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CS8 (2nd Year), CS11 (3rd Year) – Computer Organization & Assembly Language

Chapter 01 – Basic Structure of Computers

 Computer Types
 Functional Units
 Basic Operational Concepts
 Number Representation and Arithmetic Operations
 Character Representation
 Performance

Proverbs 1: 7  Vehicles

“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge,

but fools despise wisdom and discipline.”

1.1 Computer Types

 Embedded computers
 Personal computers Personal Computers
 Servers and enterprise systems  General computation
 Supercomputers and grid computers

Embedded Computers

 Industrial automation

 Document preparation

 Home automation

 Computer-aided design

 Appliances

 Audio-visual entertainment

 Telecommunication products

 Interpersonal communication

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Reference: Computer Organization and Embedded Systems
1st Semester SY 2015-2016
 Internet browsing  Engineering design and simulation

Types of Personal Computers  Scientific work

 Desktop computer

Grid Computers

 Workstation computer Grid – A physically distributed high-speed network

 Portable/Notebook computer  Numerical computation

Servers and Enterprise Systems  Information searching

Servers and enterprise systems – Large computers

that are shared by a large number of users who access
them from some form of personal computer over a
public or private network

Proverbs 10: 1

The proverbs of Solomon:

A wise son brings joy to his father,
but a foolish son grief to his mother.
Supercomputers and grid computers

Supercomputers and grid computers – The most

1.2 Functional Units
expensive and physically the largest category of How are computer’s functions divided?

 Weather forecasting

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Reference: Computer Organization and Embedded Systems
1st Semester SY 2015-2016
How do computer units communicate? Memory Unit

 Instructions or machine instructions – Commands  Primary memory

that govern the information transfer within a Cache memory
computer and specify operations to be performed  Secondary storage
 Program – A list of instructions which performs a
Primary Memory (or Main Memory)
 Data – Numbers and characters that are used as Primary memory (or main memory) – A fast memory
operands by the instructions that operates at electronic speeds
 Bits – A string of binary digits, each having two
possible values: 0 or 1

Functional Units

 Input unit
 Memory unit
 Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)  Word length – Number of bits in each word
 Output unit  Memory access time – The time required to access
 Control unit one word

Input Unit

Example: Keyboard

Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM – A memory in which any location can be

accessed in a short and fixed amount of time after
Example: Touchpad
specifying its address

Example: Mouse

Cache – A smaller and faster RAM unit

Example: Trackball

Secondary Storage

 Magnetic disks

Example: Microphone

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Reference: Computer Organization and Embedded Systems
1st Semester SY 2015-2016
 Optical disks What is the final value of LOC?

 Flash memory devices

Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)

IR – Instruction Register
Subtract Divide PC – Program Counter

Processor-memory interface – A circuit that manages

the transfer of data between the main memory and
the processor
Add Operands Compare How are data read or written in the memory?

Output unit Requirements:
Example: Printer  Address in memory
 READ operation



 Address in memory
Proverbs 10: 2  WRITE operation
 Data
Ill-gotten treasures are of no value,
but righteousness delivers from death. Interrupt signal – A request for service by the
1.3 Basic Operational Concepts How do we interrupt a running process?
Typical Instructions… Keep track of the current state before switching:
Load R2, LOC  Contents of the Program Counter (PC)
Add R4, R2, R3
 Contents of the general-purpose registers
Store R4, LOC
 Control information
Proverbs 10: 3
LOC = 0110
R3 = 0001 The Lord does not let the righteous go hungry
but he thwarts the craving of the wicked.
What is the final value of LOC?

LOC = 0010
R3 = 0011
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Reference: Computer Organization and Embedded Systems
1st Semester SY 2015-2016
Sign extension
1.4 Number Representation and
Example 1:
Arithmetic Operations
Give me a 4-digit 2’s complement of -6:
Addition of unsigned binary numbers
-6 = 1010 (2’s complement)
Example 1:
Give me an 8-digit 2’s complement of -6:
+ 10110 -6 = 11111010 (2’s complement, extended)
Example 2:
Example 2:
Give me a 4-digit binary of +5:
+ 00100 +5 = 0101 (w/ sign bit)
Give me an 8-digit binary of +5:
Subtraction of signed binary numbers
+5 = 00000101 (w/ sign bit, extended)
Example 1:
Proverbs 10: 4
19 – 14 = (+19) + (-14)
Lazy hands make a man poor,
Get the signed binary of +19: but diligent hands bring wealth.
+19: 010011
1.5 Character Representation
Get the 2’s complement of -14:
+14: 001110
-14: 110001 (1’s complement)
+ 1
-14: 110010 (2’s complement)

Add the two binary numbers:

+19: 010011
-14: 110010

Disregard overflow. Final answer:

How do we represent characters in a low-level
Example 2:
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
12 – 5 = (+12) + (-5) (ASCII) – The most common encoding scheme for
Get the signed binary of +12:
+12: 01100 Proverbs 10: 5

Get the 2’s complement of -5: He who gathers crops in summer is a wise son,
but he who sleeps during harvest is a disgraceful son.
+5: 00101
-5: 11010
+ 1
(1’s complement)
1.6 Performance
-5: 11011 (2’s complement)

Add the two binary numbers: Technology Parallellism

+12: 01100
-5: 11011 VLSI – Very Large
100111 Scale Integration Multiple
Disregard overflow. Final answer: processors

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Reference: Computer Organization and Embedded Systems
1st Semester SY 2015-2016
Proverbs 10: 6

Blessings crown the head of the righteous,

but violence overwhelms the mouth of the wicked.

Servers and Super-
enterprise computers and
systems grid computers

Grid Instructions

Program Data


Word length RAM

Memory access


memory Interrupt signal


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Reference: Computer Organization and Embedded Systems
1st Semester SY 2015-2016