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I.

FORMELE ÎN – ING (Participiul şi Gerund-ul)

Din punct de vedere gramatical, forma în –ing poate fi sau un gerund sau un participiu. În ambele cazuri,
forma este aceeaşi.

Formă: forma în –ing regulată se obţine adăugând –ing infinitivului fără TO. (go – going)

GERUND

Gerund-ul poate fi folosit ca:


1. subiect
Smoking is dangerous for your health.
2. complement
Emily loves teaching.
3. interdicţii scurte
No fishing.
4. după prepoziţii
Verbele care urmează după prepoziţii trebuie să fie la forma în –ing
Francis is interested in learning Polish.
I am sorry for hurting your feelings.
Verbele care urmează după verbele complexe cu prepoziţie sunt de obicei la forma în -ing
My father has just given up smoking.
I am looking forward to seeing you soon.
Dar
unele verbe complexe cu prepoziţie pot fi urmate de infinitiv
The researcher set out to prove his theory.

 Notă
Cuvântul TO este o sursă de confuzii. Uneori to este o prepoziţie urmată de –ing. Alteori to intoduce un
infinitiv complet.
Kevin looked forward to seeing her.
Kevin wanted to see her.
I am used to studying until late. = I am accustomed to studying late.
I used to study until late. = I always studied until late.
5. după anumite verbe şi expresii
Principalele verbe şi expresii sunt: admit, avoid, delay, detest, enjoy, finish, imagine, mind, miss,
postpone, practise, remember, resist, stop, can’t stand, can’t help, be worth, be busy, be no good, be no
use, deny, keep, risk
Did you mind selling your house?
I missed listening to her play the piano.
We stopped studying in the summer.

 Notă
Notaţi diferenţa dintre:
He remembered writing to us. = Îşi amintea că ne-a scris.
They remembered to write to us. = Nu au uitat să ne scrie.
He stopped eating. = El a terminat de mâncat.
He stopped to eat. = S-a oprit din alte treburi ca să mănânce.

 Notă
Admit, deny, remember primesc şi pe that:
They remembered that they had sent us the bill.

 Notă
Hate, like, love, prefer pot primi infinitiv + to.
I love dancing. = I love to dance.
Dar la condiţional ele primesc de obicei infinitiv cu to:
I’d love to dance.
6. după anumite verbe + adjectiv posesiv/ complement pronominal
Principalele verbe sunt: dislike, dread, mind, remember, resent, stop, understand, object to, appreciate,
excuse, forgive, prevent, (dis)approve of
I don’t mind his/him staying with us.
I truly appreciate their/them being so hospitable.
Utilizarea adjectivului posesiv este mai formală:
The committee resented his being so frank.
Utilizarea complementului pronominal este mai răspândită în engleza vorbită:
I certainly understand him getting upset.

 Notă
Iată câteva modificări ortografice:
1. Dispare –e final.
Live living
Give giving
Dar nu pentru:
Be being
Age ageing
Dye dyeing
Glue glueing
2. Finala în –ie se schimbă în –y.
Die dying
Lie lying
3. Se dublează consoana finală.
Stop stopping
Travel travelling
Begin beginning
Dar nu şi pentru:
Read reading
Peel peeling
Suffer suffering

PARTICIPIUL

Participiul poate fi folosit:


1. la timpurile continue.
He is working.
You were singing.
2. ca adjective.
annoying, frightening, depressing, embarrassing, relaxing, exciting, shocking, charming, interesting,
boring
3. în substantive compuse.
a washing machine, a diving board, a sewing kit, a walking stick, a fishing rod, a gardening tool
4. după spend şi waste (timp, bani, effort, energie).
They spent a fortune building that house.
He wasted all his energy getting that contract.
5. după go şi come (activitate fizică).
I’m coming shopping with you.
Eileen and Paul are going swimming.
6. după see, hear, feel, listen to , notice, watch + complement.
The entire family watched Tim skating.

 Notă
Aceleaşi verbe pot fi urmate şi de complement + infinitiv fără TO.
He heard the baby cry.

7. după catch, find, leave + complement.


The baker caught the boy stealing rolls.

8. în locul subordonatelor:
A. în locul unei subordonate relative
We watched the boy working. (= We watched the boy who was working.)

B. în locul subordonatelor.
când două acţiuni se petrec la acelaşi moment în timp.
Smiling warmly, she shook Hector’s hand. (= She smiled warmly as she shook Hector’s hand.)
Learning to ski, Sam broke his leg. (= While Sam was learning to ski, he broke his leg.)
pentru a înlocui o propoziţie care începe cu since sau because.
Thinking Joan was honest, he lent her the money. (= Because he thought Joan was honest, he lent her the
money.)
Being curious, he looked through the keyhole. (= Since he was curious, he looked through the keyhole.)
când acţiunea unei subordonate se petrece în mod clar înainte de acţiunea celeilalte subordonate se
foloseşte participiul perfect.
Having got divorced once, Al decided not to marry again. (= After he had got divorced once, Al decided
not to marry again.)