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Effects of Connection Detail on Structural Behavior of Steel Braced Frames

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Effects of Connection Detail on Structural Behavior of Steel Braced Frames

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Paper N°3645 (Abstract ID)

Registration Code: S-N1463030129

STEEL BRACED FRAMES

(1) Doctoral Student, Osaka Institute of Technology, d1d15201@st.oit.ac.jp

(2) Associate Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology, kishiki.s.aa@m.titech.ac.jp

(3) Senior Researcher, Building Research Institute, hase@kenken.go.jp

(4) Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology, yamada.s.ad@m.titech.ac.jp

Abstract

Braced frame structures are used for school gymnasiums and factories with large space. It is very important building which

will be used as emergency public shelters in time of disaster. In braced frames, generally the columns are placed along their

weak axis for wide-flange steel cross sections and the beam web is connected through gusset plates on the column web by

using high strength bolts. These beam-to-column connections are assumed as a pin connection at the stage of seismic design,

and seismic performance of the braced frames depends on the strength of the tension-only brace. Connection of these

components is constructed by a general design practice, although its detail is very complex. In other words, the effect of

various connection details on the seismic performance of the braced frame is unclear at the stage of seismic design.

This paper focuses on differences in connection details, and describes their effects on structural behaviors of braced frame

structures. The cyclic loading tests of 2 story-1 bay full-scale braced frames with various connections were carried out. The

main parameters are: a connection eccentricity of brace, details at beam-end connection and presence of concrete slabs.

Connection eccentricity of brace is selected in order to investigate the additional stress on the framing components. Details

at beam-end connection are adopted for the purpose of verifying the influence on the seismic performance of braced frames.

Concrete slabs on beams are prepared to investigate the effect on strength of a braced frame.

The test results can be summarized as follows: (1) connection eccentricity of brace led to a decrease in the maximum

strength and an elastic stiffness of the braced frame; (2) connection detail with narrow pitch of bolts or thin beam web

caused local buckling at the beam web; (3) a presence of concrete slabs on beams resulted in increase in lateral strength of

the beam-column subassemblies.

Keywords: braced frame; connection eccentricity of brace; maximum strength; elastic stiffness; deformation capacity

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

1. Introduction

Braced frame structures are used for school gymnasiums and factories with large space. It is very important

building which will be used as emergency public shelters in time of disaster. In exterior frames of the structure,

generally the columns are placed along their weak axis for wide-flange steel cross sections and the beam web is

connected through gusset plates on the column web by using high strength bolts. These beam-to-column

connections are assumed as a pin connection at the stage of seismic design, and seismic performance of the

braced frames depends on the strength of tension-only braces. Connection of these components is constructed by

a general design practice, although its detail is very complex. In other words, the effect of various connection

details on the seismic performance of the braced frame is unclear at the stage of seismic design. This paper

focuses on differences in connection details, and describes their effects on structural behaviors of braced frame

structures.

2. Test Program

2.1 Outline of specimen

The outline of specimen is illustrated in Fig. 1. All specimens are 2 story-1 bay full-scale braced frames which

are consisted of columns, beams and tension-only braces with the span of 4.0m and the story height of 2.5m. The

columns and the beams of a specimen are wide-flange steel placed along weak axis and strong axis, respectively.

Gusset plates (PL9) for connecting a beam and braces are joined to a column web by fillet welding. The beam-

end connections are the pin details which are connected only to the beam web by high strength bolts. The braces

are set in X shape, and their connections are designed in order to meet the condition of the joint with the load-

carrying capacity.

3rd floor Column: RH-400x200x8x13 or BH-285x170x6x6

Beam: RH-300x150x6.5x9 or BH-300x150x4.5x6

2,500

2nd floor

Gusset plate: PL9

Bolt at brace connection: 5-M16(F10T)

2,500

1st story

Bolt at beam connection: 5-M16(F10T) or 5-M20(F10T)

1st floor

4,000

Fig. 1 – Outline of specimen

The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. The column bases of specimens are fixed to the strong floor via pin-roller jigs

which are free in the horizontal direction. In addition, loading beams are placed at the 1st and 3rd floor levels

around the specimens, and they are connected to a reaction wall by way of horizontal reaction jigs and 1000kN

oil jack. The load from the oil jack transfers to the loading beams, a specimen, the reaction beams, and finally

returns to the reaction wall via the horizontal reaction jigs. This loading method realizes the situation that almost

the same axial compressive force is applied to the beams in all floors. The repeated cyclic loading controlled by

the average story drift (R) of the 2 story braced frame is carried out.

2

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

(2)

(1) (6) (1): 1000kN oil jack

(2): loading beams

2,500

(3): reaction beams

(4): pin-roller jigs

3,300

(5): horizontal reaction jigs

reaction wall

2,500

(6): lateral bracings

(5) (3)

2,300

1,100

(4) (4)

strong floor

The definition of test parameters and the list of all specimens are represented in Fig. 3 and Table 1. Test

parameters are: the pitch of bolts at the beam-end connections (p), the diameter of bolts, the connection

eccentricity of braces (e), the cross section of framing components (columns, beams and braces) and the

presence of concrete slabs. The standard specimen (Le-0) is the braced frame which has the beam-end

connection using M16 bolts arranged by the Japanese standard pitch (60mm), without the connection

eccentricity of brace and a concrete slab. Based on this specimen, 13 specimens in total are prepared.

e

2p

e

pitch of bolts diameter of bolts connection eccentricity

specimens columns beams braces at beam-end connections at beam-end of braces

p [mm] connections e [mm]

Le-0 0

Le-100 100

RH-400x200x8x13 L-65x65x6 60 M16

Le-200 200

Le-300 300

RH-300x150x6.5x9 Column series

Se-0 0

L-65x65x6

Se-100 100

BH-285x170x6x6 (with gusset plate at 80 M20

Se-200 200

intersection of braces)

Se-300 300

Bp-40 40

BH-300x150x4.5x6

Bp-80 L-65x65x6 80

Lp-40 40

RH-400x200x8x13 M16 0 Beam series

FB-80x16

RH-300x150x6.5x9

Lp-80 (with gusset plate at 80

intersection of braces)

L-65x65x6

RH-300x150x6.5x9

Slab RH-400x200x8x13 (with gusset plate at 60 M16 0

(with concrete slab)

intersection of braces)

3

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

The connection details in each connection eccentricity of braces are shown in Fig. 4 with examples of Le

series. Shapes of all gusset plates are decided for securing effective cross-sectional area. Additionally, horizontal

stiffeners are placed in columns at edges of gusset plates and beam flange levels in order to facilitate stress

transfers in connections.

horizontal 614 480

stiffeners

240@60

32 ﾟ

30 ﾟ

220

210

425

20 ﾟ

416

20 ﾟ

150 150

100 100

@60

@60

425

416

50

50

40 100

240 100

381

333 501

25 ﾟ

28 ﾟ

20 ﾟ

350

576

206

414

20 ﾟ

300

200

@60

@60

200

300

414

230

576

58

140 40

140 40

Fig. 4 – Connection details of each connection eccentricity of brace (Le-0~300)

The horizontal shear strength corresponding to the number of headed studs which are used for specimen

with concrete slab is shown in Fig. 5. The horizontal shear strength means the transfer capability of the axial

force between a concrete slab and a steel beam. The vertical axis represents the horizontal shear strength, and the

horizontal axis stands for the number of headed studs. Moreover, broken lines in Fig. 5 indicate strengths

corresponding to failure modes caused by the axial force of the beam with a concrete slab. Further, the horizontal

shear strength which is required to meet the condition of an incomplete composite beam in assuming the beam-

end connection rigid is indicated by the red line [1]. In these tests, the number of headed studs was determined so

that the horizontal shear strength exceeds the horizontal component of yield strength of brace and the condition

of an incomplete composite beam.

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16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

1200

(1) (4) Horizontal component of yield strength of brace

1000 (5) Yield strength of

(2) slab reinfoncements

800 (2) Compressive

strength of concrete

600 slab

Condition for incomplete composite beam

400

(3)

200 (4)

(5)

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

(1) Yield strength of steel beam (3) Failure strength of

high strength bolts

The number of headed studs

Fig. 5 – Relationship between the horizontal shear strength and the number of headed studs

3. Test Results

3.1 Effects of connection eccentricity of brace

First of all, test results in the column series (specimen Le in Table 1) are discussed, and influences of the

connection eccentricity of the brace on the structural behavior of braced frames are considered. Relationships

between the average story drift R and the story shear Q in the specimens are shown in Fig. 6. The horizontal axis

represents the average story drift, and the vertical axis stands for the story shear. In addition, broken lines

indicate the horizontal component of yield strength of tension-only brace. All specimens are in almost elastic

range and demonstrate large stiffness until the average story drift reaches ±0.005 rad. After the maximum

strengths in each specimens are caused by the yield of tension-only braces, after that, the maximum strengths are

almost constantly maintained. The slip behavior is confirmed under the repeated cyclic loading, and the strengths

of the second cycle are lower than ones of the first cycle in the same amplitude. Also, it is found that larger

connection eccentricity of brace brings the lower maximum strength and elastic stiffness.

Q [kN] Q [kN] Q [kN] Q [kN]

200 200 200 200

R [rad.] R [rad.] R [rad.] R [rad.]

0 0 0 0

-0.03 0 0.03

-0.03 0 -0.03

0.03 0 -0.03

0.03 0 0.03

Fig. 6 – Relationships between average story drift and story shear (Le-0~300)

Bending moment distributions of column at the average story drift of +0.02 rad are plotted in Fig. 7. As

the connection eccentricity of brace is larger, it is found that the bending moment increases and moment

gradients are reversed. Namely, the shear force of columns which have a large connection eccentricity of brace

becomes the reversed shear force ― which is the shear force acting in the same direction as an external force.

Therefore, it is clear that the decreases in the maximum strength and the elastic stiffness are caused by the

reversed additional bending moments due to the connection eccentricities of braces.

5

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

Fig. 7 – Bending moment distribution and shear force of column at average story drift of +0.02 rad. (Le-0~300)

Here, the calculation method for the additional bending moment and the reversed shear of column

according to the connection eccentricity of brace is investigated. It should be noted that, the horizontal forces of

tension-only braces are considered because ones of the compressive braces are negligible in comparison to the

horizontal component of yield strength of brace. Assuming that there is no bending moment at the beam-end

connections, the one side of columns is modeled as the statically indeterminate structure illustrated in Fig. 8. The

additional bending moment in each node is represented as the following equations under the assumption that the

horizontal force of tension-only braces in each story equals.

H e 4 H 3e

c M1 b Q e (1)

4H 2

3 H e

c M2 b Q e (2)

4H

H e H 3e

c M3 b Q e (3)

4H 2

Moreover, the shear force of column in each story due to the additional bending moment is calculated as

the below equations.

e 7 H 3e

c Q1 b Q (4)

4H 2

e H 3e

c Q2 b Q (5)

4H 2

The shear forces of both columns are calculated as the summation of cQ1 and cQ2 because the bending

moment distributions of the both columns are the point-symmetrical.

2e

c Qn c Q1 c Q2 b Q (6)

H

The bending moment distributions obtained from Eq. (1) ~ (3) are compared to test results. It is necessary

to consider the bending moments at the beam-end connections for the actual the bending moment distributions of

columns. The bending moment distribution of columns based on the slip strength at beam-end connections is

shown in Fig. 9 when the bending moments at the beam-end connections on the 2nd floor are equally distributed

to both upper and lower columns. bMc in Fig. 9 is the bending moment at beam-column node caused by the slip

strength of high strength bolts at the beam-end connection. The bending moment distributions of columns

obtained by superimposing the bending moment due to the connection eccentricities of braces (Fig. 8) and the

bending moment because of the slip strength of high strength bolts at the beam-end connection (Fig. 9) are

6

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

shown in Fig.7 by solid lines and the yellow fills. The calculated values of the bending moment distribution

show good agreement with the test results. Therefore, it can be said that the stress distribution obtained by

modeling a column as the statically indeterminate structure makes the evaluation of the additional bending

moment of column caused by the connection eccentricity of brace possible.

Q cM1

bQ

e bQ

cQ2

cQ1

c M 3 H

bQ cM2

bQ

e bQ

cQ1

c M 2

H cM3 cQ2

c M 1 bQ

bMc bMc

b M c / 2 b M c / 2

bMc : the bending moments at beam-column

nodes based on the slip strength of high strength

bolts at the beam-end connections

bMc /2 bMc /2

b M c b M c

Fig. 9 – Bending moment distribution of column due to the bending moments at the beam-end connections

Finally, the evaluation method of the maximum strength and the elastic stiffness is investigated. The

relationships between the connection eccentricity of brace and the maximum strength or the elastic stiffness in

column series are plotted in Fig. 10. The vertical axes stand for the maximum strength (Qmax) or the elastic

stiffness (K) divided by one of specimens which have no connection eccentricity of brace (Q0max or K0),

respectively. The horizontal axes represent the connection eccentricity of brace (e) divided by the story height

(H). As previously mentioned, it is indicated that both of the maximum strength and the elastic stiffness decrease

in proportion to the connection eccentricity of brace.

At first, the maximum strength is evaluated. Considering the reserved shear obtained by Eq. (6), the

maximum strength is calculated by using the horizontal component of the yield strength of brace ( bQy) and the

below equation.

Qmax 1 b Qy

2e

(7)

H

The calculated strength is expressed as the solid line in Fig. 10 (a). The calculated value shows good

agreement with the experimental values, and it indicates that Eq. (7) enables to evaluate the maximum strength

of braced frames with the connection eccentricity of braces.

On the other hand, the elastic stiffness of braced frames based on the axial stiffness of the tension-only

braces (bk) is represented as the following equation.

k H 2e cos2

2

K b

(8)

2H 2

7

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

The calculated elastic stiffness is shown as the solid line in Fig. 10 (b). The calculated value shows good

agreement with the test results. Therefore, the elastic stiffness of braced frames in these tests can be estimated by

Eq. (8).

Qmax / Q0max ● : Le series K / K0 ● : Le series

● : Se series ● : Se series

Eq. (8)

Eq. (7)

e/H e/H

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

(a) Maximum strength (b) Elastic stiffness

Fig. 10 – Relationships between maximum strength or elastic stiffness and connection eccentricity of brace

Test results in the beam series are discussed, and influences of the connection details at the beam-end connection

on the deformation capacity of braced frames are investigated. Relationships between the average story drift R

and the story shear Q in beam series are shown in Fig. 11. Although (a) specimen Lp-40 has the narrower pitch

of bolts at the beam-end connection than the standard specimen, it is observed that the pitch of bolts at the beam-

end connection has few influences on structural behavior of the braced frame. On the other hand, in specimen

Bp-40 which has thinner beam webs, the local buckling of a beam web at a beam-end connection occurred

before the average story drift reached at +0.005 rad, and then its strength dropped rapidly. Although the local

buckling of a beam web at a beam-end connection similarly occurred on (c) specimen Bp-80, widening the pitch

of bolts at the beam-end connections greatly improved the deformation capacity. In addition, as a result of (d)

specimen Lp-80 which has wide pitch of bolts at the beam-end connections and the braces with a larger cross-

sectional area, large axial compressive forces from braces caused the fracture of the high strength bolts at a

beam-end connection.

Q [kN] Q [kN] Q [kN] local buckling Q [kN]

200 200 200

of a beam web 300

local buckling

of a beam web 200

100 100 100

100

R [rad.]

0 0 0 0

-0.03 0 -0.03 0 -0.03 0 -0.03 0 0.03

-100

-100 -100 -100

-200

Lp-40 Bp-40 Bp-80 Lp-80

-200 -200 -200 -300

bolt fracture

(a) p = 40 mm, tw = 6.5mm (b) p = 40 mm, tw = 4.5mm (c) p = 80 mm, tw = 4.5mm (d) p = 80 mm, tw = 6.5mm

Fig. 11 – Relationships between average story drift and story shear (Lp-40, Bp-40, Bp-80 and Lp-80)

In the previous research [2], cyclic loading tests of pin-detailed beam-end connection under compression

were carried out, and then a requirement to achieve the sufficient rotation capacity (±0.03 rad) is proposed. It

assumes that the pin detailed beam-end connection has the effective cross section illustrated in Fig. 12, it is

clarified that the sufficient rotation capacity is secured unless the effective stress exceeds 150 N/mm2. In this

paper, the applicability of the proposed requirement is verified. The stress at the effective cross section is

represented in Fig. 13. The vertical axis () indicates the stress at the effective cross section obtained from

dividing the maximum strength by the effective cross section in each specimen. The effective stresses in

specimens (Bp-40, Bp-80 and Lp-80), which were collapsed by the local buckling or the bolt fractures, exceeded

8

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

150 N/mm2 of the upper-limit stress established in the previous research [2]. Therefore, it is proved that the

requirement for the sufficient deformation capacity is applicable to the braced frames.

effective cross section

45 ﾟ

effective stress : cr A

w e

Ncr

Lg

tw

200 Range of the effective stress for a

[N/mm2]

achievement of sufficient rotation

capacity obtained from tests of beam-

150

end connection in the literature [2]

100

Until story drift Until story drift ○ : without connection failure

0.02 rad 0.03 rad

50 ● : local buckling at beam end

● : bolt fracture

0

Le-0 Lp-40 Se-0 Bp-40 Bp-80 Lp-80

Finally, test results of specimen Slab are discussed, and effects of the presence of concrete slabs on the structural

behavior of braced frames are considered. Relationships between the average story drift R and story shear Q of

the standard specimen Le-0 and specimen Slab are illustrated in Fig. 14. It is observed that the maximum

strength of specimen Slab exceeds that of the standard specimen by more than 100 kN. It indicates that bending

moments at beam-end connections increase due to compressive resistances of the concrete slabs, and lateral

strength of the beam-column subassemblies increases.

400 Q [kN] 400 Q [kN]

200 200

R [rad.] R [rad.]

0 0

-0.03 0 0.03 -0.03 0 0.03

-200 -200

Le-0 Slab

-400 -400

(a) Without concrete slab (b) With concrete slab

Fig. 14 – Relationship between average story drift and story shear (Le-0 and Slab)

Bending moment distributions of column at the average story drift of +0.02 rad are plotted in Fig. 14. It is

confirmed that large bending moment about 70 kNm is applied to beam-column nodes at the side of the beam-

end under the positive bending moment. On the other hand, full-plastic moment of column is 79.7 kNm. As

considering that the additional axial force, it can be said that the column might lead to a plasticity.

9

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

-160 -160

-80 -80

0 0

80 80

160 160

-160 -160

-80 -80

0 0

80 80

160 160

-160 -160

-80 -80

0 0

80 80

160 160

(a) Without concrete slab (Le-0) (b) With concrete slab (Slab)

Fig. 14 – Bending moment distribution and shear force of column at the average story drift of +0.02 rad. (Le-0 and Slab)

4. Conclusion

In this paper, the cyclic loading tests of 2 story-1 bay full-scale braced frames with various connections were

carried out, and effects of differences in connection details on the seismic performance of the braced frames are

investigated. Test results obtained in this paper are summarized as the following: (1) in braced frames which

have the connection eccentricities of braces, the additional stress due to the connection eccentricities of braces

reduces strength and stiffness; (2) the maximum strength and the elastic stiffness can be evaluated by

considering the negative shears of columns; (3) the requirement for the sufficient deformation capacity proposed

in the literature [2] is applicable to braced frames; (4) in braced frames which have the concrete slabs on beams,

the flexural strength of beam-end connections assumed as pin connections increases, and lateral strength of the

beam-column subassemblies increase.

5. Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Building Standard Promotion of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and

Tourism in 2013 and 2014 fiscal year and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of JSPS KAKENHI Grant

Number 26420569.

6. References

[1] Architectural Institute of Japan (2010): Design Recommendations for Composite Constructions (In Japanese)

[2] Fukaya Y, Sato R, Tatsumi N, Kishiki S (2015): Effects of Connection Detail on Structural Behavior of Steel Braced

Frames (Part 1. Rotation capacity of pin-detailed connections under compressive axial force). Summaries of Technical

Papers of Annual Meeting in Kinki Branch of AIJ, Japan. (In Japanese)

10

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