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1) State and give a brief description of the basic components of a robot.

 End Effector: This is the part that generally handles objects, makes connection to other machines, or
performs the required tasks.

 Actuators : Actuators are the muscles of the manipulators

 Sensors: Sensors are used to collect information about the internal state of the robot or to
communicate with the outside environment.

 Controller: The controller receives data from the computer, controls the motions of the actuator and
coordinates these motions with the sensory feedback information.

2) Robot programming language can be classified into several categories according to the level at which
the programmer must interact with the system during the programming process. Describe these robot
programming classifications.
On line
• teach pendant
Teach pendant programming language is evolving to program the robot, the operator
moves it from point-to-point, using the buttons on the pendant to move it around and save
each position individually. When the whole program has been learned, the robot can play
back the points at full speed.

• lead through programming

This method is used to teach Robots to carry out such tasks as paint spraying or
Applying adhesive to an irregular surface. The Robot arms using this teaching
method are typically ones with wrist motion plus three degrees of freedom and
having revolute joints. The Robot is taken through its operating cycle manually and
the movements of each axis are logged automatically at frequent intervals.

Off line
• robot programming languages

Off-line programming of Robots is used to control the overall sequence of tasks

carried out in a Robot serviced system. The drive through programming method will still
be used but only at discrete points in the overall sequence where positional accuracy is
required. In off line programming the program uses a high level computer language such
as VAL which gives the Robot decision making power.
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• task level programming

Combination Programming:
– Often programming is a combination of on-line and off-line
• on-line to teach locations in space
• off-line to define the task or “sequence of operations

3) Vision system are being used increasingly with robot automation to perform many tasks. Describe
briefly of these tasks.

4) Briefly describe the main types of power source used to power a robot and automation work-cell.
 Batteries
Batteries are the main component of a robotic system. Batteries can be classified into rechargeable
or non-rechargeable. Non-rechargeable batteries

 Photovoltaic Cells
Photovoltaic or solar cells can be used to charge the batteries of the robotic systems. They are
used in conjunction with a capacitor and can be charged up to a set voltage level and then be
discharged via the movements of motor

 Fuel Cells
Like batteries, fuel cells supply direct energy via a non-combustion process by directly deriving
power from a hydrocarbon source at high efficiencies of up to 75%. This includes two electrodes
sandwiched around a conductive electrolyte.

 Generator Systems
The generator systems work based on the conversion of the gasoline energy to motive power via a
combustion process in an engine.

5) “Safety is an important issue to be considered when planning and integrating an industrial robot in a
manufacturing work-cell. To avoid accidents, the industry must consider and emphasize certain
procedures/safety issues”. Discuss.
Safety procedures
 General reliable and fail-safe design of robot and its parts
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 Quality assurance for the hardware
 Limitation in design of supply of power, electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic etc. to the robot
 Fire and explosion safe design
 Avoidance of sharp corners, protruding parts, which can catch other items
 Tether protection
 Assurance of reliable operation of robot basic hardware and software
 Low total mass of robot and transported items
 Use of sensors for collision avoidance
 Carrying out risk analysis
 Set up an emergency stop mechanism and local control system

Safety issues
 movements and sequences of movements that are almost impossible to follow, as the robot’s high-
speed movements within its radius of action often overlap with those of other machines and equipment
 release of energy caused by flying parts or beams of energy such as those emitted by lasers or by
water jets
 free programmability in terms of direction and speed
 susceptibility to influence by external errors (e.g., electromagnetic compatibility)

6) “The robot gripper plays an important role in industrial part handling operations”. Briefly discuss
about types of gripper with its working principal.

 Vacuum Grippers
The vacuum gripper has been the standard EOAT in manufacturing because of its high level of
flexibility. This type of robot gripper uses a rubber or polyurethane suction cup to pick up items.
Some vacuum grippers use a closed-cell foam rubber layer, rather than suction cups, to complete the
 Pneumatic Grippers
The pneumatic gripper is popular due to its compact size and light weight. It can easily be
incorporated into tight spaces, which can be helpful in the manufacturing industry. Pneumatic robot
grippers can either be opened or closed, earning them the nickname “bang bang” actuators, because of
the noise created when the metal-on-metal gripper operates.
Pneumatic vacuum generators function based on the Venturi principle Compressed air is introduced
into the ejector (A) Due to the reduced cross-section of the motive nozzle (the Venturi nozzle [B]),
the compressed air is accelerated. The dynamic pressure increases, while the static air pressure
simultaneously decreases.

 Hydraulic Grippers
The hydraulic gripper provides the most strength and is often used for applications that require
significant amounts of force. These robotic grippers generate their strength from pumps that can
provide up to 2000psi. Although they are strong, hydraulic grippers are messier than other grippers
due to the oil used in the pumps. They also may need more maintenance due the gripper being
damaged because of the force used during the application.
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It works based on Pascal’s law. This law states that the pressure can be transferred to a confined fluid
in every direction.
 Servo-Electric Grippers
The servo-electric gripper appears more and more in industrial settings, due to the fact that it is easy
to control. Electronic motors control the movement of the gripper jaws. These grippers are highly
flexible and allow for different material tolerances when handling parts. Servo-electric grippers are
also cost effective because they are clean and have no air lines.

1. An Input command is sent to the gripper from a robot control unit. This unit is usually pre-
programmed by an operator via a teach pendant. With most electric grippers, the command can be a
position, a speed or a grip force. The robot can send commands to the gripper using digital I/O's, or by
using any of the available robot communication protocols.
2. The command from the robot is received by the gripper control module responsible for driving the
gripper motor(s). This gripper module is sometimes embedded in the gripper but most of the time it
consists of a box sitting between the robot controller and the gripper.
3. The servo-electric motor reacts to the signal. The shaft will then rotate to the commanded
position, speed or force. To enable closed-loop control, feedback from the motor position is usually
necessary at the gripper level. Until there is a signal change, the servo will hold the position (and resist

7) Explain applicability of Artificial Intelligence with regard to robotics.

Artificial Intelligence defined with following concepts. To see the applicability of AI in robotics we
can go through with these concepts. Rather today AI robotics system is More specifically, its known
Weak AI.
 Simulating higher functions of the human brain
 Programming a computer to use general language
 Arranging hypothetical neurons in a manner so that they can form concepts
 A wat to determine and measure problem complexity
 Self-improvement
 Randomness and creativity

AI system in robotic is being utilized in vast area of activities such as, vehicle, transportation, electronic
trading medical diagnosis, robot control, and remote sensing. AI has been used to develop and advance
numerous fields and industries, including finance, healthcare, education, transportation, and more.

8) For all industrial jobs below, suggest most suitable robot geometry for each job. Support your
answer with a sketch of work envelop.
i. Painting
 Cartesian robot geometry

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ii. Pick and place in assembly line
 Articulated robot

iii. Palletizing
 Scara Robot

9) Company ABC plan to set up a flexible manufacturing system in their new plant. This company
produces a variety of bread for daily consumes.
a) Identify the capabilities of flexibilities of their manufacturing.
The following capabilities should able to be varied or diverse each to each for the flexibilities
of their manufacturing.

 Weight of bread
 Bread type
 Flavours
 Colour changeability
 Sliced or non- sliced
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 differences of Ingredient
 packing methods
 backing temperature and time

b) Then, they should qualify as being flexible. Explain all tests they should possess as the
manufacturing system would satisfy the criteria.
 Bread Weight measuring test
 Packing process monitoring and testing
 Count and measure right number of slices for right weight and type
 temperature testing at different states of backing

c) Illustrate the basic FMS components for their new plant with appropriate label. Also explain
the details of each component.

 Proximity sensors
 Limit sensors
 Thermostat
 Count sensors
 Actuators
 Conveyers
 Pick and place robots
 Image processing to detect faulty packing
 Industrial Timers

10) Table 1 shows the specification of two model of Staubli robot.

a) Compare both model specifications in terms of their characteristics.

 TX200 Robot has higher number of moments with compared to TS20; hence TX200 has greater
flexibility of operation and ensures higher number application than the TS20 robot.
 TX200 has greater payload than TS20, therefore it can be used for loading and unloading
 Capability of Reach is higher in TX200 therefore it has large working envelop and allows
maximum utilization of cell workspace than the TS20 robot.
 Repeatability is good in TS20 than TX200 robot, therefore TS20 is compatible with precision task
applications, such as spot welding.
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 TX200 robot has two options for robot mounting therefore it has the flexibility from its
commissioning. And it can save the floor so it is ideal for limited space.
 The Protection class (wrist) IP implies the of robots classification (Ingress Protection)
The two digits represent different forms of environmental influence: The first digit represents
protection against ingress of solid objects. The second digit represents protection against ingress of
Protection schemes of TX200;
 Totally protected against dust ingress
 Protected against low pressure water jets from any direction. Limited ingress permitted. And
Protected against short periods of immersion in water.
Protection schemes of TS20
 Protected against solid objects over 50mm e.g. hands, large tools.
No protection against liquids

b) Suggest an application suit for each model.

TX200 applications
 Milling
TS20 applications
 Spot welding
 Pick and place

Model TX200 TS20

Degree of freedom 6 4
Nominal load capacity 100kg 0.5kg
Maximum load capacity 130kg 1kg
Reach 2194mm 220mm
Repeatability ±0.06mm ±0.01mm
Protection class (wrist) IP65(67) IP10
Attachments method Floor or ceiling Floor
Staubli CS8 series

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Table 1

11) What does ZYX Euler angle rotation matrix represent? Show that the order of rotation for ZYX and
XYZ are equivalent.
Describe Rotations relative to the frame

12) Obtain a mathematical expression for composite transformation of frames.

13) Find the coordinates of point 𝑷 = [𝟐 𝟑 𝟓]𝑻 relative to the reference frame after a rotation of 45°
degrees about the 𝑧-axis.

14) A frame {D} has been moved 9 units along 𝑥-axis, and 5 units along 𝑧-axis of the reference frame.
Find the new location of the frame.
0.527 −0.574 0.628 5
{𝐷} = [ 0.369 0.819 0.439 3]
−0.766 0 0.643 8
0 0 0 1

15) A frame {2} was rotated about the 𝑥-axis by 90° , it was then translated about the current 𝑧-axis by 3
units before being rotated about the 𝑧-axis by 90° . Finally, it was translated about the current 𝑦-axis
by 5 units.
a) Write an equation describing the motions.
b) Find the final location of a point 𝑷(𝟏, 𝟓, 𝟒) attached to the frame relative to the reference

16) Explain the factors on which the number of solutions to given inverse kinematic model.

17) “Solutions to inverse kinematics problem are generally difficult”. Explain.

Inverse kinematics takes as input the Cartesian end effector position and orientation, and calculates
joint angles. Getting the solution for an inverse kinematics problem is very complex and Also, inverse
kinematics may not have a unique solution therefore it requires data for finding the right solution.

18) Consider following 2-DOF planer manipulator whose joints are both revolute and link lengths are
𝑙1and 𝑙2 shown in Figure 3. Derive the forward and inverse kinematics equations for the planar

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Figure 3



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