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Sub-Synchronous Resonances

This application note deals with an investigation of possible

induction generator effect triggered by sub-synchronous

resonance frequencies during transient events. The following

will be addressed in this application note:

• Harmonic impedance profiles of a power system network.

• Series compensation of lines and the resulting changes in

the harmonic impedance profile.

• Induction generator effect phenomena.

• Machine model to study induction generator effect

phenomena.

• Voltage amplification problems due to induction generator

effect.

• Sensitivity of system and machine parameters.

The single line view of the PSCAD model of this network is

shown below. A simple single machine, infinite bus type sys-

tem is selected for simplicity, but the techniques discussed are

typical and applicable in a typical investigation.

Field Voltage held

constant

vfld

cfld

100 [Hz]

out in

S/H

0.0 -

S2M

hold

Z(f)

Ef0 Ef If

376.99

S 6.0832 [ohm] .4323 [H] 21.977 [uF] 0.0002

telec Te IH

A #2 #1

V VMac VH VI 0.05178

Tm

VC

Tmstdy w Tm

4830.0 [ohm]

.0345 [H]

1.0

TIME

Duration 75 msec.

Timed

Fault

Logic ISW ABC->G

Figure 1 Single line representation of the model used for the study

500 kV system bus The main power network is modeled as an impedance behind

a voltage source as shown in Figure 2. The source impedance

0.0002 can be determined from the short circuit level at this bus.

0.05178 If the study required a more accurate representation of the

network frequency response, more buses behind the 500 kV

system bus must be added to the model. This is addressed in a

Initial Angle of source = -3.813 deg.

Initial Ramp up time = 0.2 sec. separate application note.

Source Magnitude = 477.8 kV.

Figure 2 Power system representation. The transmission line from the 500 lV bus to the generating

station is represented by simple R,L elements representative of

the fundamental frequency data. Once again, a detailed, fre-

6.0832 [ohm] .4323 [H] 21.977 [uF]

VC

quency dependent line model may be used in a practical study

Figure 3 Simple representation of a series compensated line.

but, for the purpose of this application note, this simple repre-

sentation easily yields to verifying the sensitivity of line loss etc.

to sub-synchronous effects. The series capacitor represents a

series compensation. The value used here is representative of

approximately 75% compensation.

parameters in place. The rotor circuit plays an important role

during sub-synchronous events and thus, it is important to

investigate the sensitivity of such parameters during the study.

situation. This can be achieved by entering the bus voltages

and magnitudes at appropriate locations. In this example,

the bus voltage information at the 500 kV source and at the

machine terminal may be used to initialize the simulation.

During the initialization process, the machine can be made to

act as a voltage source, operating at the specified magnitude

and phase angle. This is achieved using the ‘source to machine’

Figure 4 Options available in the machine model for initialization.

conversion feature of the machine model as shown in Figure 3.

Initially, the signal S2M from the timer is zero and the machine

model will act as a voltage source during this period. When

this value is changed to 1 at a specific time (when all initial

transients have settled), the model will act as a ‘machine,’

governed by the equations relating terminal voltages to the

winding currents. A constant field voltage input is assumed for

this study. The constant field voltage is based on the initialized

value (Ef0) computed by the machine model during the initiali-

zation period. This fixed value will ensure the same steady state

operation after the machine model is switched from a ‘source’

to a ‘machine.’

study. This can be realized in a number of ways.

input entro equal to zero during the simulation. This is

Figure 5 Defining the machine speed through an external signal.

shown in Figure 4 and the machine speed with be equal to

1 pu (ie. synchronous speed).

mass option as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 6 shows the parameter box in the machine model to

enter the bus voltage angle and its magnitude for the specific

power flow condition.

will run to the specified steady state as can be verified by the

results shown in Figure 7.

A typical harmonic impedance profile of a high voltage net-

work is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 6 Initial terminal conditions at the machine Typically, the resonance points are at super-synchronous

bus.

frequencies (ie. higher than 60 Hz in a 60 Hz system). During

Figure 8 Profile at a 230 kV bus on the Northern

California system.

Figure 7 Steady state operation of the system.

clearance, the voltage and current waveforms would display

such frequencies. Since there are no driving forces (generators)

to sustain such frequencies, they will be eventually damped

out at a rate determined by the system losses and loads. Figure

9 shows high frequency transients during a breaker operation

for the simple system shown in the same figure. It also shows

the effect of losses on transient damping.

BRK Ia2

Main :Graphs Main :Graphs

R=0

Ea1 Ea1

0.80 0.80

0.493

0.60 0.60 Timed

Breaker

0.214 Logic

0.40 0.40 Open@t0

BRK

0.00 0.00 Min -0.305

y

-0.40 -0.40

-0.60 -0.60

-0.80 -0.80

Ia1 Ia2 Ia1 Ia2

0.150 0.150

0.067

0.100 0.100

0.001 Losses increase damping

0.050 0.050 -0.066

0.000 0.000 Min -0.022

y

-0.100 -0.100

-0.150 -0.150 503 Hz

-0.200 -0.200

0.180 0.200 0.220 0.240 0.260 0.280 0.300 0.1960 0.2000 0.2040 0.2080 0.2120 02030

02050

50108

100 [Hz]

0.0 -

Z(f)

500 kV system bus

This can be used to plot impedance profiles at different loca-

tions as shown in Figure 7.

0.0002

The addition of new equipment to the existing system will nat- Figure 10 Measuring the harmonic impedance in a network

urally effect the harmonic impedance profile. Sub-synchronous model in PSCAD.

effects are of concern if the harmonic resonance points gets

shifted to frequencies lower than the rated system frequency. It

is well known that the addition of series capacitors to compen-

sate the transmission line reactance can give rise to this situa-

tion.

Impedanceprofile

Z - uncompensated Z - compensated

the system shown in Figure 1. The series compensation has

resulted in a resonance point at around 40 Hz. Following a

disturbance, the currents and voltages around this point will

show slow transients at around 40 Hz. Figure12 shows such

a sub-harmonic response in a system which had a resonance

point at around 9 Hz.

following a disturbance.

9.67 Hz

Articles and submissions addressing the use of PSCAD™ in the real world are always welcome.

Figure 12 Waveforms showing sub harmonic currents and voltages in a system that had a

resonance point around 10 Hz.

The interaction of the sub harmonic currents and the voltage

with the machine can result in the Induction generator

Effect. The sub-harmonic currents will produce a rotating

mmf which will assume a frequency corresponding to the

same frequency. The rotor circuit, which is rotating at or near

the rated synchronous speed, responds to the sub-harmonic

mmf in a manner similar to an induction machine. Since the

machine speed is greater than the sub-harmonic mmf rotation,

the effect is similar to an induction machine in a generating

mode where the slip is negative. This can be understood

by examining the basic induction machine theory and the

resulting steady state equivalent circuits as shown in Figure 13.

1.0 0.1 1.0 0.1

Is

Ws − Wr

(1-s)/sRr S: =

0.1

1.0

Ws

Rr

s

Effective rotor resistance

Figure 13 Equivalent circuit of a typical induction machine.

presented by the network, as seen at the machine terminals,

is low enough, the effective resistance can be negative. This

is the condition for positive feedback effect, refered to as the Figure 14 Data entered in the PSCAD machine model.

induction generator effect.

phenomena

The detailed machine model in PSCAD is suitable to study 0.0002

possible induction generator effects. The data required for the VI 0.05178

4830.0 [ohm]

.0345 [H]

The mechanical dynamics are not included in the example and

the field winding voltage is assumed to be constant over the

study interval. However, these details can be easily included in

the model. Tim ed

Fault

Logic ISW ABC->G

generator effect Figure 15 PSCAD models used to simulate a fault.

A three phase fault is applied at the 500 kV bus at 1.5 s. The

fault duration is 75 ms. The fault component and the timed

fault logic component in the Master Library are used to simu-

late the fault. This model is shown in Figure 15.

30.0

25.0

Figure 16 shows different current and voltage waveforms 20.0

15.0

upon the clearance of the fault. The transients die out and the 10.0

5.0

system reaches a steady state. 0.0

Capacitor Volts

(p.u.)

Ohms, the transients are sustained for a longer period. With

Machine Current

the line resistance set to 1.0832 Ohms, the terminal voltage 4.0

3.0

2.0

grows to very high values and this is a result of the induction 1.0

(p.u.)

0.0

-2.0

-3.0

-4.0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

Anaysis of the current waveform using the FFT component of

PSCAD (see the PSCAD case) shows a prominent 40 Hz sub- Figure 16 Simulation results following a three phase fault

clearance at 1.5 s. The fault duration is 0.075 s.

harmonic component.

40 Hz

Vmac

20.0

30.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

Capacitor Volts

[8] 5.40995773019

(p.u.)

Machine Current

4.0

(p.u.)

-4.0

be advisable to investigate the sensitivity of certain machine

1.00

parameters to the simulation results. Figure 20 shows the

results where the line resistance is as in the results in Figure 17

y

-1.00 (i.e. Line R=2.0832 Ohms). The field time constant Tdo’ was

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

lowered from 4.3 to 1.3 (just to see the effect). This results in

Figure 17 Results when the line resistance a larger rotor circuit resistance and correspondingly, a negative

is 2.0832 Ohms. equivalent resistance of a larger magnitude. Figure 20 shows

that the system displayes a negatively damped induction gen-

erator effect.

45.0

40.0

35.0

30.0 35.0

25.0

20.0 30.0

15.0 25.0

10.0 20.0

5.0

0.0 15.0

Capacitor Volts 10.0

5.0

0.0

Capacitor Volts

(p.u.)

(p.u.)

Machine Current

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0 Machine Current

(p.u.)

4.0

-2.0 3.0

-4.0

-6.0 2.0

-8.0 1.0

(p.u.)

-10.0 0.0

-1.0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

-2.0

-3.0

-4.0

Figure 18 Results when the line resistance is 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

1.0832 Ohms.

Figure 20 Simulation results with the filed time constant set to a lower value.

Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc.

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