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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Life without Direction: Difficulties Encountered by Senior


High School Students Having a Broken Family in Esclante City

A Research Paper

Presented to the Faculty and Staff

Of Sagay National High School

Submitted by:
Arn L. Lopez
Perlie Matarong
Michael E, Nagrama
Grade 11-Descartes

Submitted to:
Mrs. Cecilia D. Singayan
Research Teacher
Sagay National High School
March 2018
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Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

APPROVAL SHEET

This study entitled “Difficulties Encountered by Senior High School Students


Having a Broken Family in Escalante City” prepared and submitted by Arn L. Lopez,
Michael E. Nagrama, Perlie Matarong in partial fulfillment of the requirements in
Research in Daily Life 1 has been examined and is recommended for approval and
acceptance.

__________________ Cecilia D. Singayan


Date Research Teacher

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Research in Daily Life.

Rogelio D. LapuLapu
SNHS-SHS Coordinator

Villa G. Tupas
Principal III
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Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, praises and thanks to the God, the Almighty, for His showers

of blessings throughout our research work to complete the research successfully.

The researchers like to express their gratitude to the following persons:

To our classmates who extended their help, support, and consideration when we needed

it;

To our Research Teacher, Mrs. Cecilia Singayan, who extended her everlasting support,

help, encouragement, and most of all guidance;

To our beloved SHS-Coodinator, Mr. Rogelio D. LapuLapu who extended his support

and approval to our study;

To our dearest Principal III, Mrs. Villa G. Tupas, for giving us the opportunity to conduct

the research;

To our parents who gave their unending support especially in terms of financial matters;

And most of all, to the great person up there, Almighty God, who guided them in every

part of their research and enabled them to finish this research.


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Certificate of Proofreading

This certicate confirms that the research entitled “Life without Direction: Difficulties

Encountered by Senior High School Students Having a Broken Family in Escalante

City.” was edited by:

________________________________________________________________

The following issues were corrected: grammars, spelling, punctuation, sentence

structure, and phrasing.

____________________

Mrs. Cecilia D. Singayan

___________________

Mrs. Jallyn A. Villagante


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Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page………………………………………………………………………………….
Approval Sheet……………………………………………………………………..….…..i
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………..………….ii
Certificate of Proofreading…………………………………………………………….....iii
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………....iv
Abstract...……………………………………………………………………...………......v
Introduction….………………..………………………………………………….............1
Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………..…..….3
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………..……...3
Theory/Theoretical Perspective………………………………………………….....……..4
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………….…….......13
Scope and Limitation of the Study……………………………...………….….……....…13
Review of Related Literature………………………………………………..…...………14
Methods………………………………………………………………………….............31
Research Design…………………….……………………………………………….…...31
Participants of the study…………………………………………………………….....…31
Sampling Design…………………………………………………………………..…..…32
Research Instrument…………………………………………………………………...…33
Validity and Reliability………………………………………………………………..…33
Data Gathering Procedure………………………………………………………….….…33
Treatment of Data and Methods of Analyzing the Data…………………………....…....35
Ethical Consideration……………………………………………..………………..….....37
Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………..…...39
Emerging themes of Participants.......................................................................................40
Major Themes....................................................................................................................71
Thematic Analysis.............................................................................................................78
Summary of Findings……………………………………………...……….…………….95
Conclusion……………………………………………………………..……………..….97
Implication………………………………….……………………………………….…...97
Recommendation………………………………………………………………………...98
References………………………………………………………………………..…...….99
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………….....vi
Transcribed data.................................................................................................................vi
Codes of Participants........................................................................................................xvi
Proximity Matrix..........................................................................................................xxviii
Research Questions.........................................................................................................xxix
Curriculum Vitae of the Researcher................................................................................xxx
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Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

ABSTRACT

Broken family, a family in which one parent is absent, usually due to divorce or
desertion. The decision to separate or divorce is typically reached after years of pain and
struggle. The goal of this study is to understand and help lessen the burden of problems
encountered by Senior High School students having a broken family in Escalante City. 10
research questions were formulated to guide the study. The participants of the study
consists of 7 senior high school students from a broken family enrolled in different
schools but living in Escalante City. Through the process of purposive sampling a total
number of 7 students were selected to participate in the study because purposive
sampling is a non-probability sampling that is selected based on the characteristics of the
population and the objective of the study. The major instrument used for collecting data
was through in-depth interview, which later transcribed. The data collected were
analyzed through the use of codes, pattern, and themes. It was discovered based on the
analysis that most of the respondents encountered financial problems, desire for a
complete family, need someone to lean on, health problem, dealing with the situation,
low academic performance, giving up, and feeling isolated. Different point of view and
responds were got from selected participants. Finding companion or someone to lean on,
positivity, moving on, determination or persistence and faith in God were their ways or
styles in dealing with their situation. They lived below expectation due to lack of
security, care, and discipline. On the basis of such findings & recommendation were
made that, parents should understand the consequences of being a broken family to
children so that even they are not together, they are performing their duty as a mother or
father. The government also should have family support programs so as to keep a broken
family living and prevent the removal of children from the home. And the school
administration may engage them in awareness building activities in order to enhance their
self-discovery and to motivate them to go on their lives and to achieve their dreams.
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Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

INTRODUCTION

Family is a primary social group consisting of parents and their offspring, the

principal function is provision for its members. A broken family -- a family in which the

parents are separated or divorced -- is disruptive to your child's life no matter how

carefully you protect him. Over time, your little one will come to accept his new

"normal," but recognize that it will take time for this acceptance to happen and that

behavioral bumps will occur along the way (Seifert, 2013). The existence of a whole

family is precious and invaluable. In the Philippines, family is defined as a small unit of

society where students got their first learning about the world before they see the reality

of life (Sally, 2016) Parent serves as first teachers of their kids who will teach them

everything about all aspects of life including education and is considered as the major

inspiration and influence to student’s life (Agulana, 2009), therefore having a broken

family deeply affects the life of students. Because it can change the student’s perspective

in life that may end up in ruining their lives. Others might say that it doesn’t matter or it

don’t affect much because it is common to many people but beyond that there are a lot of

things or problems that a broken family or divorced parents may bring. The most

common problem in a broken family is the infidelity of either two parties involved or

financial problems (Lawaspect, 2013). There are many difficulties encountered by


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students especially those senior high school students while studying such as financial

constraints, drug addiction, class suspension, involvement of fraternities, hesitation in

attending classes, and depression. It is highly observed that students from a broken family

tends to be untrustful of others, they don’t get along with others (Blabla writing, 2016).

In this modern society, cases of a broken family gradually increased, most recent

statistics show that 40-50% of all marriages end in divorce (APA, 2017). The number of

registered marriages showed an erratic trend for the past 10 years. The most notable

change occurred in 2013 which recorded a decrease of 8.2% from 482,399 in 2012 to

442,603. It is also interesting to note that from that year up to 2015, the number of

marriages declined continuously. Registered marriages declined by 2.9% in 2014 and

3.6% in 2015 (PSA, 2017).

That’s why this issue or problem should be solved. If not—lessen. Because this is

not a joke. The possible solution is to influence the parents to fix their family

relationship. It can ruin any student’s life and future. So, the government should find a

way to mitigate this problem. It also depends on the parents to talk about it and what may

happen to the future of their children. Because having a broken really affects the life of

the child and most of the students who grew up having this problem becomes rebellious

and may lead to various addiction.

The goal of this study is to understand and help lessen the burden of problems

encountered by Senior High School students having a broken family in Escalante City.
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Statement of the Problem

This study explores, describes, and analyzes the difficulties encountered by Senior High

School students having a broken family in Escalante City. Specifically it aims to answer

the question:

1. What are the difficulties of having a broken family among students?

2. What are the lived experiences of Senior High school students without enough

support?

3. How does a senior high student deal with their everyday life having a broken family?

Significance of the Study

This study is conducted not only to answer the questions in the statement of the

problem but also to benefit others. The following are:

Youth/Students – specifically by those affected by broken families and everyone that

will have family soon. This study will help them understand the value of a complete

family and how to cope up when you encounter this problem.

Parents – this study will broaden the understanding of parents on and how bad childhood

or family backgrounds could affect the growth of their child. It also enlightens the minds

of the parents that having a broken family affects the performance of the child mentally

and emotionally.

Society- as the number of cases of broken family increased, this study will help lessen the

growth because the parents’ minds are enlightened and awakened by some problems that
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their child will might encounter. As a result, they will do their best to strengthen their

relationship.

Theory/Theoretical Perspective

This study is anchored on Broken Home Theory and Family Stress Theory. Both

theories provide psychological bases for both explanatory and exploratory understanding

of the study. The broken home theory has been used throughout history in American

society by numerous sociologists to explain why juveniles are delinquent. This theory has

been the most widely used and accepted explanation until recently. Karen Wilkinson,

from the University of Arizona, defines this theory as follows: The broken family is

generally considered a family structure which deviates from the ideal family structure. In

American society the ideal family structure is the Delinquency 16 two-parent (one-male,

one-female) nuclear family. In the broken family one or both parents are absent because

of death, divorce, separation or desertion. This kind of family is expected to have adverse

effects on the child because of lack of proper role models, failure to control the child and

insufficient paternal or maternal love (Wilkinson, 1974). The broken home theory is

therefore a single-parent family that is believed by early sociologists as well as the

government, to be not as effective as a two-parent family. This idea is based solely on the

structure of the family and the fact that two parents are better than one. One source that

helped encourage this view was the “child-savers” movement. Between 1630 and 1830

many delinquent children immigrated to the U.S. not as citizens but as agriculture

workers, indentured servants, and apprentices (Senna, 1994). After independence and

industrialization apprenticeships were dissolved. Children still had extremely low social

status and were treated very harshly including being punished as adults. In 1838, the State
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finally felt that they needed to intervene because causes of delinquency were seen as a

direct result of a poor home and bad parenting. The Parens Patriae doctrine was

introduced which means “the state is the father” (Senna, 1994). This doctrine recognized

children as needing intervention and guidance from the State in the form of treatment and

not criminalization. Separate courts for children were also put in place by the State.

Women played a big role in this movement because the home was their place and

therefore their responsibility to be a good parent and provide a stable home. They

recognized these miserable social conditions and fought to bring them to the public’s

attention. The “child-savers” were the first to say that children should be treated

differently than adults and made juvenile delinquency a “visible social problem”

(Wilkinson, 1974). The child savers got children out of almshouses for the poor, fought

against child labor, pushed for public education Delinquency 17 and probation as well as

adoption. Their efforts brought many issues to the public’s attention which resulted in

new beliefs and ideas about children. For example, people started seeing children as

individuals who needed protection and different treatment than adults. By seeing youth as

children whose brains were not fully developed yet techniques involved intervention and

rehabilitation instead of incarceration. Their ideas and values helped in the creation of

juvenile delinquency as well as well as the invention of many other movements. The

Women’s Rights Movement also started and showed women that they could do things

outside the home. Because of the attitudes and values at this time (1900-1932), ideas of

what was normal or right or wrong was key. For example, divorce is seen a “threat” by

mainstream society and great emphasis is put on the family. Ideological concerns were

the basis for everything and traditional views and moral standards played a huge role
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(Wilkinson, 1974). Religious beliefs were very dominant throughout U.S history.

According to Dr. Robbins, American values have in the past, included a faith in God,

prayer and the Bible, which has for a large part, been the foundation of other national

traditions, such as: honor and respect for the family, diligent work ethics, absolute values

of right and wrong, honesty in business practices, wholesomeness in leadership, respect

toward authority, moderation rather than excess, marriage as a prerequisite before having

sex or bearing children, a family which consists of both a father and mother, taking

responsibility to provide for our own — such as one’s spouse, family and children, and so

forth (Robbins, 1990). People were taught by the State as well as socialized by religious

institutions to have these values and if they weren’t followed than they were seen as

deviant, abnormal or wrong. Individuals were judged by the elite and those in power

based on these beliefs and traditions resulting in being looked down upon by the

mainstream society. Early sociologists described the family as the most important

institution because it Delinquency 18 was in control of the development of children. For

example John Bowlby (1946) claimed that coming from a broken home caused

delinquency (Sturt, 2008). Later Ivan Nye (1958), as well as Walter Reckless focused on

the family as the most important source of social control where if juveniles where lacking

one parent they were more likely to have complete freedom and participate in deviant

activities (Jensen, 2003). Because these early sociologists were from rural communities,

with very traditional values, they believed the unstable family was problematic. The

unstable family is defined as being defective and unable to provide adequate moral

training. It is often thought of as being unsafe, unpredictable and chaotic. Their views

encouraged acceptance of the broken home theory. From 1933 to 1950 was the period of
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rejection of the broken home theory. One of the reasons for this was that political and

educational institutions were taking over the role of the family. According to Karen

Wilkinson, “with other institutions gaining control over the development of children, the

family was considered less capable of influencing the behavior of it’s children and was

therefore less likely to be considered responsible for juvenile delinquency” (Wilkinson,

1974). The state and education systems took over many roles the family had previously

possessed. For example, with children educated outside the home, families were no

longer in complete control of what their children were exposed to. They are taught roles,

values, rules, and morals through the educational system which is controlled by the

government. Therefore the family could not be solely held accountable for what their

children did. The political system defines what is right or wrong in society through the

sanctioning of laws and policies which in turn controls individual actions and activities

within the family. Also, with the Delinquency 19 State taking on the role of being

children’s parents or guardians the family is at the mercy of the State to decide what’s

best for their child. No longer are children educated by their parents and in turn parents

are told how they should educate and raise their children. During this time, change was

starting to occur throughout society with divorce no longer being as big of a threat.

Women starting to get jobs outside the home and urban life changed, resulting in less

traditional ways of life with children no longer working for and getting educated by their

families (Wilkinson, 1974). The current rejection of the broken home theory is based on

the fact that the family is viewed very differently now. According to the National Center

for Juvenile Justice, 69 percent of children were living in two-parent families compared

to 88 percent in 1960 (Snyder, 2006). Most of the remaining children are in single parent
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homes but this statistic is misleading since the Census Bureau only takes into account two

parent families that are legally married. The National Center for Juvenile Justice

proceeded to explain that “the proportion of children living in single parent households

increased from 9 percent in 1920 to 27 percent in 2002” (Snyder, 2006). This shows that

family structure has been changing for a long time and single parents are becoming more

and more predominant. Since it is becoming more common in our society, it is not as

abnormal as it used to be in the past and not as detrimental to children’s lives and

development. There are different periods of time where the broken home has been used to

explain why juveniles are delinquent. This theory reflects changing cultural and

ideological biases, more so than scientific evidence. It shows that we are socialized to

accept or reject these most widely held beliefs. People are influenced by the institutions

Delinquency 20 that serve them and they in turn respond with similar ideas. The political

and educational institutions have a tremendous amount of power over our thoughts and

beliefs because we internalize the things that they tell us about our society and ourselves.

Through public education and the laws enacted by congress we are taught to abide by the

rules or else we will be punished and we learn what is to be considered normal. Normal is

getting married, having children, paying taxes and following all the rules. Times have

changed in today’s society and what was seen as normal back then is not always the case

today. Many people still have a lot of similar ideas about what is considered appropriate,

but with more and more exceptions to the rule these attitudes are changing. It becoming

more okay to be different and stand out in today’s society with single parents being

accepted into the mainstream. There is a more relaxed attitude towards the institution of

marriage than previous generation but marriage continues to be widely viewed as


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desirable when children are involved. One reason for changing views is that the definition

of a family today doesn’t fit with the traditional perception of a married couple with

children. Traditional values of a marriage union persist because a good portion of the

public doesn’t think that taxpayer should have to pay to raise someone else’s child and

that parents should take more responsibility for their children’s actions. Many studies,

which will be discussed shortly, have shown that there is little significance between the

broken family and juvenile delinquency, yet some still claim that the dysfunctional

family (i.e. broken families) plays a role. Much controversy still exists because of

religious and traditional values. By looking at some alarming statistics that show the

nature and trends of juvenile delinquency in our society today we can gain a better

understanding of these problems.

This theory recognizes that individuals act rationally and emphasizes the power of

individual’s intention to induce behavior governed by three principles: Attitudes: the

individual’s positive or negative feelings about engaging in a given behavior. Subjective

Norms: standards or influences established by the individual’s larger context, for

instance, familial beliefs, media conceptions, and societal models. Perceived Behavioral

Control: the degree to which the individual could perform a behavior. The theory is

limited to discrete sample populations and does not incorporate profiles of previous

behaviors nor does it address when positive intentions are not enough to enact behaviors

(e.g. cues of action).

If we fail to come to terms with the relationship between family structure and declining

child well-being, then it will be increasingly difficult to improve children’s life prospects,
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no matter how many new programs the government will fund. Nor will we be able to

make progress in bettering school performance or reducing crime or improving the

quality of the nation’s future work force–all domestic problems closely connected to

family breakup. Worse, we may contribute to the problem by pursuing policies that

actually increase family instability and breakup (Dan Quayle, 1993).

For McDonald (2001), acute stressors (meaning sudden onset) which when

accumulated could lead to family crises, including physical, emotional, or relational

crises. Examples of such family crises resulting from family stressors are episodes of

domestic violence, substance abuse (relapses), illness from weakened immune systems,

divorce, accidents, children being abused, or neglected, etc. This is what the Family

Stress Theory emphasized, it explores why some family systems adapt and even grow

and thrive when faced with situational stressors or transitional events, while other family

units deteriorate and disintegrate under similar circumstances (McCubbin, 1993). If a

family experiences multiple stressors, Attneave (1986) pointed out that they are socially

isolated and emotionally disconnected to one another, they are depressed, hopeless, and

disempowered, then they will be at increased risk for illness, accidents, child abuse and

neglect, and substance abuse, delinquency and school failure.

Karl Zinsmeister (1991), asserts that there is a mountain of scientific evidence

showing that when families disintegrate, children often end up with intellectual, physical

and emotional scars that persist for life i.e. the drug crisis, the education crisis, and the

problem of teen pregnancy and juvenile crime. But all these ills trace back predominantly

to one source: broken families. A broken family in this context is one that is not

structurally intact for various reasons; death of a parent, divorce, separation, dissertation
11

and illegitimacy in which case, the family was never completed (Conkline, 1996). This

analysis becomes necessary because life in a single parent family can be stressful for both

the child and the parent. Such families are faced with the challenges of diminished

financial resources (Children’s Defence Fund 1994), assumptions of new roles and

responsibilities, establishment of new patterns in intra-familial interaction and

reorganization of routines and schedules (Agulanna, 1999). When the single parent is

overburdened by responsibilities and by their own emotional reaction to their situation,

they often become irritable, impatient and insensitive to their children’s needs

(Nzewunwah, 1995). As seen, children from broken home household are disadvantaged.

Some of them do not go to school; those who do may attend low quality schools, with

low academic performance. Some of them may drop out of school prematurely, Children

from broken home academic performance are often adversely affected, and the stresses of

inadequate financial resources have adverse effect on the children in broken

home/household (Dowd, 1997; p. 59). Messiah (1983) said that some parents from

broken homes are usually found in low status jobs. This may be because they did not

have enough school preparations to equip them for high caliber jobs with which to use in

supporting their families.

Basically, the family lays the psychosocial, moral and spiritual foundations in the

overall development of the child (Agulanna, 1999). Parents and the individual’s

experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and

making the child what he is (Ajila and Olutola, 2007). Further, the home environment or

family has been recognized as having a lot of influence on the academic performance of

students (Nzewuawah 1995). And over the years, the investigations of the factors that
12

influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest and concern of

teachers, counselors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators (Wiseman

1973; Sogbetun 1981). As accounted by Ichado (1998), parent’s constant disagreement

affects children emotionally and this could lead to poor academic performance in school.

Seemingly, the school can only supplement the values and learning at home. Although

the school takes care of the academic development but it is still within the sphere of the

home environment and family dynamics where children can learn the basic knowledge

and skills to live with life effectively (Espinosa, 2007).

Kellaghan and his collegues (1993) conclude, for example, that family social

status or cultural background need not determine a child’s achievement at school. They

propose that for academic success, it is what parents do in the home, and not children’s

family background, that is significant.

Analyses of the relations between families and academic achievement also need

to consider children’s family structures, such as the influence of single-parent families

and the effect of sibling structures. It is generally acknowledged that family environment

is the most powerful influence in determining a child’s academic motivation and

achievement (Corbis, 1998).

Research that has examined relationships between changing family structures and

students’ school-related outcomes, has tended to show that in relation to two-parent

families, children in single-parent families have lower academic performance, are more

susceptible to peer pressure to engage in deviant behavior, have higher dropout rates from

high school, and have greater social and psychological problems


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Definition of Terms:

Family - is a single word, with many different meanings. People have many ways of

defining a family and what being a part of a family means to them. Families differ in

terms of economic, cultural, social, and many other facets, but what every family has in

common is that the people who call it a family are making clear that those people are

important in some way to the person calling them his family.

Broken Family- is the one that structurally intact, as a result of divorce, separation, death

of one parent and illegitimacy.

APA – American Psychological Association is the leading scientific and professional

organization representing psychology in the United States, with more than 115,700

researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students as its members.

Senior High School – An additional two years for high school students due to the K-12

program or curriculum.

Struggles- means learning and make forceful or violent efforts to get free of restraint or

constriction.

Scope and Limitation

This study primarily focuses on the difficulties encountered by senior high school

students who came from identified broken homes. The sample selection was limited to

only one city and that is the Escalante City, which reduces the generalizability of the

results. Involved as subjects and respondents of the study were 7 senior high school

students enrolled in different schools but living in Escalante City during the school year
14

2017-2018. Further research is needed to understand factors that may affect academic

performance once their family is broken.

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents the related literature and studies both local from foreign and

local sources. This also includes the ideas, finished thesis, generalization or conclusions,

methodologies, and others. Those that were included in this chapter helps in familiarizing

information that are relevant and similar to the present study.

Broken is a difficult situation to be in. Other people are only concerned about

what is happening to the parents, without knowing it has greater effects to the child, the

child ends up with the greatest amount of problems. These may not be obvious at first

they might not show up right away. Divorce may bring a lot of negative impacts to the

life of the child. It may bring negative effects on the psychological and social aspects of

child’s life (Studymode, 2013).

The U.S Center for Marriage and family released a study in November, 2005 that

shows broken family structures consistently lead to education difficulties for children.

“When it comes to educational achievement, children living with their own married

parents do significantly better than other children.” The study shows that children from

broken families have higher difficulties with all levels of education, from kindergarten to

college level. The study suggest that every year a child spend with a single parent or

stepparent will reduce the child’s overall educational attainment by approximately one-

half year (Tldm, 2005).


15

The study, a review of the academic research on the relationship of family

structure and children’s academic performance, compared children from their own

married parents to children in non-intact family structures such as divorced, single,

remarried or cohabiting parents. Family structures was always found to be a factor that

will affect the child’s behavior and directly influence the academic performance

including emotional and psychological distress, attention disorders, social misbehavior,

substance abuse, sexual activity and teen pregnancy. Those children from non-intact

homes had higher rates of stress, depression, anxiety and low self-esteem, particularly as

teenagers (Tldm, 2005).

The study found that preschool children from broken homes were three times

more likely to suffer from attention deficit disorders than other children’s they also suffer

health problems too. They also have the difficulty in reading (Tldm, 2005).

During the elementary year, children from broken homes have low reading

comprehension and math; they also have difficulty in maintaining their grade. Those

children from a complete family have less behavioural problems in classrooms than those

from broken family. Teenagers from broken home were 30% more likely to miss school,

be late, or cut class than other students. Maybe the parents of these children have

difficulty in monitoring them; their parents might be busy in other things. These children

have higher risks for smoking, using drugs and consuming alcohol (Tldm, 2005).

Teenagers from broken family were sexually active and had high rates of

pregnancy. Those girls from single-mother were at greater risk of teenage pregnancy. The

study results shows that children living with single-parent or step-parent, by the time they

reach 14, they were more likely to be arrested. Those children that never lived with their
16

own father had the highest probability of being arrested. The study reported that majority

of children from U.S will spend significant part of childhood in a one parent home by the

time they reach 18. The rate of broken homes in U.S nearly doubled in 1969-2003 (Tldm,

2005).

Most parents that are undergoing in divorce are concerned about their children’s

reaction to the divorce. They want to know if their children will grow up to be happy and

healthy. Sociologist and psychologist are beginning to provide information about the

effects of divorce on children. The research shows that the effects are depending on the

gender and age of the child during divorce. It can also be affected by the child’s

personality, amount of conflict between parents and the support from friends and family

(Extensionedu, 2014).

The research finds out that boys rose by father and girls by mothers may do better

than children raised by parent of opposite sex. Boys living with their father seem to be

less aggressive. They have less emotional problems than boys raised by mother. Girls

raised by their mother tend to be more responsible and mature than girls raised in

opposite sex. However, the children’s adjustment following a divorce has more to do

with the quality of the parent-child relationship than with the gender and age of child

(Extensionedu, 2014).

It will also maintain their trust on you. Sharing general information is appropriate.

Adolescence will want more details; you have to ensure them about the future. They

might want to know what will be their relationship to both parents. Limiting the conflict

between parents is one of the factors that will contribute to the well-being of the child.

Both parents should agree on the discipline and child rearing as well as love and approval
17

from both parents, this will contribute to the child’s sense of well-being and self-worth9

(Extensionedu, 2014).

Successful joint parenting requires communication and cooperation that is

difficult between parents who don’t get along. If there is a high between parents, joint

living arrangement may not be the best interest of the child. Parents should be involved

day-to-day in their children’s lives and letting them know that they are loved and valued.

A parent living in different state can still keep in close touch with children; they can use

letters, emails, phone calls, tape recorder messages and sharing paperwork and artwork

done in school (Extensionedu, 2014).

Foreign Studies

According to the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, teenagers that is

raised by a single-parent or in a blended family are three times more likely to seek a

psychological help within a given year.

These are some of the other outrageous statistics about the effect of divorce on children:

According to Dawson ("Family Structure and Children's Health and Well-being"

Journal of Marriage and the Family), twenty to thirty-five percent of children who are

living with both biological parents are physically healthy than those from broken homes.

Children who have divorced parents have greater possibility to experience injury, asthma,

headaches and speech defects than those children whose parents are intact.

According to Wallerstein ("The Long-Term Effects of Divorce on Children"

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1991), after six
18

years of parental marriage separation, a study of children revealed that even though many

years have passed, these children still feel "lonely, unhappy, anxious and insecure".

According to McLanahan and Sandefur ("Growing Up With a Single Parent:

What Hurts, What Helps" Harvard University Press 1994), Children who have divorced

parents are approximately two times more expected to drop out of high school than those

children whose parents are intact.

According to Angel and Worobey ("Single Motherhood and Children's Health"),

fifty percent of children with divorced parents are more probable to develop health

problems than those with intact parents.

According to Fagan, Fitzgerald and Rector ("The Effects of Divorce On

America), fifty percent of those children who are born this year with both parents, before

reaching their 18th birthday, they will experience the divorce of their parents.

Hopefully these statistics may ultimately cause you and your spouse to sincerely consider

all the cost of divorce before you make the final choice.

Based on these statistics, it becomes clear that children need secure, loving homes

with both parents. There is, of course an omission to every rule, and in this case it is

households where violence is taking place. Children should under no situation remain in a

violent ambiance that is unsafe for them.

If both of you have just "grown apart", or fell out of love and if there is no violence

enchanting place in your marriage, for your children's sake, I advise you to seek out help

for your marriage before you give up completely.


19

It has been expected in the United States today that almost half of all couples that walk

down the aisle will rashly have divorce, but how about the clause "until death do us

part?"

Over time, there have been many theories obtainable as to why divorce occurs and

why these tolls have enlarged so radically over the last 30 years. Some think that the

country may take part in a role; others suppose that the span of the courtship plays an

significant piece; cohabitation preceding to wedding "increases" the chance that

separation will result; or not cohabitating prior to marriage may add as the evolution era

is too stressful; still others think that the separation progression is too simple; if laws

were stricter and divorces were further hard to get, these divorce statistics would get

better over era. At this era, although elevated, the separation tempo has decreased to

some extent lessening the minds of the American public. There is still small hope that

these information will ever diminish completely.

In this fast paced civilization that we exist in nowadays, it must to be simple for

us, the American public, to be aware of this phenomenon. The standard "American

Family" has both parents in the place of work, financial stress, job discontent, children in

school activities and sports, "high demand" lifestyles and generally small time to center

on the family's group cohesiveness. Although Waite and Lillard (1991) viewed that

children, especially young children, present and improve marital steadiness,

environmental stressors and everyday labor are often more than a parental relationship

can endure. These "standard" stressors alone can make much chaos, turmoil and in time

lead to marital damage, argument and divorce.


20

There is a current data which supports that stress in a broken family is mostly affecting

the children. Divorce is seen, as the cause of the negative events and psychological

distress to the youths. One explanation purposed by Katherine

Effects on Adult Relationships

Many studies show that family conflict was typically a strong precursor to divorce

and lead children from divorced families to rate their relationships as having greater

family conflict. Those from intact families reported more cohesion, expressiveness,

sociability, and idealization and less conflict than those from divorced families. However,

coming from a divorced family did not affect young adults' self-esteem, fear of intimacy,

or relationship satisfaction, but it did affect fears and expectations for divorce (Kirk,

2002).

In-depth studies strongly indicate that the attitudes surrounding marriage and

success in marriage is transmitted between generations in divorced families. Men and

women from divorced families tend to score significantly lower on several measures of

psychological well-being and more likely to be divorced themselves (Franklin, Janoff-

Bulman, & Roberts; 1990). This trend has the potential to have social impact on our

culture because the evidence suggests that adult children of divorce have relationship

problems that lead to divorce in their marriages as well, which could lead to a perpetual

cycle of this phenomenon.

Perhaps the greatest problem associated with divorce is that it does appear to be a cyclical

phenomenon. An estimated 40% to 50% of children born in the U.S. in the 1980's

experienced parental divorce (Fine, Moreland, & Schwebel, 1983). Women who
21

experience parental divorce have a 60% higher divorce rate than their counterparts; while

men whose parents divorced have a 35% higher rate of divorce than men whose parents

remained married (Glen & Shelton, 1983). It seems clear that people from divorced

families are more likely to be divorced themselves and therefore convey the impression

that marital dissolution is more acceptable. Amato (1987) states that adult children of

divorce feel more pessimistic about their chances of life-long marriage and evaluate

divorce less negatively than do other young adults.

Students experiencing post-divorce conflict were more likely to have engaged in

premarital sexual intercourse, their satisfaction with their current relationship was lower,

and they showed a decline in the parent-child relationship. These adult children of

divorce also expressed more difficulty in finding people with whom they could establish

relationships (Morris & West, 2001).

Judith Wallerstein (2004) has been one of the leading researchers on the

phenomenon of divorce and its impact on adult relationships. Her 25 year longevity study

seems to strongly indicate that the attitudes surrounding marriage and success in marriage

is transmitted between generations in divorced families. Interestingly, individuals from

the Wallerstein study did not indicate feelings of fear of having successful relationships,

but felt less optimistic about their chances of having a successful marriage. This study

was one of the most in-depth studies ever conducted on adult children of divorce, and

illustrates how adult children of divorce have been impacted by the choices of their

parents.

The effect of parental divorce on young adults' romantic relationship dissolution: What

makes a difference?
22

It was proposed that parental divorce does not have a uniform effect on young

adults' romantic relationships and that differential outcomes depend on how young adults

perceive their parents' divorce. Using a sample of 571 young adults, structural equation

modeling suggested that, compared with those from intact families, young adults whose

parents divorced held a more favorable attitude toward divorce. A positive attitude

toward divorce was associated with lower commitment to their romantic relationship,

which in turn affected its dissolution. More importantly, young adults' perception of

parental divorce varied depending on interparental conflict and parents' marital quality

before the divorce. The variation in the perception of interparental divorce was linked to

relationship dissolution via attitude toward divorce and relationship commitment.

Parental marital conflict and divorce, parent-child relationships, social support, and

relationship anxiety in young adulthood.

Based on research documenting harmful long-term consequences of parental

conflict and divorce for offspring, relations between recollections of parental conflict,

parental divorce, and social outcomes in young adulthood were examined. A total sample

of 566 young adults from divorced and intact families completed measures of parental

conflict, quality of parent-adult child relationships, anxiety in relationships with others,

and perceptions of social support from others. As hypothesized, divorce and conflict had

significant independent effects on outcomes in young adulthood. Effects of conflict were

uniformly negative for quality of parent-child relationships, perceived social support

from others, and anxiety in personal relationships. Parental divorce was associated with

lower quality father-child relationships, yet divorce was associated with significant

positive outcomes for quality of mother-child relationships, social support, independence


23

facilitated by both parents, and reduced anxiety in relationships. Importantly, these

effects occurred regardless of participant sex, parental remarriage, and parental

socioeconomic status.

Parental relationships, autonomy, and identity processes of high school students

There continues to be controversy about whether adolescents' identity formation

is related to their emotional separation from their parents. According to Eriksonian and

neo-Eriksonian theory (J. E. Marcia, 1980, 1984), adolescents who are successful in

resolving their identity issues are better able to emotionally individuate from their

parents. That is, adolescents have fewer conflicts with parents as they become more

independent of them. Results of the present study indicate that adolescent perceptions of

mother's caring behavior, but not father's caring behavior, predicted higher foreclosure

identity status scores among adolescents. In addition, 2 dimensions of emotional

autonomy (i.e., perceiving parents as people and parental deidealization) best predicted

the adolescent identity statuses of moratorium and foreclosure. Results also indicate that

future research may need to establish a better theoretical conceptualization of the

constructs of interest in this study and better measures of emotional autonomy among

adolescents.

Impact of a broken family on children

"Broken" Homes: The Effect of Divorce on Children

Going through a divorce is a very difficult situation to be in. Usually it is what is

happening between the parents, that concerns most people. However hurtful divorce is on

the couple that is going through it, the children end up with the greatest amount of
24

problems. These problems that the children develop are not always obvious, and do no

always come to the surface right away.

"Most often the children responded to the announcement [of the divorce] with

apprehensiveness or anger . . . Several children panicked . . . finally, a great many of the

younger children, about one-third of the entire group, didn't really believe what they had

been told. For these youngsters, the single announcement by the parents made it easier for

them to pretend that the divorce would soon go away and to postpone their own response

to the frightening changes in their lives" (Wallerstein 40-41).

Children often try to stop the divorce of their parents, but there are many who

seem to accept it at first. These who seem to accept it may even tell their parents that they

are happy about the divorce. This is not necessarily the case, as one would see if he or she

spoke with the child for a while. There are many things that divorce does to a family, and

there are many things that is does to the child. These effects are rarely positive, or helpful

depending upon the family's prior situation. Divorce has many negative effects on the

psychological, and social aspects of a child's life.

There are many psychological aspects of a child's life that change when his or her

parents go through a divorce. As previously mentioned by the writer, a child may not

show initially how he or she feels about the divorce, but the true feelings of that child

eventually surface. Joan B. Kelly, in an article for the Journal of the American Academy

of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry says, "children incorporate repertoires of angry,

impulsive, and violent behavior into their own behavior as a result of observing their

parents' responses to frustration and rage". This is something that many children that

witness the divorce of their parents go through. The child naturally looks to his or her
25

parent or parents for the example of how to handle certain situations and emotions.

During a divorce there is much anger and aggression that is expressed by one or both

parents of that child. This is not healthy for the child to witness for several reasons. One

of the main reasons is that the child sees this example of aggression that his or her parents

are setting, and he or she begins to react in the same manner. Anger and aggression tend

to become the child's tools for solving his or her problems. The child becomes like the

parents and could cause harm to others because of not knowing or understanding how to

control these feelings. He or she may often violently lash out at those around him or her

that cause these feelings to occur.

"The severity of fighting has been documented in many studies to have a central

role. High-intensity fighting is associated with more insecure attachments and anxiety in

infants and toddlers. In older children and adolescents, severity of conflict had the largest

and most consistent impact on children's adjustment, with intense conflict leading to

more externalizing (disobedience, aggression, delingquency0 and internalizing

(depression, anxiety, poor self-esteem) symptoms in both boys and girls, compared with

children experiencing low-intensity conflict".

This leads to the next psychological effect that divorce has on children.

Depression is a major effect that divorce has on children. This is not necessarily

something that occurs during the divorce, but has major effects on the later life of the

child. "A high level of marital conflict experienced during childhood has been linked to

more depression and other psychological disorders in young adults, compared with those

reporting lower levels of family conflict during childhood" (Kelly 3). Lora Heims

Tessman, author of Children of Parting Parents says, "most of the adolescents were
26

overly depressed . . . many had conscious suicidal thoughts . . . a minority showed

increased acting out with self-destructive components, but without anxious depression"

(327). These are common psychological effects of divorce on children.

There are also many social effects that divorce has on children. The child often

feels unconnected to his or her peers. He or she feels "unable to make or maintain

friendships and complained about being 'unconnected' to [his or her] peers" (Tessman

327). Also contributing to feeling unconnected to their peers is that "in numerous studies

over the past three decades, divorced children have been reported to be more aggressive

and impulsive and to engage in more antisocial behaviors, compared with matched

samples of never-divorced children" (Kelly 6). The divorce that these children experience

causes them to act and react in ways that are not considered socially acceptable, and

distancing themselves from their peers. "Diagnostically, the adolescents varied greatly,

but did share a number of clinical features. The great majority had either lost a previous

enjoyment or learning or were, increasingly, cutting and failing classes" (Tessman 327).

The children of these divorced families have become so mixed up that they do not know

who they are any longer. Things that they once loved or enjoyed, things that they were

once interested in no longer matter to them.

Going along with socially unacceptable behaviors Kelly says that, "Divorced

children are more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana than are never-divorced

children . . . [they] are twice as likely to give birth to a child as a teenager compared with

never-divorced children" . The children that have suffered through the divorce of their

parents tend to rebel against society and the law. This is shown through the higher drug,

alcohol, and pregnancy rates of children who come from "broken" homes. "In many cases
27

in this group, one of the parent's presenting complaints about the referred adolescent who

was 'lying,' 'playing the truth,' 'untrustworthiness,' 'deviousness' etc" (Tessman 327). The

reliability of the child's word comes into question due to the child's rebellious ways. He

or she might sneak thing behind his or her parents' backs in order to commit the acts that

they are choosing to commit.

“Young adults whose parents divorced during childhood, compared with never-

divorced children, have more pregnancies outside of marriage, and earlier marriages (a

risk factor for later divorce), poorer marital relationships, increased propensity to divorce,

and poorer socioeconomic attainment" . The divorce itself has impacted the way that

young adults view their relationships. They remember how their parents handled

situations or they remember the pain of that situation and it carries over into their

relationships that they will have throughout their lives.

To conclude, divorce has many negative effects on the children that live through

them. "Broken" homes are a tough situation to deal with, that children across the United

States of America attempt to handle in very similar ways. Their reactions to the divorce

itself are similar in many ways; it affects both the psychological and social aspects of

their lives.

Local Studies

Lewis (1989) stated that dysfunctional families, because of its emotional

impact on the family and the children, may have cause “discipline problems” (p. 254)

and may later on lead to some forms of “addiction” (p. 254) and behavioral disorders

(Miller, Keitner, Whisman, Ryan, Epstein & Bishop, 1992; Reed & Solle, 1992). Miller
28

et al. (1992) studied married patients from dysfunctional families and found out

that “depressed patients from dysfunctional families also appear to have a worse

course of depression” (p. 637). This depression was related to “marital distress”,

“criticisms from spouse” (p. 637) and “family functioning” (p. 638). In addition, Reed et

al. (1992) proposed the term “conduct disordered behavior” (p. 352) and stated that

children with this kind of behavioral disorder tend to be “antisocial and socially

aggressive individuals” (p. 352). This means that children will have been the most

affected when families are dysfunctional. It was later on proposed by Association of

Schools of Public Health (1991) that “youths who are members of families that have

problems related to violence and parents’ little display of affection” (p. 251) are among

the high risk groups to commit violence. That is why it is very important to have a full

emotional support coming from the parents and the children.

Last August 2, 2012, Romeo Enriquez, the president of PPA (Philippine

Psychiatric Association), said that having a dysfunctional family is the usual problem

that Filipinos face today. There are many problems that we face, work, stress,

relationships but the family is the worse thing that a Filipino will have a problem with.

Every year, more and more Filipinos seek a doctor’s help and more mental illness are

being recorded among Filipinos. Treatment for these kinds of situation is very expensive

and therefore not everyone receives proper medication (Crisostomo, 2012).

A research was also conducted among Filipino families and our culture. In his

article, he said that Filipino families are designed to be dysfunctional for the problem

starts inside the family. Filipinos were influenced by the Spaniards, Americans and even

the Japanese, and even those bad influences, Filipinos never tried to remove it from their
29

system. False values are everywhere thus until today, dysfunctional families are growing.

In the article, some people want to break free from these traditions thus going abroad and

never go back to their motherland. Family is the most influential thing on earth. The way

we act, vote, corruption, bad behavior are all from families which reflects the family’s

state (Chino, 2011)

Conduct Disordered behaviors in children and youth has the largest group of

emotionally disturbed you and is associated with dysfunctional family environments. A

variable was looked into and it’s the predisposing family variable. Under it are Marital

Discord, Ineffective parent-child communication and Lack of Reciprocity in social

exchanges. Marital discord and parent training, problem-solving communication training

and reciprocity training, another variable is Family-Oriented Interventions. Under this are

marital discords and parent training, problem-solving communication training and

reciprocity training. A review of the familial characteristics associated with conduct

disordered youth and their parents were shown here. The family treatment strategies have

found as effective with the population are identified including variations of parent

training, problem-solving communication training, reciprocity training, and a multi-

systemic treatment approach. There has been a strong association between marital discord

and conduct problems in adolescents. Marital discord has a negative impact on children.

Conduct disordered behavior is very likely to be generated by dysfunctional patterns of

family interaction and maintained within the family system (Reed and Sollie 1992).
30

Thus, this study will show the difficulties of senior high school students from a

broken family. This includes the things they want to recommend. The articles and issue

stated above will be used as a guide in this study in order to know which should be

solved. This would also be a guide in interviewing the participants especially when doing

follow up questions.
31

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

METHODS

Presented in this section of the study are the nature of the study, the research

design of the study particularly how the participants chosen, how the sample size is

determined, the research instruments used with their underlying reliability and validation,

the data analysis and gathering procedure which includes the credibility, transferability

and dependability of the study and all the individuals involved and the ethical

consideration of the process.

Research Design

The research design employed in the study is phenomenology. Because

Phenomenology aims to describe a "lived experience" of a phenomenon. As this is a

qualitative analysis of narrative data, methods to analyze its data must be quite different

from more traditional or quantitative methods of research. (Waters, 2017). As well as the

objectives of this study which is to know the difficulties encountered by Senior high

school students having a broken family in Escalante City.

Participants of the Study

The researcher’s goal is to get 7 participants only for the in-depth interview.

Participants that have enough experiences and subjects that have encountered the same

problem or situation as what the study aims to identify. Note the study participant
32

characteristics and determine whether these characteristics are appropriate for the study

objective (Tietze K, 2012) Resolution regarding choice are based on the research

questions, theoretical perspective, and related literature.

4 Participants are currently in Senior High School and enrolled in Escalante

National High School. They belong to a lower class family with an income of ₱3000-

5000 monthly. Some of them cannot attend class regularly because of financial issues and

lack of support from parents.

Other 2 participants are presently enrolled in Sagay National High School, but

living in Escalante CIty. And 1 participant from University of St. La Salle but currently

lived in Escalante City and belongs to an Upper Class family with higher income

compare to the other participants.

Sampling Design

Purposive sampling is used in this research because it is the most accurate

approach to select the representative sample. Purposive sampling is a non-probability

sampling that is selected based on the characteristics of the population and the objective

of the study (Crossman, 2017). The main goal of purposive sampling is to focus on

particular characteristics of a population that are of interest, which will best enable you to

answer your research questions. This design helped the researcher in determining

accurate results needed to make the research succeed.

There is need to select a sample so that generalizations could be done as it is not

possible to cover all Senior High School studying in different schools but living in

Escalante City. According to Kothari (1978), the results obtained by sampling often are

almost accurate as census and sometimes even more accurate than those obtained from
33

census. He also mentioned that more detailed information can be obtained from a survey

than from a census because a sample permits more care to be taken in its execution.

Research Instrument

The research instrument used was a semi-structured interview protocol for the

reason that the researcher created an interview guideline for the participants in the in-

depth interview. Semi-structured Interviews are used to gather focused, qualitative textual

data. This method offers a balance between the flexibility of an open-ended interview and

the focus of a structured ethnographic survey. (Mccammon, 2012)

Validity and Reliability

The validity and reliability of the data gathered were established when the

researcher used an audio and video recorder to accurately register the response of the

participants. The researcher also tried to repeat asking the questions when the interviewee

failed to comprehend and would sometimes try to explain if necessary. There was also an

auditor who determined whether the data transcribed is really meant by the participants.

The data gathered were showed to the respondents to ensure accuracy. The participants

will also be asked if they have additional informations. Their corrections and adjustments

were incorporated in the data.

Data Gathering Procedure

Permission to conduct the study was secured by the researcher. The researcher

conducted an in-depth interview to facilitate comprehensive investigation to student’s

point of view and lived experiences using open and responsive approach. Interviews were

conducted with the permission of the participant and recorded by an audio-recording

device. The subject guide included the following feed to acquire participant point of
34

view and experiences: 1. How broken family affects them 2. Why having a broken

family affects their performance in school 3. What are the difficulties encountered by

students having a broken family. The following set of procedures was done by the

researcher to collect the relevant data from the participants:

1. The researcher selected participant based on the purpose of the study that was in

relevance to the inclusion criteria set by the researcher.

2. The participants who were qualified in the inclusion criteria were approached by the

researcher for an in-depth interview through informed consent.

3. An informed consent was sent to each of the participants. Informed consents states that

whatever information shared will be dealt with utmost confidentiality and will be used for

research purposes only. Moreover, it also discussed the purpose of the study and the

procedures that were used in the data collection. Five of them fulfil to the researcher’s

request. The researcher obtained a signed consent.

4. The questions were sent earlier to the participants so that they will know what to

anticipate in the interview.

5. The interviews were guided by a set of open-ended and non-directional questions to

allow the participants to elaborate on the questions asked. In qualitative studies, the

researcher was also an instrument. The interview protocol served as guide but data

gathering was largely dependent on the researcher’s skill in asking relevant and

appropriate questions probing for depth and data analysis and synthesis.

6. During the interview, the researcher used an excellent and reliable digital audio and

video recorder to supplement and enrich the data collection as well as bodily expressions,
35

obvious and subtle nuances, interaction and the atmosphere of the interview were

properly noted.

7. The researcher used engagement in the data collection. “Engagement stresses the

importance of researcher subjectivity given the tight relationship between researcher and

participant, who both functions as decision make in all the aspects of the research.”

8. The researcher prepared some snacks for the participants and thanked them for their

openness as they discuss their lived experience and for their trust.

Data gathering instruments

Web browsers

Books, magazine, and news paper

Audio recording device

Treatment of Data and Methods of Analyzing the Data

Data obtained from the field is raw and were difficult to interpret. Therefore, such

data must be analyzed to give meaning and accurate interpretations. The collected data

from field work through interviews was coded first to enable analyses.

The approach used in this study is Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. The

approach is phenomenological in that it involves detailed examination of the participant’s

lifeworld; it attempts to explore personal experience of the participants and is concerned

with an individual’s personal perception or account of an object or event, as opposed to

an attempt to produce an objective statement of the object or event itself (Osborn and

Smith, 2007). The aim of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is to explore in

detail how participants are making sense of their personal and social world.
36

The stages of data analysis in IPA were based on Smith and Osborn (2007) and they’re as

follows:

The first stage involved looking for themes in the first case. The transcript was read a

number of times; the left hand margin being used to annotate what is interesting or

significant about what the respondent said. It was completely necessary in the first stage

of the analysis to read and reread the transcript closely in order to become as familiar as

possible with the account. Each reading had the potential to throw insights. The process

continued for the whole of the first transcript. Then one returned to the beginning of the

transcript, and the other margin is used to document emerging theme titles. Here the

initial notes were transformed into concise phrases which aim to capture the essential

quality of what was found in the text. The themes moved from a response to a slightly

higher level of abstraction that involved more psychological; terminology.

The second stage was concerned with linking and connecting the themes. The emergent

themes were listed on a sheet of paper, and the researcher looked for connections

between them. So, in the initial list, the order provided is chronological – it is based on

the sequence with which came upon the transcript. Then, a more analytical or theoretical

ordering as the researcher tries to make sense of the connections between the themes

which are emerging was done. Some of the themes clustered together, and some emerged

as superordinate concepts. As the clustering other themes emerged, it was checked in the

transcript to make sure the connections work for the primary source material – the actual

words from the participant.


37

The third stage was the continuing analysis with other cases. “The stage consists further

reducing and summarizing the data by establishing connections between the preliminary

themes and clustering them appropriately. These clusters a given a descriptive label

(higher order theme title) that conveys the conceptual nature of the themes therein”

( Eatough, Smith & Shaw, 2008). Member validation or checking was done in this

study.” Member validation involves presenting the themes to the individual participants

in a follow-up interview. The aim is to allow the participants the opportunity to assess the

themes that emerged from the analyzed data and comment on the congruence of their

own feelings and results of the data” (Moodley,2009).

The fourth stage was writing up. The final section was concerned with moving from the

final themes to a write- up and final statement outlining the meanings inherent in the

participants’ experience. “The stage is concerned with translating themes into a narrative

account (Smith & Osborn, 2009). When the data has been analyzed, the summary tables

were integrated into a comprehensive list that reflects the experiences of the group in its

entirety. The table of themes was the basis for the account of the participants’ responses,

which takes the form of the narrative argument interspersed with verbatim extracts from

the transcripts to support the case.

Ethical Consideration

Broken Family is prevalent nowadays. The absence of one parent is not that easy

for the child. Being a part of a broken family affects every aspect of life. Child suffers

emotional and social problems that may lead to depression. The educational performance

of the child is also affect by this. Because of this problem the researcher wants to

discover more about this problem.


38

Participants was informed about the goal of this study and were interviewed to explore

the difficulties encountered by Senior High School students having a broken family, the

reason why they’re chosen, all risk and benefits, and they were insured that their identity

will be confidential and kept hidden. They were also informed that they have the right to

decline the participation and withdraw from the interview anytime they want. No money

given and anything that might ruin their reputation. But at the end of the interview, some

food was given in case the subject was hungry and for the appreciation of his

participation. Also to create some relationship and to know them better without any

without any recording device.


39

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents in detail the difficulties encountered by Senior High School

Students having a broken family in Escalante City. The actual conversations gathered in

the in-depth interview were made into transcribed notes and eventually provided rich

undertakings of being a member of a broken family enrolled in a formal school.

This chapter presents and discusses the main themes as it emerged from the

stories of the participants. The themes do not only represent the reality as experienced by

the participants but may have been also influenced by the researcher’s perspective. The

themes identified and explained in this chapter can consequently be identified and

explored differently by another researcher. As each participant were given the

opportunity to unfold their own story, the themes as well as focused on the unique story

of each participant as they experienced the phenomenon being a member of broken

family individually.

Participant’s difficulties having a Broken Family

Participant A

Participant A is a female and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Sagay National High School, before she was living in Escalante City but currently living
40

in Bug-ang. Her mother brought them in Bug-ang because of their situation. She is

emotional during our interview because she remembers his past experiences and it gives

her a nostalgic feeling.

Table 1.1: Emerging themes of Particpant A

Emerging Themes Participant Raw Statements


Financial Problem “Syempre budlay siya, sa financial support kag support pud
sa imo parents. For example damo ka mga projects,
balayranan sa eskwelahan, or sa needs nimo sa taga adlaw,
budlay kaayo kung wala ga support sa imo diba?”
(Ofcourse it is hard in financial support and support of the
parents. For example if there is a lot of projects, school expenses,
or your daily needs,it is really hard if no one supports you right?)
“Para sa akon budlay siya, labi na sa, for example gamata ka
kada adlaw ga hunahuna kapa ano man akon kan-on? maano
nalang ko sini?”
(For me, it’s hard especially, for example you wake up everyday
thiking about what should I eat? What should I do?)
Desire for a complete “Gusto ko mabalik ang sauna. Syempre kung completo imo
Family family, lipay2 gid daw wala gid bala kasubo, kung indi
completo imo family, for example sa Christmas, Newyear
kung indi completo imo family daw ka subo man biya nga
daw buhi man tani sila pero wala biya sila. daw patay bala.”
(Ofcourse if you have a complete family, It’s so happy and it
seems like no sadness at all. If your family is incomplete, for
example in Christmas, and New year it seems sad.)
Someone to comfort “Ang akon bestfriend, siya ang ga tabang sakon,siya akon
gina storya permi sa akon problems sa family.”
(My bestfriend helps me. I always talk to her about my problems
in family.)
Emotional and Physical “Oo, kay ano ga worry ka, for example mapuli ka sa balay,
Problem maano paman ko sa balay wala man gyapon ko kan-on? ano
akon ubrahon? kay para ka kaon ko, maka skwela ko, sa
akon allowance diin ko mangita?”
(Yes, Because you worry, for example you go home, What would I
do in our house? If I don’t have something to eat? What should I
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do? In order for me to eat, to go to school, where can I find my


allowance.)
“Of course, ga hatag gid siya stress eh kay diba ga worry ka
kung ano ang imong imo himoon sa mga ga abot na problema
sa imo kinabuhi especially sa eskwelahan”
(Ofcourse, it gives stress, because I worry about what should I do
when problems arises in life especially in school.)
“Para sa akon, oo kay kung may broken family ka permi ka
nalang waay gana magkaon kay ngaa daw ka unfair sa
kabuhi bala haw. tapos kung wala ka gana mag kaon,diba
magniwang ka, tapos wala kana gana mabuhi gusto mo na
mamatay, daw amo na siya”
(For me, yes, because if you have a broken family, you always
don’t have an appetite to eat, because it seems that life is so
unfair.)
Situation Management “Ano, padayon lang gyapon skwela biskan ano na naga
katabo, stay positive biskan budlay gid siya e face. Ara man
gid ang Ginoo para mag gabay saton ah.”
(Continue studying even if lots of things happen, stay positive,
even if it’s hard to face, God is always there to guide us)
“Uhmm, padayun lang sa kinabuhi ah, though lisud man gid
syempre kun indi kompleto ang pamilya kay wala ka kabalo
kun diin ka nga side magpanig kag kun diin ka nga side ma
upod pero eventually maanad na naman sina kay wala naman
ka maubra para mabalik pa ang imo mama kag papa so
accept nalang gid.”
(Continue to live although it is hard. Ofcourse if your family is
broken, you will be confused of choosing the side but eventually
you will get used to it because you cannot change the past. So
accept. )
“Para sa ako ano, biskan budlay nagid ang kinabuhi padayun
ka lang gyapon, ara man gyapon ang Ginoo sa imo kinabuhi,
indi man ka ya pabay-an kag sa iya man lang gid ta naga
pangayo tabang ah kung budlay nagid.”
(For me, even it is hard, life must go on, God is always there for
you. He will not leave you and He is the only one we asked for
help if life goes hard.)
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Financial Problem

As a member of a broken family, Participant A is having a difficulty in terms of

financial. Daily needs like food, school expenses, and soure of allowance are one of the

problems she face everyday and she is confused of what she will do in order to overcome

this problem.

“Syempre budlay siya, sa financial support kag support pud sa imo parents. For

example, damo ka mga projects, balayranan sa eskwelahan, or sa needs nimo sa

taga adlaw, budlay kaayo kung wala ga support sa imo diba?”

(Ofcourse it is hard in financial support and support of the parents. For example, if there

are a lot of projects, school expenses, or your daily needs, it is really hard if no one

supports you right?)

“Para sa akon budlay siya, labi na sa, for example gamata ka kada adlaw ga

hunahuna kapa ano man akon kan-on? maano nalang ko sini?”

(For me, it’s hard especially, for example you wake up everyday thiking about what

should I eat? What should I do?)

Financial constraint is one of the hindrances she encountered in everyday life and

it really affects herself and her education.

Desire for a complete Family

At her age, Participant A is having a desire for a complete family because she

stated that having a complete family is so happy. In terms of occasion and holiday it

looks like there is no sorrow if your family is complete.


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“Gusto ko mabalik ang sauna. Syempre kung completo imo family, lipay2 gid daw

wala gid bala kasubo, kung indi completo imo family, for example sa Christmas,

Newyear kung indi completo imo family daw ka subo man biya nga daw buhi man

tani sila pero wala biya sila. daw patay bala.”

(I want to return the past. Ofcourse if you have a complete family, It’s so happy and it

seems like no sadness at all. If your family is incomplete, for example in Christmas, and

New Year it seems sad.)

She wants a complete family and she consider it as a problem because some

events of her life cannot be meaningful without her entire family.

Someone to comfort

In her maturity, she needs someone to comfort her and someone to talk to. Based

on her age, she is still independent and her mental development is still young therefore it

is necessary that someone would talk to her in times of problems.

“Ang akon bestfriend, siya ang ga tabang sakon, siya akon gina storya permi sa

akon problems sa family.”

(My bestfriend helps me. I always talk to her about my problems in family.)

“ang iya man lang gin hambal sakon nga daw iya ka bala gina cheer up nga biskan

ano na ang matabo dapat kayanon ko gyapon kag hambal niya sa akon stand still

kaya mo na kag besides kun amo na matabo waay man gyapon ka mahimo so ara

na sa imong choice kung nga magpadayun gyapon”


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(She just cheering me up that what ever happens I need to be strong and stand still and

she knows that I got this and besides what ever happens I can't do a thing to change that.

I have the choice to continue.)

She also considers it as a problem because her parents are not there to comfort her

in times of struggles. She is grateful that even without her parents there is someone who

comforts her which is her bestfriend.

Emotional and Physical Problem

The emotion and physical appearance of Participant A are the signs that she is

really disturbed by her situation. She shows much emotion as she shares her experiences

in being a member of a broken family.

“Oo, kay ano ga worry ka, for example mapuli ka sa balay, maano paman ko sa

balay wala man gyapon ko kan-on? ano akon ubrahon? kay para ka kaon ko, maka

skwela ko, sa akon allowance diin ko mangita?”

(Yes, because you worry, for example you go home, what would I do in our house? If I

don’t have something to eat? What should I do? In order for me to eat, to go to school,

where can I find my allowance.)

“Of course, ga hatag gid siya stress eh kay diba ga worry ka kung ano ang imong

imo himoon sa mga ga abot na problema sa imo kinabuhi especially sa eskwelahan”

(Ofcourse, it gives stress, because I worry about what should I do when problems arises

in life especially in school.)


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“Para sa akon, oo kay kung may broken family ka permi ka nalang waay gana

magkaon kay ngaa daw ka unfair sa kabuhi bala haw. tapos kung wala ka gana mag

kaon, diba magniwang ka, tapos wala kana gana mabuhi gusto mo na mamatay,

daw amo na siya”

(For me, yes, because if you have a broken family, you always don’t have an appetite to

eat, because it seems that life is so unfair.)

Stress and fear attacks her because of her situation. It also loses her appetite to eat

when she remember it. And sometimes, it comes to her mind that she wants to die.

Situation Management

Acceptance is really hard, but Participant A overcomes this problem. Even it is

difficult, she accepts her situation and rely on God. She deals with the problems along the

road by putting all of her trust in God knowing that God will not leave her.

“Ano, padayon lang gyapon skwela biskan ano na naga katabo, stay positive biskan

budlay gid siya e face. Ara man gid ang Ginoo para mag gabay saton ah.”

(Continue studying even if lots of things happen, stay positive, even if it’s hard to face,

God is always there to guide us)

“Uhmm, padayun lang sa kinabuhi ah, though lisud man gid syempre kun indi

kompleto ang pamilya kay wala ka kabalo kun diin ka nga side magpanig kag kun

diin ka nga side ma upod pero eventually maanad na naman sina kay wala naman

ka maubra para mabalik pa ang imo mama kag papa so accept nalang gid.”
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(Continue to live although it is hard. Ofcourse if your family is broken, you will be

confused of choosing the side but eventually you will get used to it because you cannot

change the past. So accept. )

“Para sa ako ano, biskan budlay nagid ang kinabuhi padayun ka lang gyapon, ara

man gyapon ang Ginoo sa imo kinabuhi, indi man ka ya pabay-an kag sa iya man

lang gid ta naga pangayo tabang ah kung budlay nagid.”

(For me, even it is hard, life must go on, God is always there for you. He will not leave

you and He is the only one we asked for help if life goes hard.)

Although life is hard, she managed to accept her situation and get used to it because

she depends on God. She believes that all of the struggles and hardships, God will always

there to guide you.

Participant B

Participant B is a male and Senior Highschool STEM-11 studying in Sagay

National High School. He is now 16 years old and lives in Escalante city, his parents are

both supporting him but they are apart. His parents broke up when he was elementary.

Even they are a broken family, his father tries to visit them every Saturday to bond with

them and attend his duty as a father.

Table 1.2: Emerging themes of Participant B

Emerging Themes Participant Raw Statements


Seeking Attention and “Ang akong difficulties na encountered sa.. for having a
Love broken family, kuan daw kulang kayo ko sa atensyon kag love
sa akon parents”
(My difficulties encountered for having a broken family is that my
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parents don’t have much attention on me.)


Lack of Guidance and Care “Yes, because no one will guide you”
“Yes, my grandmother, she is the one who takes care of me.
But it is different if it comes from your parents.”
Wants a Complete Family “If ever, I want my parents to return. Because having a
complete family is so necessary. Especially if we have
problems, there is a parent who we can share problems with.”
Emotional Problem “Not really. However, it gives me anxiety sometimes”
“No. I made a decision in myself to keep on moving forward
not minding my situation. But when I remember my situation,
I can’t help myself to cry.”
“As I have said. I don’t mind it but I can’t deny it affects my
emotion.”
Financial Stability “Not so easy, not so hard. My parents provide my needs in
daily life even they are not together, but there are times that
they cannot provide my needs and wants.”
Self-management “I use my situation as my strength and inspiration to overcome
struggles but sometimes I loses my determination and self-
confidence.”
“Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just be calm
and God will provide everything. Just believe.”

Seeking Attention and Love

At his situation, he finds it difficult seeking attention and love to his parents

because at such a young age he already has a broken family. As a teenager and having a

fresh mind, he needs attention and love from a mother and father.

“Ang akong difficulties na encountered sa. for having a broken family, kuan daw

kulang kayo ko sa atensyon kag love sa akon parents”

(My difficulties encountered for having a broken family is that my parents don’t have

much attention on me.)


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Lack of Guidance and Care

The parents of Participant B broke up since he was elementary, it gives him a hard

time making decision and choosing a right path because his parents fail to attend their

duty to guide him.

“Yes, because no one will guide you”

“Yes, my grandmother, she is the one who takes care of me. But it is different if it

comes from your parents.”

Wants a Complete Family

When problems arise, He wants a parent to share his problems with that’s why he

said that a complete family is so necessary. If ever, he wants his family to come back.

“If ever, I want my parents to return. Because having a complete family is so

necessary. Especially if we have problems, there is a parent who we can share

problems with.”

Emotional Problem

Emotional doesn’t affects him that much and goes to live by not minding his

situation but sometimes when he recalls his situation he can’t help himself to be

emotional.

“Not really. However, it gives me anxiety sometimes”

“No. I made a decision in myself to keep on moving forward not minding my

situation. But when I remember my situation, I can’t help myself to cry.”


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“As I have said. I don’t mind it but I can’t deny it affects my emotion.”

Financial Stability

According to him, life is not so easy and hard because in financial terms the

support of his parents is equal or shall we say stable, but there are time that they fail to

provide his needs and wants in life.

“Not so easy, not so hard. My parents provide my needs in daily life even they are

not together, but there are times that they cannot provide my needs and wants.”

Self-management

Based on the raw statements, sometimes he loses his determination and self-

confidence, but he overcome his struggles by using his situation as his strength and

inspiration

“I use my situation as my strength and inspiration to overcome struggles but

sometimes I loses my determination and self-confidence.”

“Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just be calm and God will provide

everything. Just believe.”

Participant C

Participant C is a female and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Escalante National High School; she is environment friendly and loves to spend time

with nature. During the in depth-interview she is so polite and willlingly share her

experience to us. As the interview becomes sensitive she is quite serious in approaching

her answer.
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Table 1.3: Emerging themes of Participant C

Emerging Themes Participant Raw Statements


Hardships “I encountered many difficulties such as financial problems,
loneliness, lack of guidance, and depression.”
Thoughts of commiting “Honestly, It is very hard facing daily life without enough
suicide support from my parents. It also leads me to think on
committing suicide.”
Absenteeism “Yes, it really affects me. Usually I cannot attend school
regularly because it deeply affects me.”
Emotional and Physical “Yes, it also gives me anxiety.”
Effects
“Not really. But yes, it causes me insomnia because of
thinking that problem.”
Companion “Because having a broken family is so miserable. A child
from a broken family could walk to the wrong path. It is
important to have a complete family because every member
guided. Sometimes we need someone to lean on.”
“My brother helps me to ease my problems and he is the
reason why I keep on striving. And I very thankful that he
choose to stay with me even though my parents left us.”
“By determination. I am very determined to rise from
poverty considering my situation but life will be easier if
there is someone supporting you.”
Thoughts on dropping out “I keep on striving even it is hard. But sometimes I have
thoughts of stopping on my study.”
Dealing with the situation “Be stable no matter what your situation is. Every problem
has a corresponding solution.”
Hardships

According to her, she encountered many difficulties like financial constraints,

isolation, lack of guidance and depression.

“I encountered many difficulties such as financial problems, loneliness, lack of

guidance, and depression.”


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Thoughts of commiting suicide

At her situation, she frankly said that it is hard dealing with everyday life without

any aid from her parents.

“Honestly, it is very hard facing daily life without enough support from my parents.

It also leads me to think on committing suicide.”

Absenteeism

Being a part of this situation deeply affects her especially in attending school,

because she cannot attend school in a regular manner.

“Yes, it really affects me. Usually I cannot attend school regularly because it deeply

affects me.”

Emotional and Physical Effects

As she thinks on her situation, anxiety attacks her. Anxiety is a result of stress.

Because of that, it causes insomnia and she has a hard time sleeping.

“Yes, it also gives me anxiety.”

“Not really. But yes, it causes me insomnia because of thinking that problem.”

Companion

As a person, she needs someone to support or help her. Life is full of challenges

and sometimes we can gain determination from someone.


52

“Because having a broken family is so miserable. A child from a broken family

could walk to the wrong path. It is important to have a complete family because

every member is guided. Sometimes we need someone to lean on”

“My brother helps me to ease my problems and he is the reason why I keep on

striving. And I very thankful that he chooses to stay with me even though my

parents left us.”

“By determination. I am very determined to rise from poverty considering my

situation but life will be easier if there is someone supporting you.”

Thoughts on dropping out

About her education, she is striving even it is difficult but there are times that she

thinks of quitting on.

“I keep on striving even it is hard. But sometimes I have thoughts of stopping on my

study.”

Dealing with the situation

Dealing with this situation is hard but she managed to stand still by being stable

no matter what happens because she believes that every problem has a corresponding

solution.

“Be stable no matter what your situation is. Every problem has a corresponding

solution.”
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Participant D

Participant D is a female and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Escalante National High School, she is a working-student, working for her allowance in

order to attend in school. She came a bit late when we had our interview because she has

to finish her work on a boutique. Her mother went overseas and they lost their

communication after that.

Table 1.4: Emerging themes of Participant D

Emerging Themes Participant Raw Statements


Isolation “Uuuhhmm… ano Bali kanang pamatiyagan ko, na weak ko
amo na bala… Down ko permi nnaahh.. daw pamatyagan na
way man ga palanga sa akon ako lang isa.”
(Uhmmmm. I feel weak, that I’m always down, and I feel that no
one loves me.)
“Budlay kay syempre wala may gaano simo… wa may ga
guide ba simo og ano mo dapat imong himu-on, amo na wala
ka may madalaganan dali dali, kung may kinahanglan ka.”
(Hard, ofcourse because no one will guide you in what to do. And
you don’t have someone to approach in case of necessity.)
Stress “Uuuuhhmmm.. mmm… o okay di syempre daw depress ,
sobra ba ka depress? Sa ano problema sa balay tapos daw
hindi ka hindi n aka focus sa ano sa study kay utok ara lang
sa ano ga kanabang ga isip bala kung paano ba solvad ang
problema. Na amo na”
(Uuuuhhhhmmm.mmmm. Yes, ofcourse it seems so depressing
regarding the problems at home and you can’t focus on the lesson
because your thoughts are being distracted on how you solve
your problem.)
“Oo, syempre gahatag gid na stress tapos ginaubra ko lang
ngaa ano lang ang magpatatag lang eh… amo na”
(Yes, it really gives stress, what I actually do is to be strong.)
Handling the Situation “Uuuhhmm.. ano gina himo ko lang ang ngah best ko para
maka ano sa eskwelahan.”
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(Uhhhm. I always do my best to attend in school.)


“Aww… ano lang ginahimo kolang tanan na ano ma kaya ko
para ngah para ma solve siya, way lang ko gaano way lang ko
ga isip na negative.”
(I just do everything I can to solve the problem, and avoiding
negativity.)
“Indi lang e mind ang imo problems, kung may ara naman
problems maabot indi lang mag ka stress para indi malab-ot
sa malain ang imo panghunahuna.”
(Don’t mind the problems, when problems arises, get rid of stress
to avoid negativity.)
“Di man. kaya ko man. waay ko man gina pabaya-an akong
ka ugalingon. Sa pagkaon sa ano...”
(No, I can handle it, I am taking care of myself especially in
eating.)
Wishing for a Complete “Gusto ko gid magbalik ang amon pamilya. Syempre kung
Family completo imo family, okay gid tanan may ga guide sa imo,
indi mag wala imo self-confidence kay gina tudloan ka nila
kag indi kana mag duha2 na mag skwela kay ara sila mag
asikaso simo.”
(I really want my family to come back.Ofcourse if you have a
complete family, it is really fine because there is someone who
guides you, and you cannot lose your self-confidence since they
are teaching you, and you didn’t hesitate to go to school since
they take care of you.)
Someone to lean on “Uuuhhhmmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to. mga
ano siyempre best friend ko mga upod sa simbahan amo na.”
(Uihhhmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to Ofcourse my
bestfriend and my friends in church.)

Isolation

Being a product of a broken family, she feels weak, downed and unloved. She

said it was hard because no one guides and helps her. In short she is isolated.
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“Uuuhhmm… ano Bali kanang pamatiyagan ko, na weak ko amo na bala… Down

ko permi nnaahh.. daw pamatyagan na way man ga palanga sa akon ako lang isa.”

(Uhmmmm. I feel weak, that I’m always down, and I feel that no one loves me.)

“Budlay kay syempre wala may gaano simo… wa may ga guide ba simo og ano mo

dapat imong himu-on, amo na wala ka may madalaganan dali dali, kung may

kinahanglan ka.”

(Hard, ofcourse because no one will guide you in what to do. And you don’t have

someone to approach in case of necessity.)

Stress

In this kind of situation, stress also arises. Partcipant D usually feel stress and it

comes to the point that she cannot focus on her lesson. What she actually do is to be

strong.

“Uuuuhhmmm.. mmm… o okay di syempre daw depress, sobra ba ka depress? Sa

ano problema sa balay tapos daw hindi ka hindi n aka focus sa ano sa study kay

utok ara lang sa ano ga kanabang ga isip bala kung paano ba solvad ang problema.

Na amo na”

(Uuuuhhhhmmm.mmmm. Yes, ofcourse it seems so depressing regarding the problems at

home and you can’t focus on the lesson because your thoughts are being distracted on

how you solve your problem.)

“Oo, syempre gahatag gid na stress tapos ginaubra ko lang ngaa ano lang ang

magpatatag lang eh… amo na”


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(Yes, it really gives stress, what I actually do is to be strong.)

Handling the Situation

Handling this kind of situation is hard, she do all her best and everthing that she

can to avoid negativity. According to her not minding the problems is one way of

handling this situation.

“Uuuhhmm.. ano gina himo ko lang ang ngah best ko para maka ano sa

eskwelahan.”

(Uhhhm. I always do my best to attend in school.)

“Aww… ano lang ginahimo kolang tanan na ano ma kaya ko para ngah para ma

solve siya, way lang ko gaano way lang ko ga isip na negative.”

(I just do everything I can to solve the problem, and avoiding negativity.)

“Indi lang e mind ang imo problems, kung may ara naman problems maabot indi

lang mag ka stress para indi malab-ot sa malain ang imo panghunahuna.”

(Don’t mind the problems, when problems arise, get rid of stress to avoid negativity.)

“Di man. kaya ko man. waay ko man gina pabaya-an akong ka ugalingon. Sa

pagkaon sa ano...”

(No, I can handle it, I am taking care of myself especially in eating.)


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Wishing for a Complete Family

As a part of a broken family, she is wishing for a complete family. Participant D

believes that if you have a complete family everything is fine because someone is

guiding, teaching, and taking care of you. Boosting self-confidence and loses hesitation.

“Gusto ko gid magbalik ang amon pamilya. Syempre kung completo imo family,

okay gid tanan may ga guide sa imo, indi mag wala imo self-confidence kay gina

tudloan ka nila kag indi kana mag duha2 na mag skwela kay ara sila mag asikaso

simo.”

(I really want my family to come back. Ofcourse if you have a complete family, it is really

fine because there is someone who guides you, and you cannot lose your self-confidence

since they are teaching you, and you didn’t hesitate to go to school since they take care of

you.)

Someone to lean on

Participant D is seeking someone who listens her. She believed that her bestfriend

and her friends in church are the best example.

“Uuuhhhmmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to. mga ano siyempre best friend

ko mga upod sa simbahan amo na.”

(Uihhhmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to Ofcourse my bestfriend and my friends

in church.)
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Participant E

Participant E is a male and Senior Highschool ABM-11 student currently studying

in University of St. Lasalle but living in Escalante City. His parents were annulled during

his elementary years, being a part of broken family really affects him. But eventually, he

slowly accepts his parent’s situation.

Table 1.5: Emerging themes of Participant E

Emerging Theme Participant Raw Statements


Peace and agreement “Dili man kaayo lisud kay sports ug wala silay away nga
between Parents duha.”
(Not really hard because they are now okay and they don’t fight
anymore.)
“Easy because they both supporting me”
Adjustment “In my elementary days, yes, but sugod karon na realize
naku..ang rason nganung nag buwag sila.”
(In my elementary days, yes, but from now on I realized the
reason why the are separated.)
Managing Problems “A little bit by making myself strong and believing in myself.”
“By making it as my inspiration to work hard for them.”
“By having a social life and making myself happy,like playing
computer games and playing basketball.”
“hmmm…continue lang sa pagsalig kay God, indi hayaan ang
self nga maging pawala nalang kay sa ulihi ikaw lang man
japon ang mo suffer… so we must stay positive lang sa tanan
nga bagay…”
(hmm continue to trust on God, don’t let yourself become careless
because you will be the one who suffer. So we must stay positive
in all things.)
Companion “Ang akon bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are
helping me when I’m feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy
life.”
(My bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me
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when I’m feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy life.)


Completeness of a Family “Yes, Because the more complete the family is the more
happier we can.”

Peace and Agreement between Parents

Participant E wasn’t able to experience any hardships in terms of financial and

relationship of his parents because his parents are both fine and supports him.

“Dili man kaayo lisud kay sports ug wala silay away nga duha.”

(Not really hard because they are now okay and they don’t fight anymore.)

“Easy because they both supporting me”

Adjustment

When he was young, he finds it difficult in adjusting his situation. But as time

passes by and as he matures, he realized the reason why his parents broke up.

“In my elementary days, yes, but sugod karon na realize naku.ang rason nganung

nag buwag sila.”

(In my elementary days, yes, but from now on I realized the reason why the are

separated.)

Managing Problems

As Participiant E grows, he find ways to deal his situation and eventually

overcome by making hiself strong, having a social life, playing computer games, playing

basketball, and trusting in God.


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“A little bit by making myself strong and believing in myself.”

“By making it as my inspiration to work hard for them.”

“By having a social life and making myself happy, like playing computer games and

playing basketball.”

“hmmm…continue lang sa pagsalig kay God, indi hayaan ang self nga maging

pawala nalang kay sa ulihi ikaw lang man japon ang mo suffer… so we must stay

positive lang sa tanan nga bagay…”

(hmm continue to trust on God, don’t let yourself become careless because you will be

the one who suffer. So we must stay positive in all things.)

Companion

Finding a companion is hard. The bestfriends of Participant E helps him when he

is lonely and sad. His bestfriends also helps him to enjoy life. Participant’s bestfriends

makes him feel important and precious.

“Ang akon bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me when I’m

feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy life.”

(My bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me when I’m feeling lonely and

helping me to enjoy life.)

Completeness of a Family

Completeness of a Family is precious and invaluable. Participant E believed that

the more complete the family is the more happier we can.


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“Yes, Because the more complete the family is the more happier we can.”

Particiant F

Participant F is a male and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Escalante National HighSchool. He is a hard working student, actually an honor student.

He is friendly and approachable to her classmates and friends. The separation of his

parents and the death of his mother turned his life into misery.

Table 1.6: Emerging themes of Participant F

Emerging Themes Participant Raw Statements


Financial Problem “Uuhhmm… talagsa rako mo kaon, usahay walay baon og dli
naku maramdaman pagpalanga sa akoa usahay.”
(uhhhhhm.I cannot eat regularly, sometimes I don’t have
allowance, and I can’t feel being loved sometimes.)
“Hard dyud siya kay feeling naku ako ra usa og wala ko
kabalo diin ko mo adto murag wala silay plano sa akoa og
wala koy mapangayuag kwarta para makakaon ko usauhay.”
(It is hard because I feel isolated and I don’t know where to go
and it seems that they don’t have plans for me and there is no one
whom I can ask for money in order to eat.)
Low Academic Performance “Oo, maka affect dyud siya para nako kay kung naay me
project na kinahanglan kwarta usahay dli ko kapalit og
usahay ma failure na lang ko maong lisud dyud sya.”
(Yes, it really affects for me because if there is a project it
requires money and sometimes I cannot buy it. And it results of
being failure that’s why it is hard.)

Health Problem “Oo, kay ganiwang nako kay usahay ma depress ka dinaka
ganahan mo kaon dinaka ganahan matug musiga… gasiga
lang imong mata usahay dinaka ganahan maligo pero lisud
dyud sya.”
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(Yes, because I became thin and I am depress and I don’t want to


eat, and I don’t want to sleep.)
Controlling Situation “By moving straight sapat nga kung diin ko gusto mo adto
and no one can hit me.”
(By moving straight forward, enough for where I want to go and
no one can hit me.)
“ahmmm… Padayun lang sa kinabuhi, ayaw lang padala sa
imo sitwasyon, himoa ni nga strength kag inspiration para
mag success ka. Ug ayaw ni himoa sa imo anak ang imo
sitwasyon karon.”
(ahhhhhm.. Continue in life, don’t get affected by your situation.
Make this as your strength and inspiration for you to succeed.
Ang don’t do this to your future child.)
“Uuuuhhmm.. Studying hard og kung may opportunity na
makakwarta kuwaon para masupportahan ang pag skwela og
dapat dli mo quit sa life.”
(Uhhhhmm.. studying hard and if there is an opportunity for
money grab it to support education and not giving up in life.)
“Oo, pero ga too man ko og gasalig ko sa ginoo para og
tarung ko og skwela para ma succeed akong mga dreams sa
kinabuhi.”
(Yes, but I trust in God so that I can study well and to pursue my
dreams in life.)
Buddies “Oo, akong mga relatives sa akong mga tito og tita mga
classmate pud og uban ngah gina ingnan ko nila ngah dli ko
mo suko sa akong mga pangandoy sa kinabuhi.”
(Yes, my relatives especially my tito and tita, classmates and
others that motivates me not to give up on your dreams in life.)

Ambition for a Complete “Sa tinud-anay, gusto nako magbalik sila mama. Kay having
Family a complete family is fun. Gahatag sa parents sa ilang mga
children ang quality time to enjoy og ma share nila ang ubang
og ma experience sa mga bata ang mga quality and other
activities or do any just to make their children happy.”
(Honestly, I want my parents to recover. Because having a
complete family is fun. Parents gives quality time to their children
to enjoy and share their experiences. And do anything just to
make their children happy.)
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Financial Problem

As a member of a separated family, Participant F had a difficulty in eating, ,

sufficient allowance and being love. He experienced this dilemma due to his situation

and financial problems.

“Uuhhmm… talagsa rako mo kaon, usahay walay baon og dli naku maramdaman

pagpalanga sa akoa usahay.”

(uhhhhhm.I cannot eat regularly, sometimes I don’t have allowance, and I can’t feel

being loved sometimes.)

“Hard dyud siya kay feeling naku ako ra usa og wala ko kabalo diin ko mo adto

murag wala silay plano sa akoa og wala koy mapangayuag kwarta para makakaon

ko usauhay.”

(It is hard because I feel isolated and I don’t know where to go and it seems that they

don’t have plans for me and there is no one whom I can ask for money in order to eat.)

Low Academic Performance

Education is very essential for Participant F because he has a goal and objective in

life. Considering his situation it affects his academic performance. Sometimes he cannot

attend classes and can’t submit projects.

“Oo, maka affect dyud siya para nako kay kung naay me project na kinahanglan

kwarta usahay dli ko kapalit og usahay ma failure na lang ko maong lisud dyud

sya.”
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(Yes, it really affects for me because if there is a project it requires money and sometimes

I cannot buy it. And it results of being failure that’s why it is hard.)

Health Problem

Due to the position of Participant F, he experienced depression and frequently

loses his appetite. He experienced daydreaming and he doesn’t want to take a bath

because he it find problematic.

“Oo, kay ganiwang nako kay usahay ma depress ka dinaka ganahan mo kaon

dinaka ganahan matug musiga… gasiga lang imong mata usahay dinaka ganahan

maligo pero lisud dyud sya.”

(Yes, because I became thin and I am depress and I don’t want to eat, and I don’t want to

sleep.)

Controlling Situation

Participant F overcome some difficulties or struggles in life because he managed

to handle the dilemma. As stated by the Participant, moving straight forward, moving on,

pursuing education, and making the position as his strength and inspiration are the

strategy he used in dealing with the situation. He also stated that he don’t want to pass the

burden to his children.

“By moving straight sapat nga kung diin ko gusto mo adto and no one can hit me.”

(By moving straight forward, enough for where I want to go and no one can hit me.)
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“ahmmm… Padayun lang sa kinabuhi, ayaw lang padala sa imo sitwasyon, himoa

ni nga strength kag inspiration para mag success ka. Ug ayaw ni himoa sa imo anak

ang imo sitwasyon karon.”

(ahhhhhm.. Continue in life, don’t get affected by your situation. Make this as your

strength and inspiration for you to succeed. Ang don’t do this to your future child.)

“Uuuuhhmm.. Studying hard og kung may opportunity na makakwarta kuwaon

para masupportahan ang pag skwela og dapat dli mo quit sa life.” (Uhhhhmm..

studying hard and if there is an opportunity for money grab it to support education and

not giving up in life.)

“Oo, pero ga too man ko og gasalig ko sa ginoo para og tarung ko og skwela para

ma succeed akong mga dreams sa kinabuhi.”

(Yes, but I trust in God so that I can study well and to pursue my dreams in life.)

Buddies

As difficulties emerged, Participant F needs someone to talk to and to comfort.

His uncle, auntie, classmates, and others helps him to surpass this problem. They are the

ones who motivates him not to give up in life.

“Oo, akong mga relatives sa akong mga tito og tita mga classmate pud og uban ngah

gina ingnan ko nila ngah dli ko mo suko sa akong mga pangandoy sa kinabuhi.”

Ambition for a Complete Family

Being an output of a broken family, he has a dream or ambition of a complete

family. He said that having a complete family is fun because parents provide quality time
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to their children to enjoy life, share experiences, and do other activities to make their

child happy.

“Sa tinud-anay, gusto nako magbalik sila mama. Kay having a complete family is

fun. Gahatag sa parents sa ilang mga children ang quality time to enjoy og ma share

nila ang ubang og ma experience sa mga bata ang mga quality and other activities

or do any just to make their children happy.”

(Honestly, I want my parents to recover. Because having a complete family is fun.

Parents gives quality time to their children to enjoy and share their experiences. And do

anything just to make their children happy.)

Participant G

Participant G is a male and Senior Highschool GAS-11 studying in Escalante

National High School. He was a jolly person who always smiles and laughs even on

small things, but behind that jolly personality there is an emotional Participant F.

Although his parents didn’t have formal annulment but they are separated. He stays with

his mother who was unemployed and their expenses in everyday lives depends in

laundrying.

Table 1.7: Emerging theme of Participant G

Emerging Themes Participant Raw Statements


Financial problem “Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go to
school.”
Emotional problem “Hard, because sometime I feel alone and no one love me.”
“O okay permi naku makita nga mag-away sila, daw maglain
dayon akon buot.”
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(Yes, I always see them fighting and it feels bad for me.)
“Oo, kis-a waay ko gana makaon sigi lang higda.”
(Yes, sometimes I don’t have appetite to eat.)
Low Academic Performance “Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go to
school.”
“Yes, kay usahay waay ko gana mo sulod sa klase, way ko ga
pass project, assignments, kag iban pa.”
(Yes, because sometimes I don’t have the guts to go to school, I
don’t pass projects and assignments, and other matters.)
Dreaming for a Complete “I want to get my family back because important gid kay
Family bahalag pigado kamo atleast complete kamo tanan at may ga
guide man sa imo kon ano imo himuon himuon sa imo.”
(I want to get my family back because it is very important
because even if life is tough atleast you are together and there is
someone who guides you in your actions.)
Manipulating Problems “Malagaw upod sakon barkada kis-a sa akon mega para
mabuhinan man bisag kadalali akon problema.”
(I walk with my friends, sometimes with my girldfriend to forget
my problem for a while.)
“Oo, my friends kay ga advice man sila kon ano akon
himuon.”
(Yes, because my friends gives advice on what should I do.)
“Gina pilit nalang nakon na masulod klase para lang mani
japon sa akon para makita man nila nga gapaninguha ko.”
(I forced myself to attend in class because it is just for my own
good and for them to see that I am determinated.)
“Nevermind nalang ang problems , tuon nalang sa pag skwela
para makit-an man nila na gapaninguha ka, bisag amu pana
ang way na maguliay sila.”
(Don’t mind the problems, study hard, for them to see that you
are willing. Maybe it is the way.)
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Financial problem

Participant G is living with his mother. His mother is earning money by simply

accepting laundry and their whole family expenses depends on this income. Due to

limited income, he cannot attend to classes frequently.

“Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go to school.”

Emotional problem

At her age, he suffered from emotional problems. It is hard for him because he

feels alone and being unloved. Listening and seeing the exchange of arguments of his

parents really affects him, because of that it loses his appetite.

“Hard, because sometime I feel alone and no one love me.”

“O okay permi naku makita nga mag-away sila, daw maglain dayon akon buot.”

(Yes, I always see them fighting and it feels bad for me.)

“Oo, kis-a waay ko gana makaon sigi lang higda.”

(Yes, sometimes I don’t have appetite to eat.)

Low Academic Performance

Participant G believed that his setting is the reason why his academic performance

becomes low. He stated that sometimes he loses his courage in attending school. Passing

project, assignments, and other matters are also declined.

“Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go to school.”


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“Yes, kay usahay waay ko gana mo sulod sa klase, way ko ga pass project,

assignments, kag iban pa.”

(Yes, because sometimes I don’t have the guts to go to school, I don’t pass

projects and assignments, and other matters.)

Dreaming for a Complete Family

As he matures, he understands the importance of a complete family. He wants his

family back because he believes that even you are poor but if you have a complete family

there is someone guiding you.

“I want to get my family back because important gid kay bahalag pigado kamo

atleast complete kamo tanan at may ga guide man sa imo kon ano imo himuon

himuon sa imo.”

(I want to get my family back because it is very important because even if life is tough

atleast you are together and there is someone who guides you in your actions.)

Manipulating Problems

Handling this kind of situation is hard but Participant surpasses this obstacle.

Roaming around with friends and special someone, making yourself strong, and

forgetting the problem for a while are the ways he used.

“Malagaw upod sakon barkada kis-a sa akon mega para mabuhinan man bisag

kadalali akon problema.”

(I walk with my friends, sometimes with my girldfriend to forget my problem for a while.)

“Oo, my friends kay ga advice man sila kon ano akon himuon.”
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(Yes, because my friends gives advice on what should I do.)

“Gina pilit nalang nakon na masulod klase para lang mani japon sa akon para

makita man nila nga gapaninguha ko.”

(I forced myself to attend in class because it is just for my own good and for them to see

that I am determinated.)

“Nevermind nalang ang problems , tuon nalang sa pag skwela para makit-an man

nila na gapaninguha ka, bisag amu pana ang way na maguliay sila.”

(Don’t mind the problems, study hard, for them to see that you are willing. Maybe it is

the way.)
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Table 1.8: Summary of Major Themes derived from the Analysis.

Major Themes Actual Responses

Theme 1: Financial Participant A - “Syempre budlay siya, sa financial support kag


Problems support pud sa imo parents. For example damo ka mga projects,
balayranan sa eskwelahan, or sa needs nimo sa taga adlaw, budlay
kaayo kung wala ga support sa imo diba?” (Ofcourse it is hard in
financial support and support of the parents. For example if there is
a lot of projects, school expenses, or your daily needs,it is really hard
if no one supports you right?)
“Para sa akon budlay siya, labi na sa, for example gamata ka kada
adlaw ga hunahuna kapa ano man akon kan-on? maano nalang ko
sini?” (For me, it’s hard especially, for example you wake up
everyday thiking about what should I eat? What should I do?)
Participant B - “Not so easy, not so hard. My parents provide my
needs in daily life even they are not together, but there are times that
they cannot provide my needs and wants.”
Participant F - “Uuhhmm… talagsa rako mo kaon, usahay walay
baon og dli naku maramdaman pagpalanga sa akoa usahay.”
(uhhhhhm.I cannot eat regularly, sometimes I don’t have allowance,
and I can’t feel being loved sometimes.)
“Hard dyud siya kay feeling naku ako ra usa og wala ko kabalo diin
ko mo adto murag wala silay plano sa akoa og wala koy
mapangayuag kwarta para makakaon ko usauhay.” (It is hard
because I feel isolated and I don’t know where to go and it seems that
they don’t have plans for me and there is no one whom I can ask for
money in order to eat.)
Paricipant G - “Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go
to school.”
Theme 2: Desire for a Participant A - “Gusto ko mabalik ang sauna. Syempre kung
Complete Family completo imo family, lipay2 gid daw wala gid bala kasubo, kung indi
completo imo family, for example sa Christmas, Newyear kung indi
completo imo family daw ka subo man biya nga daw buhi man tani
sila pero wala biya sila. daw patay bala.” (Ofcourse if you have a
complete family, It’s so happy and it seems like no sadness at all. If
your family is incomplete, for example in Christmas, and New year it
seems sad.)
Participant B - “If ever, I want my parents to return. Because having
a complete family is so necessary. Especially if we have problems,
there is a parent who we can share problems with.”
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Pariticipant D - “Gusto ko gid magbalik ang amon pamilya.


Syempre kung completo imo family, okay gid tanan may ga guide sa
imo, indi mag wala imo self-confidence kay gina tudloan ka nila kag
indi kana mag duha2 na mag skwela kay ara sila mag asikaso simo.”
(I really want my family to come back.Ofcourse if you have a
complete family, it is really fine because there is someone who guides
you, and you cannot lose your self-confidence since they are teaching
you, and you didn’t hesitate to go to school since they take care of
you.)
Participant E - “Yes, Because the more complete the family is the
more happier we can.”
Participant F - “Sa tinud-anay, gusto nako magbalik sila mama. Kay
having a complete family is fun. Gahatag sa parents sa ilang mga
children ang quality time to enjoy og ma share nila ang ubang og ma
experience sa mga bata ang mga quality and other activities or do any
just to make their children happy.”
(Honestly, I want my parents to recover. Because having a complete
family is fun. Parents gives quality time to their children to enjoy and
share their experiences. And do anything just to make their children
happy.)
Participant G - “I want to get my family back because important
gid kay bahalag pigado kamo atleast complete kamo tanan at may ga
guide man sa imo kon ano imo himuon himuon sa imo.” (I want to
get my family back because it is very important because even if life is
tough atleast you are together and there is someone who guides you
in your actions.)
Theme 3: Companion or Participant A - “Ang akon bestfriend, siya ang ga tabang sakon,siya
Someone to comfort akon gina storya permi sa akon problems sa family.” (My bestfriend
helps me. I always talk to her about my problems in family.)
Participant C - “Because having a broken family is so miserable. A
child from a broken family could walk to the wrong path. It is
important to have a complete family because every member guided.
Sometimes we need someone to lean on.”
“My brother helps me to ease my problems and he is the reason why
I keep on striving. And I very thankful that he choose to stay with me
even though my parents left us.”
“By determination. I am very determined to rise from poverty
considering my situation but life will be easier if there is someone
supporting you.”
Participant D-“Uuuhhhmmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to.
mga ano siyempre best friend ko mga upod sa simbahan amo na.”
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(Uihhhmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to Ofcourse my


bestfriend and my friends in church.)
Participant E - “Ang akon bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they
are helping me when I’m feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy
life.” (My bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me
when I’m feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy life.)
Participant F - “Oo, akong mga relatives sa akong mga tito og tita
mga classmate pud og uban ngah gina ingnan ko nila ngah dli ko mo
suko sa akong mga pangandoy sa kinabuhi.”
(Yes, my relatives especially my tito and tita, classmates and others
that motivates me not to give up on your dreams in life.)
Theme 4: Health Problems Participant A - “Oo, kay ano ga worry ka, for example mapuli ka sa
balay, maano paman ko sa balay wala man gyapon ko kan-on? ano
akon ubrahon? kay para ka kaon ko, maka skwela ko, sa akon
allowance diin ko mangita?” (Yes, Because you worry, for example
you go home, What would I do in our house? If I don’t have
something to eat? What should I do? In order for me to eat, to go to
school, where can I find my allowance.)
“Of course, ga hatag gid siya stress eh kay diba ga worry ka kung ano
ang imong imo himoon sa mga ga abot na problema sa imo kinabuhi
especially sa eskwelahan” (Ofcourse, it gives stress, because I worry
about what should I do when problems arises in life especially in
school.)
“Para sa akon, oo kay kung may broken family ka permi ka nalang
waay gana magkaon kay ngaa daw ka unfair sa kabuhi bala haw.
tapos kung wala ka gana mag kaon,diba magniwang ka, tapos wala
kana gana mabuhi gusto mo na mamatay, daw amo na siya”
(For me, yes, because if you have a broken family, you always don’t
have an appetite to eat, because it seems that life is so unfair.)
Participant B - “Not really. However, it gives me anxiety
sometimes”
“No. I made a decision in myself to keep on moving forward not
minding my situation. But when I remember my situation, I can’t
help myself to cry.”
“As I have said. I don’t mind it but I can’t deny it affects my
emotion.”
Participant C- “Yes, it also gives me anxiety.” “Not really. But yes,
it causes me insomnia because of thinking that problem.”
Participant D - “Uuuuhhmmm.. mmm… o okay di syempre daw
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depress , sobra ba ka depress? Sa ano problema sa balay tapos daw


hindi ka hindi n aka focus sa ano sa study kay utok ara lang sa ano ga
kanabang ga isip bala kung paano ba solvad ang problema. Na amo
na”
(Uuuuhhhhmmm.mmmm. Yes, ofcourse it seems so depressing
regarding the problems at home and you can’t focus on the lesson
because your thoughts are being distracted on how you solve your
problem.)
“Oo, syempre gahatag gid na stress tapos ginaubra ko lang ngaa ano
lang ang magpatatag lang eh… amo na”
(Yes, it really gives stress, what I actually do is to be strong.)
Participant F - “Oo, kay ganiwang nako kay usahay ma depress ka
dinaka ganahan mo kaon dinaka ganahan matug musiga… gasiga
lang imong mata usahay dinaka ganahan maligo pero lisud dyud
sya.”
(Yes, because I became thin and I am depress and I don’t want to eat,
and I don’t want to sleep.)
Participant G - “Hard, because sometime I feel alone and no one
love me.”
“O okay permi naku makita nga mag-away sila, daw maglain dayon
akon buot.”
(Yes, I always see them fighting and it feels bad for me.)
“Oo, kis-a waay ko gana makaon sigi lang higda.”
(Yes, sometimes I don’t have appetite to eat.)
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Theme 5: Dealing with the Participant A - “Ano, padayon lang gyapon skwela biskan ano na
Situation naga katabo, stay positive biskan budlay gid siya e face. Ara man gid
ang Ginoo para mag gabay saton ah.”(Continue studying even if lots
of things happen, stay positive, even if it’s hard to face, God is
always there to guide us)
“Uhmm, padayun lang sa kinabuhi ah, though lisud man gid syempre
kun indi kompleto ang pamilya kay wala ka kabalo kun diin ka nga
side magpanig kag kun diin ka nga side ma upod pero eventually
maanad na naman sina kay wala naman ka maubra para mabalik pa
ang imo mama kag papa so accept nalang gid.” (Continue to live
although it is hard. Ofcourse if your family is broken, you will be
confused of choosing the side but eventually you will get used to it
because you cannot change the past. So accept. )
“Para sa ako ano, biskan budlay nagid ang kinabuhi padayun ka lang
gyapon, ara man gyapon ang Ginoo sa imo kinabuhi, indi man ka ya
pabay-an kag sa iya man lang gid ta naga pangayo tabang ah kung
budlay nagid.” (For me, even it is hard, life must go on, God is
always there for you. He will not leave you and He is the only one we
asked for help if life goes hard.)
Participant B – “Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just
be calm and God will provide everything. Just believe.”
Participant C - “Be stable no matter what your situation is. Every
problem has a corresponding solution.”
Participant D - “Uuuhhmm.. ano gina himo ko lang ang ngah best
ko para maka ano sa eskwelahan.” (Uhhhm. I always do my best to
attend in school.)
“Aww… ano lang ginahimo kolang tanan na ano ma kaya ko para
ngah para ma solve siya, way lang ko gaano way lang ko ga isip na
negative.” (I just do everything I can to solve the problem, and
avoiding negativity.)
“Indi lang e mind ang imo problems, kung may ara naman problems
maabot indi lang mag ka stress para indi malab-ot sa malain ang imo
panghunahuna.” (Don’t mind the problems, when problems arises,
get rid of stress to avoid negativity.)
“Di man. kaya ko man. waay ko man gina pabaya-an akong ka
ugalingon. Sa pagkaon sa ano...” (No, I can handle it, I am taking
care of myself especially in eating.)
Participant E - “A little bit by making myself strong and believing
in myself.”
“By making it as my inspiration to work hard for them.”
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“By having a social life and making myself happy,like playing


computer games and playing basketball.”
“hmmm…continue lang sa pagsalig kay God, indi hayaan ang self
nga maging pawala nalang kay sa ulihi ikaw lang man japon ang mo
suffer… so we must stay positive lang sa tanan nga bagay…” (hmm
continue to trust on God, don’t let yourself become careless because
you will be the one who suffer. So we must stay positive in all things.)
Participant F - “By moving straight sapat nga kung diin ko gusto mo
adto and no one can hit me.” (By moving straight forward, enough
for where I want to go and no one can hit me.)
“ahmmm… Padayun lang sa kinabuhi, ayaw lang padala sa imo
sitwasyon, himoa ni nga strength kag inspiration para mag success
ka. Ug ayaw ni himoa sa imo anak ang imo sitwasyon karon.”
(ahhhhhm.. Continue in life, don’t get affected by your situation.
Make this as your strength and inspiration for you to succeed. Ang
don’t do this to your future child.)
“Uuuuhhmm.. Studying hard og kung may opportunity na
makakwarta kuwaon para masupportahan ang pag skwela og dapat
dli mo quit sa life.” (Uhhhhmm.. studying hard and if there is an
opportunity for money grab it to support education and not giving up
in life.)
Participant G - “Malagaw upod sakon barkada kis-a sa akon mega
para mabuhinan man bisag kadalali akon problema.” (I walk with my
friends, sometimes with my girldfriend to forget my problem for a
while.)
“Oo, my friends kay ga advice man sila kon ano akon himuon.” (Yes,
because my friends gives advice on what should I do.)
“Gina pilit nalang nakon na masulod klase para lang mani japon sa
akon para makita man nila nga gapaninguha ko.” (I forced myself to
attend in class because it is just for my own good and for them to see
that I am determinated.)
“Nevermind nalang ang problems , tuon nalang sa pag skwela para
makit-an man nila na gapaninguha ka, bisag amu pana ang way na
maguliay sila.”
(Don’t mind the problems, study hard, for them to see that you are
willing. Maybe it is the way.)
Theme 6:Low Academic Participant C - “Yes, it really affects me. Usually I cannot attend
Performance school regularly because it deeply affects me.”
“I keep on striving even it is hard. But sometimes I have thoughts of
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stopping on my study.”
Participant F- “Oo, maka affect dyud siya para nako kay kung naay
me project na kinahanglan kwarta usahay dli ko kapalit og usahay ma
failure na lang ko maong lisud dyud sya.” (Yes, it really affects for
me because if there is a project it requires money and sometimes I
cannot buy it. And it results of being failure that’s why it is hard.)
“Oo, pero ga too man ko og gasalig ko sa ginoo para og tarung ko og
skwela para ma succeed akong mga dreams sa kinabuhi.” (Yes, but I
trust in God so that I can study well and to pursue my dreams in life.)
Participant G - “Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go
to school.”
“Yes, kay usahay waay ko gana mo sulod sa klase, way ko ga pass
project, assignments, kag iban pa.”
(Yes, because sometimes I don’t have the guts to go to school, I don’t
pass projects and assignments, and other matters.)
Theme 7: Giving up Participant B – “Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just
be calm and God will provide everything. Just believe.”
Participant C - “Honestly, It is very hard facing daily life without
enough support from my parents. It also leads me to think on
committing suicide.”
Theme 8: Isolation Participant C - “I encountered many difficulties such as financial
problems, loneliness, lack of guidance, and depression.”
Participant D - “Uuuhhmm… ano Bali kanang pamatiyagan ko, na
weak ko amo na bala… Down ko permi nnaahh.. daw pamatyagan na
way man ga palanga sa akon ako lang isa.” (Uhmmmm. I feel weak,
that I’m always down, and I feel that no one loves me.)
“Budlay kay syempre wala may gaano simo… wa may ga guide ba
simo og ano mo dapat imong himu-on, amo na wala ka may
madalaganan dali dali, kung may kinahanglan ka.” (Hard, ofcourse
because no one will guide you in what to do. And you don’t have
someone to approach in case of necessity.)
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THEMATIC ANALYSIS

Theme 1: Financial Problem

According to “Culture of Poverty Theory” popularized by Oscar Lewis and “The

Moynihan Report” (History Learning Site.co.uk, 2011) which holds that the people in the

culture of poverty have a strong feeling of marginality, of helplessness, of dependency, of

not belonging. They are like aliens in their own country, convinced that the existing

institutions do not serve their needs. Along with this feeling of powerlessness is a

widespread feeling of inferiority, of personal unworthiness. Divorce is one of the

important pathways into poverty and social exclusion. Although countries differ

somewhat, lone-parent families are generally more likely to be in poverty than two-parent

families (e.g., Whiteford and Adema, 2007).

Just like Participant A, B, F, and G, poverty or financial problem has become one

of the reasons why they cannot attend school regularly and cannot eat regulary.

For Participant A, she finds her situation hard because of low financial support.

Her needs including foods, school projects, and school expenses are extremely affected.

“Syempre budlay siya, sa financial support kag support pud sa imo parents. For

example, damo ka mga projects, balayranan sa eskwelahan, or sa needs nimo sa taga

adlaw, budlay kaayo kung wala ga support sa imo diba?” (Ofcourse it is hard in financial

support and support of the parents. For example, if there is a lot of projects, school

expenses, or your daily needs, it is really hard if no one supports you right?)

For Participant B, His parents are supporting him even they are divorced. But

there are times that his parents fail to provide his needs. In short his parent’s financial
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support is not stable. “Not so easy, not so hard. My parents provide my needs in daily life

even they are not together, but there are times that they cannot provide my needs and

wants.”

Participant F, due to financial problems, he cannot eat regularly. Sometimes he

doesn’t have allowance to go to school. “Uuhhmm… talagsa rako mo kaon, usahay

walay baon og dli naku maramdaman pagpalanga sa akoa usahay.” (uhhhhhm. I cannot

eat regularly, sometimes I don’t have allowance, and I can’t feel being loved sometimes.)

For Participant G, his answer is brief. He said that because of financial problmens,

he cannot attend to school frequently. “Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go

to school.”

As a researcher, I also experienced financial problems. I am also a student and I

also have a lot of things to be accomplished, a lot of school needs to be supported and a

lot of requirements in school that needs to be done. Photocopying notes from different

subjects, book binding for research, research for answering assignments and activities,

payment in school activities and events and etc. Also because I have other siblings that

my parents need to support. I agree with the participants that when you’re still studying,

financial would be your major problem.

Theme 2: Desire for a Complete Family

The family systems theory is a theory introduced by Dr. Murray Bowen that

suggests that individuals cannot be understood in isolation from one another, but rather as

a part of their family, as the family is an emotional unit. Families are systems of
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interconnected and interdependent individuals, none of whom can be understood in

isolation from the system.

According to Bowen, a family is a system in which each member had a role to

play and rules to respect. Members of the system are expected to respond to each other in

a certain way according to their role, which is determined by relationship agreements.

Within the boundaries of the system, patterns develop as certain family member's

behavior is caused by and causes other family member's behaviors in predictable ways.

Maintaining the same pattern of behaviors within a system may lead to balance in the

family system, but also to dysfunction. For example, if a husband is depressive and

cannot pull himself together, the wife may need to take up more responsibilities to pick

up the slack. The change in roles may maintain the stability in the relationship, but it may

also push the family towards a different equilibrium. This new equilibrium may lead to

dysfunction as the wife may not be able to maintain this overachieving role over a long

period of time.

At the age of Participant, A, B, D, E, F, and G, they are still independent and

wants a complete family. Because according to them, having a complete family is fun and

a complete family contains, parent’s guidance, parent’s comfort, parent’s advice, and

parent’s presence in every significant event of their lives.

For Particpant A, she wants her family to be complete again because it is hard and

sad. According to her, if you have a complete family it is so happy and it seems there is

no trace of sadness. And it brings happiness in every significant events of your life.

“Gusto ko mabalik ang sauna. Syempre kung completo imo family, lipay2 gid daw wala

gid bala kasubo, kung indi completo imo family, for example sa Christmas, Newyear
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kung indi completo imo family daw ka subo man biya nga daw buhi man tani sila pero

wala biya sila. daw patay bala.” (Ofcourse if you have a complete family, It’s so happy

and it seems like no sadness at all. If your family is incomplete, for example in

Christmas, and New year it seems sad.)

For Participant B, he wants his parents to return because for him having a

complete family is important. In terms of problems, there is a father and mother who you

can share your problems. “If ever, I want my parents to return. Because having a

complete family is so necessary. Especially if we have problems, there is a parent who we

can share problems with.”

For Participant D, she wishes for her family to recover because there is someone

that guides her, and teaches her. It also boosts her self-confidence. “Gusto ko gid

magbalik ang amon pamilya. Syempre kung completo imo family, okay gid tanan may ga

guide sa imo, indi mag wala imo self-confidence kay gina tudloan ka nila kag indi kana

mag duha2 na mag skwela kay ara sila mag asikaso simo.” (I really want my family to

come back. Ofcourse if you have a complete family, it is really fine because there is

someone who guides you, and you cannot lose your self-confidence since they are

teaching you, and you didn’t hesitate to go to school since they take care of you.)

For Participant E, his answer is short. He wants a complete family because it is

simply happy. “Yes, Because the more complete the family is the more happier we can.”

For Participant F, he frankly said that he wants her mother and father back.

Because they give quality time and happiness to him. “Sa tinud-anay, gusto nako

magbalik sila mama. Kay having a complete family is fun. Gahatag sa parents sa ilang
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mga children ang quality time to enjoy og ma share nila ang ubang og ma experience sa

mga bata ang mga quality and other activities or do any just to make their children

happy.” (Honestly, I want my parents to recover. Because having a complete family is

fun. Parents gives quality time to their children to enjoy and share their experiences. And

do anything just to make their children happy.)

For Participant G, he wants his family back because it is important and even they

are poor atleast they are complete. “I want to get my family back because important gid

kay bahalag pigado kamo atleast complete kamo tanan at may ga guide man sa imo kon

ano imo himuon himuon sa imo.” (I want to get my family back because it is very

important because even if life is tough atleast you are together and there is someone who

guides you in your actions.)

As a researcher, I also encounter that problem. Although I do have a complete

family but sometimes, it feels like having no family at all. My father works abroad and I

barely see my mother because she always go to our computer shop to manage it well and

to assure that we have enough profit. Likewise, my two brothers always hang out with

their friends and go home very late. That’s why I always feel alone and lonely. I

sometimes wish I could turn back time.

Theme 3: Companion or someone to comfort

According to “Ring Theory” When there's a critical sickness or death in your

social circle, emotions necessarily run high and it needs someone to comfort to. Using the

Ring Theory can help determine who to comfort and who to vent to. It’s a theory to help
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you know what to do in a crisis. If the crisis is happening to you, you’re in the center of

the ring. If the crisis is not happening to you, you’re in one of the outer circles.

Being a member of a broken family, facing daily life has become a great

challenge to them. When there are a lot of circumstances along the road they need

someone to talk to and to comfort to.

For Participant A, her bestfriend is the only one who helps her in terms of her

problems about her family. “Ang akon bestfriend, siya ang ga tabang sakon, siya akon

gina storya permi sa akon problems sa family.” (My bestfriend helps me. I always talk to

her about my problems in family.)

For Participant C, she believed that having a broken family is miserable, and a

child could walk to the wrong path, because of that he said that he needs someone to lean

on sometimes. “Because having a broken family is so miserable. A child from a broken

family could walk to the wrong path. It is important to have a complete family because

every member guided. Sometimes we need someone to lean on.” “My brother helps me to

ease my problems and he is the reason why I keep on striving. And I very thankful that he

chooses to stay with me even though my parents left us.”

For Participant D, she admitted that she needs someone to talk with her problems

and it is her bestfriend and her friends in church. “Uuuhhhmmm.. Sometimes I need

someone to talk to. mga ano siyempre best friend ko mga upod sa simbahan amo na.”

(Uihhhmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to Ofcourse my bestfriend and my friends

in church.)
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For Participant E, being a member of a broken family is lonely. Despite of that, he

is thankful that there is someone helping him to enjoy life. “Ang akon bestfriends Arn,

Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me when I’m feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy

life.” (My bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me when I’m feeling

lonely and helping me to enjoy life.)

For Participant F, being in this kind of situation is hard and sometimes thoughts of

giving up appear. He is lucky because there are some people who helps and motivates

him to continue living his life. “Oo, akong mga relatives sa akong mga tito og tita mga

classmate pud og uban ngah gina ingnan ko nila ngah dli ko mo suko sa akong mga

pangandoy sa kinabuhi.” (Yes, my relatives especially my tito and tita, classmates and

others that motivates me not to give up on your dreams in life.)

Theme 4: Health Problems

According to Babygaga.com, kids get affected by broken family the most, more

than the bickering adults and feuding families. Even if the separation is pretty amicable,

the kid’s going to be feeling things – especially if the child is young – that may not be

immediately evident. Some feelings fester and then manifest in different ways – negative

ways.

Just like our Participants, being a member from a broken home affects their

health. Depression, loneliness, stress, anxiety, insomnia, and loss of appetite are the

health problems they usually encountered.

For Participant A, her situation gives her stress for the reason that she worry about

her daily allowance, and food. “Oo, kay ano ga worry ka, for example mapuli ka sa

balay, maano paman ko sa balay wala man gyapon ko kan-on? ano akon ubrahon? kay
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para ka kaon ko, maka skwela ko, sa akon allowance diin ko mangita?” (Yes, because

you worry, for example you go home, what would I do in our house? If I don’t have

something to eat? What should I do? In order for me to eat, to go to school, where can I

find my allowance.) “Of course, ga hatag gid siya stress eh kay diba ga worry ka kung

ano ang imong imo himoon sa mga ga abot na problema sa imo kinabuhi especially sa

eskwelahan” (Ofcourse, it gives stress, because I worry about what should I do when

problems arise in life especially in school.) “Para sa akon, oo kay kung may broken

family ka permi ka nalang waay gana magkaon kay ngaa daw ka unfair sa kabuhi bala

haw. tapos kung wala ka gana mag kaon, diba magniwang ka, tapos wala kana gana

mabuhi gusto mo na mamatay, daw amo na siya” (For me, yes, because if you have a

broken family, you always don’t have an appetite to eat, because it seems that life is so

unfair.)

For Participant B, he was not affected physically but he can’t deny that his

position gives him emotional problems. “Not really. However, it gives me anxiety

sometimes” “No. I made a decision in myself to keep on moving forward not minding my

situation. But when I remember my situation, I can’t help myself to cry.” “As I have said.

I don’t mind it but I can’t deny it affects my emotion.”

For Participant C, she is experiencing anxiety and thinking of the problem causes

her insomnia. “Yes, it also gives me anxiety.” “Not really. But yes, it causes me insomnia

because of thinking that problem.”

For Participant D, regarding her situation, she can’t focus on her study because

she finds it so depressing. “Uuuuhhmmm.. mmm… o okay di syempre daw depress, sobra

ba ka depress? Sa ano problema sa balay tapos daw hindi ka hindi n aka focus sa ano sa
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study kay utok ara lang sa ano ga kanabang ga isip bala kung paano ba solvad ang

problema. Na amo na” (Uuuuhhhhmmm.mmmm. Yes, ofcourse it seems so depressing

regarding the problems at home and you can’t focus on the lesson because your thoughts

are being distracted on how you solve your problem.) “Oo, syempre gahatag gid na

stress tapos ginaubra ko lang ngaa ano lang ang magpatatag lang eh… amo na” (Yes, it

really gives stress, what I actually do is to be strong.)

For Participant F, as a result of depression, loss of appetite and insomnia occurs in

him and because of that he became skinny. “Oo, kay ganiwang nako kay usahay ma

depress ka dinaka ganahan mo kaon dinaka ganahan matug musiga… gasiga lang imong

mata usahay dinaka ganahan maligo pero lisud dyud sya.” (Yes, because I became thin

and I am depress and I don’t want to eat, and I don’t want to sleep.)

For Participant G, being on his situation was hard. Loneliness and not eating

frequently are the results that he experienced because of having a broken family. “Hard,

because sometime I feel alone and no one love me.” “O okay permi naku makita nga

mag-away sila, daw maglain dayon akon buot.” (Yes, I always see them fighting and it

feels bad for me.) “Oo, kis-a waay ko gana makaon sigi lang higda.” (Yes, sometimes I

don’t have appetite to eat.)

As a researcher, I do experience stress because of the pressure of school. As a

result, I feel so depress and exhausted. Thus, I need companion or someone to comfort

me whenever I’m feeling down. Having no someone to share your problems is definitely

depressing, you tend to become paranoid and isolate yourself because you no longer

know what to do with your problems or with your life. That’s why I agree with the

participants.
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Theme 5: Dealing with the Situation

The Self Care Theory by Dorothea E. Orem. When individuals and families self-

manage they control and are responsible for management of chronic conditions or healthy

behaviors by purposefully engaging in performance of learned behaviors. Unlike

focusing on performance of daily activities or engaging in behaviors independent of the

traditional health care system, SM involves knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills

and abilities, and social facilitation to manage chronic conditions or engage in healthy

behaviors.

Being from a broken home is actually tough, and dealing with the situation is

challenging, the participants shared their ways on how difficult their life is and how they

deal with this problems considering their situation.

For Participant A, being on her situation is hard. She kept on moving forward no

matter what happens. Staying positive and trusting God are also the ways she used to

handle the situation. “Ano, padayon lang gyapon skwela biskan ano na naga katabo, stay

positive biskan budlay gid siya e face. Ara man gid ang Ginoo para mag gabay saton ah.”

(Continue studying even if lots of things happen, stay positive, even if it’s hard to face,

God is always there to guide us) “Uhmm, padayun lang sa kinabuhi ah, though lisud man

gid syempre kun indi kompleto ang pamilya kay wala ka kabalo kun diin ka nga side

magpanig kag kun diin ka nga side ma upod pero eventually maanad na naman sina kay

wala naman ka maubra para mabalik pa ang imo mama kag papa so accept nalang gid.”

(Continue to live although it is hard. Ofcourse if your family is broken, you will be

confused of choosing the side but eventually you will get used to it because you cannot

change the past. So accept. ) “Para sa ako ano, biskan budlay nagid ang kinabuhi
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padayun ka lang gyapon, ara man gyapon ang Ginoo sa imo kinabuhi, indi man ka ya

pabay-an kag sa iya man lang gid ta naga pangayo tabang ah kung budlay nagid.” (For

me, even it is hard, life must go on, God is always there for you. He will not leave you

and He is the only one we asked for help if life goes hard.)

For Participant B, Thoughts of giving up appears to his mind but he said be calm

and believe God. “Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just be calm and God

will provide everything. Just believe.”

For Participant C, at her age, dealing with her situation is tough. Being stable

despite her position is the solution he made to solve his problems. And he believed that

every problem has a corresponding solution. “Be stable no matter what your situation is.

Every problem has a corresponding solution.”

For Participant D, not minding the situation and avoiding negative thoughts is the

action she used to overcome problems. She also overcome problems by doing everything

she can. “Uuuhhmm.. ano gina himo ko lang ang ngah best ko para maka ano sa

eskwelahan.” (Uhhhm. I always do my best to attend in school.) “Aww… ano lang

ginahimo kolang tanan na ano ma kaya ko para ngah para ma solve siya, way lang ko

gaano way lang ko ga isip na negative.” (I just do everything I can to solve the problem,

and avoiding negativity.) “Indi lang e mind ang imo problems, kung may ara naman

problems maabot indi lang mag ka stress para indi malab-ot sa malain ang imo

panghunahuna.” (Don’t mind the problems, when problems arise, get rid of stress to

avoid negativity.) “Di man. kaya ko man. waay ko man gina pabaya-an akong ka

ugalingon. Sa pagkaon sa ano...” (No, I can handle it, I am taking care of myself

especially in eating.)
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For Participant E, living life is challenging, making himself strong and believing

in himself are the styles he made regarding his position. Having social life, playing

sports, and trusting God are also the ways he used. “A little bit by making myself strong

and believing in myself.” “By making it as my inspiration to work hard for them.” “By

having a social life and making myself happy, like playing computer games and playing

basketball.” “hmmm…continue lang sa pagsalig kay God, indi hayaan ang self nga

maging pawala nalang kay sa ulihi ikaw lang man japon ang mo suffer… so we must stay

positive lang sa tanan nga bagay…” (hmm continue to trust on God, don’t let yourself

become careless because you will be the one who suffer. So we must stay positive in all

things.)

For Participant F, although life of a broken family is hard, moving on and making

situation as strength and inspiration are the steps he built on treating his stand.“By

moving straight sapat nga kung diin ko gusto mo adto and no one can hit me.” (By

moving straight forward, enough for where I want to go and no one can hit me.)

“ahmmm… Padayun lang sa kinabuhi, ayaw lang padala sa imo sitwasyon, himoa ni nga

strength kag inspiration para mag success ka. Ug ayaw ni himoa sa imo anak ang imo

sitwasyon karon.” (ahhhhhm.. Continue in life, don’t get affected by your situation.

Make this as your strength and inspiration for you to succeed. Ang don’t do this to your

future child.)

For Participant G, he forced himself to study to show his parents that he is

determinated. Roaming with friends and with girlfriend is helping him ease his problems.

His friends is also giving him advice on what should he do. “Malagaw upod sakon

barkada kis-a sa akon mega para mabuhinan man bisag kadalali akon problema.” (I walk
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with my friends, sometimes with my girldfriend to forget my problem for a while.) “Oo,

my friends kay ga advice man sila kon ano akon himuon.” (Yes, because my friends gives

advice on what should I do.) “Gina pilit nalang nakon na masulod klase para lang mani

japon sa akon para makita man nila nga gapaninguha ko.” (I forced myself to attend in

class because it is just for my own good and for them to see that I am determinated.)

“Nevermind nalang ang problems, tuon nalang sa pag skwela para makit-an man nila na

gapaninguha ka, bisag amu pana ang way na maguliay sila.” (Don’t mind the problems,

study hard, for them to see that you are willing. Maybe it is the way.)

As a researcher, I agree with the participants. I believed that in order to move on

or to move forward, you need to accept the situation because you won’t be able to

achieve what you want in the future if you keep on looking back from the past. The key

in every success is to be able to accept what you cannot change and always look at the

bright side of life. Like me, as a student, I need to accept that being Senior High School

has a lot of pressure so I must do my best in order to surpass the pressure. Studying is a

battle and as a student I need to fight in order to win the battle.

Theme 6: Decline Academic Performance

Graetz (1995) suggested “A student educational success contingent heavily on

social status of student’s parents/guardians in the society. Considine and Zappala (2002)

noticed the same that parent’s income or social status positively affects the student test

score in examination.

Just like participants C, F, and G, being a part of a broken family affects their

academic performances, especially in attending classes regularly.


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For Participant C, having a broken family affects her academic performance.

Mostly, she cannot appear in school because it deeply affects her. “Yes, it really affects

me. Usually I cannot attend school regularly because it deeply affects me.” “I keep on

striving even it is hard. But sometimes I have thoughts of stopping on my study.”

For Participant F, torn between being a student and a part of a broken family has

been very hard for him to have an allowance for his school projects because of low

financial support. As a result, he fails to pass some of his subjects. “Oo, maka affect dyud

siya para nako kay kung naay me project na kinahanglan kwarta usahay dli ko kapalit og

usahay ma failure na lang ko maong lisud dyud sya.” (Yes, it really affects for me

because if there is a project it requires money and sometimes I cannot buy it. And it

results of being failure that’s why it is hard.) “Oo, pero ga too man ko og gasalig ko sa

ginoo para og tarung ko og skwela para ma succeed akong mga dreams sa kinabuhi.”

(Yes, but I trust in God so that I can study well and to pursue my dreams in life.)

For Participant G, since he is a product of a broken family, financial problem

arises. Due to financial problem, he cannot go to school sometimes and it changes his

mood on passing his projects, and assignments. “Financial problem, because sometimes I

cannot go to school.” “Yes, kay usahay waay ko gana mo sulod sa klase, way ko ga pass

project, assignments, kag iban pa.” (Yes, because sometimes I don’t have the guts to go

to school, I don’t pass projects and assignments, and other matters.)

As a researcher, I also lose sometimes. There are times also that I fail in every test

and have smaller grade than usual. Being a student is not easy; you need to work hard if

you want to have good grades. But I cannot deny the fact that sometimes, I don’t want to
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go to school, I just want to stop studying because I’m tired. But then, I realized I won’t be

able to win the fight if I quit.

Theme 7: Giving up

The Give up theory by Jagannath.K.dange, everyone in once life time try to

convince others, resolve problems, cope up with situations up to an extent or a stage. If it

creates more problems or unable to find the solution or unable to handle the situation or

unable to convince or unable to do……people give it up. Even to maintain relationship

we stretch our hands up to an extent…but after that we give up and take back our

hand…… giving some reasons like not related to me, its not my job, can be done on

some other time, I have done level best and rest is left to the person. There are many

factors contribute for give up. Attitudes, Aptitude, interest, Intelligence (Different models

can be correlated), values, determination, dedication, hard work, environment, time

factor, support, recognition, need (hierarchy can be correlated), relationship,

reinforcement, use/application, emotions and Some times for profit. Profit leads to give

up-Sometimes a person who gives up must ensure that the next step would be more

beneficial than the present that is giving up.,

Related to the participants B and C, living with a broken family is problematic.

Sometimes it comes to their minds to give up or surrender on continuing the road.

For Participant B, thoughts of giving up shows up to his mind. But being calm

and believing God is his solution. “Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just be

calm and God will provide everything. Just believe.”


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For Participant C, sincerely, she said that it is hard facing daily life without any

aid form her parents. And because of that, it leads her thinking of suicide. “Honestly, It is

very hard facing daily life without enough support from my parents. It also leads me to

think on committing suicide.”

As a researcher and as a student, I sometimes have thoughts of giving up. Giving

up in school, giving up with my friends, and giving up with my life. But at times of

giving up, someone is always there to remind me that it is not yet over, that I can still fix

my shortcomings and failures. And that is God. So whenever you’re down, just remember

that someone is always with you, to help you and to guide you, just trust with his plans

and everything will turn out right.

Theme 8: Isolation

Social isolation Theory is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact

between an individual and society. It differs from loneliness, which reflects a temporary

lack of contact with other humans. Social isolation can be an issue for individuals of any

age, though symptoms may differ by age group.

The participants C and D, described themselves as an isolated individual. Aside

from lack of daily needs. Loneliness, feeling of being unloved, and lack of guidance are

the reason why they defined themselves as an isolated individual.

For Participant C, she is still independent and her basic needs depends on her

parents. But as her parents separate, being alone, lack of guidance, and lack of sources for

daily life described her as an isolated. “I encountered many difficulties such as financial

problems, loneliness, lack of guidance, and depression.”


94

For Participant D, her situation makes her weak, down, unguided, and being

unloved. Because of that, she is defined as an isolated. “Uuuhhmm… ano Bali kanang

pamatiyagan ko, na weak ko amo na bala… Down ko permi nnaahh.. daw pamatyagan

na way man ga palanga sa akon ako lang isa.” (Uhmmmm. I feel weak, that I’m always

down, and I feel that no one loves me.) “Budlay kay syempre wala may gaano simo… wa

may ga guide ba simo og ano mo dapat imong himu-on, amo na wala ka may

madalaganan dali dali, kung may kinahanglan ka.” (Hard, ofcourse because no one will

guide you in what to do. And you don’t have someone to approach in case of necessity.)

As a researcher, there will always be times that you feel alone, and you tend to

isolate yourself because you think that you will never have friends. I agree with the

participants, I sometimes feel I solated that leads to depression. But there are times also

that I feel like all people are so good to me, that they’re always there for me no matter

what. And so, I forget those lonely nights and go on with my life.
95

Summary of Findings

Findings revealed that Senior High School students having a broken family in

Escalante City encountered many difficulties and went through in the phenomenon under

study. These can be summarized into eight themes: Financial problems, Desire for a

Complete Family, Companion, Health Problems, Dealing with the situation, Low

Academic Performance, Giving up, and Isolation.

Financial constraints really affect the child’s life. If the parents fail to provide

their needs, their physical and mental health and education can suffer from the family's

financial stress. Children may be frightened or unable to understand why their parents

can't provide them with the lifestyle they are used to and may have difficulty expressing

or labeling their feelings. Just like the participants who came from a broken family. Lack

of necessity and unable to go to school are one of the results.

Most of the participants wants a complete family because family is where we

experience our biggest triumphs and our deepest vulnerabilities—and they are where we

have the greatest potential to do good. It becomes a sanctuary for the individual. It is

where we learn the social graces of loyalty, cooperation, and trust. It is where we learn to

love ourselves and each other, to bear one another’s burdens, to find meaning in our life

and to give purpose to others’ lives, and to feel the value of being part of something

greater than ourselves. And it is considered as a problem because it is nearly impossible

to happen.
96

Companion plays a vital role on helping someone from a broken family. Our

participant needs someone to comfort him/her if problems arises and about his her family.

In a broken family, children tends to suffer than the parents, it’s just the way it

works. Health problems such as depression, loneliness, stress, anxiety, insomnia, and loss

of appetite are also the difficulties the participants experienced.

In dealing with this kind of situation is tough. Participants had a hard time

thinking of the ways on how to handle it. But eventually they find a solution to deal and

handle their problems.

Being a product of a broken family, the participants are experiencing financial

and emotional problems. As a result, their academic performance declined because they

dont have the money and they can’t focus on studying.

Students from a broken home, have thoughts of giving up on fighting against the

situation. Overthinking loses their hope.

As a result of a broken family, sources of the participant’s basic needs are

affected. The participants are experiencing lack of source for their basic needs and

loneliness and because of that they are considered as an isolated individual.


97

Conclusion

The researchers have come up to a conclusion, based on the findings that the

seven participants have encountered diffirent difficulties, challenges, struggles in having

a broken family. Some had problems with their financial status, while some with their

academic performance, some had health problems, while some had desire for a complete

family, and some had thoughts of giving up, while some felt isolated and alone. All these

challenges have significant impacts in each of the participant’s personal and social life

along with their academic performances. Some were so affected with the situation and

sometimes thought of just giving up with their lives or commiting suicide. While others

just want to quit studying and just hang out with their friends to forget problems.

Different point of view and responds were got from the seven selected participants.

Finding companion or someone to lean on, positivity, moving on, determination or

persistence and faith in God were their ways or styles in dealing with their situation.

While some just accepted their situation and move on. As of the results and findings, the

researchers also conclude that each participant has different difficulties encountered that

made them have different perspective or ways in dealing the situation; some were able to

manage their problem while some have not. On the contrary, others have not totally

affected due to the stable parent along their way. Their parents were able to support their

needs and their studies despite of their situation with their partner.

Implication

The outcomes of the research help us learn and understand about the difficulties

encountered by a senior high school student having a broken family but the quest doesn't

end there. Findings inevitably inspire new questions that lead to further research, and
98

they may have broader impact and applications. For instance, the studies that uncovered

the difficulties of a student from a broken family had significant ecological and policy

implications. Many research findings are communicated to new audiences to educate,

raise awareness, or inspire action.

As students participate in research and learn and understand the difficulties of a student

from a broken family, encourage them to routinely ask these types of "so what"

questions. What difference does this make? Who might be interested in the results? How

might different types of people respond to the findings? What new research studies might

the findings inspire? What do we want to communicate about this study? Who will we

target and what approach will we use (e.g., presentation, newsletter, article)? What new

questions do we have or next steps will we take?

Recommendation

Based on the significant findings and conclusions in this study, the following

recommendations are forwarded:

1. Parents should understand the consequences of being a broken family to

children so that even they are not together, they are performing their duty as a

mother or father.

2. The government should have family support programs so as to keep a broken

family living and prevent the removal of children from the home.

3. The school administration may engage them in awareness building activities

in order to enhance their self-discovery and to motivate them to go on their

lives and to achieve their dreams.


99

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Bhav, Patel (2018). 15 Negative Ways Kids From Broken Homes Get Affected.
https://www.babygaga.com/15-negative-ways-kids-from-broken-homes-get-affected/
Blabla, Writing. (2013). Effects of Broken Family to Students.
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vi

Appendices

Transcribed Data from the Participants

Participant A

Participant is a female and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in Sagay

National High School, before she was living in Escalante City but currently living in

Bug-ang. Her mother brought them in Bug-ang because of their situation. When ask,

what are the difficulties you've encountered having a broken family, she said:

Syempre budlay siya, sa financial support kag support pud sa imo parents, for example

damo ka mga projects, balayranan sa eskwelahan, or sa needs nimo sa taga adlaw, budlay

kaayo kung wala ga support sa imo diba? kag kung ano pud kung may mga meeting abi

sa eskwelahan wala may ga kadto sa imo so kaga lain lang batyagon. When ask, is

having a broken family easy or hard, especially in facing daily life without any

support, she said: Para sa akon budlay siya, labi na sa, for example gamata ka kada

adlaw ga hunahuna kapa ano man akon kan-on? maano nalang ko sini? so dapat ano lang,

positive nalang. When ask, does having a broken family affect your performance in

school, she said: Oo, kay ano ga worry ka, for example mapuli ka sa balay, maano paman

ko sa balay wala man gyapon ko kan-on? ano akon ubrahon? kay para ka kaon ko, maka

skwela ko, sa akon allowance diin ko mangita... ma ano ko kung ara kami mga projects,

kung ano ang gamiton ko nga kwarta, diin ko mangita kwarta, daw amo na siya. When

ask, does having a broken family gives you stress, how you coped up with stress, she

said: Of course, ga hatag gid siya stress eh kay diba ga worry ka kung ano ang imong imo

himoon sa mga ga abot na problema sa imo kinabuhi especially sa eskwelahan, sa imong

mga needs so kung ano kung mag cope up sa stress, ano nalang maglantaw movie,
vii

mamati music, or makigstorya sa iban na mga tawo. When ask, does having a broken

family affect your health, why, she said: Para sa akon, oo kay kung may broken family

ka permi ka nalang waay gana magkaon kay ngaa daw ka unfair sa kabuhi bala haw.

tapos kung wala ka gana mag kaon, diba magniwang ka, tapos wala kana gana mabuhi

gusto mo na mamatay, daw amo na siya. When ask, how did you manage your

education while having a broken family, she said: Ano, padayon lang gyapon skwela

biskan ano na naga katabo, stay positive biskan budlay gid siya e face. Ara man gid ang

Ginoo para mag gabay saton ah. When ask, how did you overcome struggles in life

considering of having a broken family, she said: Para sa ako ano, biskan budlay nagid

ang kinabuhi padayun ka lang gyapon, ara man gyapon ang Ginoo sa imo kinabuhi, indi

man ka ya pabay-an kag sa iya man lang gid ta naga pangayo tabang ah kung budlay

nagid. Daw feel mo tanan na problema sa kalibutan ikaw na ga pas-an. When ask, is

there anyone who helps you in the problems you experiencing right now? Who is

he/she and how he/she helps you, she said: Ang akon bestfriend, siya ang ga tabang

sakon, siya akon gina storya permi sa akon problems sa family, ang iya man lang gin

hambal sakon nga daw iya ka bala gina cheer up nga biskan ano na ang matabo dapat

kayanon ko gyapon.kay kung indi ko kayanon, kay kung mag pa down nalang ako malup-

og nalang ka rekta nga daw wala lang samad. so hambal niya sa akon stand still kaya mo

na kag besides kun amo na matabo waay man gyapon ka mahimo so ara na sa imong

choice kung nga magpadayun gyapon, ang choice bala nga kung gusto mo maayo imo

kabuhi or amo lang gyapon imo kabuhi nga ara balang indi ka kapasaylo sa iban nga

tawo.so kung broken family ka dapat ano indi mo nalang intinga, kung broken ka daw ma

affected ka sa tanan nga tawo nga ara sa imo palibot especially kung negative imo mga
viii

thoughts waay gid pakadtoan. Do you want a complete family, why is it important to

have a complete or whole family, she said: Gusto ko mabalik ang sauna, Syempre kung

completo imo family, lipay2 gid daw wala gid bala kasubo, kung indi completo imo

family, for example sa Christmas, Newyear kung indi completo imo family daw ka subo

man biya nga daw buhi man tani sila pero wala biya sila. daw patay bala. When ask,

What is your message to your fellow students who has the same situation as like you,

she said: Uhmm, padayun lang sa kinabuhi ah, though lisud man gid syempre kun indi

kompleto ang pamilya kay wala ka kabalo kun diin ka nga side magpanig kag kun diin ka

nga side ma upod pero eventually maanad na naman sina kay wala naman ka maubra para

mabalik pa ang imo mama kag papa so accept nalang gid. Hambal gani nila. “Accept

what you cannot change.”

Participant B

Participant B is a male and Senior Highschool STEM-11 studying in Sagay

National High School. He lives in Escalante city, his parents are both supporting him but

they are apart. His parents broke up when he was elementary. When ask, what are the

difficulties you've encountered having a broken family, he said: Ang akong

difficulties na encountered sa. for having a broken family, kuan daw kulang kayo ko sa

atensyon kag love sa akon parents. When ask, is having a broken family easy or hard,

especially in facing daily life without any support, he said: Not so easy, not so hard.

My parents provide my needs in daily life even they are not together, but there are times

that they cannot provide my needs and wants. When ask, does having a broken family

affect your performance in school, he said: Yes, because no one will guide you. When

ask, does having a broken family gives you stress, how you coped up with stress, he
ix

said: No. I made a decision in myself to keep on moving forward not minding my

situation. But when I remember my situation, I can’t help myself to cry. When ask, Does

having a broken family affect your health, why, he said: Not really. However, it gives

me anxiety sometimes. When ask, how did you manage your education while having

a broken family, he said: As I have said. I don’t mind it and pursue my education but we

can’t deny it affects our emotion. When ask, how did you overcome struggles in life

considering of having a broken family, he said: I use my situation as my strength and

inspiration to overcome struggles but sometimes I loses my determination and self-

confidence. When ask, is there anyone who helps you in the problems you

experiencing right now, Who is he/she and how he/she helps you, he said: Yes, my

grandmother, she is the one who takes care of me. But it is different if it comes from your

parents. Do you want a complete family, why is it important to have a complete or

whole family, he said: If ever, I want my parents to return. Because having a complete

family is so necessary. Especially if we have problems, there is a parent who we can

share problems with. When ask, What is your message to your fellow students who

has the same situation as like you, he said: Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up

but just be calm and God will provide everything. Just believe.

Participant C

Participant C is a female and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Escalante National High School, She is environment friendly and loves to spend time

with nature. When ask, what are the difficulties you've encountered having a broken

family, she said: I encountered many difficulties such as financial problems, loneliness,

lack of guidance, and depression. When ask, is having a broken family easy or hard,
x

especially in facing daily life without any support, she said: Honestly, It is very hard

facing daily life without enough support from my parents. It also leads me to think on

committing suicide. When ask, does having a broken family affect your performance

in school, she said: Yes, it really affects me. Usually I cannot attend school regularly

because it deeply affects me. When ask, does having a broken family gives you stress,

how you coped up with stress, she said: Yes, it also gives me anxiety.. When ask, Does

having a broken family affect your health, why, she said: Not really. Yes, it causes me

insomnia because of thinking that problem. When ask, how did you manage your

education while having a broken family, she said: I keep on striving even it is hard. But

sometimes I have thoughts of stopping on my study.. When ask, how did you overcome

struggles in life considering of having a broken family, she said: By determination. I

am very determined to rise from poverty considering my situation but life will be easier if

there is someone supporting you. When ask, is there anyone who helps you in the

problems you experiencing right now? Who is he/she and how he/she helps you, she

said:. . My brother helps me to ease my problems and he is the reason why I keep on

striving. And I very thankful that he choose to stay with me even though my parents left

us. Do you want a complete family, why is it important to have a complete or whole

family, she said: Because having a broken family is so miserable. A child from a broken

family could walk to the wrong path. It is important to have a complete family because

every member guided. Sometimes we need someone to lean on. When ask, What is

your message to your fellow students who has the same situation as like you, she

said: Be stable no matter what your situation is. Every problem has a corresponding

solution.
xi

Participant D

Participant D is a female and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Escalante National High School, she is a working-student, working for her allowance in

order to attend in school. When ask, what are the difficulties you've encountered

having a broken family, she said: Uuuhhmm… ano Bali kanang pamatiyagan ko, na

weak ko amo na bala… Down ko permi nnaahh.. daw pamatyagan na way man ga

palanga sa akon ako lang isa. When ask, is having a broken family easy or hard,

especially in facing daily life without any support, she said: Budlay kay syempre wala

may gaano simo… wa may ga guide ba simo og ano mo dapat imong himu-on, amo na

wala ka may madalaganan dali dali, kung may kinahanglan ka. When ask, does having

a broken family affect your performance in school, she said: Uuuuhhmmm.. mmm…

o okay di syempre daw depress, sobra ba ka depress? Sa ano problema sa balay tapos

daw hindi ka hindi n aka focus sa ano sa study kay utok ara lang sa ano ga kanabang ga

isip bala kung paano ba solvad ang problema. Na amo na… When ask, does having a

broken family gives you stress, how you coped up with stress, she said: Oo, syempre

gahatag gid na stress tapos ginaubra ko lang ngaa ano lang ang magpatatag lang eh…

amo na. When ask, Does having a broken family affect your health, why, she said: Di

man. kaya ko man waay ko man gina pabaya-an akong ka ugalingon. Sa pagkaon sa ano.

When ask, how did you manage your education while having a broken family, she

said: Uuuhhmm.. ano gina himo ko lang ang ngah best ko para maka ano sa eskwelahan.

When ask, how did you overcome struggles in life considering of having a broken

family, she said: Aww… ano lang ginahimo kolang tanan na ano ma kaya ko para ngah

para ma solve siya, way lang ko gaano way lang ko ga isip na negative. When ask, is
xii

there anyone who helps you in the problems you experiencing right now? Who is

he/she and how he/she helps you, she said: Uuuhhhmmm.. Sometimes I need someone

to talk to. mga ano siyempre best friend ko mga upod sa simbahan amo na. Do you want

a complete family, why is it important to have a complete or whole family, she said:

Gusto ko gid magbalik ang amon pamilya. Syempre kung completo imo family, okay gid

tanan may ga guide sa imo, indi mag wala imo self-confidence kay gina tudloan ka nila

kag indi kana mag duha2 na mag skwela kay ara sila mag asikaso simo. When ask,

What is your message to your fellow students who has the same situation as like you,

she said: Indi lang e mind ang imo problems, kung may ara naman problems maabot indi

lang mag ka stress para indi malab-ot sa malain ang imo panghunahuna.

Participant E

Participant E is a male and Senior Highschool ABM-11 student currently studying

in University of St. Lasalle but living in Escalante City. During his elementary years,

being a part of broken family really affects him. When ask, what are the difficulties

you've encountered having a broken family, he said: Dili man kaayo lisud kay sports

ug wala silay away nga duha. When ask, is having a broken family easy or hard,

especially in facing daily life without any support, he said: Easy because they both

supporting me. When ask, does having a broken family affect your performance in

school, he said: In my elementary days, yes, but sugod karon na realize naku.ang rason

nganung nag buwag sila. When ask, does having a broken family gives you stress,

how you coped up with stress, he said: A little bit by making myself strong and

believing in myself. When ask, Does having a broken family affect your health, why,

he said: Yes, because of overthinking. When ask, how did you manage your education
xiii

while having a broken family, he said: By making it as my inspiration to work hard for

them. When ask, how did you overcome struggles in life considering of having a

broken family, he said: By having a social life and making myself happy, like playing

computer games and playing basketball. When ask, is there anyone who helps you in

the problems you experiencing right now? Who is he/she and how he/she helps you,

he said: Ang akon bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping me when I’m

feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy life. Do you want a complete family, why is it

important to have a complete or whole family, he said: Yes, because the more

complete the family is the more happier we can. When ask, What is your message to

your fellow students who has the same situation as like you, he said:

hmmm…continue lang sa pagsalig kay God, indi hayaan ang self nga maging pawala

nalang kay sa ulihi ikaw lang man japon ang mo suffer… so we must stay positive lang

sa tanan nga bagay…

Participant F

Participant F is a male and Senior Highschool GAS-11 student studying in

Escalante National HighSchool. He is a hard working student, actually an honor student.

He is friendly and approachable to her classmates and friends. The separation of his

parents and the death of his mother turned his life into misery. When ask, what are the

difficulties you've encountered having a broken family, he said: Uuhhmm… talagsa

rako mo kaon, usahay walay baon og dli naku maramdaman pagpalanga sa akoa usahay.

When ask, is having a broken family easy or hard, especially in facing daily life

without any support, he said: Hard dyud siya kay feeling naku ako ra usa og wala ko

kabalo diin ko mo adto murag wala silay plano sa akoa og wala koy mapangayuag kwarta
xiv

para makakaon ko usauhay. When ask, does having a broken family affect your

performance in school, Oo, maka affect dyud siya para nako kay kung naay me project

na kinahanglan kwarta usahay dli ko kapalit og usahay ma failure na lang ko maong lisud

dyud sya.When ask, does having a broken family gives you stress, how you coped up

with stress, he said: Oo, pero ga too man ko og gasalig ko sa ginoo para og tarung ko og

skwela para ma succeed akong mga dreams sa kinabuhi. When ask, Does having a

broken family affect your health, why, he said: Oo, kay ganiwang nako kay usahay ma

depress ka dinaka ganahan mo kaon dinaka ganahan matug musiga… gasiga lang imong

mata usahay dinaka ganahan maligo pero lisud dyud sya. When ask, how did you

manage your education while having a broken family, he said: Uuuuhhmm.. Studying

hard og kung may opportunity na makakwarta kuwaon para masupportahan ang pag

skwela og dapat dli mo quit sa life. When ask, how did you overcome struggles in life

considering of having a broken family, he said: By moving straight sapat nga kung diin

ko gusto mo adto and no one can hit me. When ask, is there anyone who helps you in

the problems you experiencing right now? Who is he/she and how he/she helps you,

he said Oo, akong mga relatives sa akong mga tito og tita mga classmate pud og uban

ngah gina ingnan ko nila ngah dli ko mo suko sa akong mga pangandoy sa kinabuhi. Do

you want a complete family, why is it important to have a complete or whole family,

he said: Sa tinud-anay, gusto nako magbalik sila mama. Kay having a complete family is

fun. Gahatag sa parents sa ilang mga children ang quality time to enjoy og ma share nila

ang ubang og ma experience sa mga bata ang mga quality and other activities or do any

just to make their children happy. When ask, What is your message to your fellow

students who has the same situation as like you, he said: ahmmm… Padayun lang sa
xv

kinabuhi, ayaw lang padala sa imo sitwasyon, himoa ni nga strength kag inspiration para

mag success ka. Ug ayaw ni himoa sa imo anak ang imo sitwasyon karon.

Participant G

Participant G is a male and Senior Highschool GAS-11 studying in Escalante

National High School. When ask, what are the difficulties you've encountered having

a broken family, he said: Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go to school.

When ask, is having a broken family easy or hard, especially in facing daily life

without any support, he said: Hard, because sometime I feel alone and no one love me.

When ask, does having a broken family affect your performance in school, he said:

Yes, kay usahay waay ko gana mo sulod sa klase, way ko ga pass project, assignments,

kag iban pa. When ask, does having a broken family gives you stress, how you coped

up with stress, he said:O okay permi naku makita nga mag-away sila, daw maglain

dayon akon buot. When ask, Does having a broken family affect your health, why, he

said: Oo, kis-a waay ko gana makaon sigi lang higda. When ask, how did you manage

your education while having a broken family, he said: Gina pilit nalang nakon na

masulod klase para lang mani japon sa akon para makita man nila nga gapaninguha ko.

When ask, how did you overcome struggles in life considering of having a broken

family, he said: Malagaw upod sakon barkada kis-a sa akon mega para mabuhinan man

bisag kadalali akon problema. When ask, is there anyone who helps you in the

problems you experiencing right now, Who is he/she and how he/she helps you, he

said: Oo, my friends kay ga advice man sila kon ano akon himuon. Do you want a

complete family, why is it important to have a complete or whole family, he said: I

want to get my family back because important gid kay bahalag pigado kamo atleast
xvi

complete kamo tanan at may ga guide man sa imo kon ano imo himuon himuon sa imo.

When ask, What is your message to your fellow students who has the same situation

as like you, he said: Nevermind nalang ang problems , tuon nalang sa pag skwela para

makit-an man nila na gapaninguha ka, bisag amu pana ang way na maguliay sila.

Codes of the Participants

Table 1.9: Codes of Participant A

Raw Statements Code

1. Syempre budlay siya, sa financial support kag support pud sa imo Participant A has a code

parents , for example damo ka mga projects, balayranan sa of financial issue.

eskwelahan, or sa needs nimo sa taga adlaw, budlay kaayo kung wala

ga support sa imo diba? kag kung ano pud kung may mga meeting abi

sa eskwelahan wala may ga kadto sa imo so kaga lain lang batyagon.

2. Para sa akon budlay siya, labi na sa, for example gamata ka kada Participant A has a code

adlaw ga hunahuna kapa ano man akon kan-on? maano nalang ko of financial issue.

sini? so dapat ano lang, positive nalang.

3. Oo, kay ano ga worry ka, for example mapuli ka sa balay, maano

paman ko sa balay wala man gyapon ko kan-on? ano akon ubrahon?


Participant A has a code
kay para ka kaon ko, maka skwela ko, sa akon allowance diin ko
of worrying about
mangita... ma ano ko kung ara kami mga projects, kung ano ang
necessity.
gamiton ko nga kwarta, diin ko mangita kwarta, daw amo na siya.

4. Of course, ga hatag gid siya stress eh kay diba ga worry ka kung Participant A has a code
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ano ang imong imo himoon sa mga ga abot na problema sa imo of stress caused by

kinabuhi especially sa eskwelahan, sa imong mga needs so kung ano worrying.

kung mag cope up sa stress, ano nalang maglantaw movie, mamati

music, or makigstorya sa iban na mga tawo.

5. Para sa akon, oo kay kung may broken family ka permi ka nalang Participant A has a code

waay gana magkaon kay ngaa daw ka unfair sa kabuhi bala haw. of loses self-care.

tapos kung wala ka gana mag kaon,diba magniwang ka, tapos wala

kana gana mabuhi gusto mo na mamatay, daw amo na siya.

6. Ano, padayon lang gyapon skwela biskan ano na naga katabo, stay Participant A has a code

positive biskan budlay gid siya e face. Ara man gid ang Ginoo para of positive thinking and

mag gabay saton ah. faithful.

7. Para sa ako ano, biskan budlay nagid ang kinabuhi padayun ka lang Participant A has a code

gyapon, ara man gyapon ang Ginoo sa imo kinabuhi, indi man ka ya of persistence.

pabay-an kag sa iya man lang gid ta naga pangayo tabang ah kung

budlay nagid. Daw feel mo tanan na problema sa kalibutan ikaw na

ga pas-an.

8. Ang akon bestfriend, siya ang ga tabang sakon,siya akon gina Participant A has a code

storya permi sa akon problems sa family, ang iya man lang gin of someone to comfort.

hambal sakon nga daw iya ka bala gina cheer up nga biskan ano na

ang matabo dapat kayanon ko gyapon.kay kung indi ko kayanon,kay

kung mag pa down nalang ako malup-og nalang ka rekta nga daw

wala lang samad. so hambal niya sa akon stand still kaya mo na kag
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besides kun amo na matabo waay man gyapon ka mahimo so ara na

sa imong choice kung nga magpadayun gyapon, ang choice bala nga

kung gusto mo maayo imo kabuhi or amo lang gyapon imo kabuhi

nga ara balang indi ka kapasaylo sa iban nga tawo.so kung broken

family ka dapat ano indi mo nalang intinga, kung broken ka daw ma

affected ka sa tanan nga tawo nga ara sa imo palibot especially kung

negative imo mga thoughts waay gid pakadtoan.

9. Gusto ko mabalik ang sauna. Syempre kung completo imo family, Participant A has a code

lipay2 gid daw wala gid bala kasubo, kung indi completo imo family, of wanting a Complete

for example sa Christmas, Newyear kung indi completo imo family Family.

daw ka subo man biya nga daw buhi man tani sila pero wala biya sila.

daw patay bala.

10. Uhmm, padayun lang sa kinabuhi ah, though lisud man gid Participant A has a code

syempre kun indi kompleto ang pamilya kay wala ka kabalo kun diin of acceptance of the

ka nga side magpanig kag kun diin ka nga side ma upod pero Situation.

eventually maanad na naman sina kay wala naman ka maubra para

mabalik pa ang imo mama kag papa so accept nalang gid. Hambal

gani nila.. “Accept what you cannot change.”


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Table 2.0: Codes of Participant B

Raw Statements Code

1.Ang akong difficulties na encountered sa.. for having a broken Participant B has a code of

family, kuan daw kulang kayo ko sa atensyon kag love sa akon lack of love and attention.

parents.

2.Not so easy, not so hard. My parents provide my needs in daily life Participant B has a code of

even they are not together, but there are times that they cannot financial stability.

provide my needs and wants.

3.Yes, because no one will guide you. Participant B has a code of

lack of guidance.

4.No. I made a decision in myself to keep on moving forward not Participant B has a code of

minding my situation. But when I remember my situation, I can’t emotional Problem.

help myself to cry.

5.Not really. However, it gives me anxiety sometimes. Participant B has a code of

emotional Problem.

6.As I have said. I don’t mind it and pursue my education but we Participant B has a code of

can’t deny it affects our emotion. emotional Problem.

7.I use my situation as my strength and inspiration to overcome Participant B has a code of

struggles but sometimes I loses my determination and self- self-management.

confidence.
xx

8.Yes, my grandmother, she is the one who takes care of me. But it Participant B has a code of

is different if it comes from your parents. lack of care.

9.If ever, I want my parents to return. Because having a complete Participant B has a code of

family is so necessary. Especially if we have problems, there is a wanting a Complete

parent who we can share problems with. Family.

10.Sometimes it comes to our mind to give up but just be calm and Participant B has a code of

God will provide everything. Just believe. self-management.

Table 2.1: Codes of Participant C

Raw Statements Code

1.I encountered many difficulties such as financial problems, Participant C has a code of

loneliness, lack of guidance, and depression. hardships of the situation.

2.Honestly, It is very hard facing daily life without enough support Participant C has a code of

from my parents. It also leads me to think on committing suicide. thoughts of suicide.

3. Yes, it really affects me. Usually I cannot attend school regularly Participant C has a code of

because it deeply affects me. absence in School.

4. Yes, it also gives me anxiety Participant C has a code of

emotional problem.

5.Not really. Yes, it causes me insomnia because of thinking that Participant C has a code of

problem. physical problem.


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6.I keep on striving even it is hard. But sometimes I have thoughts of Participant C has a code of

stopping on my study. thoughts on dropping-out.

7. By determination. I am very determined to rise from poverty Participant C has a code of

considering my situation but life will be easier if there is someone accompaniment.

supporting you.

8. My brother helps me to ease my problems and he is the reason Participant C has a code of

why I keep on striving. And I very thankful that he choose to stay accompaniment.

with me even though my parents left us.

9. A child from a broken family could walk to the wrong path. It is Participant C has a code of

important to have a complete family because every member guided. accompaniment.

Sometimes we need someone to lean on.

10. Be stable no matter what your situation is. Every problem has a Participant C has a code of

corresponding solution. persistence.

Table 2.2: Codes of Participant D

Raw Statements Code

1.Uuuhhmm… ano Bali kanang pamatiyagan ko, na weak ko amo na Participant D has a code of

bala… Down ko permi nnaahh.. daw pamatyagan na way man ga feeling isolated and down.

palanga sa akon ako lang isa.

2.Budlay kay syempre wala may gaano simo… wa may ga guide ba Participant D has a code of
xxii

simo og ano mo dapat imong himu-on, amo na wala ka may lack of family support.

madalaganan dali dali, kung may kinahanglan ka.

3. Uuuuhhmmm.. mmm… o okay di syempre daw depress , sobra ba Participant D has a code of

ka depress? Sa ano problema sa balay tapos daw hindi ka hindi n aka depression.

focus sa ano sa study kay utok ara lang sa ano ga kanabang ga isip

bala kung paano ba solvad ang problema. Na amo na…

4. Oo, syempre gahatag gid na stress tapos ginaubra ko lang ngaa Participant D has a code of

ano lang ang magpatatag lang eh… amo na. stress Management.

5. Di man. kaya ko man waay ko man gina pabaya-an akong ka Participant D has a code of

ugalingon. Sa pagkaon sa ano. self-care.

6. Uuuhhmm.. ano gina himo ko lang ang ngah best ko para maka Participant D has a code of

ano sa eskwelahan. pursuit for learning.

7. Aww… ano lang ginahimo kolang tanan na ano ma kaya ko para Participant D has a code of

ngah para ma solve siya, way lang ko gaano way lang ko ga isip na positive thinking.

negative.

8. Uuuhhhmmm.. Sometimes I need someone to talk to. mga ano Participant D has a code of

siyempre best friend ko mga upod sa simbahan amo na. someone to lean on.

9. Gusto ko gid magbalik ang amon pamilya. Syempre kung Participant D has a code of

completo imo family, okay gid tanan may ga guide sa imo, indi mag complete family.

wala imo self-confidence kay gina tudloan ka nila kag indi kana mag
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duha2 na mag skwela kay ara sila mag asikaso simo.

10. Indi lang e mind ang imo problems, kung may ara naman Participant D has a code of

problems maabot indi lang mag ka stress para indi malab-ot sa ignoring problems.

malain ang imo panghunahuna.

Table 2.3: Codes of Participant E

Raw Statements Code

1.Dili man kaayo lisud kay sports ug wala silay away nga duha. Participant E has a code of

peace between parents.

2. Easy because they both supporting me Participant E has a code of

agreement between

parents.

3. In my elementary days, yes, but sugod karon na realize naku..ang Participant E has a code of

rason nganung nag buwag sila. adjustment.

4. A little bit by making myself strong and believing in myself. Participant E has a code of

fortitude.

5. Yes, because of overthinking. Participant E has a code of

overthinking.
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6. By making it as my inspiration to work hard for them. Participant E has a code of

making situation as

inspiration.

7. By having a social life and making myself happy,like playing Participant E has a code of

computer games and playing basketball. ways of dealing problems.

8. Ang akon bestfriends Arn, Beniño, and Gabby they are helping Participant E has a code of

me when I’m feeling lonely and helping me to enjoy life. companion.

9. Yes, because the more complete the family is the more happier we Participant E has a code of

can. wanting a complete family.

10. hmmm…continue lang sa pagsalig kay God, indi hayaan Participant E has a code of

ang self nga maging pawala nalang kay sa ulihi ikaw lang man japon positive thinking and

ang mo suffer… so we must stay positive lang sa tanan nga bagay… faithful.

Table 2.4: Codes of Participant F

Raw Statements Code

1. Uuhhmm… talagsa rako mo kaon, usahay walay baon og dli naku Participant F has a code of

maramdaman pagpalanga sa akoa usahay. financial problem.

2. Hard dyud siya kay feeling naku ako ra usa og wala ko kabalo Participant F has a code of

diin ko mo adto murag wala silay plano sa akoa og wala koy financial problem.
xxv

mapangayuag kwarta para makakaon ko usauhay.

3. Oo, maka affect dyud siya para nako kay kung naay me project na Participant F has a code of

kinahanglan kwarta usahay dli ko kapalit og usahay ma failure na low academic performance.

lang ko maong lisud dyud sya.

4. Oo, pero ga too man ko og gasalig ko sa ginoo para og tarung ko Participant F has a code of

og skwela para ma succeed akong mga dreams sa kinabuhi. determination.

5. Oo, kay ganiwang nako kay usahay ma depress ka dinaka ganahan Participant F has a code of

mo kaon dinaka ganahan matug musiga… gasiga lang imong mata health problem.

usahay dinaka ganahan maligo pero lisud dyud sya..

6. Uuuuhhmm.. Studying hard og kung may opportunity na Participant F has a code of

makakwarta kuwaon para masupportahan ang pag skwela og dapat pursuit for learning.

dli mo quit sa life..

7. By moving straight sapat nga kung diin ko gusto mo adto and no Participant F has a code of

one can hit me. handling the situation.

8. Oo, akong mga relatives sa akong mga tito og tita mga classmate Participant F has a code of

pud og uban ngah gina ingnan ko nila ngah dli ko mo suko sa akong buddies.

mga pangandoy sa kinabuhi.

9. : Sa tinud-anay, gusto nako magbalik sila mama. Kay having a Participant F has a code of

complete family is fun. Gahatag sa parents sa ilang mga children ang wanting a complete family.

quality time to enjoy og ma share nila ang ubang og ma experience

sa mga bata ang mga quality and other activities or do any just to
xxvi

make their children happy.

10. ahmmm… Padayun lang sa kinabuhi, ayaw lang padala Participant F has a code of

sa imo sitwasyon, himoa ni nga strength kag inspiration para mag moving forward or

success ka. Ug ayaw ni himoa sa imo anak ang imo sitwasyon karon. persistent.

Table 2.5: Codes of Participant G

Raw Statements Code

1. Financial problem, because sometimes I cannot go to school. Participant G has a code of

financial problem.

2. Hard, because sometime I feel alone and no one love me. Participant G has a code of

emotional problem.

3. Yes, kay usahay waay ko gana mo sulod sa klase, way ko ga pass Participant G has a code of

project, assignments, kag iban pa. low academic performance.

4. O okay permi naku makita nga mag-away sila, daw maglain Participant G has a code of

dayon akon buot. emotional problem.

5. Oo, kis-a waay ko gana makaon sigi lang higda. Participant G has a code of

emotional problem.

6. Gina pilit nalang nakon na masulod klase para lang mani japon sa Participant G has a code of

akon para makita man nila nga gapaninguha ko. detemination.

7. Malagaw upod sakon barkada kis-a sa akon mega para mabuhinan Participant G has a code of
xxvii

man bisag kadalali akon problema. socializing.

8. Oo, my friends kay ga advice man sila kon ano akon himuon. Participant G has a code of

companion.

9. I want to get my family back because important gid kay bahalag Participant G has a code of

pigado kamo atleast complete kamo tanan at may ga guide man sa wanting a complete family.

imo kon ano imo himuon himuon sa imo.

10. Nevermind nalang ang problems , tuon nalang sa pag skwela Participant G has a code of

para makit-an man nila na gapaninguha ka, bisag amu pana ang way ignoring problems.

na maguliay sila.
xxviii

Proximity Matrix

Themes Participants

A B C D E F G

Financial Problem 2 1 0 0 0 2 1

Desire for a Complete Family 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

Companion or someone to lean on 1 0 3 1 1 1 0

Health Problem 3 3 1 2 0 1 3

Dealing with the situation 3 1 1 4 4 3 4

Low academic performance 0 0 2 0 0 2 2

Giving up 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

Isolation 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. What are the difficulties you’ve encountered having a broken family?

2. Is having a broken family easy or hard? Especially facing daily life without any

support?

3. Does having a broken family affect your performance in school? Why?

4. Does having a broken family gives you stress? How did you cope with stress?

5. Does having a broken family affect your health? Why?

6. How did you manage your education while having a broken family?

7. How did you overcome struggles in life considering of having a broken family?

8. Is there anyone who helps you ease the problems you experiencing right now? Who is

he/she and how he/she helps you?

9. Do you want a complete family? Why is it important to have a complete or whole

family?

10. What is your message to your fellow students who has the same situation as like you?
xxx

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VI-Western Visayas
Division of Sagay City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Curriculum Vitae of the Researchers


Group information: Currently studying at Sagay National High School-Senior High as
GAS-11
Name: Arn L. Lopez
Age:17
Address: Prk. Bagong Buhay,Brgy. Balintawak, Escalante
City
Telephone: 724-888-7
Cell Phone: 09053363618
Email: arnlopez28@gmail.com
Educational Attainment: Senior High School

Name: Michael E. Nagrama


Age:17
Address: Prk. Maabi-abihon, East avenue,Brgy.
Balintawak, Escalante City
Telephone: Cell
Phone: 09369072144
Email: ebardomikel001@gmail.com
Educational Attainment: Senior High School
xxxi

Name: Perlie Matarong


Age: 17
Address: Sitio proper, Brgy. Magsaysay, Escalante City
Telephone:
Cell Phone: 09777675508
Email: perliematarong0089@gmail.com
Educational Attainment: Senior High School