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Session no 5 (March 30, 11:00 AM)

Session Chair: Dr. Dinesh Sharma


1 LOSS REDUCTION THROUGH OPTIMAL CAPACITOR PLACEMENT
AND NETWORK RECONFIGURATION IN DISTRIBUTION FEEDER
(11:05 AM)

AUTHORS: RITESH GUPTA AND SULAV GHIMIRE

PRESENTED BY: SULAV GHIMIRE(11:05 AM)


Key Points
1. Project conducted in different distribution feeders in Kathmandu valley.
2. Losses in distribution systems are huge in underdeveloped countries and optimal
capacitor placement can reduce the losses along with using interconnected systems.
3. This study tries to combine the two methods of reconfiguration and the capacitor
placement while using the real time data.
4. The objective of the study: To assess the loss reduction in a distribution substation with
multiple feeders through optimal capacitor placement and network reconfiguration.
5. The system under study is at Minbhawan substation with 4 radial feeders.
6. Two analysis were done and the data were taken for 24 hours and at 7:00 and 23:00.
7. For Network Reconfiguration Algorithm 𝑁 = 2𝑛 possible switching combinations of 𝑛
switches were selected , and the losses for each system were calculated.
8. For Optimal Capacitor Placement Algorithm load flow analysis was run to calculate the
load power, followed by running optimal capacitor placement.
9. Minbhawan Substation:
i. A 66/11kV substation, 36MVA Capacity
ii. Power Transformers are on average at 95% loading
iii. Supplies energy to a large portion of Kathmandu’s Load
10. The conclusion of the study: This technique reduced the distribution system losses by
9% - 13% depending upon when the data was taken
Questions
1. Is there a line diagram for each project?
Ans: No.
2. Are the parameters dependent upon the locations?
Ans: Yes, the distribution systems on different locations have different parameters and
they are subject to change wrt location.
3. Why is loss reduction not consistent across all feeders?
Ans: Different load profiles for different feeding stations.

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2 A ROBUST DETERMINATION OF THE VOLTAGE DROOP
CHARACTERISTIC OF BIPOLAR MULTI TERMINAL VSC HVDC
SYSTEMS BASED ON THE APPLICATION OF THE PARTICLE SWARM
OPTIMIZATION

AUTHORS: MICHAEL ENDERS, CHRISTOPH HAHN, JENS DIETRICH,


YANNICK FOSTING AND MATTHIAS LUTHER

PRESENTED BY: CHRISTOPH HAHN (11:25 AM)


Key Points
1. The study of a multilevel converter with 3 arms up and 3 arms down.
2. 1 Multilevel Converter can contain up to 400 submodules.
3. There can be serial and parallel multilevel converters, also they can be in radial and
meshed configuration.
4. The model consists of an ac and a dc model, which don’t affect each other in any way.
5. Laplace domain model is used to simulate DC while the rotating reference is used to
convert AC into DC and Laplace domain model is then applied.
6. Steady State Diagram is used to model the overall systems.
7. For controlling ac/dc converter, the master controller controls the energy of the DC
systems, the slave controller controls the active power of the converter.
8. Each and every controller has both the master and slave controlling mechanism.
9. Voltage Droop Control – VDC carries out the Simultaneous control of active power
and DC voltage.
10. The Droop constant indicates which amount of active power is contributed by the
respective converter to a certain DC voltage deviation
11. Each terminal is able to contribute to the DC voltage control until it reaches its
furthest active power limitation
12. Weighting of the sum of the droop constants in order to obtain the specific droop
constant Km:
13. Droop constants are determined and optimized with regard to robustness
14. The Particle Swarm Optimization is used as optimization algorithm
15. Power Limitation system is less stable and robust while the Particle Swarm Method
is rather slow in computing speed, any of the two or the integration of the two can
result in maximum impact.
Note: No questions were raised at the end of the presentation.

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3 ANALYTICAL STUDY ON POSSIBILITIES OF POWER TRANSFER
ENHANCEMENT IN INTEGRATED NEPALESE POWER SYSTEM
USING FACTS DEVICES

AUTHORS: SAILESH DAHAL, ANIL WAGLE, BASANTA RAJ POKHREL

PRESENTED BY: SAILESH DAHAL(11:45 AM)


Key Points
1. Background and challenges faced by Integrated Nepalese Power System (INPS)
2. The Objectives of the Study:
• Loadflow anslysis of INPS to identify the suitable position for the
implementation of FACTS.
• To analyse power transfer capability using suitable FACTS Technology.
• To study the impact of implementing FACTS technology in INPS by forecasting
over 2025.

3. The flexibility of transmission lines and the theory behind it.


4. Why FACTS technology poses a lot of advantages over traditional technologies?
5. Data collection was done from the NEA and the circuit was simulated in PSAT.
6. The load flow analysis of simulated network was carried out using Newton Raphson
method.
7. Maximum sag losses had occurred in Birgunj and it was selected for shunt
compensation
8. Maximum line losses are at Bharatpur-Hetauda line and Lekhnath-Damauli. So
these lines are selected for series compensation.
9. Five kinds of FACTS device blocks which are built in the PSAT library are used for
the implementation in the circuit. Among them two are shunt and other three are
series.
10. Individually Facts are placed in those locations and result are analysed and compared.
11. The two techniques series and shunt compensation were selected on the basis of their
load profiles.
12. With the implementation of shunt compensation using SVC and STATCOM separately,
the SVC remarked a 117% Likewise, 104% improvisation on voltage sag was
observed on Parwanipur
13. STATCOM, enhanced voltage profile of birgunj by 141% and that of parwanipur by
126%.
14. Series Compensation improved the P losses of the system considerably.
15. With individual comparison of the FACTS device it is concluded STATCOM and UPFC
give the best result.

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16. Overall impact study is done by placing UPFC in Bharatpur-Hetauda and Lekhnath-
Damauli line and STATCOM in the Birgunj.
17. FACTS devices reduce the real and reactive power by 54% and 47% respectively.
18. The load flow analysis of present INPS with suitable FACTS showed an improvement
in real power loss with decrease by 54 percent which was equivalent of recovery of
real power of 114.863 MW.
19. Also voltage sag in different buses was enhanced by a remarkable margin of 125%.

Note: No questions were raised at the end of the presentation.

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4 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRID INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED
ENERGY SYSTEM

AUTHORS: PRAMISH SHRESTHA, ASHISH SHRESTHA, ASSOC. PROF.


BRIJESH ADHIKARI

PRESENTED BY: PRAMISH SHRESTHA (12:10 PM)


Key Points
1. We are stuck in the aged concept of rural electrification.
2. Integrating the distributed renewable energy resources is always a win- win situation.
3. If the micro-hydro power projects are properly integrated, then proper quantity of
power can be supplied.
4. The project was carried out in Gotikhel Micro-Hydro power, 60 km away from the city
and produces 20 MW of electricity, and electrifies 145 households.
5. The objective of the paper: comparative analysis of grid integration of distributed
energy resources taking case study of GHP.
6. Total energy generated by GHP is 480 kilowatt hour (kWh) per day out of which 59%
is injected into grid and 41% is consumed by village HH’s load.
7. Comparative analysis of isolated and grid connected setup was carried out and it was
found out that in connecting to the grid load factor increases from 31% to 57%
8. The energy selling price for the interconnected system was 0.032 euros/kwh at 15%
IRR and 0.034 euros /kwh for 16% IRR.
9. The Risk Analysis was carried out using Monte Carlo Simulation Methods.
10. The Monte Carlo Method randomly generates value and simulates the results.
11. The probability of Profit was 50% while the B/C ratio yielded a 99% chance of benefit.
12. Load Flow Analysis was the technical analysis carried out.
13. Off- grid is not always possible for private sector so it should be used in connection
with the PPA

Questions
1. The data source?
Ans: Suman Budhatokhi 2011

2. How does grid connection cost more than the initial price of setup?
Ans: Unfinished analysis

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5 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
USING POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS TOOL (PSAT): A CASE OF UPPER
KARNALI HYDROPOWER PROJECT

AUTHORS: ASHISH SHRESTHA, SHAILENDRA K. JHA, BIBHU B.


SHAH, BIDUR R. GAUTAM, ANIL WAGLE

PRESENTED BY: ASHISH SHRESTHA (12:35 PM)


Key Points
1. Upper Karnali Hydropower Project – 900 MW
2. Awarded in 2008 to GMR-ITD.
3. In 2011, there were 10,502 households in the 12 VDCs.
4. Among them, only 88 households were connected with electricity supply through
local micro hydro power plants.
5. For data collection geospatial data, demographic data and the electricity demand
was chosen
6. Selection of Load Center was carried out on the following basis
 Demography Factor
 Topography Factor
 Socio-economic Factor
 Techno Feasibility Factor
7. Demand of each load sector was tier 3 category.
8. Voltage level was selected on the basis of Empirical formula and branch Division.
9. Conductors were selected on the following basis
 Peak Demand and Current
 Voltage Regulation
10. Load Flow analysis was carried out using PSAT.
11. 33 KV was the economic voltage selected for the three branches in the network
12. Mole, Weasel and Squirrel were the conductors that were used in the three
corresponding branches.
13. The results obtained are as follows
 2.603786 MW of active power
 2.30945 MVAR of reactive power
 54.756 kW of active power loss
 16.41 kVAR of reactive power loss
14. Result was compared with the IEEE bus standard and the result obtained by f/b
sweep based algorithm.

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15. Paired sample T test was done.
16. Standard error mean 0.00002716 at 95% confidence interval of the difference.
17. Observing the results and the performances, it is concluded that the proposed
primary distribution system is stable and reliable and economically feasible
18. Other energy sources (Solar/ Wind/ Micro Hydro/ Grid) should be interconnected
to meet the peak demand or, electrification could be provided for limited area.
Questions
1. What are the implications of the findings shown in showing reactive power?

Final Notes:
1. The session was completed on 1:00 PM, on the scheduled time.
2. The participants were awarded with their respective certificates along with the
caps and badges of Kathmandu University by the session chair Dr Dinesh Sharma.

Rapporteuring by:
Bidhan Chandra Bhattarai
Bidhanchan22@gmail.com