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CHAPTER 1
Introduction
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Any control system consists of three essential components namely input, system and
out put. The input is the stimulus or excitation applied to a system from an external energy
source. A system is the arrangement of physical components and output is the actual
response obtained from the system. The control system may be one of the following type.
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1) man made
2) natural and / or biological and
3) hybrid consisting of man made and natural or biological.
Examples:
1) An e lectric s witc h is ma n ma de c ontrol s ys te m, c ontrolling flow of e lectricity.
input
system
output
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: flipping the switch on/off
: electric switch
: flow or no flow of current
2) Pointing a finger at an object is a biological control system.
input : direction of the object with respect to some direction
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system : consists of eyes, arm, hand, finger and brain of a man
output : actual pointed direction with respect to same direction
3) Man driving an automobile is a hybrid system.
input : direction or lane
system : drivers hand, eyes, brain and vehicle
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output : heading of the automobile
Control systems are classified into two general categories based upon the control action
which is responsible to activate the system to produce the output viz.
1) Open loop control system in which the control action is independent of the out
put.
2) Closed loop control system in which the control action is some how dependent
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upon the output and are generally called as feedback control systems.
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the output. In closed loop control system the actuating error signal, which is the
difference between the input signal and the feed back signal (out put signal or its
function) is fed to the controller.
Examples:
1) Washing clothes in a washing machine is an open loop control system.
Soaking, washing and rinsing in the washer operate on a time basis. The
output signal, that is, the cleanliness of the clothes is not measured nor
feedback for comparison with the input. The schematic diagram of an open
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loop control system is shown in Fig.1.1
2) Room temperature control system is an example of closed loop control
system. By measuring the actual room temperature and comparing it with
the reference temperature the thermostat turns heating or cooling
equipment on or off regardless of outside conditio ns. The schematic
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diagram of a closed loop control system is shown in Fig.1.2
input
Controller
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Actuating signal
System
outp
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Figure 1 Ele ments of open loop control system
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error
input
Control System /
elements Plant
controller
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2) Increased accuracy.
3) Reduced effects of nonlinearities and distortion.
4) Increased bandwidth over which the system will respond satisfactorily.
5) Closed loop control systems have tendency to oscillate or become unstable
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Definitions:
Systems: A system is a combination of components that act together and perform a certain
objective. The system may be physical, biological, economical, etc.
Control system: It is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in a
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manner to command, direct or regulate itself or another system.
Open loop: An open loop system control system is one in which the control action is
independent of the output.
Closed loop: A closed loop control system is one in which the control action is somehow
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dependent on the output.
Plants: A plant is equipment the purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. Any
physical object to be controlled is called a plant.
Processes: Processes is a natural or artificial or voluntary operation that consists of a series of
controlled actions, directed towards a result.
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Input: The input is the excitation applied to a control system from an external energy
source. The inputs are also known as actuating signals.
Output: The output is the response obtained from a control system or known as controlled
variable.
Block diagram: A block diagram is a short hand, pictorial representation of cause and effect
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relationship between the input and the output of a physical system. It characterizes the
functional relationship amongst the components of a control system.
Control elements: These are also called controller which are the components required to
generate the appropriate control signal applied to the plant.
Plant: Plant is the control system body process or machine of which a particular quantity or
condition is to be controlled.
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Feedback control: feedback control is an operation in which the difference between the
output of the system and the reference input by comparing these using the difference as a
means of control.
Feedback elements: These are the components required to establish the functional
relationship between primary feedback signal and the controlled output.
Actuating signal: also called the error or control action. It is the algebraic sum consisting of
reference input and primary feedback.
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Manipulated variable: it that quantity or condition which the control elements apply to the
controlled system.
Feedback signal: it is a signal which is function of controlled output
Disturbance: It is an undesired input signal which affects the output.
Forward path: It is a transmission path from the actuating signal to controlled output
Feedback path: The feed back path is the transmission path from the controlled output to the
primary feedback signal.
Servomechanism: Servomechanism is a feedback control system in which output is some
mechanical position, velocity or acceleration.
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Regulator: Regulator is a feedback system in which the input is constant for long time.
Transducer: Transducer is a device which converts one energy form into other
Tachometer: Tachometer is a device whose output is directly proportional to time rate of
change of input.
Synchros: Synchros is an AC machine used for transmission of angular position synchro
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motor receiver, synchro generator transmitter.
Block diagram: A block diagram is a short hand, pictorial representation of cause and effect
relationship between the input and the output of a physical system. It characterizes the
functional relationship amongst the components of a control system.
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Lower case letters usually represent functions of time. Upper case letters de note Laplace
transformed quantities as a function of complex variable s or Fourier transformed quantity
i.e. frequency function as function of imaginary variable s jω .
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Summing point: It represents an operation of addition and / or subtraction.
Negative feedback: Summing point is a subtractor.
Positive feedback: Summing point is an adder.
Stimulus: It is an externally introduced input signal affecting the controlled output. Take off
point: In order to employ the same signal or variable as an input to more than block or
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summing point, take off point is used. This permits the signal to proceed unaltered along
several different paths to several destinations.
Time response: It is the output of a system as a function of time following the application of
a prescribed input under specified operating conditions.
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CONTROL ACTIONS
An automatic controller compares the actual value of the system output with the reference
input (desired value), determines the deviation, and produces a control signal that will reduce
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the deviation to zero or a small value. The manner in which the automatic controller produces
the control signal is called the control action. The controllers may be classified according to
their control actions as
1) Two position or onoff controllers
2) Proportional controllers
3) Integral controllers
4) Proportionalplus integral controllers
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5) Proportionalplusderivative controllers
6) Proportionalplus integralplusderivative controllers
A proportional control system is a feedback control system in which the output forcing
function is directly proportional to error.
A integral control system is a feedback control system in which the output forcing function is
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directly proportional to the first time integral of error.
A proportionalplus integral control system is a feedback control system in which the output
forcing function is a linear combination of the error and its first time integral.
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A proportionalplusderivative control system is a feedback control system in which the
output forcing function is a linear combination of the error and its first time derivative.
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which the output forcing function is a linear combination of the error, its first time derivative
error signal and amplifies it. The output of a controller is fed to the actuator that produces the
input to the plant according to the control signal. The sensor is a device that converts
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the output variable into another suitable variable to compare the output to reference input
signal. Sensor is a feedback element of the closed loop control system.
automatic controller
actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
in
detector
Output c(t)
reference
input r(t) Amplifier Actuator Plant
n.
−
signal b(t)
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Figure 1 Block diagram of control system
U 0
2
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actuating Controller
Error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
Detector
reference
in
input r(t)
−
feed back
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signal b(t)
Figure 2 Block diagram of on off controller
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The proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain. For a
controller with proportional control action the relationship between output of the controller
u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is
ut
ut K et .....(2)
p
Where, K p is the proportional gain.
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Actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
detector
reference
input r(t) Kp
−
in
feed back
signal b(t)
Figure 3 Block diagram of a proportional controller
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Integral Control Action
du t
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The value of the controller output u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating
error signal e(t) given by Eqn.4
K et or ut e t
t
…..(4)
ut
K dt
dt i i0
Where, K i is an adjustable constant.
The transfer function of integral controller is
Us ….(5)
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Ki
Es
s
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If the value of e(t) is doubled, then u(t) varies twice as fast. For zero actuating error,
the value of u(t) remains stationary. The integral control action is also called reset control.
Fig.4 shows the block diagram of the integral controller.
vt
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actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
detector
reference K
i
in
input r(t)
− s
feed back
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signal b(t)
Figure 4 Block diagram of an integral controller
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The control action of a proportionalplus integral controller is defined by
Kp t
ut
ut et et
K dt …..(6)
p T 0
i
The transfer function of the controller is
Us
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1
K
1 .....(7)
Es Ts
p
us
i
Where, K p is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time which are adjustable.
The integral time adjusts the integral control action, while change in proportional gain
affects both the proportional and integral action. The inverse of the integral time is called
reset rate. The reset rate is the number of times per minute that a proportional part of the
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control action is duplicated. Fig.5 shows the block diagram of the proportionalplus integral
controller. For an actuating error of unit step input, the controller output is shown in Fig.6.
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actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
detector K 1 T
reference s
p i
input r(t)
in
− Ts
i
feed back
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signal b(t)
Figure 5 Block diagram of a proportionalplusintegral control system
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ut
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us
vt
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2Kp
in
Kp proportional only
0 Ti t
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Figure 6 Response of PI controller to unit actuating error signal
…..(8)
ut
p d
dt
The tra nsfer function is
Us
K 1 T
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s …..(9)
Es
p d
Where, K p is the proportional gain and T d is a derivative time constant.
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Both, K p and Td are adjustable. The derivative control action is also called rate
control. In rate controller the output is proportional to the rate of change of actuating error
signal. The derivative time Td is the time interval by which the rate action advances the effect
of the proportional control action. The derivative controller is anticipatory in nature and
amplifies the noise effect. Fig.7 shows the block diagram of the proportionalplusderivative.
For an actuating error of unit ramp input, the controller output is shown in Fig.8
vt
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actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
detector
reference K
1 T S
input r(t) P D
−
in
feed back
signal b(t)
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Figure 7 Block diagram of a proportionalplusderivative controller
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ut
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us
vt
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proportional only
Td
in
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0 t
Figure 8 Response of PD controlle r to unit actuating error signal
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It is a combination of proportional control action, integral control action and derivative
control action. The equation of the controller is
det
ut
Kp t
u t K e t et dt K
T …..(10)
p
p T o d dt
ol
i
or the transfer function is
Us
1
us
1 T s
Es K …..(11)
p
Ts d
i
Where, K p is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time, and T d is the derivative time. The
block diagram of PID controller is shown in Fig.9. For an actuating error of unit ramp input,
vt
actuating
Controller
error signal e(t)
error output u(t)
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detector
1 T s T T s
2
reference K
p I i d
input r(t) Ts
− D
in
feed back
signal b(t)
Figure 9 Block diagram of a proportionalplusintegralplusde rivative controller
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ut
ol
us
vt
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proportional only
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0 t
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Figure 10 Response of PID controller to unit actuating error signal
ut
ol
us
vt
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CHAPTER II
MATHEMATICAL MODELING
Introduction: In chapter I we have learnt the basic concepts of control systems such as open
loop and feedback control systems, different types of Control systems like regulator systems,
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followup systems and servo mechanisms. We have also discussed a few simple applications.
The requirements demanded by every control system are many and depend on the system
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under consideration. Major requirements are 1) Stability 2) Accuracy and 3) Speed of
Response. An ideal control system would be stable, would provide absolute accuracy
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(maintain zero error despite disturbances) and would respond instantaneously to a change in
the reference variable. Such a system cannot, of course, be produced. However, study of
automatic control system theory would provide the insight necessary to make the most
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effective compromises so that the engineer can design the best possible system. One of the
important steps in the study of control systems is modeling. Following section presents
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modeling aspects of various systems that find app lication in control engineering.
Modeling of Control Systems: The first step in the design and the analysis of control system
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is to build physical and mathematical models. A control system being a collection of several
physical systems (sub systems) which may be of mechanical, electrical electronic, thermal,
hydraulic or pneumatic type. No physical system can be represented in its full intricacies.
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Idealizing assumptions are always made for the purpose of analysis and synthesis. An
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The basic models of dynamic physical systems are differential equations obtained by the
application of appropriate laws of nature. Having obtained the differential equations and
where possible the numerical values of parameters, one can proceed with the analysis. When
the mathematical model of a physical system is solved for various input conditions, the
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results represent the dynamic response of the system. The mathematical model of a system is
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A mathematical model is linear, if the differential equation describing it has coefficients,
which are either functions of the independent variable or are constants. If the coefficients of
the describing differential equations are functions of time (the independent variable), then the
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mathematical model is linear timevarying. On the other hand, if the coefficients of the
describing differential equations are constants, the model is linear timeinvariant. Powerful
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mathematical tools like the Fourier and Laplace transformations are available for use in
Usually control systems are complex. As a first approximation a simplified model is built to
get a general feeling for the solution. However, improved model which can give better
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accuracy can then be obtained for a complete analysis. Compromise has to be made between
simplicity of the model and accuracy. It is difficult to consider all the details for
mathematical analysis. Only most important features are considered to predict behaviour of
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the system under specified conditions. A more complete model may be then built for
complete analysis.
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damper systems and the governing differential equations can be obtained on the basis of
F = ma: for rectilinear motion: where F: Force, m: mass and a: acceleration (with consistent
units)
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T = I α: or Jα for rotary motion: where T: Torque, I or J: moment of inertia and α: angular
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Mass / inertia and the springs are the energy storage elements where in energy can be stored and
retrieved without loss and hence referred as conservative elements. Damper represents the
energy loss (energy absorption) in the system and hence is referred as dissipative element.
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Depending upon the choice of variables and the coordinate system, a given physical model may
defines the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. A large number of practical systems can be
described using a finite number of degrees of freedom and are referred as discrete or lumped
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parameter systems. Some systems, especially those involving continuous elastic members, have
an infinite number of degrees of freedom and are referred as continuous or distributed systems.
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Most of the time, continuous systems are approximated as discrete systems, and solutions are
obtained in a simpler manner. Although treatment of a system as continuous gives exact results,
the analysis methods available for dealing with continuous systems are limited to a narrow
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selection of problems. Hence most of the practical systems are studied by treating them as finite
lumped masses, springs and dampers. In general, more accurate results are obtained by
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increasing the number of masses, springs and dampersthat is, by increasing the number of
degrees of freedom.
Mechanical systems can be of two types: 1) Translation Systems 2) Rotational Systems. The
variables that described the motion are displacement, velocity and acceleration.
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Translational Systems
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x
F
m
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Figure 2.1:
F= Mass * Acceleration
..
=mx
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Linear Spring
Elasticity (Spring): Property or means – Potential energy is stored. Spring force is proportional
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to displacement
vt
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Fs Linear
x
F k
Non Linear
in
x
Figure 2.2 (a) and (b):
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Spring Force = Stiffness * displacement
Fs = Kx
Damping
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Exists in all system and opposes motion. The types which are generally considered are:
•
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Static Friction
• Coulomb Friction
• Viscous Friction
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velocity.
vt
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Piston Cylinder
F
……… d .
……… Fd = C x
………
………
……… Fd
………
Oil
.
in
x
Figure 2.3 (a) and (b):
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Damping Force =
Rotational Systems
θ
T
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Figure 2.4:
Torsional Spring
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k
t
θ
T
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Figure 2.5:
T = kt * θ
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Friction (Viscous Damping)
B
io
ut
θ
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T
Figure 2.6:
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CHAPTER III : BLOCK DIAGRAMS AND SIGNAL FLOW GRAPHS
Transfer Functions:
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Fig (a) System in time domain Fig (b) System in Laplace domain
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Fig: Transfer Functions of a system
G(S) =
L.T. of output
L.T. of Input
io all initia l c onditions are Zero
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C(S)
=
R(S)
input or driving function. The T.F includes the units necessary to relate the
input to the output, However, it does not provide any information concerning
the physical structure of the system. i.e., the T.F of many physically different
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C(S)
G(S) = R(S)
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M X
F
0
n.
F
Draw the free body diagram as shown
Equation. of.. Motion
5)F – cx – kx = mx
=
io .. .
mx + cx + kx = F
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Taking laplace transform of each term of this equation (assuming Zero
initial condition), we can write,
F(s) = ms2 X(s) + cs X(s) + kX(s)
Now, taking the ratio of X(s) to F(S) we can write the transfer function of the
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system
X (S) 1
= G(S) = 2
= F (S) ms +CS+K
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Here the highest power of the complex variable S, in the denominator of the
transfer function determines the order of the system. Thus the kmc system
under consideration is a second order system.
X (S) 1
= 2
F (S) ms +K
X (S) 1
=
F (S) CS+K
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Block diagram Reduction:
We know that,
Input Output behavior of a Linear System or Element of a Linear System
is given by Transfer Function,
G(s)= C(s)/R(s)
Where, R(s) = Laplace transformation of the input Variable C(s)
= Laplace transformation of the output Variable
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input and out put of a physical system is known as “BLOCK DIAGRAM ”
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R(S) C(S)
G (S)
(Input) (Output)
Fig (i)
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Here, the signal into the black represents the input R(S) and signal out of
the black represents the output C(S), while the block itself stands for
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transfer function G(S).
The blocks are connected by lines with arrows indicating the unidirectional,
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flow of information from the out put of one block to the input of the other. In
addition to this summing or differencing of signals is indicated by the
symbols shown in the fig (ii) (a) (b) & (c), while take off point of a signal is
represented by fig(iii)
A A+B A AB A+ +
+
+ + A–B+C

B B B
Fig
Fig (ii) (a) Fig (ii) (b) Fig (ii) (c) (iii)
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The points at which the output signal of any block can be applied to two or
more points is known as Take off Point.
Forward Path:
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Input Output
R (S) R(S) G1(S) R (S) G1(S) G2(S) C (S)
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G 1(S) G2(S) G3(S)
= R (S ) G (S ) G 2(S) G 3 (S )
Output C(S) 1
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The direction of flow of signal from output to Input is Known as Feedback
Path.
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R(s) C(s) Feed Forward
G (S)
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H (S)
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Feed back
Output C(S)
= = ?
Input R(S)
vt
in
tm
E
K m/(1+p)
(c) The change in torque provided by motor tm= (Km/(1+ p))e
n.
tm Fc
(d) Roll Tension, Fc = tm/R, 1/R
y
Fc
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(e) Tension of Control Spring, y = 2 Fc/K, 2/K
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Complete Block diagram and overall transfer function:
Fr xy e Km tm Fc
A 1/2 1/R
(1+ p )
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2/K
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Fc
Overall Transfer Function =
Fr = ?
vt
If a Block diagram which consists of a forward path having one block, a feed
back path having one block, a take off point and a summing point, it
represents a Cannonical form of a closed loop system
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R (s) Laplace Transform of Reference Input γ(t)
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C (s) Laplace Transform of Controlled Output c(t)
E (s) Laplace Transform of Error signal e(t)
B (s) Laplace Transform of Feed back signal b(t)
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G (S) Equivalent forward path Transform function = (c(s)/E(s))
H (S) Equivalent feedback path Transform function = (c(s)/B(s))
B(S) H(s)
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C (S) = G (S) . R (S)  G (S) H (S) . C (S)
C (S) + G (S) . H (S) . C (S) = G (S) . R (S) =
C (S) [ 1 + G (S) H (S)] = G (S) . R (S)
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C (S) / R (S)
= G (S) / 1 + G (S) H (S)
C (S) G(S)
R (S) = Transfer Function =
io 1+G(S) H(S)
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Similarly it can be shown for a positive feed
ol
B(S) H(s)
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RULES OF BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA (Fourteen)
n.
Rearranging
+ + Sum ming
Points
 +  
B C
io C B
G1
ut
2) A+ A B
A+ AB+C +
 
 B
ol
B
A G1 G2
3) A A
G1 G2
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A G1 A G1 G2
4) A A
G1 G2
vt
A A(G1 +G2 )
5) G1
A
A G2
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A G1 G2
in
G
erchanging the
1 G2
Blocks
n.
A G1 G2
G1G2
Combining the
Blocks in Cascade
A G 1+G 2
Combining the io
ut
G1+G2 Blocks in Parallel
OR E limina ting a
Forward Loop
ol
us
vt
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A G1 AB/ G1 A G1  B
6) A A G1  B A
+ + G1 Moving a
G1 Summing Point

 B ahead of a Bloc k
B / G1
B 1/ G1
A G1
A B A G1 – B G1
A G1 – B G1 G1
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7) A +
G1  Moving a
Summing Point
+
B B G1 B Be yond a Bloc k
B G1
n.
A A G1
A A G1 G1 Moving a take
8) G1
A G1 io A
G1
A G1
off point ahead of
a Block
ut
A A G1
A A G1 G1
9) G1
Moving a ta ke off
point beyond a
ol
A Block
A A G1 1/ G1
B
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A B
10) A B
A +
A B Moving a take off
A + +
 A B point before (ahead
B  of) a s um m ing Bloc k
vt
B

(A – B)
A B
11)  (A –B) Moving a take off
+ A
A + + point after (beyond)
a Summing block
A A B +
B
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A G1 A G1 + A G2
A
G1 A G2
12) A G1 A G1 + A G2
+ A A A
G2 1/G2 G1 Removing a Block
A +from a Forward Pa th
G2
A G2
+ B
in
A B Removing a Block
G1 +
13) 1/G2 G2 G1 from a Feed Back
Loop


n.
G2
B = (AB G2 ) G1 B = (A / G2 –B) G1 G2
B = (AG1  B G1G2 ) B = (AG1  B G1G2 )
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(No. 10, 11, 12 & 13 to be used very carefully or better to be avoided)
B
ut
+ B
14) A A
Eliminating a
G1 G1
Feedbac k Loop
1+ G1 H1

+
ol
H1
B = (AB H1 ) G1
B = (AG1  B G1H1 )
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Step. 1 :
Reduce the Cascade Blocks
Step. 2 :
Reduce the parallel Blocks
Step. 3 :
Reduce the internal Feed back loops
Step. 4 :
It is advisable to shift take off points towards right
and summing points towards left. It is always better
to avoid rules 10 and 11
[i.e. shafting take off point before a summing block and
shifting of take off point after summing block]
Step. 5 : Repeat steps 1 to step 4 until the simple form is
obtained
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Step. 6 : Find transfer function of the over all system using the
formula C(S) / R (S)
EXERCISES
Ex  01
in
G2
n.
G1
H1
R+
G1+G2
io
ut
+
H1
ol
G1+G2
R G 1+ G 2 C C
=
us
1(G 1+ G 2) H 1 R 1(G 1 + G 2 ) H 1
Ex  02
vt
G2
R C
G1
H1
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G2
R C
G1
in
G1
n.
H1
R C
io G1+ G 2
ut
H 1G 1
ol
C
R G1 +
G2
us
H1G1 1 (G 1+G 2)
vt
R G1+G2 . C
1(G 1 + G 2 ) H 1 G 1 1
G1 + G2
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C
R G1+G2 C = G1+G2
1G 1 H 1 1G 1 H 1
R
Ex  03
G2
C
in
R
G1
n.
H1
G2
R G1
io C
ut
1 G 1 H 1
ol
C C
R G1 G1
G1 R = G2
1 G 1 H 1
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1 G 1 H 1
Example 04:
(Jan/Feb2003)
H1
vt
C(S)
R(S)
S1 G 1 S2 G2 G3 G4
H2
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H1
C(s)
R(s)
S1 G1 S2 G2 G4 G4
H2 1/G4
in
G2 G3 G 4 C(s)
R(s)
S1 G1 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1
n.
H 2/ G 4
R(s) io
G 1G 2 G 3 G 4
1G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1 C(s)
ut
G 1G 2 G 3 G 4 H2
1 +
1G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1 G4
ol
R(s) G 1G 2 G 3 G 4 C(s)
us
1G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1+ G 1 G 2 G 3 H 2
Example: 05
vt
July/Aug2003
H3
C(s)
G2 G3
R(s)
G1
H2
H1
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H3 1/G3
R(s) C(s)
G1 G2 G3
H2
H1
in
H3/G3
n.
G3
R (s) G1 G2 C (s)
1+G3 H2
io H1
ut
R(s) G2G3 G2G3 H3 C(s)
G1 1+G 3 H 2 1+ 1+ G 3 H 2 G3
ol
H1
us
Simplify further . . . . . .
Example: 06
G3
 +
vt
R(s) + + C(s)
G1 G2 G4 G6
  +
H1
G5
H2
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+ C(s)
R(s) G1 G2 G3 – G4 + G5 G6
1+ G1 G2 H1
in
H2
n.
G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5) C (S)
R (S)
1 + G1 G2 H1
G6
G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5)
1+
io
1+ G1 G2 H1 H2
ut
R (S) G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5) C (S)
x G6
1+G1 G2 H1 + G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5 ) H2
ol
us
An alternate to block diagram is the signal flow graph due to S. J. Mason. A signal flow
graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. Each
signal flow graph consists of a network in which nodes are connected by directed branches.
vt
Each node represents a system variable, and each branch acts as a signal multiplier. The
signal flows in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Definitions:
Node: A node is a point representing a variable or signal.
Branch: A branch is a directed line segment joining two nodes.
Transmittance: It is the gain between two nodes.
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Input node: A node that has only outgoing branche(s). It is also, called as source and
corresponds to independent variable.
Output node: A node that has only incoming branches. This is also called as sink and
corresponds to dependent variable.
Mixed node: A node that has incoming and out going branches.
Path: A path is a traversal of connected branches in the direction of branch arrow.
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Loop: A loop is a closed path.
Self loop: It is a feedback loop consisting of single branch.
Loop gain: The loop gain is the product of branch transmittances of the loop.
n.
Nontouching loops: Loops that do not posses a common node.
Forward path: A path from source to sink without traversing an node more than once.
Feedback path: A path which originates and terminates at the same node.
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The signal flow graph of a system is constructed from its describing equations, or by direct
reference to block diagram of the system. Each variable of the block diagram becomes a node
and each block becomes a branch. The general procedure is
in
6) Arrange the input to output nodes from left to right.
7) Connect the nodes by appropriate branches.
8) If the desired output node has outgoing branches, add a dummy node and a unity
n.
gain branch.
9) Rearrange the nodes and/or loops in the graph to achieve pictorial clarity.
Addtion rule
node.
Transmission rule io
The value of the variable designated by a node is equal to the sum of all signals entering the
The value of the variable designated by a node is transmitted on every branch leaving the
ut
node.
Multiplication rule
A cascaded connection of n1 branches with transmission functions can be replaced by a
single branch with new transmission function equal to the product of the old ones.
ol
Masons Gain Formula
The relationship between an input variable and an output variable of a signal flow graph is
given by the net gain between input and output nodes and is known as overall gain of the
us
system. Masons gain formula is used to obtain the over all gain (transfer function) of signal
flow graphs.
Gain P is given by
P 1 Pk k
k
Where, Pk is gain of kth forward path,
vt
∆ is determinant of graph
∆=1(sum of all individual loop gains)+(sum of gain products of all possible combinations of
two nontouching loops – sum of gain products of all possible combination of three
nontouching loops) + ∙∙∙
∆k is cofactor of kth forward path determinant of graph with loops touching k th forward
path. It is obtained from ∆ by removing the loops touching the path P k .
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in
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Example1
Draw the signal flow graph of the block diagram shown in Fig.1
H2
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 C
in
R −
G1 G2 G3
−
n.
H1
io
Choose the nodes to represent the variables say X1 .. X6 as shown in the block
diagram.. Connect the nodes with appropriate gain along the branch. The signal
flow graph is shown in Fig. 2
ut
H2
R 1 X1 1 X2 G1 X3 1 G2 G3 1 C
ol
X4
X5 X6
H1
us
1
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Example 2
Draw the signal flow graph of the block diagram shown in Fig.3.
G1
X2
X1 C
in
R
n.
−
G2
G3
−
io X3
ut
G4
ol
Figure 3 Block diagram feedback system
The nodal variables are X1 , X2 , X3 .
The signal flow graph is shown in Fig. 4.
G1
us
R
G2 1
X2 1 X3 C
vt
X1
G3
G4
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Example 3
Draw the signal flow graph of the system of equations.
a13 X 3
X 1 a11 X 1 a12 X 2 b1 u1
a23 X 3 b2
X 2 a 21 X 1 a 22 X 2 u2
X 3 a 31 X 1 a 32 X 2 a33 X 3
in
The variables are X1 , X2 , X3 , u1 and u2 choose five nodes representing the variables.
Connect the various nodes choosing appropriate branch gain in accordance with the
equations.
The signal flow graph is shown in Fig. 5.
n.
a13
a1
2
u2
u1 b1
io
a11
a21
b2
X2
a32
a3
3
ut
X1
X3
a22
ol
a23
a3
1
us
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in
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ut
ol
us
vt
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Example 4
LRC net work is shown in Fig. 6. Draw its signal flow graph.
R L
e(t) e c(t)
in
i(t)
C
− −
n.
Figure 6 LRC network
The governing differential equations are
L di Ri 1 idt et
or
•
1
di
dt C
Ri ec et
2 dt
io
ut
dec
C it 3
dt
Taking Laplace transform of Eqn.1 and Eqn.2 and dividing Eqn.2 by L and Eqn.3 by C
ol
R 1 1
sI
s i
0 I
S s Es
Ec 4
us
L L L
sE c se c 1
0 I s5
C
Eqn.4 and Eqn.5 are used to draw the signal flow graph shown in Fig.7.
vt
i(0+)
e c(0+)
1
1
1 s R
Ls L
R 1 s
L Cs
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I(s)
E(s)
1
Ls
R
L
in
n.
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vt
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CHAPTER IV : TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE RESPONSE ANALYSIS
A control system, if it is to be of any practical value, must be “STABLE”. This means that, in
response to some input, the system will not oscillate violently or drive itself to some limiting
value of the controlled variable but rather will attain some useful response.
More specifically a stable system is one in which the transients decay, that is, the transient
in
response disappears with increasing values of time.
This latter statement constitutes the basic concept of stability. There are so many techniques
for determining the stability, all are based on the previous definition.
n.
For example, consider the following equations:
..
(i) My + Ky = 0 (Spring mass system)
= Mp2 + K = 0
P
j
1
k
io
ut
2
m
k
ol
= jn n
m
ktc
(ii) cy. + Ky. = 0
us
k
= cp + K = 0 P (root)
c
vt
y = C1ept = c1 e
..
(iii) My + Cy +ky = 0
1
c c 2 4mk 2
P
= Mp2 + Cp + K = 0
2m 2m
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= a jd Solution = y = eat {C1 Sind + C2 cos dt}
in
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Equation 2, and 3, are stable (but not eq.1), since transients will die as t , because of
exponentially decreasing terms.
dy
Now consider y x
dt
in
Here characteristic equation is p1 = 0 p=1
n.
increasing values of time (i.e, yt as t )
The response of the actual system would not of course approach infinity but rather would
proceed to some extreme limiting value determined by the physical nature of the system. Such
a response is of limited practical value
Ch Eq. P2  2 P + 5 = 0 2 4 4 5
p
ol
= 1 j22
and the transient solution is Yt= e1t (C1 Sin 2t+ C2 cos 2t)
us
Here again an oscillatory response is indicated with an amplitude which increases with time
rather than decreases. The physical system would tend to oscillate violently, perhaps
destroying itself
These above examples illustrates the response of systems when the roots of
the characteristic equation are ve or +ve real numbers or complex numbers with +ve real
parts, indicating STABLE and UNSTABLE systems
vt
respectively.
Here, it should be noted that the system input has no effect on stability. Therefore a linear
system which is STABLE to one input is STABLE to all inputs.
So far we have discussed the possibility of having a complex root with +ve or ve real parts.
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But what about the possibility of having complex roots in which the real part is a zero?
Mp2 + K = 0 P j
m
= jn
in
Solution, : C1 sin nt + C2 cos nt
The amplitude of oscillation neither decaying nor growing with time. A system with this
n.
response is said to possess LIMITED STABILITY
Hence border line case between absolute stability and instability is called as
LIMITED STABILITY
io
Consider a 100th degree characteristic equation, suppose that 99 of its roots are either ve real
number or pairs of complex numbers with  ve real
parts, but that remaining single root is a positive number is the system is
STABLE ?
ut
No the system is UNSTABLE
Why?
ol
Because there will be one exponential term in the transient solution which will grow with time
and so the transient solution will approach “infinity” as time approaches infinity.
This above example will emphasise the basic concept of stability and states that
“For absolute stability, all roots must be negative real numbers or complex numbers
us
Since solving a higher degree characteristic equation for its roots is time consuming, the
Routh / Hurwitz criterion can be used to determine whether or not there are +ve roots with out
actually solving it.
vt
We Know,
Every system has to pass through a Transient Stage for a small period before reaching Steady
State.
So, Naturally the question comes in to play“Will the system reach its steady state after
passing through transients”
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STABILITY?
“In response to some input the system will not oscillate violently or drive itself to some
in
limiting value of the controlled value, but rather will attain some useful response”
i.e. A System is Stable if its impulse response approaches zero as time approaches infinity.
The Stability of a System is determined by its response to inputs or disturbances.
n.
In general,
A Stable System is one that will remain at rest unless excited by an external source and will
return to rest if all excitations are removed.
io
Such condition requires that the co efficient of „t‟ in the exponential terms of the Transient
Solution be negative real numbers or Complex numbers with negative real parts.
Therefore,
From the Physical view point, a stable system is one in which the transient die out and the
ol
system “ Settles down” to some useful response.
Mathematically, a system is said to be stable if the roots of the characteristic equation are
negative real number or Complex numbers with negative real parts.
us
In a vast majority of practical systems, the following statements on stability are quite useful.
(i) If all the roots of the characteristic equation have –ve real parts the system is
STABLE.
vt
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(ii) If any root of the characteristic equation has a +ve real part or if there is a repeated
root on the jaxis, the system is unstable
(iii) If condition (i) is satisfied except for the presence of one or more non repeated roots
on the jaxis the system is limitedly STABLE
(i) Absolutely stable with respect to a parameter of the system if it is stable for all values
of this parameter.
in
(ii) Conditionally stable with respect to a parameter, if the system is stable for only
certain bounded ranges of values of this parameter.
It follows from the above discussion that stability can be established by determining the roots
n.
of characteristic equation. Unfortunately, no general formula in algebraic form is available to
determine the roots of characteristic equation of higher than second order. Though the various
numerical methods exist for root determination of characteristic equation, these are quite
cumber some even for third and fourth order systems.
io
However, simple graphical and algebraic criteria have been developed which permit the study
of stability of a system with in the need of actually determining the roots of its characteristic
equation. These criteria answer the question, whether a system be stable or not, in YES or NO
form
ut
The roots of characteristic equations of several systems are given below. Determine in each
case if the set of roots represents stable, marginally stable or unstable systems.
(a) 1, 4, 6, 8, (b) 3, +3, 2, 6,
ol
(c) 5, 4, 0, 6, (d) 2+j, 2j, 3+j, 4+j,
(e) 2+j, 2j, 2j, 2j (f) 4, 3, 2, 6,
(g) 4, 6, 8, 5, (h) 3+2j, 32j, 2, 4,
(i) –j, j, 2, 2, (j) 2, 2+j, 2j, 4,
us
(a) (d) (h) & (j) represents stable system since all the roots
have negative real parts.
(b) (f) (g) and (i) represents unstable systems since each has a
root with a +ve real part
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ii. A system has poles at 2, 4, 6, and zeros 2, 4, 3, is the system is stable?
The system is STABLE since the poles which are the roots of the system characteristic
equation have negative real parts. The fact that the system has a zero with a +ve real part
does not affect its stability.
in
(a) An integrator (it may be written as dy/dt=x)
(b) A step input
(c) Abounded input that produces an unbounded output.
(d) x(t)= Cos wt
(e) x(t) = et sin4t
n.
iv. (a) The characteristic equation of an integrator is S=0. Since the root does not have a –ve
real part an integrator is NOT STABLE. Since there is no root with a +ve real part
an integrator is MARGINALLY STABLE.
E.J. Routh (1877) developed a method for determining whether or not an equation has roots
with + ve real parts with out actually solving for the roots.
us
A necessary condition for the system to be STABLE is that the real parts of the roots of the
characteristic equation have  ve real parts. This insures that the impulse response will decay
exponentially with time.
If the system has some roots with real parts equal to zero, but none with +ve real parts the
vt
It determines the poles of a characteristic equation with respect to the left and the right half of
the Splane with out solving the equation.
The roots of this characteristic equation represent the closed loop poles. The stability of the
system depends on these poles. The necessary, but not
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sufficient conditions for the system having no roots in the right half SPlane are listed below.
(i) All the coefficients of the polynomial must have the same sign.
(ii) All powers of S, must present in descending order.
(iii) The above conditions are not sufficient
In a vast majority of practical systems. The following statements on stability are quite useful.
(i) If all the roots of the characteristic equation have –ve real parts the system is
STABLE.
in
(ii) If any root of the characteristic equation has a +ve real part or if there is a repeated
root on the jaxis, the system is unstable
(iii) (iii) If condition (i) is satisfied except for the presence of one or more non repeated
n.
roots on the jaxis the system is limitedly STABLE
In this instance the impulse response does not decay to zero although it is
bounded. Additionally certain inputs will produce outputs. Therefore marginally stable
systems are UNSTABLE
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The Routh Stability criterion is a method for determining system stability
that can be applied to an nth order characteristic equation of the form
an sn + an1 sn1 + an2 sn2 + an3 sn3 +…………. a1 s1 + a0 = ZERO
The criterion is applied through the use of a Routh Array (Ro uth table)
ut
Defined as follows:
S n4 d1 d2
.
.
vt
S2 e1 a0
S1 f1
S0 a0
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In a similar way the coefficient of 4th , 5th , 6th …..nth and (n+1)th rows are evaluated.
b a a
c1 1 n3 n1b 2
in
b1
b a
1 n5 a
n1b 3
n.
c2 . . . . . . .et.al
b1
d1 =
d2 =
io
This table is continued horizontally and vertically until only zeros are obtained. Any row can
be multiplied by a constant before the next row is computed with out disturbing the properties
ut
of the table.
On the other hand any change of sign in the first column of Routh‟s Array indicates,
(i) The Number of changes of sign gives the number of roots lying in the right half of S
vt
Plane
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Examples:
Ex. 01:
S3 +6S2 +12S+8=0 using Routh‟s method
S3 1 12 0
S2 6 8 0
6 12 8
in
S1 1 64
6 6 0 0
n.
S0 64
8 0
6
64
8
io
ut
6 0 0
There are no sign changes in the first column of the array and so there are no roots with +ve
real parts and hence, the system in question is stable.
ol
Ex. 02: S5 +3S4 +7S3 +20S2 +6S+15=0
S5 1 7 6
us
S4 3 20 15
S3 1/3 1 0
S2 11 15 0
vt
S1 6/11 0 0
S0 15
System is stable
Ex. 03:
S4 +2S3 +3S2+8S+2=0
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S4 1 3 2
S3 2 8 0
S3 1 4 0
S2 1 2 0
S1 6 0 0
S0 2
in
n.
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us
vt
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There are two sign changes (plus to minus & minus to plus) in the first
column, showing that there are two roots with +ve real parts. Therefore the system is
unstable.
Ex. 04:
3S4 +10S3 +5S2 +5S+2=0
S4 3 5 2
in
S3 10 5 0
S3 (2) (1) 0
n.
S2 7/2 2 0
S1 1/7 0
S0 2
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Here two roots are +ve (2 changes of sign) and hence the system is unstable.
ut
Ex. 05:
Examine the stability of
S5 1 4 3
S4 2 8 1
us
S3 0 2.5 0
S1   Routh‟s arra y failed
Ex. 06:
S5 +2S4 +2S3 +4S2 +4S+8=0
S5 1 2 4
S4 2 4 8
(S4) (2) (4)
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(1)
in
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Special cases:
Occasionally, in applying the Routh stability criterion certain difficulties arise causing the
break down of the Routh‟s test.
Difficulty 01:
When the first term in any row of the Routh array is zero while rest of the row has at least one
non zero term.
in
[Because of this zero term, the terms in the next row become infinite and Routh‟s test breaks
down]
n.
Difficulty 02:
When all the elements in any one row of the Routh array are zero.
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Because of a zero row in the array the Routh‟s test breaks down.
Difficulty 01:
S5 1 4 3
us
S4 2 8 1
S3 0 2.5 0
S1   Routh‟s arra y failed
vt
Here it indicates that first term in horizontal 3rd row of Routh's array is zero while rest of the
row has atleast one non zero term
METHOD – 1
(i) Replace zero by a small +ve number and complete the Routh‟s array
(ii) Examine the signs of the first column of Routh‟s array by letting 0
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S5 1 4 3
S 4
2 8 1
0
3
S 2. 5
8 0
S2 5 .1 0
1
in
8
S1 5
n.
2.5
8 0 0
5
S0 1
io
ut
8 5 5
Now, lt 0 =81t 8
ol
Again,
us
8 5
2
2.5 8 52.5
vt
It 8 It
5 8 5
0 0
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12.5
= It 2.5
5
0
in
n.
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ut
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vt
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S5 1 4 3
S4 2 8 1
S3 2.5 0
S2  1 0
in
S1 2.5 0 0
S0 1 0 0
n.
There are two changes of sign in the first column, and hence the system is UNSTABLE (i.e.
having two poles in the right half of Splane)
METHOD – 2
io
(i) Modify the original characteristic equations by replacing S by 1/Z
(ii) Apply the Routh‟s test on the modified equation in terms of Z
(iii) The number of Zroots with +ve real parts are the same as the number of Sroots with +ve
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real parts
(iv) Use same Routh criterion to determine status of the system with given polynomial for
the same above
For the problem discussed above, (i.e, example 05) let us try this method 2
ol
Example
S5 +2S4 +4S3 +8S2 +3S+1=Zero
us
1 2 4 8 3
1 0
Z5 Z4 Z3 Z2
vt
Z
OR
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Z5 1 8 2
Z4 3 4 1
Z3 6.67 1. 67 0
Z2 3.25 1 0
in
Z1 0.382 0 0
n.
Z0 1 0 0
There are two changes of sign in the first column of the Routh‟s array which tells us that there
are two Zroots in the right half Z  plane. Therefore the number of Sroots in the right half S 
plane is also two
S5 1 2 4
us
S4 2 4 8
Here it indicates that all the elements in the 3rd row of the routh array is zero
This condition indicates that there are symmetrically located roots in the Splane (pair of real
roots with opposite signs and/or pair (pairs) of conjugate roots on the imaginary axis and / or
complex conjugate roots forming quadrates in the Splane)
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[This polynomial gives the number and location of root pairs of characteristic equation
which are symmetrically located in the Splane. The order of the auxiliary polynomial
is always even]
(ii) Replace the row of zeros in the Routh‟s array by a row of coefficients of the
polynomial generated by taking the first derivative of the
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auxiliary polynomial.
(iii) Continue the Routh‟s array and status of the polynomial may be determined by using
the same Routh‟s criterion discussed earlier.
n.
Now, the auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficient of the S 4 row, which is
given by
io
The derivative of the above polynomial with respect to S, is
dA(S )
8S 3 8S dS
The zeros in the S3 row are now replaced by the coefficients 8 and 8 and continue the
Routh‟s array
ut
S5 1 2 4 S5 1 2 4
S4 2 4 8 S4 1 2 4
ol
S3 8 8 0 S3 4 4 0
or
S2 2 8 0 S2 1 4 0
us
S1  24 0 S1 12 0
S0 8 S0 4
Here, there are two changes of sign and hence, the system is UNSTABLE
vt
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Ex: . . . . . ?
S4 1 11 K
S3 6 6 0
in
S2 10 K 0
60
S1 6k
0 0
10
n.
S0 K
parameter K:
We get
vt
S4 1 7 K
S3 4 6 0
S2 5.5 K
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33
1
S 4k
0
5.5
S0 K
The system will stable if no change of sign occurs in the first column.
in
K > 0 and 33 4k > 0 = 334K > 0 or 4K < 33 K< 33/4
5.5
n.
Example:
(i) S2 +KS+(2K1) = 0
S2 1 (2K1)
S1
S0
K
2K1 io
0
ut
2K1 > 0, K> 0
2K > 1
K>½
ol
S4 1 11 K
S3 6 6 0
S2 10 K 0
vt
60
S1 6k
0 0
10
S0 K
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in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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The Hurwitz Stability Criterion is another method for determining whether or not all the roots
of a characteristics equation have –ve real parts. This criterion is applied through the use of
determinants formed from the coefficients of characteristic equation.
in
H= n =
W.K.T. Characteristic equation
n.
Then n, can be written as,
if n,
a o odd
if n,
an1
io
a n 3 a1 even
if n,
o …. o
ut
an a n2 a 1 odd o …. o
if n,
a0 even
H=
N
ol
o a n1 a n3 o
a n2 
o an  o

o 
us


 an
1 = an1
an1 a0
2 =
an an2
For Ex:
If n=3, then Hurwitz determinant can be written as
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WKT Characteristic Eq: a3S3 +a2S2 +a1S1 +a0 = 0
a2 a0 0
a3 a1 0
H =
0 a2 a0
then 1 = a2,
in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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a2 a0
2 = a
a3 1
a2 a0 0
3 = a3 a1 0
0 a2 a0
in
Thus all the roots of characteristic equation have –ve real part if
1 = a2 > 0
n.
2 = a2 a1 – a3 a0 > 0
3 = a1 a2 a0 – a02 a3 >
0
io
Again for Ex: if n = 4, The Characteristic Equation: = a4S4 +
(i) It is very complicated and time consuming for solving higher order system.
(ii) This method is unable to find the exact number of poles located in the right half of
Splane
(iii) It is very tough to predict marginal stability
vt
EX: 01
s4 + 3 s3 + 6 s2 + 9 s+ 12 =0
The Hurwitz arrangement is given below
3 9 0 0
1 6 12 0
0 3 9 0
0 1 6 12
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1 = 3>0
2 = 18  9 = 9 > 0
System is UNSTABLE
in
Ex 02
S2 + KS + (2K1) = 0
n.
K 0
H= 1 = K, 2 = K (2K1)0
1 (2K1) = 2K 2  K
io
in order for these determinants be +ve, it is necessary that
ut
K > 0 and 2K – 1> 0
i.e., K > ½
EXERCISES CONDITION?
4 s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 5 = 0
(March 2001)
us
s4 + 5s3 +5S2 + 4S +K = 0
(Feb 2005)
vt
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CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION
in
and characteristic equation is given by
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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CHAPTER V: FREQUENCY RESPONSE
Polar plots can be used to predict feed back control system stability by the application of Nyquist
in
Criterion, and therefore are also referred as Nyquist Plots. It is a labor saving technique in the
analysis of dynamic behaviour of control systems in which the need for finding roots of
n.
Consider a typical closed loop control system which may be represented by the simplified block
io C(S)
ut
R(S) + G(S)

ol
H(S)
The closed loop transfer function or the relationship between the output and input of the system
is given by
C(S ) G(S )
vt
R(S ) 1 G( S )H (S )
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The open loop transfer function is G(S) H(S) (the transfer function with the feedback loop
1+ G(S) H(S) is called Characteristic Function which when equated to zero gives the
in
The characteristic function F(S) = 1 + G(S) H(S) can be expressed as the ratio of two factored
polynomials.
n.
K (S Z1 )(S Z 2 ).............(S Z n )
Let F (S ) 1 G(S )H (S ) k
S (S P )(S P )(S P )..........(S Z )
1 2 3 n
Then:
io
ut
–Z1, Z2, Z3 …. –Zn are the roots of the characteristic equation
Similarly:
For stable operation of control system all the roots of characteristic equation must be
negative real numbe rs or complex numbers with negative real parts. Therefore, for a system
to be stable all the “Zeros” of characteristic equation (function) should be either negative real
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numbers or complex numbers with negative real parts. These roots can be plotted on a complex
plane or Splane in which the imaginary axis divides the complex plane in to two parts: right half
plane and left half plane. Negative real numbers or complex numbers with negative real parts lie
in
Left half Img Right half
of S Plane of S Plane
3+j2
·
·
n.
2+j1
Real
3j2·
io · 2j1
ut
Figure 6.5 Two halves of Complex Plane
Therefore the roots which are positive real numbers or complex numbers with positive real parts
In view of this, the condition for stability can be stated as “For a system to be stable all the
zeros of characte ristic equation should lie on the left half of Splane”.
us
Therefore, the procedure for investigating system stability is to search for „Zeros‟ on the right
half of Splane, which would lead the system to instability, if present. However, it is
impracticable to investigate every point on Splane as to which half of Splane it belongs to and
vt
so it is necessary to have a shortcut method. Such a procedure for searching the right half of S
plane for the presence of Zeros and interpretation of this procedure on the Polar plot is given by
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In order to investigate stability on the Polar plot, it is first necessary to correlate the region of
instability on the Splane with identification of instability on the polar plot, or 1+GH plane. The
1+GH plane is frequently the name given to the plane where 1+G(S) H(S) is plotted in complex
coordinates with S replaced by j. Likewise, the plot of G(S) H(S) with S replaced by j is often
in
termed as GH plane. This terminology is adopted in the remainder of this discussion.
n.
The Nyquist Criterion is based on the Cauchy‟s principle of argument of complex variable
theory. Consider [F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S)] be a single valued rational function which is analytic
io
everywhere in a specified region except at a finite number of points in Splane. (A function F(S)
is said to be analytic if the function and all its derivatives exist). The points where the function
and its derivatives does not exist are called singular points. The poles of a point are singular
ut
points.
ol
Let CS be a closed path chosen in Splane as shown Figure 6.6 (a) such that the function F(S) is
analytic at all points on it. For each point on C S represented on Splane there is a corresponding
us
mapping point in F(S) plane. Thus when mapping is made on F(S) plane, the curve C G mapped
by the function F(S) plane is also a closed path as shown in Figure 6.6 (b). The direction of
traverse of CG in F(S) plane may be clockwise or counter clockwise, depending upon the
vt
Then the Cauchy principle of argument states that: The mapping made on F(S) plane will
encircle its origin as many number of times as the difference betwe en the numbe r of Zeros
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in
S3 GS2
CG
S4
j
j
n.
Figure 6.6 (a) Figure 6. 6 (b)
Thus N =Z–P
N0+j0 = Z – P
io
Where N 0+j0 : Number of encirclements made by F(S) plane plot (C G) about its origin.
ut
Z and P: Number of Zeros and Poles of F(S) respectively enclosed by the locus C S in the S
plane.
ol
Poles: 0, 3, 5, (5 –j2), (5 +j2) indicated by X (Cross) in Splane: As shown in Figure 6.6 (c)
vt
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CS2 CS1
CG1
CG2
σ CS1 σ σ (0+j0) σ
CG2
CG2
in
O: ZEROS
X: P OL ES
CS2 j
j
n.
Figure 6.6 (c) Figure 6.6 (d)
Z: 2, P =1
io
Consider another path C S2 (CCW) in the same S plane for which:
Z = 1, P = 4
ut
CG1 and CG2 are the corresponding paths on F(S) plane [Figure 6.6 (d)].
CG1 will encircle the origin once in the same direction of CS1 (CCW)
us
N0+j0 = Z – P = 1 – 4 =  3
CG2 will encircle the origin 3 times in the opposite direction of CS2 (CCW)
vt
Note: The mapping on F(S) plane will encircle its origin as many number of times as the
difference between the number of Zeros and Poles of F(S) enclosed by the Splane locus.
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In the expression
N= Z  P,
N = 0 when: Z=P
in
N can be negative when: Z<P
When N is positive the map C G encircles the origin N times in the same direction as that of
n.
CS
systems. We have seen that if the Zeros of characteristic function lie on the right half of Splane
ol
it will lead to system instability. Now, to encircle the entire right half of Splane, select a closed
path as shown in Figure 6.6 (e) such that all the Zeros lying on the righthalf of Splane will lie
inside this path. This path in Splane is known as Nyquist path. Nyquist path is generally taken
us
in CCW direction. This path consists of the imaginary axis of the Splane (S = 0+j,  < < )
and a closing semicircle of infinite radius. If the system being tested has poles of F(S) on the
imaginary axis, it is customary to modify the contour as shown Figure 6.6 (f) excluding these
vt
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+j∞ Splane
+j
+j
r= ∞
0+j0 S=+j0 r= ∞
σ 0j0 σ
σ S= j0 σ
r≈ 0
in
j
S= j∞
n.
j∞ j
Figure 6.6 (e): Nyquist Path Figure 6. 6 (f)
Corresponding to the Nyquist path a plot can be mapped on F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S) plane as shown
counted.
1+ G(S) H(S) plane
io
in Figure 6.6 (g) and the number of encirclements made by this F(S) plot about its origin can be
ut
Img
ol
0+j0
Real Real
us
Img
N0+j0 = ZP
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Apart from this, the Nyquist path can also be mapped on G(S) H(S) plane (Open loop transfer
Now consider
F(S) = 1+ G(S) H(S) for which the origin is (0+j0) as shown in Figure 6.6 (g).
in
Therefore G(S) H(S) = F(S) – 1
n.
Figure 6.6(h)
G(S) H(S) plane
Img
(1+j0)
0+j0
io
ut
Origin of the plot
for G(S) H(S)
Thus a path on 1+ G(S) H(S) plane can be easily converted to a path on G(S) H(S) plane or open
loop transfer function plane. This path will be identical to that of 1+G(S) H(S) path except that
us
the origin is now shifted to the left by one as shown in Figure 6.6 (h).
This concept can be made use of by making the plot in G(S) H(S) plane instead of 1+ G(S) H(S)
plane. The plot made on G(S) H(S) plane is termed as the Niquist Plot and its net encirclements
vt
about (1+j0) (known as critical point) will be the same as the number of net encirclements made
by F(S) plot in the F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S) plane about the origin.
N1+j0 = ZP
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Where N 1+j0 = Number of net encircle ments made by the G(S) H(S) plot (Nyquist Plot) in
the
N1+j0 = P
Thus the Nyquist Criterion for a stable system can be stated as The number of net
in
encircle ments made by the Nyquist plot in the G(S) H(S) plane about the critical point (
1+j0) is equal to the number of poles of F(S) lying in right half of Splane.
n.
[Encircle ments if any will be in the opposite direction. Poles of F(S) are the same as the
io
Thus the stability of closedloop control system is determined from its open loop transfer
function.
ut
ol
us
vt
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CHAPTER VI
Frequency Response:
The term frequency response refers to the steady state response of a system subjected to a
sinusoidal input of fixed amplitude, but with the frequency varied over some range. This
concept is illustrated in the figure shown, in which a linear system is forced by an input a sin
in
t.
b (sinωt+Φ)
n.
a sinωt
Input
0
a B
io
ut
Φ
Output
ol
Frequency Response
us
The output is b Sin (t + ). The expression for the output is given in general form in which
+ indicates the addition of anangle which may be either positive or negative.
The input and output wave forms are as shown and of interest is the ratio of the amplitudes
and the phase angle , both of which are functions of frequency.
vt
This ratio, is commonly called as “Magnitude Ratio” and will be designated as M().
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in
Step.3: For various values of frequency , determine the magnitude ratio „M‟ and the phase
angle .
Step.4: Plot the results form the above step 3, in polar coordinate or rectangular coordinator
n.
form. These plots are not only convenient means for presenting frequency response
data, but are also the basis for analytical and design methods.
Frequency response data can be presented in rectangular coordinate form. The most useful
representation is a “logarithmic” plot which consists of two graphs one consists of logarithm
scale”.
Here curves are drawn on Semi log paper, using log scale for frequency and the linear scale
ol
for either magnitude (db) or phase angle (degrees).
The main advantage of using the logplot is that multiplication of magnitudes can be
converted into additions.
us
Basic Factors:
Four basic factors,
jw jw 1
2
iv) Quadratic factors, 1 2
n n
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We can draw log plots of these basic factions, then it is possible to use these basic plots to
construct a composite log plot of any general factors of G (jw) H(jw) by sketching curves for
each factor and adding individual curves graphically because adding log of gains corresponds
to multiplying them together
in
Mag = 20 log10  G(jw)  db
n.
1 3 5 71
+ 80
60
10) + 20
40
io
ut
ZERO
 20
ol
db
 40
2 3 4
 60 0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
us
K (indb) = 20 log10 K db
vt
i.e A logmag curve for a constant gain K, is a horizontal straight line at the magnitude of 20
log10 K db
M = 20 log10 K
= ZERO
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1 3 571
+ 80
a. Gain K K
1
+ 60
1
(i) (K)
2
+ 40 +1 K = 10
(K)
(M) + 20 K = 10
in
ZERO
 20 1
K = 10
Db (K)
2
 40 K = 10
n.
 60
jw 1 io
ut
1
i) ,
jw
1
M = 20 log jw = 20 log10
ol
= 20 log10 db
M
1 Zero Slope = 20 db / decade
10  20
us
100  40
1000  60 = tan = 90
1 3 571
+ 80
vt
1
+ 60 b. Integral or derivative factor
1
j
(i) (J)
+ 40
(M) + 20
ZERO
 20 1
db (J) 20 db/deca de,
 40 Slope,
 60
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2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
ii) jw1
M = 20 log jw
= 20 log10 w db
M
1 Zero Slope = + 20 db / decade
in
10 + 20
102 + 40
103 + 60
= + tan = + 90
n.
+ 80
+ 60
1 3 571
io
ut
1
b. Integral or derivative factor j
+1
+ 40 (ii) (J) +1
(J)
(M) + 20
ol
+20 db/decade,
ZERO Slope,
 20
us
db
 40
 60
vt
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
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1
M = 20 log n
( j)
n
= 20 log (j)
in
= 20 x n log (j)
Slope =  20 x n db / decade
n.
Similarly =  90 x n
+n
(b) (j)
M = 20 log (j)n
= 20 x n log (j)
Slope = 20 x n db / decade io
ut
Similarly = + 90 x n
ol
1 3 57 1
+ 80
n
+ 40 + 40 db/de (n=2)
n
(M) + 20 j
ZERO
vt
n
 20 j
db
 40  40 db/de (n=2)
 60  60 db/de (n=3)
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
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+ 160
n
+ 120 b. (iii)j
n=4
in
+ 80 n=3 n
j
+ 40 n=2
n.
ZERO
 40
db n=2
n
 80
 120
0.01 0.1
io1.0 10
n=4
n=3
10
j
2
10
3
ut
1
ol
(c) First order factors : (1 + jwT)
1 1
(i) (1 + jwT) = (1 jwT )
us
1
(1jwT
M = 20 log10 = )
2 2 2
1 T
vt
=  20 log10 (1 + jwT)
T
=  20 log10 db
h
e
in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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Now M
1
T Zero
10
 20 Slope =  20 db / decade
T
10
 40
T
1
=  ta n T
in
0 0
1 1
 tan 1 = 45
T
n.
=  tan1 = 90
+ 80 io
C First order Factors 1 jT
ut
1
+ 60
(i) 1 jT
ol
+ 40 1
T = 0.1
us
(M) + 20
1
ZERO CF = T = 10
 20
20 db/de
vt
db
 40 1 1
2
0 10
 60 T T T
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2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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+1
(ii) (1+ J T)
 M  = 20 log  1 + J T 
2 2 2
= 20 log10 1 T db
1
Now, for low frequencies, i.e <<
T
in
i.e, T << 1
M = 20 log10 = Zero
If T >>1, Then,
n.
M = 20 log10 T db
(M)
1
If T Zero
10
T
10
2
+ 20 db
+ 40 db
io
Slope = +20 db/decade
ut
T
3
10
+ 60 db
T
ol
= tan1 (T)
0 0
us
1
1
T tan 1 = 45
1
tan = 90
vt
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+ 80
1
+ 60 C First order Factors 1 jT
1jT
1
+ 40 (ii)
in
(M) + 20 +20 db/de
ZERO T = 0.1
n.
CF = 10
 20
1
2
db 1 0 10
 40
 60
0.1 1.0 io
T
10
T
10
2
T
10
3
10
4
ut
ol
+ 80
1
C First order Factors1 jT
+ 60 31 jT
us
1
(iii) 2
+ 40 1
(M) + 20 T CF
1 0.2 5.0
vt
ZERO
2 0.4 2.5
 20 3 0.8 1.25
db
1 1
1 jT
 40 2
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 60 3
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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n
(iii) for (1+jT)
n
We can show that in case of (1+jT)
db
Slope =  20 x n dec ade
for n = 2 Slope = 40 db/de
= 3 = 60 db/de
: :
in
10 = 200 db/de
again, = tan1 T x n
n.
+ 80
+ 60
C First order
io
Factors 1 jT
n=4
1
n=3
1jT
n
ut
+ 40 (iv) n=2
(M) + 20
ZERO
ol
 20
db
n=2 n
us
 40 1jT
n=3
 60
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
vt
+n
In case of (1+jT)
and = tan1 T x n
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x dy
C ky
kxt dt
K
. .
c
in
yk xt yk
y k x(t)
C
n.
Taking laplace, and rearranging the terms, we get transfer function.
TF Y (S ) 1 1
X (S ) 1 S 1 TS io
ut
C
Where = Time constant = T
k
ol
Now making substitution, S=J and assuming some suitable value for
=0.1 see, yields
Y ( j) 1 1
1
us
x( j) = j = 10.1 j
Now a table can be constructed giving the magnitude ratio M(w) and the phase angle (w)
Y 1 1
= =
1 12
2
x 1 j1
1
= 1. 41 45
= 0.71 45
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in
10 0. 71 45
20 0. 45 63. 4
40 0. 24 76. 0
n.
0. 00 90
M=20log 10 M
M()
(rad/sec)
O
2 io
1. 0
0. 98
(dec ibels)
Zero
0. 175
ut
5 0. 89 1. 01
10 0. 71 2. 97
20 0. 45 6. 93
40 0. 24 12. 39
ol
0. 00
Y (s) k
X (s) Ms 2 CS k
M
y 1 1
2
C M C s 2 S
s2 S 1 1
2
k k n n
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let us assume, natural frequency = 10 rad/sec and a damping ratio of 0.5, and making the
substitution s = j,yields,
Y ( j) 1 1
2 2
0.01( j) 0.1 j (1 0. 01 )
x( j) = 1 = j.0. 1
in
Now, a table is made giving the magnitude ratio and phase angle for various values of , let
=5, as an example, then
Y 1
n.
(0 1.25)
x = j0.5
1
=
0.9 33.7
= 1.11 33.7
io
ut
M() () (de grees)
(rad/sec)
O 1.0 Zero
ol
2 1. 02 11.8
5 1. 11 33.7
8 1. 14 65.8
us
10 1.0 90
12 0. 78 110.1
15 0. 51 129.8
vt
20 0. 28 146.3
40 0. 06 165.1
70 0. 02 171.7
0. 00 180.0
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M( )
M()
(rad/sec) (dec ibels)
O 1.0 Zero
2 1. 02 0. 172
5 1. 11 0. 906
in
8 1. 14 1. 138
10 1.0 Zero
n.
12 0. 78 2.15
15 0. 51 5.84
20 0. 28 11.5
40
70 io 0. 06
0. 02
24.43
33.97
ut
0. 00
ol
us
vt
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1
(d) Quadratic factors: 2 j j2 1
n n
1
2
(i) j j
12
n n
1
= M = 20 log10
j j 2
in
1 2
n n
j
n.
2
j
=  20 log10 1 2
n n
2
= 20 log10
1
n
2
j
2
io
n
2 1/ 2
ut
2 2
= 20 log10 1 2
2
n
n
ol
If <<n , then
(M) =  20 log10 1 = ZERO db
If >>n , then,
us
2
( M) = 20l og10
vt
=  40 log10 db
n
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= 10 n = 40 log10 = 40 db
Slope =  40 db/deca de
in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt
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Phase angle:
2/
n
= tan1
/ 2
1
n
in
If = 0, = tan1 0 = ZERO
n.
0
= = tan1 2 =  180
io
ut
1 3 5 71
+ 80
(d) Quadratic factors 1
ol
1 3 571
+ 80
(C) Quadratic factors
+ 60
us
(ii) [ ] 1
+ 40 C.F = 1.0
Slope:+40 db/de
(M) + 20
vt
ZERO
 20
db
 40
 60 2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
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CHAPTER VIII
System Compensation.
Introduction:
Automatic control systems have played a vital role in the advancement of science and
in
engineering. In addition to its extreme importance in sophisticated systems in Space vehicles,
missile guidance, aircraft navigating systems, etc., automatic control system as become an
important and integral part of manufacturing and industrial processes. Control of process
n.
parameters like pressure, temperature, flow, viscosity, speed, humidity, etc., in process
engineering and tooling, handling and assembling mechanical parts in manufacturing industries
among others in engineering field where automatic control systems are inevitable part of the
system.
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A control system is designed and constructed to perform specific functional task. The concept of
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control system design starts by defining the output variable( Speed, Pressure, Temperature Etc.,)
and then determining the required specification ( Stability, Accuracy, and speed of response). In
the design process the designs must first select the control Media and then the control elements
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to meet the designed ends.
In actual practice several alternative can be analyzed and a final judgment can be made an
overall performances and economy.
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Systems have been categorized as manual and automatic systems. Based on the type of control
needed most systems are categorized as  Manual & Automatic. In applications where systems
are to be operated with limited or no supervision, then systems are made automatic and where
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system needs supervision the system is designed as manual. In the presentday context most of
the systems are designed as automatic systems for which one of the important considerations was
economics. However, the necessity for the system to be made as an automatic system is to make
sure that the system performs with no scope for error which otherwise is prone to a lot of errors
especially in the operations. Other classification of a system is based on the input and output
relationships. Accordingly, in an Open Loop Control System the output is independent of the
input and in a closed loop control system the output is dependant on the input. The term input
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refers to reference variable and the output is referred to as Controlled variable. Most of the
systems are designed as closed loop systems where a feedback path with an element with a
transfer function would help in bridging the relationship between the input and the output.
A system can be represented by the block diagram and from a s imple to a complicated system,
reduction techniques can be used to obtain the overall transfer function of the system. Overall
system Transfer function can also be obtained by another technique using signal flow analysis
where the transfer function of the system is obtained from Mason‟s gain formula. Once the
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system is designed, the response of the system may be obtained based on the type of input. This
is studied in two categories of response namely response of the systemic time domain and
frequency domain. The system thus conceived and designed needs to be analyzed based on the
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same domains. At this stage the systems are studied from the point of view of its operational
features like Stability, Accuracy and Speed of Response. Development of various systems have
been continuous and the history of the same go back to the old WATT‟S
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Speed Governor, which was considered as an effective means of speed regulation. Other control
system examples are robot arm, Missile Launching and Guidance System, Automatic Aircr aft
Landing System, Satellite based digital tracking systems,etc to name a few. In the design of the
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control systems, three important requirements are considered namely STABILITY,
ACCURACY and SPEED OF RESPONSE.
Stable Systems are those where response to input must reach and maintain some useful value
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with in a reasonable period of time. The designed systems should both be Unstable Systems as
unstable control
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systems produce persistent or even violent oscillations of the output and output will be driven to
some extreme limiting value.
Systems are also designed to meet certain levels of Accuracy. This is a relative term with limits
based upon a particular application. A time measurement system may be from a simple watch to
a complicated system used in the sports arena. But the levels of accuracy are different in both
cases. One used in sports arena must have very high levels of sophistication and must be reliable
showing no signs of variations. However, this feature of the system is purely based on the system
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requirement. For a conceived, designed and developed system, the higher the levels of Accuracy
expected, higher is the Cost.
The third important requirement comes by way of SPEED OF RESPONSE. System must
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complete its response to some input within an acceptable period of time. System has no value if
the time required to respond fully to some input is far greater than the time interval between
inputs
EXAMPLES
DIGITAL CAMERA
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In the present day technology, a digital camera is a mechatronic system with many
features and multiple functions. The same camera is used to capture still images as well
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as video recording of
events. The controls are so effective that the change of light or the
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shoot the best subject with the same finesse as that of a professional. The three
basic requirements of the control system must be met in order tot see that the
system is highly efficient.
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Another example of a control system is the automatic traffic control system. Most of
these signals are timer based. But these days with the advent of new technology,
these systems are becoming intelligent systems which adopt themselves to the
present conditions and work for the best results. In case of a Traffic light in a four
road junction, the signal may overlook the normal routine when there traffic is more
in one direction. Also, present day networking technology has helped in integrating
of multiple computers so that system can share information needed for effective
control of traffic.
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Basic Characteristics Of Lead, Lag And LagLead
n.
Compensation:
R(S)
COMPENSATOR
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C(S)
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FEEDBACK
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ELELMENT
and a small imrovement in steady state accuracy. Lag compensation on the other hand,
yields an appreciable improvement in steady state accuracy ast the expense of increasing
theh transient responsetime. Lag lead compensation combines the characterisitcs of both
lead compensation and lag compensation. The use of a lead or lag
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compenastion saises the order of the system by one. The use of a lag lead compensator raises the
order of the system by two (unless cancellation occurs between the zeroes of the lag lead
network and the poles of the uncompensated open loop transfer function), which means that the
system becomes more complex and it is more difficult to control the transient response behavior.
The particular situation determines the type of the compensation to be used.
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Lead Compe nsation
Procdure for the design of suitable compensator starts from the type of network adopted in the
process. For example a Mechanical Network or an electrical network and derive the transfer
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function for the type of network chosen.Once the transfer fucntion is obtained, then the
procedure for designing lead compensator based on the rootlocus aproach or frequency response
approach.
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Lead Network. A schematic diagram of an electrial lead network is shown . Mechanical Network
comprises of SPRINGS and DAMPERS and Electrical Network comprises of RESISTORS
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AND CAPACITORS. The name lead network comes from the fact that for a sinusoidal input, ei,
the output e0 of the network is also sinusoidal with phase lead. The phase lead angle is a function
of the input frequency.
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20) Basic Step involves finding out the Transfer Function (TF) of the network
21) Next step involves procedures for designing lead compensator based on the root
locus approach and /or Frequency Response approach
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1. TRANSFER FUNCTION
11) Consider a system represented by an ELECTRICAL & a MECHANICAL
network
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12) Lead Network comes from the fact that for a sinusoidal input ei, the output eo is also
sinusoidal with phase lead
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• This has a ZERO at s= (1/T)
• This has a POLE at s = (1/αT)
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• Minimum value of α is limited by the physical construction of the lead network
• If α is very very small then it is necessary to cascade an amplifier in order to
compensate for the attenuation of the lead network.
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D In the polar plot, for a given value of α, the angle between the positive real axis and the
tangent line drawn from the origin to the semicircle gives the MAXIMUM PHASE
ANGLE Φm
E Frequency at the tangent point is ωn
F Phase angle at ω = ωn is given by
G Sin Φm = (1α/2)/(1+α/2)= (1α)/(1+α)
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H Shows relationship of LEAD ANGLE &Value α
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(N) In Bode Plot of lead network for α=0.1 shows that corner frequency as ω=1/T and
ω=1/αT , ωm is the geometric mean of two corner frequencies
(O) Log ωm = ½ { log(1/T) + log(1/ αT)}, which is ωm = 1/√ αT
(P) Lead Network is a high pass filter ,hence low frequenc ies are attenuated
(Q) Additional GAIN is required elsewhere to increase low frequency gain
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Consider the elctrical lead network as shown. Using defined symbols, Z1={R1/(R2Cs+1)}
and Z2= R2
The transfer function between the output Eo(s) and input Ei(s) is [Eo(s)/Ei(s) ] =
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[Z2/(Z1+Z2)]
= [R2/(R1+R2)] [(R1Cs+1)/((R1R2/R1+R2)Cs+1)] Defining R1C=T &
[R2/(R1+R2)]=α<1 and substituting in the above, then the transfer fucntion becomes
[Eo(s)/Ei(s) ] = α{Ts+1/ (αTs+1)} =[( s+(1/T))/ (s+(1/ αT))]
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[Eo(s)/Ei(s)] = [(s+(1/T))/ (s+(1/ αT))]
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On the similar lines, the transfer fucntion for a mecanical lead network may also be
obtained which is the same as that of an electrical lead network.
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ZERO is always located to the right of the pole in the complex plane. It may also be noted tat for
a small value of α, the pole is located far to the left. The minimum value of α is limited by the
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physical construction of the lead network. The minimum value of α is usually taken to be 0,.07.
If the value of α is small, it is necessary to cascade an amplifier in order to compensate for the
attenaution of the lead network. In the polar plot of the lead network replacing s by jω
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α [(jωT+1)/( jω αT+1)] (0< α<1)
For a given value of α, the angle between the positive real axis and
the tangent line drawn from the origin to the semicircle gives the
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the figure it is clear that ωm is the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies or ,
Log ωm = ½[ log (1/T) + log 1/( αT)] ω = ωm =
1/√ αT
As seen from the figure, the lead network is basically a high passs filter. (The high
frequencies are passed but the low frequencies are attenuated). Therefore an additional
gain elsewhere is needd to increase the low frequency gain.
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LAG COMPENSATION: The Procedural aspects of designing a suitable lag
compensator is exactly the same as given in the lead compensator design.
SYSTEM COMPENSATION
n.
Compensation is the minor adjustment of a system in order to satisfy the given
specifications. Specification refers to the objective of a system to perform and obtain the
expected output after the system is provided with a proper input. Some of the needs o f the
system compensation are as specified.
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PERFORMANCE SPECIIFICATIONS  Control systems are designed to perform
specified tasks. The requirements imposed upon the control system are usually spelled out as
performance specifications. They generally relate to accuracy, relative stability and speed of
response. For routine design problems, performance specifications may be given in terms of
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precise numerical value. In other cases, they may be given partially in terms of numerical
values and partially in terms of qualitative statements. In the latter case, the specifications
may have to be modified during the course of design since the given specifications may have
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to be modified during the course of design since the design specifications may never be
satisfied (because of conflicting requirements) or may lead to a very complicated system or
may also be a system which in not an economical system or an expensive system.
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Generally speaking, the performance specifications should not be more stringent than
necessary to perform the given task. If the accuracy at steady state operation is of prime
importance in a given control system, then the performance specifications on the transient
response must not be rigid since such specifications will require expensive components or
make the system expensive. Most important feature of the control system is to state the
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performance specifications precisely so that they will yield an optimal control system for the
given purpose. In general the desired objectives must be achievable & subjective based on
the product features so that the cost of the product is kept in mind before the same is
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designed.
TRIAL & ERROR APPROACH TO SYSTEM DESIGN 
In most practical cases, the design method to be used maybe
determined by the performance specifications applicable to the particular case. In designing
control systems, if the performance specifications are given in terms of time domain
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performance measures, such as rise time, maximum overshoot or settling time or frequency
domain performance measures such as Phase Margin, Gain Margin, resonant peak value, or
bandwidth, then, there is no other choice but to use the method of trial and error approach
based on Root Locus Method and/or Frequency response method.
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The systems which may be designed by a trial and error approach are usually limited to single
input and single out put linear time invariant systems. The designer repetition. After a system
is designed, the designer checks to see if the designed system satisfies all the performance
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specifications. If it does not, then design process is repeated by adjusting parameter settings or
by changing the system configurations until the given specifications are met. Alt hough the
design is based on the trial and error procedure, the ingenuity and the know how of the
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In analysis we have seen that system a gain is adjusted to meet the requirements of control
system specification. However high gain results in reduction of steadystate error but reduces
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stability of the system when this is not found sufficient in the design of control system. It is
required to modify the shape of the actual plot. This is done by redesigning the system and
the control elements. This is done by placing compensating elements in series or parallel.
Series compensation is placed in feed forward loop. Parallel compensation is placed in feed
back loop.
Compensation devices have been classified into three categories. The irst is phaseLag,
second is phase lead and the third is Laglead Compensation.
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General Consideration To Choose Compensating Devices
There are many specific criteria which can be used to determine the form of
compensating elements and the particulars value for the parameters. However it is
possible to make some generalized characteristics which serve as guides to choose
specific compensating elements.
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Firstly in the lower range of frequencies (Frequencies below crossover point) it is
desirable that the output of the system follow the references variable with a minimum of
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error. This correspond to a high dB level at low frequencies in BODE Diagram.
Secondly in the middle range frequencies (i.e. frequencies near the crossover point) slope
of attenuation curve should be limited to 20 db/decade. This generalization refers to
systems which are unstable.
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Third at high frequency range ( Frequencies above the crossover point), it is genera lly
desirable to attenuate as rapidly as possible i.e greater negative attenuation.
It is therefore appropriate to point out that compensation is an area which requires
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creative application of the basic principles to meet the stated set of specification.
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