monitor
the “Active Diagnostic Code” screen on Cat
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. ET. Wait at least 15 seconds for activation of
the code.
D. Wait at least 15 seconds for activation of the 04
diagnostic code. An 03 diagnostic code should be active for the
suspect sensor.
Note: Monitor the “Active Diagnostic Codes” screen
on Cat ET before installing the jumper wire and after C. Check the operation of the ECM by creating a
installing the jumper wire. short at the ECM:

E. Remove the jumper wire. Check for an 04 a. Install a wire jumper between the terminals for
diagnostic code again. the sensor signal wire and the return wire.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. b. Monitor the “Active Diagnostic Code” screen on
Cat ET. Wait at least 15 seconds for activation
Expected Result: of the code.

An 04 diagnostic code is active when the jumper wire An 04 diagnostic code should be active when
is installed. An 03 diagnostic code is active when the the wire jumper is installed.
jumper wire is removed.
c. Remove the wire jumper. Return all wiring to
Results: the original configuration.

• OK – The engine harness and the ECM are OK. Expected Result:

Repair: Temporarily connect a new sensor to the An 03 diagnostic code is active when the sensor
harness, but do not install the new sensor in the signal wire is removed from the ECM connector. An
engine. Verify that there are no active diagnostic 04 diagnostic code is active when the signal wire is
codes for the sensor. If there are no active connected to the return wire.
diagnostic codes for the sensor, permanently
install the new sensor. Clear any logged diagnostic Results:
codes.
• OK – The ECM is working properly. The problem
STOP. is in the wiring between the ECM and the sensor
connector.
• Not OK – The 03 diagnostic code remains active
with the jumper in place. Proceed to Test Step 7. Repair: If the code is active for more than one
sensor, the problem is most likely in the return wire
Test Step 7. Check the Operation of the for the sensor. Repair the return wire for the sensor
ECM or replace the harness.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. If the code is only active for one sensor, the
problem is most likely in the signal wire for the
B. Check the operation of the ECM by creating an sensor. Repair the signal wire for the sensor.
open circuit at the ECM:
STOP.
a. Remove the signal wire for the suspect sensor
from the appropriate ECM connector. • Not OK – One of the following conditions exists:
The 03 diagnostic code is not active when the
b. Remove terminal P2-30 (return). sensor signal wire is disconnected. The 04
diagnostic code is not active when the wire jumper
is installed.
RENR2418-02 155
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Replace the ECM. Refer to If a problem is suspected with the ether starting aid
Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”. switch, refer to Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits -
Verify that the original problem is resolved. Test”.

STOP. Test Mode – A test mode is available in Caterpillar


Electronic Technician (ET). The test mode allows the
technician to activate the ether system. The test is
i02426465
functional when the engine speed is zero rpm. The
Ether Injection System - Test ether injection solenoid is activated for a ten second
duration when the test is activated. The test can be
SMCS Code: 1456-038 found in the “Override Parameters” screen in Cat ET.

System Operation Description:

Before you test the ether injection system,


remove the ether canister from the system.

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect


problems with the ether injection system.

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

• 2417-05 Ether Injection Control Solenoid current


low

• 2417-06 Ether Injection Control Solenoid current


high

The ether injection system is used to improve cold


weather starting of the engine. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) controls the ether injection system
during the start cycle. The ether injection system has
two modes of operation:

Automatic mode – In the automatic mode, if the


engine coolant temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F)
and the engine speed is zero rpm, the ether injection
system is actuated by the ECM. Ether is injected
continuously until the engine starts (50 rpm below
low idle). Ether will continue to be injected for a short
duration after engine starting that is dependent on
ambient conditions.

Manual mode – In the manual mode, the ECM


energizes the ether solenoid for a single shot of ether.

Manual mode is activated by pressing the ether


starting aid switch. A short burst of ether is injected
when the ether starting aid switch is pressed. In the
manual mode, the ether injection system can be
enabled if all of the following conditions are met:

• The ether starting aid switch is pressed.


• The intake manifold air temperature is less than
0 °C (32 °F).

• There are no active diagnostic codes for both the


engine coolant temperature sensor and the intake
manifold air temperature sensor.
156 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01213005
Illustration 93
Schematic of the ether injection system

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Remove electrical power from the ECM.

g01146383
Illustration 95
Engine view (typical example)
(2) P61 customer connector

g01167488
Illustration 94
Engine view (typical example)
(1) J1/P1 ECM connectors

g01170983
Illustration 96
Ether starting aid group (typical example)
(3) Ether injection solenoid
RENR2418-02 157
Troubleshooting Section

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Also,


thoroughly inspect the connectors for solenoid
(3). Refer to the diagnostic functional test
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

g01155187
Illustration 99
Terminal locations at the harness connector for the ether solenoid
(1) Ether injection solenoid
(2) Chassis ground

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the


wires in the ECM connector that are associated
with the ether injection system.

D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM


connector for the proper torque. Also check the
allen head screw on the customer connector
for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for the correct
torque values.

E. Check the harness and the wiring for abrasion and


for pinch points from the ether injection solenoid
to the ECM.

Expected Result:

All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely


coupled and/or inserted, and the harness and wiring
are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points.

Results:

• OK – The connectors and wiring appear to be OK.


Proceed to Test Step 2.
g01212950
Illustration 97
P1 terminals for the ether injection system
• Not OK – The connectors and/or wiring are not
OK.
(P1-10) Ether injection solenoid
(P1-22) Override switch
Repair: Repair the connectors and/or the wiring.
Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the problem
is resolved.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check the Ether Canister for


Starting Fluid
A. Remove electrical power from the ECM.

B. Remove the ether canister from the ether valve.


Determine if the canister contains fluid.

Expected Result:
g01212957
Illustration 98
The ether canister is not empty.
P61 terminals for the ether injection system
(22) Ether injection solenoid
(38) Override switch
158 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Results: • Not OK – A 05 code is active at this time. The


ECM is detecting a low current condition in the
• OK – The ether canister is not empty. Do not install circuit. Proceed to Test Step 5.
the ether canister. Proceed to Test Step 3.
• Not OK – A 06 code is active at this time. The
• Not OK – The ether canister is empty. ECM is detecting excessive current in the circuit.
Proceed to Test Step 4.
Repair: Replace the empty ether canister with a
full ether canister. Verify that the original problem Test Step 4. Create an Open at the
is resolved. Harness Connector for the Ether
Injection Solenoid
STOP.
A. Disconnect the harness connector for the ether
Test Step 3. Check for Active Diagnostic solenoid.
Codes
B. Restore electrical power to the engine ECM.
Note: The ether canister must be removed prior to
performing this procedure. C. Proceed to the “Diagnostic Overrides” screen on
Cat ET.
A. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service D. Activate the ether injection system. The system
Tools”. will activate for ten seconds.

B. Restore electrical power to the engine ECM. E. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat
ET. Look for an active 05 code.
C. Proceed to the “Diagnostic Overrides” screen on
Cat ET. Note: Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the
diagnostic codes to become active.
D. Activate the ether injection system. The system
will activate for ten seconds. F. Remove electrical power from the engine ECM.

E. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat Expected Result:


ET. Check and record any active diagnostic codes.
A 05 code is now active.
Note: Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the
diagnostic codes to become active. Results:

F. Look for a 05 diagnostic code or a 06 diagnostic • OK – A 06 code was active before the connector
code. was disconnected. A 05 code became active after
the connector was disconnected.
G. Remove electrical power from the engine ECM.
Repair: The circuit for the ether solenoid is OK.
Expected Result: Temporarily connect a new solenoid to the harness,
but do not install the new solenoid. After connecting
No diagnostic codes are active. the new solenoid to the harness, verify that there
are no active codes for the ether injection system.
Results:
If there are no active codes for the ether injection
• No active codes – Neither diagnostic code is system, permanently install the new solenoid.
active. Clear any logged diagnostic codes.

Repair: The problem seems to be resolved. The STOP.


problem may have been caused by a poor electrical
connection. Carefully reinspect the connectors and • Not OK – A 06 code was active before the
the wiring. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical connector was disconnected. The 06 code
Connectors - Inspect”. remained active after the connector was
disconnected. There is a problem in the circuit
STOP. for the ether injection solenoid. There may be a
problem with the ECM. Leave the connector for the
solenoid disconnected. Proceed to Test Step 6.
RENR2418-02 159
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 5. Create a Short at the Test Step 6. Check the Operation of the
Connector for the Ether Injection ECM
Solenoid
A. Disconnect the J1/P1 ECM connectors.
A. Disconnect the harness connector for the ether
solenoid. B. Fabricate a jumper wire that is long enough to
create a test circuit from the ECM connector to the
B. Fabricate a jumper wire that is long enough to engine ground stud. Crimp a connector socket to
create a short circuit between terminal 1 and one end of the jumper wire.
terminal 2 at the harness connector for the ether
solenoid. Crimp connector pins to each end of the C. Remove the wire from terminal location J1-10
jumper wire. (ether injection solenoid) at the ECM connector.
Install the jumper wire into this terminal location.
C. Install the jumper wire between terminals 1 and 2
of the harness connector. D. Connect the J1/P1 ECM connectors.

D. Restore electrical power to the engine ECM. E. Check the operation of the ECM by creating
an open at the ECM:
E. Proceed to the “Diagnostic Overrides” screen on
Cat ET. a. Hold the loose end of the jumper wire away
from any ground source in order to create an
F. Activate the ether injection system. The system open circuit condition.
will activate for ten seconds.
b. Restore electrical power to the ECM.
G. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat
ET. Look for an active 06 code. c. Proceed to the “Diagnostic Overrides” screen
on Cat ET.
Note: Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the
diagnostic codes to become active. d. Activate the ether injection system. The system
will activate for ten seconds.
H. Remove electrical power from the engine ECM.
e. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on
I. Remove the jumper wire from the harness Cat ET. Look for an active 05 code. Record
connector. the result.

Expected Result: Note: Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the


diagnostic codes to become active.
A 06 code is now active.
f. Remove electrical power from the ECM.
Results:
F. Check the operation of the ECM by creating a
• OK – A 05 code was active before the jumper wire short at the ECM.
was installed. A 06 code became active after the
jumper wire was installed. a. Short the jumper wire to the engine ground
stud.
Repair: The engine harness and the ECM are
OK. Temporarily connect a new solenoid to the b. Restore electrical power to the ECM.
harness, but do not install the new solenoid. Verify
that there are no active diagnostic codes for the c. Proceed to the “Diagnostic Overrides” screen
solenoid. If there are no active diagnostic codes on Cat ET.
for the solenoid after the installation of the new
solenoid, permanently install the new solenoid. d. Activate the ether injection system. The system
Clear any logged diagnostic codes. will activate for ten seconds.

STOP. e. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on


Cat ET. Look for an active 06 code. Record
• Not OK – A 05 code was active before the jumper the result.
wire was installed. The 05 code remained active
after the jumper wire was installed. Remove the Note: Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the
jumper wire and connect the connector. Proceed diagnostic codes to become active.
to Test Step 6.
G. Remove electrical power from the engine ECM.
160 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

H. Restore the wiring to the original configuration.

Expected Result:

A 05 code is active when the loose end of the jumper


wire is open. A 06 code is active when the loose end
of the jumper wire is grounded.

Results:

• OK – A 05 code is active when the loose end of


the jumper wire is open. A 06 code is active when
the loose end of the jumper wire is grounded.

Repair: The ECM is operating properly. The


problem is in the circuit for the ether solenoid. The
problem may be in the harness between the ECM
and the ether solenoid’s harness connector or the
harness between the ground connection and the
ether solenoid’s harness connector. Repair the
connectors or wiring and/or replace the connectors
or wiring. Refer to Illustration 93 for details.

STOP.

• Not OK – One of the following conditions exists:


A 05 code is not active when the loose end of the
jumper wire is open. A 06 code is not active when
g01161363
the loose end of the jumper wire is grounded. Illustration 100
Left side engine view (typical example)
Repair: The ECM is not responding correctly. (1) J500/P500 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (IAPCV)
Replace the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, connector
“Replacing the ECM”. Verify that the problem is (2) Injection Actuation Pressure (IAP) sensor
(3) J2/P2 Engine Control Module (ECM) connector
resolved.

STOP. Test Step 1. Symptoms


The following symptoms may occur if there is a
i02414578 problem with the HEUI fuel system:
Injection Actuation Pressure - • The engine cranks but the engine will not start.
Test
• The engine runs rough.
SMCS Code: 1714-038
• The engine is erratic or unstable at idle or running.
System Operation Description:
• Low power
Use the steps that follow to check the operation of
fuel systems that utilize Hydraulic Electronic Unit • The following fault codes might be currently active
Injectors (HEUI). Circle the appropriate answer in the codes or logged event codes: 164-00, 164-02, and
Results section of each step. Complete the pages. 164-11.
Return the pages with any of the requested parts
through the part return system. Complete the following test steps. Circle the
appropriate answers in the Results section of each
test step and return the pages with the fuel system
component.

A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)


to the service tool connector.
RENR2418-02 161
Troubleshooting Section

B. Restore the electrical power to the ECM. DO NOT A. Crank the engine. Observe the status for “Injection
START THE ENGINE. Actuation Pressure” and “Engine Speed” on Cat
ET while the engine is cranking. Record the
C. Print the “Lifetime Totals” and the “Configuration” following data:
screen.
________________ Desired injection actuation
D. Check for active diagnostic codes. pressure

Expected Result: ________________ Actual injection actuation


pressure
There are no active diagnostic codes with the
electrical power restored to the ECM and the engine ________________ Observed engine speed
OFF.
________________ Engine coolant temperature
Results:
________________ Observed “Injection Actuation
• OK – There are no active codes. Proceed to Test Output Percent”
Step 2.
Expected Result:
• Not OK – Active codes are present.
The desired injection actuation pressure and the
Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests actual injection actuation pressure are within 1 MPa
Troubleshooting, “Engine Pressure Sensor Open (145 psi).
or Short Circuit - Test” if 164-03 or 164-04 is active.
Results:
Refer to diagnostic functional tests
Troubleshooting, “Injection Actuation Pressure • OK – The desired injection actuation pressure and
Sensor - Test” if 164-02 is active. the actual injection actuation pressure are within
1 MPa (145 psi).
Contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC)
if 164-00 or 164-11 is active. Repair: The HEUI fuel system is functioning
correctly. Refer to troubleshooting without a
STOP. diagnostic code Troubleshooting, “Engine Cranks
but Will Not Start”.
Test Step 2. Check the Engine Oil Level
STOP.
A. Check the engine oil level.
• Not OK – The desired injection actuation pressure
B. If the engine oil level is low add oil to the engine. and the actual injection actuation pressure are not
within 1 MPa (145 psi). Proceed to Test Step 4.
C. Try to start the engine.
Test Step 4. Use a Test Lamp to Check
Expected Result: for the Presence of Current
The engine starts. A. Disconnect the J500/P500 IAPCV connector from
the unit injector hydraulic pump.
Results:
Note: Do not insert any wire that is larger than
• Yes – The engine starts. Proceed to Test Step 7. 18 AWG into the P500 harness connector. Do not
insert the probe for the voltage test lamp into the
• No – The engine does not start. Proceed to Test P500 harness connector. These actions will spread
Step 3. the sockets of the connector which will damage
the connector. Damaged connectors could cause
Test Step 3. The Engine Cranks but the intermittent connections.
Engine Will Not Start
B. Insert a 186-3735 Connector Pin into each of the
Your answer from the previous step indicated that the harness connector sockets at connector P500.
engine oil level is within specifications. Do not replace
the injection actuation pressure sensor at this time. C. Connect a voltage test lamp to the connector pins
that are inserted in the P500 connector.

D. Crank the engine and watch the test lamp.


162 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: Note: If the multimeter is not set to the correct scale,
the following measurement may provide misleading
The test lamp illuminates while the engine is cranking. results.

Results: D. Crank the engine and record the following data:

• OK – The test lamp illuminates while the engine ________________Observed pressure reading from
is cranking. The ECM is operating correctly and the pressure gauge
the wiring harness to the pump is probably OK.
Proceed to Test Step 5. ________________ Observed engine speed from
Cat ET
• Not OK – The test lamp does not illuminate while
the engine is cranking. ________________Observed “Injection Actuation
Output Percent” from Cat ET
Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests
Troubleshooting, “Injection Actuation Pressure ________________ Current reading from the
Control Valve Circuit - Test”. ammeter

STOP. Expected Result:

Test Step 5. Check the Oil Pressure at the The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and
Pump (Deadhead Test) the current is above 400 mA.

Results:

• OK – The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa


Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA. Return
leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious the system to the original configuration. Proceed
injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into to Test Step 6.
your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doc-
tor familiar with this type of injury.
• Not OK, Result 1 – The oil pressure is below
26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400
Always use a board or cardboard when checking mA.
for a leak.
Repair: Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump. If
A. Disconnect the high pressure oil line from the the drive gear on the pump is loose, do not attempt
unit injector hydraulic pump. Install a 8T-0852 to tighten the drive gear and reuse the pump.
Pressure Gauge onto the outlet port of the pump. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. If
the problem remains after the repair, contact your
Note: Ensure that the pump is supplying oil only to Engine Technical Communicator (TC).
the gauge.
After the unit injector hydraulic pump has been
Note: The pressure readings may vary between replaced, the engine may need to be cranked for
gauges. a significant length of time in order to fill the pump
with oil. Clear any diagnostic codes or event codes
B. Install a 224-9282 Adapter Cable As at the that activated during the initial start-up. Retest the
J500/P500 connectors. Connect one end of the system.
adapter cable to the IAPCV and connect the other
end to the harness connector. STOP.

Note: There must be a continuous electrical • Not OK, Result 2 – The current is below 400 mA.
connection between the ECM and the unit injector
hydraulic pump. The improper connection or the Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests
incomplete connection of the adapter cable may Troubleshooting, “Injection Actuation Pressure
provide incorrect results. Control Valve Circuit - Test”.

C. Connect a multimeter that is capable of measuring STOP.


current that is 0 to 1,000 milliamperes in series
with the adapter cable. Select the lowest current
range for the multimeter that is greater than one
amp.
RENR2418-02 163
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 6. Check the High Pressure Oil • ________________ 42-11


System for Leaks
• ________________ 164-00

• ________________ 164-02
Hot oil and components can cause personal in- • ________________ 164-11
jury.
Results:
Do not allow hot oil or components to contact
skin. • 164-00 or 164-11 is active or logged – 164-00 or
164-11 is active or logged. 164-02 or 42-11 may
A. Remove the valve cover and inspect the high also be active or logged. Proceed to Test Step 8.
pressure oil system for oil leaks.
• 164-02 is active or logged – 164-02 is active or
B. While the engine is being cranked, look around the logged, but 164-00 and 164-11 are not active or
injector bores for any signs of oil leakage. Inspect logged.
the spill ports on the injectors for an excessive
discharge of oil. All six injectors should spill the Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests
same amount of oil. Troubleshooting, “Injection Actuation Pressure
Sensor - Test” for information on troubleshooting
C. While the engine is being cranked, perform the the active 164-02 code.
“Injection Actuation Pressure Test”. Run the test at
the highest step in order to maximize any possible STOP.
leaks.
Test Step 8. Evaluate the Quality of the
Expected Result: Oil

No leaks are apparent. Extended oil drain intervals may cause elevated
levels of soot in the engine oil. The elevated levels
Results: of soot may also deplete the additive package of the
oil. This can affect the operation of the high pressure
• OK – There are no apparent leaks. Contact oil system.
your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for
assistance. STOP. Record the current drain interval.

• Not OK – There are oil leaks. ________________ Machine model

Repair: Replace the O-ring on the injector or ________________ Engine serial number
replace the damaged injector.
________________ Drain interval
STOP.
________________ Hours since last oil change
Test Step 7. Engine Starts
Expected Result:
A. Start the engine.
The customer has not exceeded the suggested oil
B. Check for the following codes on Cat ET: change interval and an oil change does not need to
be performed.
• 42-11 Inject Actuation Control Valve open/short
Results:
• 164-00 High Injector Actuation Pressure
• OK – The customer has not exceeded the
• 164-02 Injector Actuation Pressure signal erratic suggested oil change interval. Proceed to Test
Step 9.
• 164-11 Injector Actuation Pressure system fault
• Not OK – The customer has exceeded the
Expected Result: suggested oil change interval.

164-00 or 164-11 is active or logged.

Place a check beside the codes that are active or


logged.
164 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Before you proceed, ask the customer F. Remove the gauge from the unit injector hydraulic
to authorize an oil change with a new oil filter. pump. Install the plug into the secondary outlet
Oil changes are not covered by the warranty. port. Tighten the plug to a torque of 34 ± 3 N·m
After the engine oil and the oil filter have been (25 ± 2 lb ft).
changed, operate the engine until normal operating
temperature has been reached. Run the engine up Expected Result:
and down through the operating rpm range for 10
to 15 minutes. This will purge any trapped air or The pressure that was measured with the pressure
debris that is in the system. gauge for each step and the pressure that was
displayed on Cat ET for each step are within
If the problem persists, or if the problem recurs in a 1379 kPa (200 psi).
short period or time, proceed to Test Step 9.
Note: Under some situations, the injection actuation
Test Step 9. Check the System with the pressure may not change. Use this step to compare
“Injection Actuation Pressure Test” the pressure reading from the pressure gauge to the
pressure reading that is displayed on Cat ET.

Results:
Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size • OK – The pressures are within 1379 kPa
leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious (200 psi). The injection actuation pressure sensor
injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into is operating properly. Do not replace the sensor.
your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doc- Proceed to Test Step 10.
tor familiar with this type of injury.
• Not OK – The pressures are not within 1379 kPa
Always use a board or cardboard when checking (200 psi). The injection actuation pressure sensor
for a leak. may be faulty. Replace the sensor and repeat
this test step. If the problem persists, verify the
A. Remove the plug from the secondary outlet port accuracy of the pressure gauge. Install the original
on the unit injector hydraulic pump. sensor onto the engine and proceed to Test Step
10.
B. Install a 8T-0852 Pressure Gauge in the
secondary outlet port. Test Step 10. Use a Test Lamp to Check
for the Presence of Current
C. Start the engine.
A. Disconnect J500/P500 IAPCV connector from the
D. Access the “Injection Actuation Pressure Test” in unit injector hydraulic pump.
the “Diagnostics Menu” of Cat ET and begin the
test. Note: Do not insert any wire that is larger than
18 AWG into the P500 harness connector. Do not
Note: The “Injection Actuation Pressure Test” can insert the probe for the voltage test lamp into the
increase the injection actuation pressure or the P500 harness connector. These actions will spread
“Injection Actuation Pressure Test” can decrease the the sockets of the connector which will damage
injection actuation pressure. The test adjusts the oil the connector. Damaged connectors could cause
pressure in steps. intermittent connections.

E. Record the pressure readings from the pressure B. Insert a 186-3735 Connector Pin into each of the
gauge and from Cat ET. P500 harness connector sockets.

Table 18 C. Connect a voltage test lamp to the connector pins


Step Manual Pressure Cat ET Difference
that are inserted in the P500 connector.
gauge
D. Crank the engine and watch the test lamp.
1
2 Expected Result:

3 The test lamp illuminates while the engine is cranking.


4
RENR2418-02 165
Troubleshooting Section

Results: Note: Under some situations, the injection actuation


pressure may not change. Use this step to compare
• OK – The test lamp illuminates while the engine the pressure from the pressure gauge to the pressure
is cranking. The ECM is operating correctly and that is displayed by Cat ET.
the wiring harness to the pump is probably OK.
Proceed to Test Step 11. Results:

• Not OK – The test lamp does not illuminate while • OK – The actual injection actuation pressure and
the engine is cranking. the desired injection actuation pressure are within
1379 kPa (200 psi).
Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests
Troubleshooting, “Injection Actuation Pressure Repair: Contact your Engine Technical
Control Valve Circuit - Test”. Communicator (TC) for assistance.

STOP. STOP.

Test Step 11. Perform the “Injection • Not OK – The actual injection actuation pressure
Actuation Pressure Test” at Low Idle and and the desired injection actuation pressure are not
at High Idle within 1379 kPa (200 psi). Proceed to Test Step 12.

Start the engine. Run the “Injection Actuation Test Step 12. Check the Oil Pressure at
Pressure Test” at low idle and at high idle. the Pump (Deadhead Test)
Note: There should not be any noticeable lag in
the reaction to the injection pressure. The pressure
changes should be instantaneous.
Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size
Record the data in the following tables: leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious
injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into
Table 19 your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doc-
tor familiar with this type of injury.
Low Idle
Actual injection Always use a board or cardboard when checking
Desired injection
actuation for a leak.
Step actuation pressure
pressure from
from Cat ET
Cat ET
A. Disconnect the high pressure oil line from the
1 unit injector hydraulic pump. Install a 8T-0852
2 Pressure Gauge onto the outlet port of the pump.
3 Note: Ensure that the pump is supplying oil only to
4 the gauge.

Note: The pressure readings may vary between


Table 20
gauges.
High Idle
B. Install a 224-9282 Adapter Cable As at the
Actual injection
actuation
Desired injection J500/P500 connectors. Connect one end of the
Step actuation pressure adapter cable to the IAPCV and connect the other
pressure from
from Cat ET end to the harness connector.
Cat ET
1 Note: There must be a continuous electrical
2 connection between the ECM and the unit injector
hydraulic pump. The improper connection or the
3 incomplete connection of the adapter cable may
4 provide incorrect results.

C. Connect a multimeter that is capable of measuring


Expected Result: current that is 0 to 1,000 milliampere in series with
the adapter cable. Select the lowest current range
The actual injection actuation pressure for each step for the multimeter that is greater than one amp.
and the desired injection actuation pressure for each
step are within 1379 kPa (200 psi).
166 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Note: If the multimeter is not set to the correct scale, Test Step 13. Disconnect J500/P500
the following measurement may provide misleading Connector and Check the Oil Pressure
results.
A. Disconnect the J500/P500 connector at the unit
D. Crank the engine and record the following data: injector hydraulic pump.

________________Observed pressure reading from B. Crank the engine and record the oil pressure.
the pressure gauge
Note: The pressure readings may vary between
________________ Observed engine speed from gauges.
Cat ET
________________ Observed pressure reading from the
________________Observed “Injection Actuation pressure gauge
Output Percent” from Cat ET
________________ Observed engine speed from Cat ET
________________ Current reading from the
ammeter ________________ Observed “Injection Actuation
Output Percent” from Cat ET
Expected Result:
Expected Result:
The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa (3843 psi) and
the current is above 400 mA. The oil pressure is below 8 MPa (1160 psi).

Results: Results:

• OK – The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa • OK – The pressure reading is below 8 MPa
(3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA. (1160 psi). The unit injector hydraulic pump is
Remove the adapter cable from the circuit. Leave working properly. Proceed to Test Step 14.
the pressure gauge installed on the pump. Proceed
to Test Step 13. • No – The unit injector hydraulic pump is faulty.
• Not OK - Result 1 – The oil pressure is below Repair: The unit injector hydraulic pump is faulty.
26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump. Verify that
mA. the repair eliminates the problem. If the problem
remains after the repair, contact your Engine
Repair: Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump. Technical Communicator (TC) for assistance.
If the drive gear on the pump is loose, do not
attempt to tighten the drive gear and reuse the After the unit injector hydraulic pump has been
pump. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. replaced, the engine may need to be cranked for
If the problem remains after the repair, contact a significant length of time in order to fill the pump
your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for with oil. Clear any diagnostic codes or event codes
assistance. that activated during the initial start-up. Retest the
system.
After the unit injector hydraulic pump has been
replaced, the engine may need to be cranked for STOP.
a significant length of time in order to fill the pump
with oil. Clear any diagnostic codes or event codes Test Step 14. Check the High Pressure
that activated during the initial start-up. Retest the Oil System for Leaks
system.

STOP.

• Not OK - Result 2 – The current is below 400 mA. Hot oil and components can cause personal in-
jury.
Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests
Troubleshooting, “Injection Actuation Pressure Do not allow hot oil or components to contact
Control Valve Circuit - Test”. skin.

STOP. A. Remove the valve cover and inspect the high


pressure oil system for oil leaks.
RENR2418-02 167
Troubleshooting Section

B. While the engine is being cranked, look around the The ECM software contains performance maps. The
injector bores for any signs of oil leakage. Inspect performance maps have a desired actuation pressure
the spill ports on the injectors for an excessive for every engine operating condition. The ECM sends
discharge of oil. All six injectors should spill the a control current to the IAPCV. This signal creates an
same amount of oil. actual actuation pressure that matches the desired
actuation pressure. If the actual actuation pressure
C. While the engine is being cranked, perform the does not match the desired actuation pressure, the
“Injection Actuation Pressure Test”. Run the test at ECM will increase the control current or the ECM will
the highest step in order to maximize any possible decrease the control current to the IAPCV in order to
leaks. adjust pump outlet flow.

Expected Result: The following problems can cause a 42-05 diagnostic


code:
No leaks are apparent.
• An open circuit in the wiring
Results:
• An open circuit in the IAPCV
• OK – There are no apparent leaks. Contact
your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for • A short to ground on the return wire
assistance. STOP.
The following problems can cause a 42-06 diagnostic
• Not OK – There are oil leaks. code:

Repair: Replace the O-ring on the injector or • The control wire has a short to the +Battery.
replace the damaged injector. Verify that the repair
eliminates the original problem. • The return wire has a short to the +Battery.
STOP. • A short circuit in the IAPCV

i02433756
• A short to ground on the control wire

Injection Actuation Pressure


Control Valve Circuit - Test
SMCS Code: 1714-038

System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect


problems with the Injection Actuation Pressure
Control Valve (IAPCV).

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

• 42-05 Injector Actuation Valve open circuit


• 42-06 Injector Actuation Valve short to ground
Note: Do not use this procedure to troubleshoot an
active 164-11 Injector Actuation Pressure system
fault, unless you have been directed to this procedure
from another section of this document.

The IAPCV is internal to the unit injector hydraulic


pump. The IAPCV is a precision displacement control
actuator. This actuator changes the pump outlet flow
that is based on the control current that is supplied by
the Electronic Control Module (ECM). The variable
displacement unit injector hydraulic pump pressurizes
only the amount of high pressure oil that is needed.
168 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121315
Illustration 101
Schematic for the injection actuation pressure control valve

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

g01121264
Illustration 102
Left side view
(1) Connector for the IAPCV (2) J2/P2 connectors
RENR2418-02 169
Troubleshooting Section

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Refer


to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors -
Inspect”.

g01121316
Illustration 103
P2 terminations for the IAPCV
(P2-10) Control (P2-20) Return

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the Repair: Repair the connectors or wiring and/or
wires that are associated with the IAPCV. replace the connectors or wiring. Ensure that all of
the seals are properly in place and ensure that the
D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM connector connectors are completely coupled.
for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasion and for STOP.
pinch points from the IAPCV back to the ECM.
Test Step 2. Check for Active Diagnostic
Note: Ensure that the seal is installed on the harness Codes
connector for the injection actuation pressure control
valve. A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to
Expected Result: Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.

All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
coupled and/or inserted. The harness and wiring are
free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points. C. Start the engine.

Results: D. Observe the “Active Diagnostic” screen on Cat ET.


Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes may
• OK – The connectors and the wiring are OK. become active. Look for these codes:
Proceed to Test Step 2.
• 42-05
• Not OK – There is a problem with the connectors
and/or the wiring. • 42-06
170 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Expected Result: Test Step 4. Check the Wiring for an Open


Circuit
One of the above codes is active.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Results:
B. Disconnect the J2/P2 connectors.
• Active code – One of the above codes is active.
Proceed to Test Step 3. C. Measure the resistance between terminals P2-10
(Control) and P2-20 (Return).
• No active codes – None of the above codes are
active. Expected Result:

Repair: If any of the above codes are logged The resistance measurement is within two Ohms of
and the engine is not running properly, refer to the value that was measured in the previous Test
Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting Without a Step.
Diagnostic Code”.
Results:
If the engine is running properly at this time, there
may be an intermittent problem in a harness • OK – The resistance measurement is within two
that is causing the codes to be logged. Refer to Ohms of the value that was measured in the
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. previous Test Step. Proceed to Test Step 5.

STOP. • Not OK – The resistance measurement is not


within two Ohms of the value that was measured
Test Step 3. Measure the Resistance of in the previous Test Step. There is a problem with
the Injection Actuation Pressure Control the wiring harness. There may be a problem with a
Valve’s Solenoid connector.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the problem
B. Disconnect the J204/P204 connectors. is resolved.

Note: Ensure that the seal on the P204 connector STOP.


remains on the connector when the connector is
disconnected. Test Step 5. Check the Wiring for a Short
Circuit
C. Measure the resistance between terminals P204-1
(Control) and P204-2 (Return) on the IAPCV. A. Disconnect the J204/P204 connectors.
Record the value of the resistance measurement.
Note: Ensure that the seal on the P204 connector
Expected Result: remains on the connector when the connector is
disconnected.
The resistance measurement is between 6.5 and
10.5 Ohms. B. Disconnect the P1 connector.

Results: C. Measure the resistance between the points that


are listed in Table 21. Be sure to wiggle the wires
• OK – The resistance measurement is between in the harnesses as you make each resistance
6.5 and 10.5 Ohms. Connect the J204/P204 measurement.
connectors. Proceed to Test Step 4.

• Not OK – The resistance measurement is not


between 6.5 and 10.5 Ohms. The solenoid’s
resistance is not within the specification.

Repair: Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump.


Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.
RENR2418-02 171
Troubleshooting Section

Table 21 C. Connect a voltage test lamp to the connector pins


Resistance Measurements for the Wiring Harness
that are inserted in the J204 connector. Crank the
engine and observe the test lamp.
Connector and Terminal
Terminal Expected Result:
P2-10 (Control) All of the other terminals on
the P2 connector The voltage test lamp illuminates when the engine
is cranking.
All of the terminals on the P1
connector Results:
Engine ground
• OK – The voltage test lamp illuminates when
P2-20 (Return) All of the other terminals on the engine is cranking. Remove the connector
the P2 connector pins from the P204 connector. Connect all of the
All of the terminals on the P1 electrical connectors. Clear any diagnostic codes.
connector Proceed to Test Step 7.
Engine ground
• Not OK – The voltage test lamp does not illuminate
when the engine is cranking.
Expected Result:
Repair: Replace the ECM. Refer to
All of the resistance measurements indicate an open Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”.
circuit.
STOP.
Results:
Test Step 7. Perform the “Injection
• OK – All of the resistance measurements indicate Actuation Pressure Test”
an open circuit. Proceed to Test Step 6.
A. Disconnect the J204/P204 connectors.
• Not OK – At least one resistance measurement
does not indicate an open circuit. There is a B. Crank the engine three times at 30 seconds
problem with a wiring harness. There may be a intervals. This will purge the air from the system.
problem with a connector.
C. Connect the J204/P204 connectors.
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the problem D. Start the engine.
is resolved.
E. Run the “Injection Actuation Pressure Test”. The
STOP. “Injection Actuation Pressure Test” is located in
the “Diagnostics” menu on Cat ET. Step through
Test Step 6. Check the ECM by Cranking all of the pressure ranges.
the Engine
Note: This is not the “Injection Act Press Driver Test”.
Note: This Test Step may activate additional
diagnostic codes. Ignore the codes and monitor the F. After performing the “Injection Actuation Pressure
test lamp. Clear the codes at the end of the Test Step. Test”, check for the following active diagnostic
codes:
A. Verify that the J204/P204 connectors are
disconnected. • 42-05
Note: Do not insert any wire that is larger than 18 • 42-06
AWG into the J204 harness connector. Do not insert
the probe for the voltage test lamp into the harness Expected Result:
connector. These actions will spread the sockets
of the connector which will damage the connector. The test is successful. There are no diagnostic codes.
Damaged connectors could cause intermittent
connections. Results:

B. Insert a Deutsch connector pin into each socket • OK – The problem appears to be resolved. The
of the J204 harness connector. original problem was probably caused by a poor
electrical connection. STOP.

• Not OK – There is a problem with the IAPCV.


172 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump.


Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.

i02433789

Injection Actuation Pressure


Sensor - Test
SMCS Code: 1925-038

System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect


problems with the injection actuation pressure sensor.

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:

• 164-02 Injector Actuation Pressure signal erratic


Note: This procedure can check the accuracy of
the injection actuation pressure sensor against a
pressure gauge.

The injection actuation pressure sensor measures


the pressure of the oil in the high pressure oil
manifold. The high pressure oil in the manifold is
used to actuate the injectors and the high pressure
oil is used to control the fuel injection pressure. The
ECM uses the reading from the injection actuation
pressure sensor in order to control the operation of
the injection actuation pressure control valve.

g01121384
Illustration 104
Schematic for the injection actuation pressure sensor

Test Step 1. Check for Active Diagnostic Note:


Codes
C. Observe the “Active Diagnostic” screen on Cat
A. Connect the Caterpillar Electronic Technician ET. Wait at least 15 seconds so that any codes
(ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to may become active. Look for an active 164-02
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool”. diagnostic code.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.


RENR2418-02 173
Troubleshooting Section

Note: If a 164-03 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage


high or 164-04 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage
low code is active, refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test”.

Expected Result:

The 164-02 diagnostic code is active.

Results:

• Active code – The 164-02 diagnostic code is


active. Proceed to Test Step 3.

• No active code – The 164-02 diagnostic code is


not active. Proceed to Test Step 2.

Test Step 2. Try to Start the Engine


Try to start the engine.

Expected Result:

The engine starts.

Results:

• OK – The engine starts. There are no active codes


for the injection actuation pressure sensor and the
engine starts.

Repair: There may be an intermittent problem in


a harness that is causing the code to be logged.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Inspectors -
Inspect”.

STOP.

• Not OK – The engine does not start.


Repair: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Cranks
but Will Not Start”.

STOP.

Test Step 3. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
174 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121360
Illustration 105
Left side view
(1) J500/P500 connectors for the injection
actuation pressure sensor
(2) J2/P2 connectors

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Refer


to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors -
Inspect”.
RENR2418-02 175
Troubleshooting Section

g01123211
Illustration 107
Connectors for the injection actuation pressure sensor
(A) Supply
(B) Return
(C) Signal

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of


the wires that are associated with the injection
actuation pressure sensor.

D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM connector


for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasion and for


pinch points from the sensor back to the ECM.

Expected Result:

All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely


coupled and/or inserted. The harness and wiring are
free of corrosion, of abrasion, and of pinch points.

Results:

• OK – The connectors and wiring are OK. Proceed


Illustration 106
g01123449 to Test Step 4.
P2 terminals that are associated with the injection actuation
pressure sensor • Not OK – There is a problem in the wiring and/or a
connector.
(P2-17) Return
(P2-72) +5 VDC
(P2-85) Injection Actuation pressure Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.
Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled.

Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.
176 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Test Step 4. Check the Status of the Test Step 6. Compare the Sensor’s
Sensor Output to a Pressure Gauge
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

B. Check the value of the “Injection Actuation


Pressure” on Cat ET. Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
Note: The following codes will cause the value of the contact the skin.
“Injection Actuation Pressure” to default to 17500 kPa
(2538 psi). A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

• 164-03 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage high B. Install a 8T-0852 Pressure Gauge to an oil port
on the side of the cylinder head or to the port on
• 164-04 Injector Actuation Pressure voltage low the top of the fuel transfer pump.

Expected Result: C. Start the engine.

The value of the “Injection Actuation Pressure” is D. Go to the “Injection Actuation Pressure Test” on
0 kPa (0 psi). the diagnostic menu of Cat ET.

Results: E. Start the “Injection Actuation Pressure Test”.

• OK – The value of the “Injection Actuation F. Refer to Table 22. Observe the value of the
Pressure” is 0 kPa (0 psi). Proceed to Test Step 6. “Injection Actuation Pressure” on Cat ET. Vary the
engine speed in order to obtain each “Injection
• Not OK – The value of the “Injection Actuation Actuation Pressure” value that is listed in the
Pressure” is above 0 kPa (0 psi). Proceed to Test Table. For each pressure value, observe the
Step 5. reading on the pressure gauge.

Test Step 5. Check the Voltage Supply to


the Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

B. Disconnect the J500/P500 connectors.

C. Connect a 3-terminal breakout T to the P500


harness connector only.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

E. Measure the voltage between terminals A and B


at the breakout T.

Expected Result:

The voltage reading is 5 ± 0.2 VDC.

Results:

• OK – The voltage is within the specified range.


Proceed to Test Step 6.

• Not OK – The voltage is not within the specified


range.

Repair: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Analog Sensor


Supply Circuit - Test”.

STOP.
RENR2418-02 177
Troubleshooting Section

Table 22 • You have been directed to this procedure from


Comparison of Pressure Readings
Troubleshooting, “Troubleshooting without a
Diagnostic Code”.
“Injection Actuation Range of Acceptable
Pressure” Values on Pressure Values on the • There is an active diagnostic code for an injector
Cat ET Pressure Gauge solenoid.
6000 kPa (870 psi) 4000-7800 kPa (580-1130
psi) Use this procedure for the following diagnostic codes:
10000 kPa (1450 psi) 8000-11800 kPa
(1160-1710 psi)
• 1-05 Cylinder #1 Injector open circuit
15000 kPa (2175 psi) 13000-16800 kPa • 1-06 Cylinder #1 Injector short
(1885-2435 psi)
23000 kPa (3336 psi) 21000-24800 kPa
• 2-05 Cylinder #2 Injector open circuit
(3045-3595 psi)
• 2-06 Cylinder #2 Injector short
Expected Result: • 3-05 Cylinder #3 Injector open circuit
Each value on the pressure gauge is within the • 3-06 Cylinder #3 Injector short
specification.
• 4-05 Cylinder #4 Injector open circuit
Results:
• 4-06 Cylinder #4 Injector short
• OK – Each value on the pressure gauge is within
the specification. The injection actuation pressure • 5-05 Cylinder #5 Injector open circuit
sensor and the ECM are working properly.
• 5-06 Cylinder #5 Injector short
Repair: The problem appears to be resolved. The
original diagnostic code was probably caused by • 6-05 Cylinder #6 Injector open circuit
an intermittent problem in an electrical connector.
If the code continues to be logged, refer to • 6-06 Cylinder #6 Injector short
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
Perform this procedure under conditions that are
STOP. identical to the conditions that exist when the problem
occurs. Typically, problems with the injector solenoid
• Not OK – At least one of the values on the occur when the engine is warmed up and/or when
pressure gauge is not within the specification. the engine is under vibration (heavy loads).

Repair: Install a new injection actuation pressure These engines have Electronic Unit Injectors (EUI)
sensor and repeat the test. that are hydraulically actuated and electronically
controlled. The Engine Control Module (ECM) sends
If the new sensor corrects the problem, leave the a high voltage signal to each injector solenoid. The
new sensor in place. signal is sent with the proper injection duration and
injection timing for the current engine load and
If the new sensor does not correct the problem, the speed. The injector solenoid is mounted on top of
pressure gauge is faulty. Obtain a new pressure the fuel injector body.
gauge and repeat the test.
If an open circuit condition is detected in the solenoid
STOP. circuit, a diagnostic code is generated. The ECM will
continue to try to fire the injector. If a short circuit
condition is detected, a diagnostic code is generated.
i02429285
The ECM will disable the solenoid circuit. The ECM
Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test will periodically try to fire the injector. If the short
circuit condition remains, this sequence of events will
SMCS Code: 1290-038 be repeated until the problem is corrected.

System Operation Description: Note: Refer to Illustration 108. Two injector solenoids
share a supply wire. For this reason, an open
Use this procedure for the following conditions: circuit or a short circuit in a supply wire could cause
diagnostic codes for two injector solenoids.
• A suspected problem with an injector solenoid
178 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

When an injector is replaced, an injector trim file


must be programmed into the ECM. If the ECM is
replaced, all injector trim files must be programmed
into the new ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector
Trim File” for more information.

The Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) includes


the following tests that aid in troubleshooting the
injector solenoids:

“Cylinder Cutout Test”

The “Cylinder Cutout Test” is used on an engine


in order to determine the individual cylinder
performance while the engine is running. As one
or more cylinders are cut out during the test, the
“Cylinder Cutout Test” uses “Fuel Position” in order
to evaluate the performance of the cylinders that
are cut out. As the different cylinders are cut out, a
comparison of the change in “Fuel Position” is used
to identify cylinders that are weak or misfiring. One
reason for a cylinder that is weak or misfiring is an
injector that is malfunctioning.

The “Cylinder Cutout Test” can be used to isolate a


malfunctioning injector in order to avoid replacement
of injectors that are in good condition.

During the test, when a cylinder is cut out, an


increase in “Fuel Position” will be noticed for the
remaining cylinders. This increase in “Fuel Position”
represents an increase in the amount of fuel that
must be delivered by the remaining cylinders in order
to maintain the desired engine speed.

When a weak cylinder (malfunctioning injector) is cut


out, the increase in “Fuel Position” will not be as large
as the increase for a cylinder that has an acceptable
level of performance.

Note: Prior to running the “Cylinder Cutout Test”, all


active diagnostic codes must be repaired.

“Injector Solenoid Test”

Use the “Injector Solenoid Test” to diagnose an open


circuit or a short circuit in the wiring for the injector
solenoids. With the engine stopped, the “Injector
Solenoid Test” will briefly activate each injector
solenoid. An audible click can be heard as each
solenoid is activated. After performing the test, Cat
ET will indicate the status of the solenoid as “OK”,
“Open”, or “Short”.
RENR2418-02 179
Troubleshooting Section

g01123451
Illustration 108
Schematic for the injector solenoids

Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring

Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injec-


tor system uses 90-120 volts.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. A strong


electrical shock hazard is present if the keyswitch
is not turned off.
180 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121683
Illustration 109
Left side view
(1) J300/P300 connectors
(2) J2/P2 connectors

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Refer


to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Illustration 110
g01099568
Inspect”.
P2 terminals that are associated with the injector solenoids
(P2-99) Injector 5 & 6 supply
(P2-104) Injector 3 & 4 supply
(P2-105) Injector 5 return
(P2-106) Injector 3 return
(P2-107) Injector 6 return
(P2-108) Injector 4 return
(P2-115) Injector 1 & 2 supply
(P2-116) Injector 1 return
(P2-118) Injector 2 return
RENR2418-02 181
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connectors or wiring and/or


replace the connectors or wiring. Ensure that all of
the seals are properly in place and ensure that the
connectors are completely coupled.

Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check for Logged Diagnostic


Codes for the Injector Solenoids
A. Establish communication between Cat ET and
the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic
Service Tools”.

B. Check Cat ET for logged diagnostic codes related


to the injector solenoids.

Expected Result:

Illustration 111
g01121687 There are no logged diagnostic codes for the injector
P300 terminals that are associated with the injector solenoids
solenoids .
(P300-1) Injector 1 supply
(P300-2) Injector 2 supply
Results:
(P300-3) Injector 3 supply
(P300-4) Injector 4 supply • OK – No diagnostic codes for the injector solenoids
(P300-5) Injector 5 supply are logged. The injector solenoids are operating
(P300-6) Injector 6 supply correctly. There may be a mechanical problem with
(P300-13) Injector 6 return
(P300-14) Injector 5 return the injector’s fuel delivery. Proceed to Test Step 3.
(P300-15) Injector 4 return
(P300-16) Injector 3 return • Not OK – A diagnostic code is logged for one
(P300-17) Injector 2 return or more injector solenoid. There is an electrical
(P300-18) Injector 1 return
problem with an injector solenoid or with the circuit.
Proceed to Test Step 4.
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the
wires that are associated with injector solenoids. Test Step 3. Perform the “Cylinder Cutout
Test”
D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM
connectors for the proper torque. Refer to A. Start the engine.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the proper torque value. B. Allow the engine to warm up to normal operating
temperature 77 °C (171 °F).
E. Check the harness and the wiring for abrasion
and for pinch points from the P300 connector to C. Access the “Cylinder Cutout Test” by accessing
the ECM. the following display screens:
Expected Result:
• “Diagnostics”
All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely
coupled and/or inserted and the harness and wiring
• “Diagnostic Tests”
are free of corrosion, of abrasion, or of pinch points.
• “Cylinder Cutout Test”
Results: D. Shut off all parasitic loads such as air compressors
which could affect the results of the test.
• OK – The harness and wiring are OK. Proceed
to Test Step 2. E. Follow the instructions that are given on the
screen.
• Not OK – There is a problem in the connectors
and/or wiring. F. To start the test, select the start button at the
bottom of the screen.
182 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

G. Use Cat ET to manually cut out the cylinders Expected Result:


in order to identify injectors that may have a
performance problem. Highlight a cylinder and All cylinders indicate “OK” on Cat ET.
select the “Change” button at the bottom of the
screen. The injector for that cylinder will be Results:
disabled. Check for a difference in the sound, feel,
or power of the engine. Also, look for a change to • OK – There is not an electronic problem with the
the operating parameters that are displayed on injectors at this time.
the “Cylinder Cutout Test” screen.
Repair: The problem appears to be resolved.
Expected Result: There may be an intermittent problem in the
harness. The problem may have been caused by a
The cylinder cutout test indicates that all of the poor electrical connection in a connector.
injectors are operating correctly.
If the codes continue to be logged, refer to
Results: Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

• OK – The cylinder cutout test indicates that all of If the engine is misfiring or if the engine has low
the injectors are operating correctly. power, refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Misfires,
Runs Rough or Is Unstable” or Troubleshooting,
Repair: If a problem with the fuel system is “Low Power/Poor or No Response to Throttle”.
suspected and diagnostic codes are not active or
logged, refer to Systems Operation/Testing and STOP.
Adjusting for information that is related to the low
pressure fuel system. • Not OK - “Open” – Note the cylinder that indicates
“Open”. Proceed to Test Step 5.
STOP.
• Not OK - “Short” – Note the cylinder that indicates
• Not OK – The cylinder cutout test indicates that at “Short”. Proceed to Test Step 6.
least one of the injectors is not operating correctly.
Proceed to Test Step 4. Test Step 5. Check the Harness between
the ECM and the Valve Cover Base for an
Test Step 4. Perform the “Injector Open Circuit
Solenoid Test”
A. Start the engine.

B. Allow the engine to warm up to normal operating Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injec-
temperature 77 °C (171 °F). tor system uses 90-120 volts.

C. Stop the engine. A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

D. Restore the electrical power to the ECM. B. Disconnect the P300 connector at the valve cover
base.
E. Access the “Injector Solenoid Test” by accessing
the following display screens: C. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.

• “Diagnostics” D. Fabricate a jumper wire that will be long enough


to short circuit two terminal locations at the P300
• “Diagnostic Tests” connector. Crimp a connector pin to each end of
the jumper wire.
• “Injector Solenoid Test”
E. Insert one end of the jumper wire into the P300
F. Activate the “Injector Solenoid Test”. connector socket for the suspect injector’s supply
wire. Insert the other end of the jumper wire
G. As each solenoid is energized by the ECM, an into the P300 connector socket for the suspect
audible click can be heard at the valve cover. injector’s return wire. This will replace the injector
Allow the “Injector Solenoid Test” to continue until solenoid with a short circuit.
each cylinder is activated at least two times.
F. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” at least two
times.
RENR2418-02 183
Troubleshooting Section

G. Repeat this test for each suspect circuit. Stop Test Step 7. Check the Injector Harness
the “Injector Solenoid Test” before handling the Under the Valve Cover for an Open
jumper wire. Circuit or a Short Circuit
Restore the wiring to the original configuration.

Expected Result:
Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injec-
tor system uses 90-120 volts.
Cat ET displays “Short” for each circuit that was
jumpered.
A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.
Results:
B. Remove the valve cover in order to gain access
• OK – Cat ET displays “Short” for each circuit that to the suspect injector.
was jumpered. The harness between the ECM and
the P300 connector does not have an open circuit. C. Disconnect the harness connector from the
Proceed to Test Step 7. suspect injector.

• Not OK – Cat ET displays “Open” for the cylinder D. Thoroughly clean the terminals on the injector
with the jumper wire. There is a problem in the solenoid and on the harness connector.
wiring between the ECM and the P300 connector.
There may be a problem with the ECM. Proceed E. Use a jumper wire to short circuit the connector
to Test Step 8. terminals for the suspect injector. This will replace
the injector solenoid with a short circuit.
Test Step 6. Check the Harness between
the ECM and the Valve Cover Base for a F. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.
Short Circuit
G. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” at least two
times.

Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injec- Note: The injector solenoid that shares the supply
tor system uses 90-120 volts. wire of the injector that is short circuited may indicate
a false test result. Disregard this test result.

A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM. H. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

B. Disconnect the P300 connector. I. Remove the jumper wire from the injector
connector. This will replace the injector solenoid
C. Restore the electrical power to the ECM. with an open circuit.

D. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” at least two J. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.
times.
K. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” at least two
Expected Result: times.

All of the cylinders in the appropriate bank indicate L. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.
“Open” on Cat ET.
Expected Result:
Results:
Cat ET displays “Short” for the cylinder with the
• OK – All cylinders indicate “Open” on Cat ET. The jumper wire and “Open” when the jumper wire is
ECM and the engine harness are OK. Proceed to removed.
Test Step 7.
Results:
• Not OK – One or more cylinders indicate “Short”
on Cat ET. Note the cylinders that indicate “Short”. • OK – Cat ET displays the correct status during
Proceed to Test Step 8. the test.

Repair: The harness wiring is OK. Replace the


faulty injector. Verify that the problem is resolved.

STOP.
184 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

• Not OK – Cat ET did not display the correct status b. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.
during the test.
c. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” at least
Repair: There is a problem with the injector two times.
harness under the valve cover. There may be a
problem with a connector. Repair the wiring and/or d. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.
the connector, when possible. Replace parts, if
necessary. Cat ET displays “Short” for the two injectors
that share the supply wire.
STOP.
Expected Result:
Test Step 8. Check the ECM for Proper
Operation Cat ET displays the correct status for each test circuit.

Results:

Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injec-


• OK – The ECM detects the correct status of the
circuit.
tor system uses 90-120 volts.
Repair: The ECM is OK. The problem is in the
A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM. engine harness or in a connector. Inspect the
connectors for moisture and for corrosion. Repair
B. Fabricate a jumper that is long enough to reach the wiring and/or the connector, when possible.
from the P2 ECM connector to the engine ground Replace parts, if necessary. Clear all diagnostic
stud. Crimp a connector socket to one end of the codes after you complete this test step.
jumper wire.
STOP.
C. Disconnect the P2 connector.
• Not OK – The ECM does not detect the correct
D. Remove the supply wire from the terminal location status of the circuit.
for the suspect injector at the ECM connector.
Install the jumper wire into this socket. Repair: There is a problem with the ECM. Replace
the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Replacing the
E. Connect the J2/P2 connectors. ECM”. Verify that the problem is resolved.

F. Verify that the ECM will detect an open circuit for STOP.
the suspect injector:
i02433826
a. Ensure that the jumper wire is not in contact
with a ground source or another circuit. Do not Maintenance Due Lamp Circuit
touch the jumper wire during the test. A strong
electrical shock hazard is present at the jumper - Test
wire while the test is running.
SMCS Code: 7431-038
b. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.
System Operation Description:
c. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” at least
two times. The maintenance due lamp is a maintenance
indicator that is based on the PM levels that are
d. Remove the electrical power from the ECM. programmed into the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The lamp will turn ON when the programmed
Cat ET displays “Open” for the two injectors interval is met.
that share the supply wire.
Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot any
G. Verify that the ECM detects a short circuit for the suspect problems with the circuit for the maintenance
suspect injector: due lamp.

a. Connect the jumper wire to the engine ground


stud. Do not touch the jumper wire during the
test. A strong electrical shock hazard is present
at the jumper wire while the test is running.
RENR2418-02 185
Troubleshooting Section

g01121831
Illustration 112
Schematic for the maintenance due lamp

The ECM provides a path to ground for the lamp.


When the ECM connects the lamp to ground the
lamp will turn on.

Test Step 1. Check for Normal Operation


of the Maintenance Due Lamp
A. Monitor the maintenance due lamp.

a. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. The


g01119456
maintenance due lamp should turn on for five Illustration 113
seconds. Then, the lamp should turn off. Left side view
(1) P61 customer connector
Note: The lamp will only turn off if a condition that (2) J1/P1 ECM connectors
requires maintenance does not exist.
B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Inspect
Expected Result: the connections on the maintenance due lamp.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors
The maintenance due lamp turns on and the - Inspect”.
maintenance due lamp turns off per the above
description.

Results:

• OK – The maintenance due lamp appears to


operating correctly at this time. STOP.

• Not OK – The maintenance due lamp is not


functioning correctly. Check the bulb. Replace the
bulb if the bulb is not OK. If the bulb is OK, proceed
to Test Step 2.

Test Step 2. Inspect the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
186 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121848
Illustration 115
J61 and P61 terminals that are associated with the maintenance
due lamp
(13) Maintenance due lamp

C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the


Illustration 114
g01102466 wires that are associated with the maintenance
due lamp.
P1 terminals that are associated with the maintenance due lamp
(P1-13) Maintenance due lamp D. Check the allen head screw on the ECM
connectors for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

E. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and


for pinch points from the maintenance due lamp
to the ECM.

Expected Result:

All of the connectors, pins, and sockets are


completely coupled and/or inserted, and the harness
and wiring are free of corrosion, of abrasion or of
pinch points.

Results:

• OK – The connectors and the wiring are OK.


Proceed to Test Step 3.

• Not OK – There is a problem with a connector


and/or the wiring.
RENR2418-02 187
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connector and/or the wiring. Results:


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly in place and ensure that the • OK – The maintenance due lamp turned on while
connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the the jumper wire was connected. The maintenance
problem is resolved. due lamp turned off when the jumper wire was
removed. The +Battery side of the circuit for the
STOP. maintenance due lamp is functioning properly.
There is a problem with the return wire between
Test Step 3. Test the Maintenance Due the maintenance due lamp and the P1 connector.
Lamp Circuit at the ECM Connector
Repair: Repair wire F424-YL between the
A. Disconnect the J1/P1 connectors. maintenance due lamp and terminal P1-30. Verify
that the problem is resolved.
B. Connect a jumper wire between terminal P1-30
and engine ground. STOP.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Observe • Not OK – The maintenance due lamp did not turn
the maintenance due lamp. on when the jumper wire was connected. There is
a problem with the +Battery side of the circuit for
D. Remove the jumper wire and observe the the maintenance due lamp. Proceed to Test Step 5.
maintenance due lamp.
Test Step 5. Check the Voltage from the
Expected Result: Keyswitch to the Maintenance Due Lamp
The maintenance due lamp turned on while the A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
jumper was connected. The maintenance due lamp
turned off when the jumper was removed. B. Remove the wire from the terminal R of the
keyswitch.
Results:
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
• OK – The maintenance due lamp turned on while
the jumper was connected. The maintenance due D. Measure the voltage on terminal B of the
lamp turned off when the jumper was removed. keyswitch to engine ground.
The maintenance due lamp circuit is functioning
properly. Proceed to Test Step 6. E. Measure the voltage on terminal R of the
keyswitch to engine ground.
• Not OK – The maintenance due lamp did not
turn on. There is a problem with the circuit for the F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
maintenance due lamp. Proceed to Test Step 4.
Expected Result:
Test Step 4. Test the Circuit at the
Maintenance Due Lamp Voltage is present on terminal B and terminal R at
the keyswitch.
A. Disconnect wire F424-YL from the maintenance
due lamp. Results:

B. Connect a jumper wire between the lamp’s open • OK – Voltage is present on terminal B and terminal
terminal and engine ground. R at the keyswitch.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Observe Repair: If voltage is present on terminal R,
the maintenance due lamp. repair the wire between the keyswitch and the
maintenance due lamp. Verify that the breaker
D. Disconnect the jumper wire and observe the is not tripped. Return all wiring to the original
maintenance due lamp. configuration. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Expected Result: STOP.

The maintenance due lamp turns on while the jumper • Not OK – Voltage is not present on terminal B at
is connected. The maintenance due lamp turns off the keyswitch.
when the jumper is disconnected.
188 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: If voltage is not present on terminal B, Repair: Temporarily connect a test ECM. Refer
repair the wire between the +Battery and the to Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”. Check
keyswitch. Check the battery’s no-load voltage. the operation of the maintenance due lamp when
Return all wiring to the original configuration. Verify the test ECM is installed.
that the problem is resolved.
If the problem is resolved with the test ECM,
STOP. connect the suspect ECM. If the problem returns
with the suspect ECM, replace the ECM. Verify that
• Not OK – Voltage is not present on terminal R at the problem is resolved.
the keyswitch.
STOP.
Repair: If voltage is present on terminal B of the
keyswitch but not present on terminal R, replace
i02433829
the keyswitch. Return all wiring to the original
configuration. Verify that the problem is resolved. PTO Switch Circuit - Test
STOP. SMCS Code: 7332-038
Test Step 6. Check the Operation of the System Operation Description:
ECM
Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect
A. Remove terminal P1-30. problems with the circuits for the power take-off
controls (PTO). The PTO controls provide an
B. Fabricate a jumper wire 100 mm (4 inch) long. alternative method of controlling the desired engine
Crimp a Deutsch pin to both ends of the wire. speed.
C. Insert the jumper into P1-30. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) provides the
PTO speed control function. The PTO speed control
D. Connect the J1/P1 connectors. function requires the following inputs:
E. Connect one probe of a voltage test lamp to the
• PTO switches
jumper wire in P1-30.
• The “PTO Mode” parameter
F. Connect the other probe of the voltage test lamp
to +Battery. The PTO switches enable the PTO speed control
function and the PTO switches control the desired
G. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Wait for engine speed.
ten seconds.
The “PTO Mode” parameter determines the mode
H. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. of operation. There are two modes of operation:
“Ramp Up/Ramp Down” and “Set/Resume”. Use
Expected Result: the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) in order to
change the value of the parameter.
The test lamp turned ON for five seconds. Then, the
test lamp turned OFF. “Ramp Up/Ramp Down” Mode
Results: This mode uses three inputs. The inputs are provided
by two switches. Refer to Illustration 116.
• OK – The test lamp turned ON for five seconds.
Then, the test lamp turned OFF. The ECM is
operating correctly. The problem appears to be
resolved.

Repair: The problem may be intermittent. If the


problem is intermittent, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

STOP.

• Not OK – The test lamp did not turn on for five


seconds. There is a problem with the ECM.
RENR2418-02 189
Troubleshooting Section

g01121879
Illustration 116
Schematic for the PTO inputs for the “Ramp Up/Ramp Down” mode of operation

Placing the PTO Enable switch to the “Enable”


position transfers the control of the desired engine
speed from the throttle position sensor to the PTO
speed control function. The PTO Ramp Up/Down
switch controls the desired engine speed.

The PTO Ramp Up/Down switch is spring loaded to


the normally open position. When the switch is held
in the “Ramp Up” position, the desired engine speed
increases according to the value of the “Engine Accel
Rate” parameter. When the switch is released, the
desired engine speed maintains the set speed. After
the desired engine speed has been set, momentarily
placing the switch in the “Ramp Up” position
increases the desired engine speed by 20 rpm.

When the PTO Ramp Up/Down switch is held in the


“Ramp Down” position, the desired engine speed
decreases according to the value of the “Engine Accel
Rate” parameter. When the switch is released, the
desired engine speed maintains the set speed. After
the desired engine speed has been set, momentarily
placing the switch in the “Ramp Down” position
decreases the desired engine speed by 20 rpm.

If the “PTO Ramp Up” and “PTO Ramp Down” inputs


are connected to the −Battery at the same time, the
ECM will ignore the inputs. The desired engine speed
will not change.

“Set/Resume” Mode

This mode uses four inputs. The inputs are provided


by three switches. Refer to Illustration 117.
190 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01105373
Illustration 117
Schematic for the PTO inputs for the “Set/Resume” mode of operation

Placing the PTO Enable switch to the “Enable” Test Step 1. Inspect the Electrical
position transfers the control of the desired engine Connectors and the Wiring
speed from the throttle position sensor to the PTO
speed control function. The PTO Interrupt switch A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
momentarily transfers control back to the throttle
position sensor. The PTO Set/Resume switch
controls the desired engine speed.

The PTO Set/Resume switch is spring loaded to the


normally open position. If the switch is momentarily
placed in the “Set” position, the desired engine speed
will be set to the current engine speed. If the switch
is held in the “Set” position, the desired engine speed
will increase according to the value of the “Engine
Accel Rate” parameter. After the desired engine
speed has been set, the desired engine speed will
increase by 20 rpm when the PTO ramp up/down
switch is momentarily placed in the “Set” position.

If the PTO Set/Resume switch is momentarily placed


in the “Resume” position, the desired engine speed
will be set to the current engine speed. If the switch
is held in the “Resume” position, the desired engine
speed will decrease according to the value of the
“Engine Accel Rate” parameter. After the desired
engine speed has been set, the desired engine
speed will decrease by 20 rpm when the switch is
momentarily placed in the “Resume” position.

If the “PTO Set” and “PTO Resume” inputs are


connected to the −Battery at the same time, the ECM
will ignore the inputs. The desired engine speed will
not change.
RENR2418-02 191
Troubleshooting Section

g01120532 g01102468
Illustration 118 Illustration 119
Left side view P1 terminals that are associated with the PTO
(1) P61 customer connector (P1-41) Input from the PTO interrupt switch
(1) J1/P1 ECM connectors (P1-56) Input from the PTO enable switch
(P1-58) Input from the PTO ramp up switch or set switch
(P1-60) Input for PTO ramp down switch or resume switch
B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2). Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors -
Inspect”.
192 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Results:

• OK – The connectors and wiring are OK. If the


engine is equipped with a customer connector,
proceed to Test Step 2. Otherwise, proceed to Test
Step 3.

• Not OK – There is a problem with the connectors


and/or the wiring.

Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors.


Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly connected. Verify that the repair
eliminates the problem.

STOP.

Test Step 2. Check the Inputs from the


Switches at the J61 Customer Connector
A. Disconnect the J61 connector.

B. Refer to Table 23. Connect a voltage test lamp


between the input for the suspect switch circuit
and terminal J61-31 (+Battery).

Table 23

g01123458 J61 Terminals for the Inputs from the PTO Switches
Illustration 120
J61/P61 terminals that are associated with the PTO Switch J61 Terminals
(19) Input from the PTO interrupt switch PTO enable switch 29
(29) Input from the PTO enable switch
(30) Input from the PTO ramp up switch or set switch PTO ramp up switch or set
58
(39) Input for PTO ramp down switch or resume switch switch
PTO ramp down switch or
C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the 60
resume switch
wires that are associated with the circuits for the
PTO switches. PTO interrupt switch 41

D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM


C. Observe the voltage test lamp as you operate the
connector for the proper torque. Refer to
suspect switch.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque values.
Expected Result:
E. Check the allen head screw on the customer
The voltage test lamp turns on when the switch is
connector for the proper torque. Refer to
closed. The voltage test lamp turns off when the
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
switch is opened.
for the correct torque value.
Results:
F. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and
for pinch points from the battery to the ECM.
• OK – The voltage test lamp turns on when the
switch is closed. The voltage test lamp turns off
Expected Result:
when the switch is opened. The circuit is operating
correctly. Connect the J61 connector. Proceed to
All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely
Test Step 3.
coupled and/or inserted, and the harness and wiring
are free of corrosion, of abrasion or of pinch points.
• Not OK – The voltage test lamp does not turn
on when the switch is closed. Alternatively, the
voltage test lamp does not turn off when the switch
is opened. There is a problem with the suspect
switch and/or the wiring.
RENR2418-02 193
Troubleshooting Section

Repair: Repair the connectors or wiring and/or • Not OK – The voltage test lamp does not turn on
replace the connectors or wiring. Ensure that all of when the switch is closed. Alternatively, the voltage
the seals are properly in place and ensure that the test lamp does not turn off when the switch is
connectors are completely coupled. opened. There is a problem in the wiring between
the J1 connector and the switch. There may be a
Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. problem in a connector.

STOP. Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector.


Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the repair
Test Step 3. Check the Inputs from the eliminates the problem.
Switches at the J1 Connector
STOP.
A. Disconnect the P1 connector.
i02433846
B. Refer to Table 24. Connect a voltage test lamp
between the input for the suspect switch circuit
and terminal J1-48 (+Battery).
Switch Circuits - Test
SMCS Code: 1435-038
Table 24
J1 Terminals for the Inputs from the PTO Switches System Operation Description:
Switch J1 Terminals
Switch circuits may have problems such as faulty
PTO Enable Switch 56 wiring, faulty switches, or faulty connectors. Use the
PTO Ramp Up Switch or
following diagnostic procedures in order to diagnose
58 problems with these switch circuits and repair these
Set Switch
switch circuits:
PTO Ramp Down Switch
60
or Resume Switch • Maintenance clear switch
PTO Interrupt Switch 41
• Torque limit switch
C. Observe the voltage test lamp as you operate the • Ether starting aid switch
suspect switch.
• PTO interrupt switch
Expected Result:
• Remote shutdown switch
The voltage test lamp turns ON when the switch is
closed. The voltage test lamp turns OFF when the • Intermediate engine speed switch
switch is opened.
• Overspeed verify switch
Results:
• PTO enable switch
• OK – The voltage test lamp turns ON when the
switch is closed. The voltage test lamp turns OFF • PTO ramp up switch
when the switch is opened. The switch circuit is
operating correctly. The problem may be in the • PTO set switch
ECM.
• PTO ramp down switch
Repair: It is unlikely that the ECM has failed. Exit
this procedure and perform this procedure again. • PTO resume switch
If the problem is not resolved, temporarily install a
new ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Replacing The switches are normally open or normally closed.
the ECM”.

If the problem is resolved with the new ECM,


install the original ECM and verify that the problem
returns. IF the new ECM operates correctly and the
original ECM does not operate correctly, replace
the original ECM.

STOP.
194 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

g01121934
Illustration 121
Typical switch inputs

Test Step 1. Check the Electrical


Connectors and the Wiring
A. Place the keyswitch in the OFF position.

g01120532
Illustration 122
Left side view
(1) P61 customer connector
(2) J1/P1 Electronic Control Module (ECM) connectors

B. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1) and (2).


Thoroughly inspect the connections for the
suspect switch. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.
RENR2418-02 195
Troubleshooting Section

g01121946
Illustration 124
P61/J61 terminals for the various switches
(2) Torque limit switch
(12) Maintenance clear switch
(19) PTO interrupt switch
(27) Remote shutdown switch
(28) Intermediate engine speed switch
g01121943 (29) PTO enable switch
Illustration 123
(30) PTO ramp up switch or set switch
P1 terminals for the various switches (38) Ether starting aid switch
(P1-6) Maintenance clear switch (39) PTO ramp down switch or resume switch
(P1-7) Torque limit switch (40) Overspeed verify switch
(P1-22) Ether starting aid switch
(P1-41) PTO interrupt switch C. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the
(P1-44) Remote shutdown switch
(P1-45) Intermediate engine speed switch wires in the circuit for the suspect switch.
(P1-54) Overspeed verify switch
(P1-56) PTO enable switch D. Check the allen head screw on each ECM
(P1-58) PTO ramp up switch or set switch connector for the proper torque. Refer to
(P1-60) PTO ramp down switch or resume switch
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque values.

E. Check the allen head screw on the customer


connector for the proper torque. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”
for the correct torque value.

F. Check the harness and wiring for abrasions and


for pinch points from the battery to the ECM.

Expected Result:

All connectors, pins, and sockets are completely


coupled and/or inserted, and the harness and wiring
are free of corrosion, of abrasion or of pinch points.
196 RENR2418-02
Troubleshooting Section

Results: Note: Wiggle the harnesses during the following


measurements in order to reveal any intermittent
• OK – The wiring and connectors are OK. Proceed short condition.
to Test Step 2.
D. Measure the resistance between the P1 terminal
• Not OK – There is a problem with the wiring and/or for the suspect switch and engine ground.
a connector.
E. Activate the switch and measure the resistance
Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector. again.
Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the
seals are properly connected. Verify that the repair Expected Result:
eliminates the problem.
When the switch is open, the resistance measurement
STOP. indicates an open circuit. When the switch is closed,
the resistance measurement is less than ten Ohms.
Test Step 2. Test the S