Sunteți pe pagina 1din 122

Vtusolution.

in

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

A control system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a


manner as to command, direct, or regulate itself or another system, or is that means by which
any quantity of interest in a system is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired
manner.

in
Any control system consists of three essential components namely input, system and
out put. The input is the stimulus or excitation applied to a system from an external energy
source. A system is the arrangement of physical components and output is the actual
response obtained from the system. The control system may be one of the following type.

n.
1) man made
2) natural and / or biological and
3) hybrid consisting of man made and natural or biological.
Examples:
1) An e lectric s witc h is ma n ma de c ontrol s ys te m, c ontrolling flow of e lectricity.
input
system
output
io
: flipping the switch on/off
: electric switch
: flow or no flow of current
2) Pointing a finger at an object is a biological control system.
input : direction of the object with respect to some direction
ut
system : consists of eyes, arm, hand, finger and brain of a man
output : actual pointed direction with respect to same direction
3) Man driving an automobile is a hybrid system.
input : direction or lane
system : drivers hand, eyes, brain and vehicle
ol
output : heading of the automobile

Classification of Control Systems


us

Control systems are classified into two general categories based upon the control action
which is responsible to activate the system to produce the output viz.
1) Open loop control system in which the control action is independent of the out
put.

2) Closed loop control system in which the control action is some how dependent
vt

upon the output and are generally called as feedback control systems.

Open Loop System is a system in which control action is independent of output. To


each reference input there is a corresponding output which depends upon the system and its
operating conditions. The accuracy of the system depends on the calibration of the system. In
the presence of noise or disturbances open loop control will not perform satisfactorily. A
closed loop control system is one in which the control action depends on

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

the output. In closed loop control system the actuating error signal, which is the
difference between the input signal and the feed back signal (out put signal or its
function) is fed to the controller.

Examples:
1) Washing clothes in a washing machine is an open loop control system.
Soaking, washing and rinsing in the washer operate on a time basis. The
output signal, that is, the cleanliness of the clothes is not measured nor
feedback for comparison with the input. The schematic diagram of an open

in
loop control system is shown in Fig.1.1
2) Room temperature control system is an example of closed loop control
system. By measuring the actual room temperature and comparing it with
the reference temperature the thermostat turns heating or cooling
equipment on or off regardless of outside conditio ns. The schematic

n.
diagram of a closed loop control system is shown in Fig.1.2

input
Controller
io
Actuating signal
System
outp
ut
ut
Figure 1 Ele ments of open loop control system
ol

Error Forward path Controlle d


detecto
r Actuating output
Reference
us

error
input
 Control System /
elements Plant

controller
vt

Feed back signal

Figure 2 Ele ments of closed loop control system

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Characteristics of open loop control system


1) Simple in construction and easy to maintain.
2) Less expensive than a corresponding closed loop system.
3) There is no stability problem.
4) Convenient when output is hard to measure or economically not feasible.
5) Disturbances and changes in calibration cause errors.
Characteristics of closed open loop control system
1) Feedback systems can faithfully reproduce the input.

in
2) Increased accuracy.
3) Reduced effects of nonlinearities and distortion.
4) Increased bandwidth over which the system will respond satisfactorily.
5) Closed loop control systems have tendency to oscillate or become unstable

n.
Definitions:
Systems: A system is a combination of components that act together and perform a certain
objective. The system may be physical, biological, economical, etc.
Control system: It is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in a

io
manner to command, direct or regulate itself or another system.
Open loop: An open loop system control system is one in which the control action is
independent of the output.
Closed loop: A closed loop control system is one in which the control action is somehow
ut
dependent on the output.
Plants: A plant is equipment the purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. Any
physical object to be controlled is called a plant.
Processes: Processes is a natural or artificial or voluntary operation that consists of a series of
controlled actions, directed towards a result.
ol
Input: The input is the excitation applied to a control system from an external energy
source. The inputs are also known as actuating signals.
Output: The output is the response obtained from a control system or known as controlled
variable.
Block diagram: A block diagram is a short hand, pictorial representation of cause and effect
us

relationship between the input and the output of a physical system. It characterizes the
functional relationship amongst the components of a control system.
Control elements: These are also called controller which are the components required to
generate the appropriate control signal applied to the plant.
Plant: Plant is the control system body process or machine of which a particular quantity or
condition is to be controlled.
vt

Feedback control: feedback control is an operation in which the difference between the
output of the system and the reference input by comparing these using the difference as a
means of control.
Feedback elements: These are the components required to establish the functional
relationship between primary feedback signal and the controlled output.
Actuating signal: also called the error or control action. It is the algebraic sum consisting of
reference input and primary feedback.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Manipulated variable: it that quantity or condition which the control elements apply to the
controlled system.
Feedback signal: it is a signal which is function of controlled output
Disturbance: It is an undesired input signal which affects the output.
Forward path: It is a transmission path from the actuating signal to controlled output
Feedback path: The feed back path is the transmission path from the controlled output to the
primary feedback signal.
Servomechanism: Servomechanism is a feedback control system in which output is some
mechanical position, velocity or acceleration.

in
Regulator: Regulator is a feedback system in which the input is constant for long time.
Transducer: Transducer is a device which converts one energy form into other
Tachometer: Tachometer is a device whose output is directly proportional to time rate of
change of input.
Synchros: Synchros is an AC machine used for transmission of angular position synchro

n.
motor- receiver, synchro generator- transmitter.
Block diagram: A block diagram is a short hand, pictorial representation of cause and effect
relationship between the input and the output of a physical system. It characterizes the
functional relationship amongst the components of a control system.

io
Lower case letters usually represent functions of time. Upper case letters de note Laplace
transformed quantities as a function of complex variable s or Fourier transformed quantity
i.e. frequency function as function of imaginary variable s  jω .
ut
Summing point: It represents an operation of addition and / or subtraction.
Negative feedback: Summing point is a subtractor.
Positive feedback: Summing point is an adder.
Stimulus: It is an externally introduced input signal affecting the controlled output. Take off
point: In order to employ the same signal or variable as an input to more than block or
ol
summing point, take off point is used. This permits the signal to proceed unaltered along
several different paths to several destinations.
Time response: It is the output of a system as a function of time following the application of
a prescribed input under specified operating conditions.
us

CONTROL ACTIONS

An automatic controller compares the actual value of the system output with the reference
input (desired value), determines the deviation, and produces a control signal that will reduce
vt

the deviation to zero or a small value. The manner in which the automatic controller produces
the control signal is called the control action. The controllers may be classified according to
their control actions as
1) Two position or on-off controllers
2) Proportional controllers
3) Integral controllers
4) Proportional-plus- integral controllers

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

5) Proportional-plus-derivative controllers
6) Proportional-plus- integral-plus-derivative controllers

A two position controller has two fixed positions usually o n or off.

A proportional control system is a feedback control system in which the output forcing
function is directly proportional to error.

A integral control system is a feedback control system in which the output forcing function is

in
directly proportional to the first time integral of error.

A proportional-plus- integral control system is a feedback control system in which the output
forcing function is a linear combination of the error and its first time integral.

n.
A proportional-plus-derivative control system is a feedback control system in which the
output forcing function is a linear combination of the error and its first time derivative.

A proportional-plus-derivative-plus- integral control system is a feedback control system in

and its first time integral.

io
which the output forcing function is a linear combination of the error, its first time derivative

Many industrial controllers are electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, electronic or their


combinations. The choice of the controller is based on the nature of plant and operating
ut
conditions. Controllers may also be classified according to the power employed in the
operation as
1) Electric controllers
2) Hydraulic controllers
3) Pneumatic controllers
ol
4) Electronic controllers.

The block diagram of a typical controller is shown in Fig.1. It consists of an


automatic controller, an actuator, a plant and a sensor. The controller detects the actuating
us

error signal and amplifies it. The output of a controller is fed to the actuator that produces the
input to the plant according to the control signal. The sensor is a device that converts
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

the output variable into another suitable variable to compare the output to reference input
signal. Sensor is a feedback element of the closed loop control system.

automatic controller

actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)

in
detector
Output c(t)
reference
input r(t)  Amplifier Actuator Plant

n.

feed back Sensor

signal b(t)

io
Figure 1 Block diagram of control system

Two Position Control Action


ut
In a two position control action system, the actuating element has only two positions which
are generally on and off. Generally these are electric devices. These are widely used are
they are simple and inexpensive. The output of the controller is given by Eqn.1.
ol
ut et
U 0
1
et  …..(1)
us

U 0
2

Where, U1 and U2 are constants ( U2 = -U1 or zero)


vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

The block diagram of on-off controller is shown in Fig. 2

actuating Controller
Error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
Detector

reference

in
input r(t) 

feed back

n.
signal b(t)
Figure 2 Block diagram of on off controller

Proportional Control Action

io
The proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain. For a
controller with proportional control action the relationship between output of the controller
u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is
ut
ut  K et  .....(2)
p
Where, K p is the proportional gain.

Or in Laplace transformed quantities


ol
Us
 
K …..(3)
Es
P

us

Whatever the actual mechanism may be the proportional controller is essentially an


amplifier with an adjustable gain. The block diagram of proportional controller is shown in
Fig.3.
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
detector

reference
input r(t)  Kp

in
feed back
signal b(t)
Figure 3 Block diagram of a proportional controller

n.
Integral Control Action

du t
io
The value of the controller output u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating
error signal e(t) given by Eqn.4

  K et  or ut e  t
t
…..(4)
ut
 K  dt
dt i i0
Where, K i is an adjustable constant.
The transfer function of integral controller is
Us ….(5)
ol
 Ki
Es 
 s
us

If the value of e(t) is doubled, then u(t) varies twice as fast. For zero actuating error,
the value of u(t) remains stationary. The integral control action is also called reset control.
Fig.4 shows the block diagram of the integral controller.
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)

detector
reference K
i

in
input r(t) 
− s

feed back

n.
signal b(t)
Figure 4 Block diagram of an integral controller

Proportional-plus-Integral Control Action

io
The control action of a proportional-plus- integral controller is defined by

Kp t
ut
ut et et
 K  dt …..(6)
p T 0
i
The transfer function of the controller is
Us
ol
  1 
K
1  .....(7)
Es Ts
 p 
us

 i 
Where, K p is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time which are adjustable.

The integral time adjusts the integral control action, while change in proportional gain
affects both the proportional and integral action. The inverse of the integral time is called
reset rate. The reset rate is the number of times per minute that a proportional part of the
vt

control action is duplicated. Fig.5 shows the block diagram of the proportional-plus- integral
controller. For an actuating error of unit step input, the controller output is shown in Fig.6.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)

detector K 1  T
reference s
p i
input r(t) 

in
− Ts
i

feed back

n.
signal b(t)
Figure 5 Block diagram of a proportional-plus-integral control system

io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

u(t) P-I control action

2Kp

in
Kp proportional only

0 Ti t

n.
Figure 6 Response of PI controller to unit actuating error signal

Proportional-plus-Derivative Control Action

The control action of proportional-plus-derivative controller is defined by

ut  K et 


KT
p
io
det

…..(8)
ut
p d
dt
The tra nsfer function is
Us
  K 1  T
ol
s …..(9)
Es
p d

Where, K p is the proportional gain and T d is a derivative time constant.
us

Both, K p and Td are adjustable. The derivative control action is also called rate
control. In rate controller the output is proportional to the rate of change of actuating error
signal. The derivative time Td is the time interval by which the rate action advances the effect
of the proportional control action. The derivative controller is anticipatory in nature and
amplifies the noise effect. Fig.7 shows the block diagram of the proportional-plus-derivative.
For an actuating error of unit ramp input, the controller output is shown in Fig.8
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

actuating Controller
error
error signal e(t) output u(t)
detector

reference K
 1  T S
input r(t) P D

in
feed back
signal b(t)

n.
Figure 7 Block diagram of a proportional-plus-derivative controller

io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

u(t) P-D control action

proportional only
Td

in
n.
0 t
Figure 8 Response of PD controlle r to unit actuating error signal

Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative Control Action

io
It is a combination of proportional control action, integral control action and derivative
control action. The equation of the controller is

det
ut
Kp t 
u t   K e t et dt  K
  T …..(10)
p
p T o d dt
ol
i
or the transfer function is
Us
  1 
us


1   T s
Es K  …..(11)
p
  Ts d 
 i 
Where, K p is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time, and T d is the derivative time. The
block diagram of PID controller is shown in Fig.9. For an actuating error of unit ramp input,
vt

the controller output is shown in Fig.10.

actuating
Controller
error signal e(t)
error output u(t)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

detector
1 T s T T s
2
reference K 
p I i d

input r(t) Ts
− D

in
feed back
signal b(t)
Figure 9 Block diagram of a proportional-plus-integral-plus-de rivative controller

n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

PID control action


u(t) PD c ontrol action

in
proportional only

n.
0 t

io
Figure 10 Response of PID controller to unit actuating error signal
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

CHAPTER II

MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Introduction: In chapter I we have learnt the basic concepts of control systems such as open

loop and feedback control systems, different types of Control systems like regulator systems,

in
follow-up systems and servo mechanisms. We have also discussed a few simple applications.

In this chapter we learn the concepts of modeling.

The requirements demanded by every control system are many and depend on the system

n.
under consideration. Major requirements are 1) Stability 2) Accuracy and 3) Speed of

Response. An ideal control system would be stable, would provide absolute accuracy

io
(maintain zero error despite disturbances) and would respond instantaneously to a change in

the reference variable. Such a system cannot, of course, be produced. However, study of

automatic control system theory would provide the insight necessary to make the most
ut
effective compromises so that the engineer can design the best possible system. One of the

important steps in the study of control systems is modeling. Following section presents
ol
modeling aspects of various systems that find app lication in control engineering.

Modeling of Control Systems: The first step in the design and the analysis of control system
us

is to build physical and mathematical models. A control system being a collection of several

physical systems (sub systems) which may be of mechanical, electrical electronic, thermal,

hydraulic or pneumatic type. No physical system can be represented in its full intricacies.
vt

Idealizing assumptions are always made for the purpose of analysis and synthesis. An

idealized representation of physical system is called a Physical Model.

Control systems being dynamic systems in nature require a quantitative mathematical


description of the system for analysis. This process of obtaining the desired mathematical
description of the system is called Mathematical Modeling.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

The basic models of dynamic physical systems are differential equations obtained by the

application of appropriate laws of nature. Having obtained the differential equations and

where possible the numerical values of parameters, one can proceed with the analysis. When

the mathematical model of a physical system is solved for various input conditions, the

in
results represent the dynamic response of the system. The mathematical model of a system is

linear, if it obeys the principle of superposition and homogeneity.

n.
A mathematical model is linear, if the differential equation describing it has coefficients,

which are either functions of the independent variable or are constants. If the coefficients of

the describing differential equations are functions of time (the independent variable), then the

io
mathematical model is linear time-varying. On the other hand, if the coefficients of the

describing differential equations are constants, the model is linear time-invariant. Powerful
ut
mathematical tools like the Fourier and Laplace transformations are available for use in

linear systems. Unfortunately no physical system in nature is perfectly linear. Therefore


ol
certain assumptions must always be made to get a linear model.

Usually control systems are complex. As a first approximation a simplified model is built to

get a general feeling for the solution. However, improved model which can give better
us

accuracy can then be obtained for a complete analysis. Compromise has to be made between

simplicity of the model and accuracy. It is difficult to consider all the details for

mathematical analysis. Only most important features are considered to predict behaviour of
vt

the system under specified conditions. A more complete model may be then built for

complete analysis.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Modeling of Mechanical Systems: Mechanical systems can be idealized as spring- mass-

damper systems and the governing differential equations can be obtained on the basis of

Newton‟s second law of motion, which states that

F = ma: for rectilinear motion: where F: Force, m: mass and a: acceleration (with consistent

units)

in
T = I α: or Jα for rotary motion: where T: Torque, I or J: moment of inertia and α: angular

acceleration (with consistent units)

n.
Mass / inertia and the springs are the energy storage elements where in energy can be stored and

retrieved without loss and hence referred as conservative elements. Damper represents the

energy loss (energy absorption) in the system and hence is referred as dissipative element.

io
Depending upon the choice of variables and the coordinate system, a given physical model may

lead to different mathematical models. The minimum number of independent coordinates


ut
required to determine completely the positions of all parts of a system at any instant of time

defines the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. A large number of practical systems can be

described using a finite number of degrees of freedom and are referred as discrete or lumped
ol

parameter systems. Some systems, especially those involving continuous elastic members, have

an infinite number of degrees of freedom and are referred as continuous or distributed systems.
us

Most of the time, continuous systems are approximated as discrete systems, and solutions are

obtained in a simpler manner. Although treatment of a system as continuous gives exact results,

the analysis methods available for dealing with continuous systems are limited to a narrow
vt

selection of problems. Hence most of the practical systems are studied by treating them as finite

lumped masses, springs and dampers. In general, more accurate results are obtained by

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

increasing the number of masses, springs and dampers-that is, by increasing the number of

degrees of freedom.

Mechanical systems can be of two types: 1) Translation Systems 2) Rotational Systems. The

variables that described the motion are displacement, velocity and acceleration.

Characteristics of Ele mentary parts of Mechanical Systems

in
Translational Systems

Mass: Property or means – Kinetic energy is stored

n.
x
F
m
io
ut
Figure 2.1:

F= Mass * Acceleration
..
=mx
ol

Linear Spring

Elasticity (Spring): Property or means – Potential energy is stored. Spring force is proportional
us

to displacement
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Fs Linear
x
F k

Non Linear

in
x
Figure 2.2 (a) and (b):

n.
Spring Force = Stiffness * displacement

Fs = Kx

Damping

io
Exists in all system and opposes motion. The types which are generally considered are:


ut
Static Friction

• Coulomb Friction

• Viscous Friction
ol

Viscous Friction (Damping)

Viscous Damping: Means by which energy is absorbed. Damping Force is proportional to


us

velocity.
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Piston Cylinder
F
……… d .
……… Fd = C x
………
………
……… Fd
………

Oil
.

in
x
Figure 2.3 (a) and (b):

n.
Damping Force =

Damping Coefficient * Velocity


.
Fd = C x

Rotational Systems

Inertia Ele ment io


ut
J
ol

θ
T
us

Figure 2.4:

Torque = Inertia * Angular Acceleration


..
T=Jθ
vt

Torsional Spring

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

k
t

θ
T

in
Figure 2.5:

Torque = Torsional Stiffness * Angular displacement

T = kt * θ

n.
Friction (Viscous Damping)

B
io
ut
θ
ol

T
Figure 2.6:
us

Damping Torque = Damping Coefficient * Angular velocity


.
Td = B * θ
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
CHAPTER III : BLOCK DIAGRAMS AND SIGNAL FLOW GRAPHS

Transfer Functions:

It is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of output (response) to the


Laplace transform of input (excitation) assuming all the initial conditions to
be zero.

r(t) C(t) R(S) C(S)


g (t) G (S)

in
Fig (a) System in time domain Fig (b) System in Laplace domain

n.
Fig: Transfer Functions of a system

If G(S) be the transfer function of the system, we can write mathematically

G(S) =
L.T. of output
L.T. of Input
io all initia l c onditions are Zero
ut
C(S)
=
R(S)

This Transfer function is a property of the system itself, independent of the


ol

input or driving function. The T.F includes the units necessary to relate the
input to the output, However, it does not provide any information concerning
the physical structure of the system. i.e., the T.F of many physically different
us

systems can be identical

STEPS TO OBTAIN TRANSFER FUNCTION


vt

7) Write the appropriate equation which defines the behaviour of the


element.
8) Transform this equation assuming all initial conditions to be zero.
9) Form the ratio of output C(S) to input R(S)

C(S)
 G(S) = R(S)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Consider a spring-mass-damper (k-m-c) system on which the force “F” acts


and displacement “x” of the mass is the output.
.
Kx Cx
C x
K
M 0

in
M X
F
0

n.
F
Draw the free body diagram as shown
 Equation. of.. Motion 
5)F – cx – kx = mx

=
io .. .
mx + cx + kx = F
ut
Taking laplace transform of each term of this equation (assuming Zero
initial condition), we can write,
F(s) = ms2 X(s) + cs X(s) + kX(s)
Now, taking the ratio of X(s) to F(S) we can write the transfer function of the
ol
system
X (S) 1
= G(S) = 2
= F (S) ms +CS+K
us

Here the highest power of the complex variable S, in the denominator of the
transfer function determines the order of the system. Thus the k-m-c system
under consideration is a second order system.

Similarly we can write for k-m


system i.e., c = 0
vt

X (S) 1
= 2
F (S) ms +K

and if m=0, we can write

X (S) 1
=
F (S) CS+K
Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
Block diagram Reduction:

We know that,
Input -Output behavior of a Linear System or Element of a Linear System
is given by Transfer Function,
G(s)= C(s)/R(s)
Where, R(s) = Laplace transformation of the input Variable C(s)
= Laplace transformation of the output Variable

A Convenient graphical representation of this behaviour, i.e., short hand


pictorial representation of the cause – and – effect relationship between the

in
input and out put of a physical system is known as “BLOCK DIAGRAM ”

This is shown in Fig (i)

n.
R(S) C(S)
G (S)

(Input) (Output)
Fig (i)

io
Here, the signal into the black represents the input R(S) and signal out of
the black represents the output C(S), while the block itself stands for
ut
transfer function G(S).

The flow of information (Signal) is unidirectional from input to the output,


with the out put being equal to the input multiplied by the transfer function
of the block.
ol

A complex system comprising of several elements is represented by the


interconnection of the blocks for Individual elements.

The blocks are connected by lines with arrows indicating the unidirectional,
us

flow of information from the out put of one block to the input of the other. In
addition to this summing or differencing of signals is indicated by the
symbols shown in the fig (ii) (a) (b) & (c), while take off point of a signal is
represented by fig(iii)

i.e., in summing point two or more signals can be added or subtracted.


vt

A A+B A A-B A+ +
+
+ +- A–B+C
-
B B B
Fig
Fig (ii) (a) Fig (ii) (b) Fig (ii) (c) (iii)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

The points at which the output signal of any block can be applied to two or
more points is known as Take off Point.

(This output is analogous to voltage but not to current)

Forward Path:

The direction of flow of signal from Input to output is Known as Forward


Path.

in
Input Output
R (S) R(S) G1(S) R (S) G1(S) G2(S) C (S)

n.
G 1(S) G2(S) G3(S)
= R (S ) G (S ) G 2(S) G 3 (S )
Output C(S) 1

 Input = R(S) = G1(S) G2(S) G3(S)


Feedback Path:

io
The direction of flow of signal from output to Input is Known as Feedback
Path.
ut
R(s) C(s) Feed Forward
G (S)
ol

H (S)
us

Feed back

Output C(S)
= = ?
Input R(S)
vt

The following Equations refer to a Tension Regulating Apparatus such as


used in the Paper Industry.
(a) Main Input x =Fr A.,
(b) Lever Measurement. e = (x-y)/2
(c) The change in torque provided by motor tm = [Km/(1+p) e
(d) Roll tension Fc = tm/R
(e) Tension of Control Spring y = 2 Fc/K

Draw individual Block Diagram and Determine overall Transfer function


Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Solution: Individual Block Diagrams:


Fr x
(a) Main Input x =Fr A., A
X- Y e
X+
1/2
(b) Lever Measurement. e = (x-y)/2
Y-

in
tm
E
K m/(1+p)
(c) The change in torque provided by motor tm= (Km/(1+ p))e

n.
tm Fc
(d) Roll Tension, Fc = tm/R, 1/R
y
Fc

io
(e) Tension of Control Spring, y = 2 Fc/K, 2/K
ut
Complete Block diagram and overall transfer function:

Fr x-y e Km tm Fc
A 1/2 1/R
(1+ p )
ol

2/K
us

Fc
Overall Transfer Function =
Fr = ?
vt

CANNONICAL FORM OF CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM :

If a Block diagram which consists of a forward path having one block, a feed
back path having one block, a take off point and a summing point, it
represents a Cannonical form of a closed loop system

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

R(s) + E(s) C(s)


G (S)
+
B(S)
H (S)

in
R (s) Laplace Transform of Reference Input γ(t)

n.
C (s) Laplace Transform of Controlled Output c(t)
E (s) Laplace Transform of Error signal e(t)
B (s) Laplace Transform of Feed back signal b(t)

io
G (S) Equivalent forward path Transform function = (c(s)/E(s))
H (S) Equivalent feedback path Transform function = (c(s)/B(s))

BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA


ut
Block diagrams of some of the control systems turn out to be very complex
such that the evaluation of their performance requires simplification (or
reduction) of block diagrams which is carried out by block diagram
rearrangements, using the rules of BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA
ol

Some of the important Block diagram rearrangements are discussed here

Block diagram Reduction:


us

(i) Block diagram of a closed loop system

R (S) + E(S) C (S)


G (S)
vt

B(S) H(s)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

In the above figure, we can write E (S) = R (S) – B (S) &


B (S) = C (S) . H (S)

C (S) = G (S) . E (S)


C (S) = G (S) . [R (S) – B (S) ]

in
C (S) = G (S) . R (S) - G (S) H (S) . C (S)
C (S) + G (S) . H (S) . C (S) = G (S) . R (S) =
C (S) [ 1 + G (S) H (S)] = G (S) . R (S)

n.
 C (S) / R (S) 

= G (S) / 1 + G (S) H (S)

C (S) G(S)
 R (S) = Transfer Function =
io 1+G(S) H(S)
ut
Similarly it can be shown for a positive feed
ol

back C (S) / R (S) = G (S) / 1 – G(S) H (S)


In General we can write
C (S) / R (S) = G (S) / 1 ± G (S) H (S)
us

In Block diagram representation we can write

R (S) + E(S) C (S)


G (S)
vt

B(S) H(s)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

R (S) G (S) C (S)


1  G (S) H (S)

in
RULES OF BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA (Fourteen)

Original Block Diagram Equivalent Block Diagram Transformati on

1) A+ A -B A –B+C A+ A+C A –B+C

n.
Rearranging
+ + Sum ming
Points
- + - -
B C

io C B
G1
ut
2) A+ A- B
A+ A-B+C +
- -
- B
ol
B

A G1 G2
3) A A
G1 G2
us

A G1 A G1 G2
4) A A
G1 G2
vt

A A(G1 +G2 )
5) G1
A
A G2

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

A –B+C Splitting the Sum ming


Points

A G1 G2

in
G
erchanging the
1 G2
Blocks

n.
A G1 G2
G1G2
Combining the
Blocks in Cascade

A G 1+G 2
Combining the io
ut
G1+G2 Blocks in Parallel
OR E limina ting a
Forward Loop
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

A G1 A-B/ G1 A G1 - B
6) A A G1 - B A
+ + G1 Moving a
G1 Summing Point
-
- B ahead of a Bloc k
B / G1
B 1/ G1

A G1
A- B A G1 – B G1
A G1 – B G1 G1

in
7) A +
G1 - Moving a
Summing Point
+-
B B G1 B Be yond a Bloc k
B G1

n.
A A G1
A A G1 G1 Moving a take
8) G1

A G1 io A
G1
A G1
off point ahead of
a Block
ut
A A G1
A A G1 G1
9) G1
Moving a ta ke off
point beyond a
ol
A Block
A A G1 1/ G1

B
us

A -B
10) A -B
A +
A -B Moving a take off
A + +
- A -B point before (ahead
B - of) a s um m ing Bloc k
vt

B
-
(A – B)
A -B
11) - (A –B) Moving a take off
+ A
A + + point after (beyond)
a Summing block
A A -B +
B

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

A G1 A G1 + A G2
A
G1 A G2
12) A G1 A G1 + A G2
+ A A A
G2 1/G2 G1 Removing a Block
A +from a Forward Pa th
G2
A G2

+ B

in
A B Removing a Block
G1 +
13) 1/G2 G2 G1 from a Feed Back
Loop
-
-

n.
G2

B = (A-B G2 ) G1 B = (A / G2 –B) G1 G2
B = (AG1 - B G1G2 ) B = (AG1 - B G1G2 )

io
(No. 10, 11, 12 & 13 to be used very carefully or better to be avoided)

B
ut
+ B
14) A A
Eliminating a
G1 G1
Feedbac k Loop
1+ G1 H1
-
+
ol
H1

B = (A-B H1 ) G1
B = (AG1 - B G1H1 )
us

(No. 6, 7, 8, 9 & 14 are very important / to be used frequently)

Procedure for reduction of


Block Diagram
vt

Step. 1 :
Reduce the Cascade Blocks
Step. 2 :
Reduce the parallel Blocks
Step. 3 :
Reduce the internal Feed back loops
Step. 4 :
It is advisable to shift take off points towards right
and summing points towards left. It is always better
to avoid rules 10 and 11
[i.e. shafting take off point before a summing block and
shifting of take off point after summing block]
Step. 5 : Repeat steps 1 to step 4 until the simple form is
obtained

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Step. 6 : Find transfer function of the over all system using the
formula C(S) / R (S)

Any complicated system can be brought into simple form by reduction


of block diagram using block diagram Algebra, discussed earlier.

EXERCISES

Ex - 01

in
G2

n.
G1

H1

R+
G1+G2
io
ut
+

H1
ol

G1+G2
R G 1+ G 2 C C
=
us

1-(G 1+ G 2) H 1 R 1-(G 1 + G 2 ) H 1

Ex - 02
vt

G2
R C
G1

H1

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

G2

R C
G1

in
G1

n.
H1

R C

io G1+ G 2
ut
H 1G 1
ol
C
R G1 +
G2
us

H1G1 1 (G 1+G 2)
vt

R G1+G2 . C
1-(G 1 + G 2 ) H 1 G 1 1
G1 + G2

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
C
R G1+G2 C = G1+G2
1-G 1 H 1 1-G 1 H 1
R

Ex - 03

G2
C

in
R

G1

n.
H1
G2

R G1
io C
ut
1- G 1 H 1
ol

C C
R G1 G1
G1 R = G2

1- G 1 H 1
us

1- G 1 H 1

Example 04:
(Jan/Feb-2003)
H1
vt

C(S)
R(S)
S1 G 1 S2 G2 G3 G4

H2

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
H1

C(s)
R(s)
S1 G1 S2 G2 G4 G4

H2 1/G4

in
G2 G3 G 4 C(s)
R(s)

S1 G1 1- G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1

n.
H 2/ G 4

R(s) io
G 1G 2 G 3 G 4

1-G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1 C(s)
ut
G 1G 2 G 3 G 4 H2
1 +
1-G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1 G4
ol

R(s) G 1G 2 G 3 G 4 C(s)
us

1-G 2 G 3 G 4 H 1+ G 1 G 2 G 3 H 2

Example: 05
vt

July/Aug-2003
H3

C(s)
G2 G3
R(s)

G1

H2

H1

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

H3 1/G3

R(s) C(s)
G1 G2 G3

H2

H1

in
H3/G3

n.
G3
R (s) G1 G2 C (s)
1+G3 H2

io H1
ut
R(s) G2G3 G2G3 H3 C(s)
G1 1+G 3 H 2 1+ 1+ G 3 H 2 G3
ol

H1
us

Simplify further . . . . . .

Example: 06
G3

- +
vt

R(s) + + C(s)
G1 G2 G4 G6
- - +
H1
G5

H2

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

+ C(s)
R(s) G1 G2 G3 – G4 + G5 G6
1+ G1 G2 H1

in
H2

n.
G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5) C (S)
R (S)
1 + G1 G2 H1
G6
G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5)
1+
io
1+ G1 G2 H1 H2
ut
R (S) G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5) C (S)
x G6
1+G1 G2 H1 + G1 G2 (G3 – G4 + G5 ) H2
ol
us

SIGNAL FLOW GRAPHS:

An alternate to block diagram is the signal flow graph due to S. J. Mason. A signal flow
graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. Each
signal flow graph consists of a network in which nodes are connected by directed branches.
vt

Each node represents a system variable, and each branch acts as a signal multiplier. The
signal flows in the direction indicated by the arrow.

Definitions:
Node: A node is a point representing a variable or signal.
Branch: A branch is a directed line segment joining two nodes.
Transmittance: It is the gain between two nodes.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Input node: A node that has only outgoing branche(s). It is also, called as source and
corresponds to independent variable.
Output node: A node that has only incoming branches. This is also called as sink and
corresponds to dependent variable.
Mixed node: A node that has incoming and out going branches.
Path: A path is a traversal of connected branches in the direction of branch arrow.

in
Loop: A loop is a closed path.
Self loop: It is a feedback loop consisting of single branch.
Loop gain: The loop gain is the product of branch transmittances of the loop.

n.
Nontouching loops: Loops that do not posses a common node.
Forward path: A path from source to sink without traversing an node more than once.
Feedback path: A path which originates and terminates at the same node.

Properties of Signal Flow Graphs:


io
Forward path gain: Product of branch transmittances of a forward path.

10) Signal flow applies only to linear systems.


11) The equations based on which a signal flow graph is drawn must be algebraic
ut
equations in the form of effects as a function of causes.
Nodes are used to represent variables. Normally the nodes are arranged left to
right, following a succession of causes and effects through the system.
12) Signals travel along the branches only in the direction described by the arrows of the
branches.
ol
13) The branch directing from node Xk to Xj represents dependence of the variable Xj on
Xk but not the reverse.
14) The signal traveling along the branch Xk and Xj is multiplied by branch gain akj
and signal akjXk is delivered at node Xj.
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Guidelines to Construct the Signal Flow Graphs:

The signal flow graph of a system is constructed from its describing equations, or by direct
reference to block diagram of the system. Each variable of the block diagram becomes a node
and each block becomes a branch. The general procedure is

in
6) Arrange the input to output nodes from left to right.
7) Connect the nodes by appropriate branches.
8) If the desired output node has outgoing branches, add a dummy node and a unity

n.
gain branch.
9) Rearrange the nodes and/or loops in the graph to achieve pictorial clarity.

Signal Flow Graph Algebra

Addtion rule

node.
Transmission rule io
The value of the variable designated by a node is equal to the sum of all signals entering the

The value of the variable designated by a node is transmitted on every branch leaving the
ut
node.
Multiplication rule
A cascaded connection of n-1 branches with transmission functions can be replaced by a
single branch with new transmission function equal to the product of the old ones.
ol
Masons Gain Formula

The relationship between an input variable and an output variable of a signal flow graph is
given by the net gain between input and output nodes and is known as overall gain of the
us

system. Masons gain formula is used to obtain the over all gain (transfer function) of signal
flow graphs.

Gain P is given by
P 1 Pk k 
k
Where, Pk is gain of kth forward path,
vt

∆ is determinant of graph

∆=1-(sum of all individual loop gains)+(sum of gain products of all possible combinations of
two nontouching loops – sum of gain products of all possible combination of three
nontouching loops) + ∙∙∙
∆k is cofactor of kth forward path determinant of graph with loops touching k th forward
path. It is obtained from ∆ by removing the loops touching the path P k .

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Example1
Draw the signal flow graph of the block diagram shown in Fig.1

H2

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 C

in
R −
  G1  G2 G3
− 

n.
H1

Figure 1 Multiple loop system

io
Choose the nodes to represent the variables say X1 .. X6 as shown in the block
diagram.. Connect the nodes with appropriate gain along the branch. The signal
flow graph is shown in Fig. 2
ut
-H2

R 1 X1 1 X2 G1 X3 1 G2 G3 1 C
ol

X4
X5 X6
H1
us

-1

Figure 2 Signal flow graph of the system shown in Fig. 1


vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Example 2

Draw the signal flow graph of the block diagram shown in Fig.3.

G1
X2
X1 C

in
R


n.

G2

G3



io X3
ut
G4
ol
Figure 3 Block diagram feedback system
The nodal variables are X1 , X2 , X3 .
The signal flow graph is shown in Fig. 4.
G1
us

R
G2 1
X2 1 X3 C
vt

X1
-G3

G4

Figure 4 Signal flow graph of example 2

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Example 3
Draw the signal flow graph of the system of equations.

 a13 X 3
X 1  a11 X 1  a12 X 2 b1 u1
 a23 X 3 b2
X 2  a 21 X 1  a 22 X 2 u2
X 3  a 31 X 1  a 32 X 2 a33 X 3

in
The variables are X1 , X2 , X3 , u1 and u2 choose five nodes representing the variables.
Connect the various nodes choosing appropriate branch gain in accordance with the
equations.
The signal flow graph is shown in Fig. 5.

n.
a13
a1
2
u2

u1 b1
io
a11
a21
b2

X2
a32
a3
3
ut
X1
X3
a22
ol
a23

a3
1
us

Figure 5 Signal flow graph of example 2


vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Example 4
LRC net work is shown in Fig. 6. Draw its signal flow graph.

R L
 

e(t) e c(t)

in
i(t)
C
− −

n.
Figure 6 LRC network
The governing differential equations are
L di Ri 1 idt et

or

1

di
dt C

 Ri  ec  et
2 dt
io
ut
dec
C  it 3
dt

Taking Laplace transform of Eqn.1 and Eqn.2 and dividing Eqn.2 by L and Eqn.3 by C
ol
 R 1 1
sI
s i 
0  I
S s Es
Ec  4
us

L L L
sE c se c  1
0  I s5
C
Eqn.4 and Eqn.5 are used to draw the signal flow graph shown in Fig.7.
vt

i(0+)
e c(0+)
1
1
1 s R

Ls L
R  1 s
L Cs
Vtusolution.in E c(s)
Vtusolution.in
I(s)
E(s)
-1
Ls
R 
L

Figure 7 Signal flow graph of LRC system

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
CHAPTER IV : TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE RESPONSE ANALYSIS

SYSTEM STABILITY CRITERION

A control system, if it is to be of any practical value, must be “STABLE”. This means that, in
response to some input, the system will not oscillate violently or drive itself to some limiting
value of the controlled variable but rather will attain some useful response.

More specifically a stable system is one in which the transients decay, that is, the transient

in
response disappears with increasing values of time.

This latter statement constitutes the basic concept of stability. There are so many techniques
for determining the stability, all are based on the previous definition.

n.
For example, consider the following equations:
..
(i) My + Ky = 0 (Spring mass system)

= Mp2 + K = 0

P
j  
1
k 

io
ut
2 
m

k
ol
=  jn n 
m
ktc
(ii) cy. + Ky. = 0
us

 k

= cp + K = 0 P  (root)
 c
vt

 y = C1ept = c1 e
..
(iii) My + Cy +ky = 0
1

c c 2  4mk 2

 P  
= Mp2 + Cp + K = 0
2m 2m

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
= -a  jd  Solution = y = e-at {C1 Sind + C2 cos dt}

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Equation 2, and 3, are stable (but not eq.1), since transients will die as t , because of
exponentially decreasing terms.

dy

Now consider y x
dt

in
Here characteristic equation is p-1 = 0  p=1

and transient solution is, Yt = c,e1.t


Here it can be seen that the response does not vanish, but instead grows rapidly with

n.
increasing values of time (i.e, yt  as t )

The response of the actual system would not of course approach infinity but rather would
proceed to some extreme limiting value determined by the physical nature of the system. Such
a response is of limited practical value

Again consider the equation


io
d2y
2
dy
5y  0
ut
2
dt dt

Ch Eq. P2 - 2 P + 5 = 0 2 4 4 5
p 
ol

= 1 j22
and the transient solution is Yt= e1t (C1 Sin 2t+ C2 cos 2t)
us

Here again an oscillatory response is indicated with an amplitude which increases with time
rather than decreases. The physical system would tend to oscillate violently, perhaps
destroying itself

These above examples illustrates the response of systems when the roots of
the characteristic equation are -ve or +ve real numbers or complex numbers with +ve real
parts, indicating STABLE and UNSTABLE systems
vt

respectively.

Here, it should be noted that the system input has no effect on stability. Therefore a linear
system which is STABLE to one input is STABLE to all inputs.

So far we have discussed the possibility of having a complex root with +ve or -ve real parts.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

But what about the possibility of having complex roots in which the real part is a zero?

Now again consider My.. + Ky = 0 1


2
Ch Eq., = k 

Mp2 + K = 0  P j 
m 
=  jn

in
 Solution, : C1 sin nt + C2 cos nt

The response turned out to be a persistent oscillation as shown.

The amplitude of oscillation neither decaying nor growing with time. A system with this

n.
response is said to possess LIMITED STABILITY

Hence border line case between absolute stability and instability is called as
LIMITED STABILITY

io
Consider a 100th degree characteristic equation, suppose that 99 of its roots are either -ve real
number or pairs of complex numbers with - ve real
parts, but that remaining single root is a positive number is the system is
STABLE ?
ut
No the system is UNSTABLE

Why?
ol
Because there will be one exponential term in the transient solution which will grow with time
and so the transient solution will approach “infinity” as time approaches infinity.
This above example will emphasise the basic concept of stability and states that

“For absolute stability, all roots must be negative real numbers or complex numbers
us

with -ve real parts.”

Since solving a higher degree characteristic equation for its roots is time consuming, the
Routh / Hurwitz criterion can be used to determine whether or not there are +ve roots with out
actually solving it.
vt

We Know,
Every system has to pass through a Transient Stage for a small period before reaching Steady
State.

So, Naturally the question comes in to play“Will the system reach its steady state after
passing through transients”

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

To find an answer to the above question study of STABILITY is of utmost important

STABILITY?

 Even after excitation by a bounded input, output must be bounded.


 In the absence of Input, Output must be zero irrespective of Initial Conditions.
 If its impulse response approaches zero as time approaches infinity.

A Control System, if it is to be of any practical value must be stable This means

“In response to some input the system will not oscillate violently or drive itself to some

in
limiting value of the controlled value, but rather will attain some useful response”
i.e. A System is Stable if its impulse response approaches zero as time approaches infinity.
The Stability of a System is determined by its response to inputs or disturbances.

n.
In general,

A Stable System is one that will remain at rest unless excited by an external source and will
return to rest if all excitations are removed.

io
Such condition requires that the co -efficient of „t‟ in the exponential terms of the Transient
Solution be negative real numbers or Complex numbers with negative real parts.

Ex: e-5t decays while e+5t grows as time advances.


ut
These co-efficient are of course the roots of the characteristic equation.

Therefore,

From the Physical view point, a stable system is one in which the transient die out and the
ol
system “ Settles down” to some useful response.

Mathematically, a system is said to be stable if the roots of the characteristic equation are
negative real number or Complex numbers with negative real parts.
us

In a vast majority of practical systems, the following statements on stability are quite useful.

(i) If all the roots of the characteristic equation have –ve real parts the system is
STABLE.
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

(ii) If any root of the characteristic equation has a +ve real part or if there is a repeated
root on the j-axis, the system is unstable

(iii) If condition (i) is satisfied except for the presence of one or more non repeated roots
on the j-axis the system is limitedly STABLE

In further subdivision of the concept of stability, a linear system is characterized as:

(i) Absolutely stable with respect to a parameter of the system if it is stable for all values
of this parameter.

in
(ii) Conditionally stable with respect to a parameter, if the system is stable for only
certain bounded ranges of values of this parameter.

It follows from the above discussion that stability can be established by determining the roots

n.
of characteristic equation. Unfortunately, no general formula in algebraic form is available to
determine the roots of characteristic equation of higher than second order. Though the various
numerical methods exist for root determination of characteristic equation, these are quite
cumber some even for third and fourth order systems.

io
However, simple graphical and algebraic criteria have been developed which permit the study
of stability of a system with in the need of actually determining the roots of its characteristic
equation. These criteria answer the question, whether a system be stable or not, in YES or NO
form
ut
The roots of characteristic equations of several systems are given below. Determine in each
case if the set of roots represents stable, marginally stable or unstable systems.

(a) -1, -4, -6, -8, (b) -3, +3, -2, -6,
ol
(c) -5, -4, 0, -6, (d) -2+j, -2-j, -3+j, -4+j,
(e) -2+j, -2-j, 2j, -2j (f) 4, -3, -2, 6,
(g) -4, -6, 8, 5, (h) -3+2j, -3-2j, -2, -4,
(i) –j, j, -2, 2, (j) -2, -2+j, -2-j, -4,
us

Comment on the STABILITY of the following:

(a) (d) (h) & (j) represents stable system since all the roots
have negative real parts.

(c.) (e.) represents marginally stable systems since


vt

all the roots have non +ve real parts, that is


zero or –ve.

(b) (f) (g) and (i) represents unstable systems since each has a
root with a +ve real part

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

ii. A system has poles at -2, -4, 6, and zeros 2, 4, -3, is the system is stable?

The system is STABLE since the poles which are the roots of the system characteristic
equation have negative real parts. The fact that the system has a zero with a +ve real part
does not affect its stability.

iii. (S+2).(S+3)2.(S-4) = 0, is the system is stable The characteristic


equation has the roots -2, -3, -3 and +4 and therefore represents an
UNSTABLE system since there is a +ve real root.

in
(a) An integrator (it may be written as dy/dt=x)
(b) A step input
(c) Abounded input that produces an unbounded output.
(d) x(t)= Cos wt
(e) x(t) = e-t sin4t

n.
iv. (a) The characteristic equation of an integrator is S=0. Since the root does not have a –ve
real part an integrator is NOT STABLE. Since there is no root with a +ve real part
an integrator is MARGINALLY STABLE.

(c) The system is UNSTABLE


S
io
(b) Since a step function gives F (S ) the system is MARGINALLY STABLE.
ut
(d) The system is UNSTABLE since there is no decay

(e) The system is STABLE because there is decay exponentially


ol
Routh’s Creterion

E.J. Routh (1877) developed a method for determining whether or not an equation has roots
with + ve real parts with out actually solving for the roots.
us

A necessary condition for the system to be STABLE is that the real parts of the roots of the
characteristic equation have - ve real parts. This insures that the impulse response will decay
exponentially with time.

If the system has some roots with real parts equal to zero, but none with +ve real parts the
vt

system is said to be MARGINALLY STABLE.

It determines the poles of a characteristic equation with respect to the left and the right half of
the S-plane with out solving the equation.

The roots of this characteristic equation represent the closed loop poles. The stability of the
system depends on these poles. The necessary, but not

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

sufficient conditions for the system having no roots in the right half S-Plane are listed below.

(i) All the co-efficients of the polynomial must have the same sign.
(ii) All powers of S, must present in descending order.
(iii) The above conditions are not sufficient

In a vast majority of practical systems. The following statements on stability are quite useful.

(i) If all the roots of the characteristic equation have –ve real parts the system is
STABLE.

in
(ii) If any root of the characteristic equation has a +ve real part or if there is a repeated
root on the j-axis, the system is unstable

(iii) (iii) If condition (i) is satisfied except for the presence of one or more non repeated

n.
roots on the j-axis the system is limitedly STABLE

In this instance the impulse response does not decay to zero although it is
bounded. Additionally certain inputs will produce outputs. Therefore marginally stable
systems are UNSTABLE

io
The Routh Stability criterion is a method for determining system stability
that can be applied to an nth order characteristic equation of the form
an sn + an-1 sn-1 + an-2 sn-2 + an-3 sn-3 +…………. a1 s1 + a0 = ZERO

The criterion is applied through the use of a Routh Array (Ro uth table)
ut
Defined as follows:

Sn an an-2 an-4 …………….


ol

S n-1 an-1 an-3 an-5 …………….


S n-2 b1 b2 b3
S n-3 c1 c2 c3
us

S n-4 d1 d2
.
.
vt

S2 e1 a0
S1 f1
S0 a0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Where an an-1,……. a0 are the co-efficients of characteristic equation and b1 b2………C1


C2 ……… evaluated as follows
a a a a
b1  n1 n2 n n3
a
n1
a a a a
b2  n1 n4 n n5
a
n1
This Process is continued till we get a ZERO as the last co-efficient in the third row.

In a similar way the co-efficient of 4th , 5th , 6th …..nth and (n+1)th rows are evaluated.
b a a
c1  1 n3 n1b 2

in
b1

b a
1 n5 a
n1b 3

n.
c2  . . . . . . .et.al
b1
d1 =

d2 =

io
This table is continued horizontally and vertically until only zeros are obtained. Any row can
be multiplied by a constant before the next row is computed with out disturbing the properties
ut
of the table.

This process is continued until s0 is obtained, which is equal to a0.


The ROUTH STABILITY CRITERION is stated as follows,
ol
All the terms in the first column of Routh‟s Array should have same sign, and there should
not be any change of sign.

This is a necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable


us

On the other hand any change of sign in the first column of Routh‟s Array indicates,

(i) The System is Unstable, and

(i) The Number of changes of sign gives the number of roots lying in the right half of S-
vt

Plane

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Examples:

Ex. 01:
S3 +6S2 +12S+8=0 using Routh‟s method

S3 1 12 0

S2 6 8 0
6 12 8

in
S1  1 64


 
6  6 0 0

n.

S0 64

8 0
6

64
8
io
ut
6 0 0

There are no sign changes in the first column of the array and so there are no roots with +ve
real parts and hence, the system in question is stable.
ol
Ex. 02: S5 +3S4 +7S3 +20S2 +6S+15=0

S5 1 7 6
us

S4 3 20 15

S3 1/3 1 0

S2 11 15 0
vt

S1 6/11 0 0

S0 15

System is stable

Ex. 03:
S4 +2S3 +3S2+8S+2=0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
S4 1 3 2
S3 2 8 0
S3 1 4 0
S2 -1 2 0
S1 6 0 0
S0 2

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

There are two sign changes (plus to minus & minus to plus) in the first
column, showing that there are two roots with +ve real parts. Therefore the system is
unstable.

Ex. 04:
3S4 +10S3 +5S2 +5S+2=0

S4 3 5 2

in
S3 10 5 0

S3 (2) (1) 0

n.
S2 7/2 2 0

S1 -1/7 0

S0 2

io
Here two roots are +ve (2 changes of sign) and hence the system is unstable.
ut
Ex. 05:
Examine the stability of

S5 +2S4 +4S3 +8S2 +3S+1=0


ol

S5 1 4 3

S4 2 8 1
us

S3 0 2.5 0
S1  --- --- Routh‟s arra y failed

How to proceed? What to do?


vt

Ex. 06:
S5 +2S4 +2S3 +4S2 +4S+8=0

S5 1 2 4

S4 2 4 8
(S4) (2) (4)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
(1)

S3 0 0 0 Routh‟s arra y failed

How to proceed? What to do?

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Special cases:
Occasionally, in applying the Routh stability criterion certain difficulties arise causing the
break down of the Routh‟s test.

The difficulties encountered are generally of the following types.

Difficulty 01:

When the first term in any row of the Routh array is zero while rest of the row has at least one
non zero term.

in
[Because of this zero term, the terms in the next row become infinite and Routh‟s test breaks
down]

Ex 05, refers to above difficulty. Now how to solve?

n.
Difficulty 02:

When all the elements in any one row of the Routh array are zero.

io
Because of a zero row in the array the Routh‟s test breaks down.

Ex. 06 refers to this difficulty.


ut
Now, How to solve?

Difficulty 01:

Let me repeat the problem No.5 i.e.,


ol
S5 +2S4 +4S3 +8S2 +3S+1=0
We have already written the Routh‟s array and it is given as

S5 1 4 3
us

S4 2 8 1
S3 0 2.5 0
S1  --- --- Routh‟s arra y failed
vt

Here it indicates that first term in horizontal 3rd row of Routh's array is zero while rest of the
row has atleast one non zero term

To remove this difficulty, the following methods can be used,

METHOD – 1

(i) Replace zero by a small +ve number  and complete the Routh‟s array
(ii) Examine the signs of the first column of Routh‟s array by letting  0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Following the above method, continue the Routh‟s array

S5 1 4 3
S 4
2 8 1
0
3
S  2. 5
8 0
S2 5 .1  0
1

in
 
8
S1 5 

n.
2.5
 
  
8 0 0
5

S0 1
io
ut
8 5 5

Now, lt  0 =81t 8
ol
 

Therefore, the sign is –ve.

Again,
us

8 5
  2
 2.5 8 52.5

  
vt

It 8 It
5 8 5

 0  0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
12.5
= It  2.5
5
0

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Therefore, the array is given by

S5 1 4 3

S4 2 8 1

S3  2.5 0

S2 - 1 0

in
S1 2.5 0 0

S0 1 0 0

n.
There are two changes of sign in the first column, and hence the system is UNSTABLE (i.e.
having two poles in the right half of S-plane)

METHOD – 2

io
(i) Modify the original characteristic equations by replacing S by 1/Z
(ii) Apply the Routh‟s test on the modified equation in terms of Z
(iii) The number of Z-roots with +ve real parts are the same as the number of S-roots with +ve
ut
real parts
(iv) Use same Routh criterion to determine status of the system with given polynomial for
the same above

For the problem discussed above, (i.e, example 05) let us try this method 2
ol

Example
S5 +2S4 +4S3 +8S2 +3S+1=Zero
us

Replace S, by 1/Z, ( i.e. put S=1/z) The polynomial becomes

1 2 4 8 3

    1  0
Z5 Z4 Z3 Z2
vt

Z
OR

Z 5 3Z 4 8Z 3 4Z 2 2Z 1 0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Routh‟s array will be

Z5 1 8 2
Z4 3 4 1

Z3 6.67 1. 67 0

Z2 3.25 1 0

in
Z1 -0.382 0 0

n.
Z0 1 0 0

There are two changes of sign in the first column of the Routh‟s array which tells us that there
are two Z-roots in the right half Z - plane. Therefore the number of S-roots in the right half S -
plane is also two

Hence the system is UNSTABLE


io
Note: This method works in most but not all cases.
ut
Difficulty 02:

Let me repeat the problem No.6 i.e.,


S5 +2S4 +2S3 +4S2 +4S+8=0
ol

We know that Routh‟s array will be

S5 1 2 4
us

S4 2 4 8

S3 0 0 0 Routh‟s arra y failed


vt

Here it indicates that all the elements in the 3rd row of the routh array is zero

This condition indicates that there are symmetrically located roots in the S-plane (pair of real
roots with opposite signs and/or pair (pairs) of conjugate roots on the imaginary axis and / or
complex conjugate roots forming quadrates in the S-plane)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

To eliminate the above difficulty


(i) Form an equation by using the co-efficients of the array which is just above the row of
zeros. This equation is known as auxiliary equation.

[This polynomial gives the number and location of root pairs of characteristic equation
which are symmetrically located in the S-plane. The order of the auxiliary polynomial
is always even]

(ii) Replace the row of zeros in the Routh‟s array by a row of co-efficients of the
polynomial generated by taking the first derivative of the

in
auxiliary polynomial.

(iii) Continue the Routh‟s array and status of the polynomial may be determined by using
the same Routh‟s criterion discussed earlier.

n.
Now, the auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficient of the S 4 row, which is
given by

A(S) = 2S4 +4S2 +8

io
The derivative of the above polynomial with respect to S, is
dA(S )
8S 3 8S dS
The zeros in the S3 row are now replaced by the co-efficients 8 and 8 and continue the
Routh‟s array
ut
S5 1 2 4 S5 1 2 4

S4 2 4 8 S4 1 2 4
ol
S3 8 8 0 S3 4 4 0

or
S2 2 8 0 S2 1 4 0
us

S1 - 24 0 S1 -12 0

S0 8 S0 4

Here, there are two changes of sign and hence, the system is UNSTABLE
vt

Solve: (Home – Work)


(i) S6 +S5-2S4-3S3-7S2 -4S-4=0
(ii) S6 +2S5 +8S4 +12S3 +20S2 +16S+16=0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Ex: . . . . . ?

The characterstic equation of a given system is S 4 +6S3 +11S2 +6S+K=0.


What restrictions must be placed upon the parameter K, in order to insure that the system is
stable. The routh table for the system is

S4 1 11 K
S3 6 6 0

in
S2 10 K 0
60 
S1 6k
0 0
10

n.
S0 K

parameter K:

i.e., 60-6K >0, or K<10, and K>0 io


For the system to be stable, the following the following restrictions must be placed upon the
ut
Thus K must be greater than zero and less than 10
K>0
i.e, K<10
ol
Determine the range of values of K so that the system having the following characteristic
equation will be stable.

S(S2 +2S+3) (S+2) + K=0


us

(S3 +2S2 +3S) (S+2) + K=0


= S4 +2S3 +3S2 +2S3 + 4S2 +6S+K=0
on simplification,

We get
vt

S4 +4S3 +7S2 +6S+K=0


Routh‟s array becomes

S4 1 7 K
S3 4 6 0
S2 5.5 K

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

33 
1
S 4k
0
5.5

S0 K

The system will stable if no change of sign occurs in the first column.

in
 K > 0 and 33  4k > 0 = 33-4K > 0 or 4K < 33 K< 33/4
5.5

or K < 8.25  Range of K, is0 < K < 8.25

n.
Example:
(i) S2 +KS+(2K-1) = 0

S2 1 (2K-1)
S1

S0
K

2K-1 io
0
ut
2K-1 > 0, K> 0
2K > 1

K>½
ol

If K > ½ system is stable

(ii) S4 +6S3 + 11S2 + 6S = K = 0


us

S4 1 11 K
S3 6 6 0
S2 10 K 0
vt

60 
S1 6k
0 0
10

S0 K

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

For system to be stable

60 – 60 K > 0 or K < 10 and K > 0

Range of K, V 0 < K < 10

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

HURWITZ STABILITY CRITERION

The Hurwitz Stability Criterion is another method for determining whether or not all the roots
of a characteristics equation have –ve real parts. This criterion is applied through the use of
determinants formed from the co-efficients of characteristic equation.

It is assumed that the first co-efficient, an is positive. The determinants Δi for i = 1, 2, 3,


…….n-1 are formed as the Principal minor determinants of the following arrangement
(Called Hurtwitz determinant)

in
H= n =
W.K.T. Characteristic equation

=an sn + an-1 sn-1 + an-2 sn-2 +…………. a1 s1 + a0 =0

n.
Then n, can be written as,

if n,
a o odd
if n,
an-1

io
a n- 3 a1 even

if n,
o …. o
ut
an a n-2 a 1 odd o …. o
if n,
a0 even
H=
N
ol
o a n-1 a n-3 o
a n-2 -------
o an ---- o
-----------------------------------
o --------
us

-----------
-----------
---- an

The determinates are thus formed as below


vt

1 = an-1

an-1 a0

2 =
an an-2

For Ex:
If n=3, then Hurwitz determinant can be written as
Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
WKT Characteristic Eq: a3S3 +a2S2 +a1S1 +a0 = 0
a2 a0 0
a3 a1 0
H =
0 a2 a0

then 1 = a2,

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

a2 a0

2 = a
a3 1

a2 a0 0
3 = a3 a1 0
0 a2 a0

in
Thus all the roots of characteristic equation have –ve real part if

1 = a2 > 0

n.
2 = a2 a1 – a3 a0 > 0
3 = a1 a2 a0 – a02 a3 >
0

Then the system is STABLE

io
Again for Ex: if n = 4, The Characteristic Equation: = a4S4 +

a3S3 + a2S2 + a1S1 +a0 = 0


ut
a3 a1 0 0 for stability 1, 2, 3
a4 a2 a0 0 & 4 all must be greater than
H = zero
0 a3 a1 0
ol
0 a4 a2 a0

The disadvantages of Hurwitz Criterion are as follows


us

(i) It is very complicated and time consuming for solving higher order system.
(ii) This method is unable to find the exact number of poles located in the right half of
S-plane
(iii) It is very tough to predict marginal stability
vt

EX: 01
s4 + 3 s3 + 6 s2 + 9 s+ 12 =0
The Hurwitz arrangement is given below

3 9 0 0
1 6 12 0
0 3 9 0
0 1 6 12

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

1 = 3>0

2 = 18 - 9 = 9 > 0

3 = 3(54-36) – 9(9-0) + 0( ) = 54 - 81 = -27 <0

4 = 3(648 – 432) – 972 > 0

System is UNSTABLE

in
Ex- 02

S2 + KS + (2K-1) = 0

n.
K 0
H=  1 = K, 2 = K (2K-1)-0
1 (2K-1) = 2K 2 - K

io
in order for these determinants be +ve, it is necessary that
ut
K > 0 and 2K – 1> 0
i.e., K > ½

 If K > 1/2 , then the system is stable


ol

EXERCISES CONDITION?

4 s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 5 = 0
(March 2001)
us

S6 + 2s5 + 8s4 + 12s3 +20S2 + 16S +16=0 (Aug-


2003) (Feb- 2004)

s4 + 5s3 +5S2 + 4S +K = 0
(Feb- 2005)
vt

s5 + 4s4 + 12s3 +20S2 + 30S +100 = ZERO (Aug-


2005)

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION

The denominator polynomial in terms of “S” of a transfer function is known as


characteristic polynomial. If this polynomial is equated to Zero, characteristic equation will be
obtained.

The characteristic polynomial of the transfer function G(S) of the equation

G(S ) C(S ) , is ansn + an + sn-1 + . . . + a0


R(S )

in
and characteristic equation is given by

anSn + an + Sn-1 + . . . . + a0 = ZERO


Solving the characteristic equation of a transfer function we get poles of the transfer function.

n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
CHAPTER V: FREQUENCY RESPONSE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING POLAR PLOTS: NYQUIST CRITERION

System Analysis using Polar Plots: Nyquist Criterion

Polar plots can be used to predict feed back control system stability by the application of Nyquist

in
Criterion, and therefore are also referred as Nyquist Plots. It is a labor saving technique in the

analysis of dynamic behaviour of control systems in which the need for finding roots of

characteristic equation of the system is eliminated.

n.
Consider a typical closed loop control system which may be represented by the simplified block

diagram as shown in Figure 6.4

io C(S)
ut
R(S) + G(S)
-
ol
H(S)

Figure 6.4 Simplified System Block Diagram


us

The closed- loop transfer function or the relationship between the output and input of the system

is given by

C(S )  G(S )
vt

R(S ) 1 G( S )H (S )

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

The open- loop transfer function is G(S) H(S) (the transfer function with the feedback loop

broken at the summing point).

1+ G(S) H(S) is called Characteristic Function which when equated to zero gives the

Characteristic Equation of the system.

1 + G(S) H(S) = 0 Characteristic Equation

in
The characteristic function F(S) = 1 + G(S) H(S) can be expressed as the ratio of two factored

polynomials.

n.
K (S  Z1 )(S  Z 2 ).............(S  Z n )
Let F (S ) 1 G(S )H (S )  k
S (S  P )(S  P )(S  P )..........(S  Z )
1 2 3 n

The Characteristic equation in general can be represented as

F(S) = K (S+Z1) (S+Z2 ) (S+Z3) ………. (S+Zn ) = 0

Then:
io
ut
–Z1, -Z2, -Z3 …. –Zn are the roots of the characteristic equation

 at S= -Z1, S= -Z2, S= -Z3, 1+ G(S) H(S) becomes zero.

These values of S are termed as Ze ros of F(S)


ol

Similarly:

at S= -P1, S= -P2, S= -P3 ……. Etc. 1+ G (S) H (S) becomes infinity.


us

These values are called Poles of F (S).

6.10.1 Condition for Stability


vt

For stable operation of control system all the roots of characteristic equation must be

negative real numbe rs or complex numbers with negative real parts. Therefore, for a system

to be stable all the “Zeros” of characteristic equation (function) should be either negative real

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

numbers or complex numbers with negative real parts. These roots can be plotted on a complex-

plane or S-plane in which the imaginary axis divides the complex plane in to two parts: right half

plane and left half plane. Negative real numbers or complex numbers with negative real parts lie

on the left of S-plane as shown Figure 6.5.

in
Left half Img Right half
of S Plane of S Plane
-3+j2
·
·

n.
2+j1
Real

-3-j2·
io · 2-j1
ut
Figure 6.5 Two halves of Complex Plane

Therefore the roots which are positive real numbers or complex numbers with positive real parts

lie on the right-half of S-plane.


ol

In view of this, the condition for stability can be stated as “For a system to be stable all the

zeros of characte ristic equation should lie on the left half of S-plane”.
us

Therefore, the procedure for investigating system stability is to search for „Zeros‟ on the right

half of S-plane, which would lead the system to instability, if present. However, it is

impracticable to investigate every point on S-plane as to which half of S-plane it belongs to and
vt

so it is necessary to have a short-cut method. Such a procedure for searching the right half of S-

plane for the presence of Zeros and interpretation of this procedure on the Polar plot is given by

the Nyquist Crite rion.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

6.10.2 Nyquist Criterion: Cauchy’s Principle of Argument:

In order to investigate stability on the Polar plot, it is first necessary to correlate the region of

instability on the S-plane with identification of instability on the polar plot, or 1+GH plane. The

1+GH plane is frequently the name given to the plane where 1+G(S) H(S) is plotted in complex

coordinates with S replaced by j. Likewise, the plot of G(S) H(S) with S replaced by j is often

in
termed as GH plane. This terminology is adopted in the remainder of this discussion.

n.
The Nyquist Criterion is based on the Cauchy‟s principle of argument of complex variable

theory. Consider [F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S)] be a single valued rational function which is analytic

io
everywhere in a specified region except at a finite number of points in S-plane. (A function F(S)

is said to be analytic if the function and all its derivatives exist). The points where the function

and its derivatives does not exist are called singular points. The poles of a point are singular
ut
points.
ol
Let CS be a closed path chosen in S-plane as shown Figure 6.6 (a) such that the function F(S) is

analytic at all points on it. For each point on C S represented on S-plane there is a corresponding
us

mapping point in F(S) plane. Thus when mapping is made on F(S) plane, the curve C G mapped

by the function F(S) plane is also a closed path as shown in Figure 6.6 (b). The direction of

traverse of CG in F(S) plane may be clockwise or counter clockwise, depending upon the
vt

particular function F(S).

Then the Cauchy principle of argument states that: The mapping made on F(S) plane will

encircle its origin as many number of times as the difference betwe en the numbe r of Zeros

and Poles of F(S) enclosed by the S-plane locus CS in the S-plane.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S) plane


S-plane
+j +j
GS5
S1 GS4
GS1
S5 S2
-σ σ -σ (0+j) σ
CS GS3

in
S3 GS2
CG
S4

-j
-j

n.
Figure 6.6 (a) Figure 6. 6 (b)

Figure 6.6 Mapping on S-plane and F(S) plane

Thus N =Z–P

N0+j0 = Z – P
io
Where N 0+j0 : Number of encirclements made by F(S) plane plot (C G) about its origin.
ut
Z and P: Number of Zeros and Poles of F(S) respectively enclosed by the locus C S in the S-

plane.
ol

Illustration: Consider a function F(S)


us

K (S 1)(S  2  j2)(S  2  j2)


F(S ) 
S (S 3)(S 5)(S 5  j2)(S 5  j2)

Zeros: -1, (-2-j2), (-2+j2) indicated by O (dots) in the S-plane

Poles: 0, -3, -5, (-5 –j2), (-5 +j2) indicated by X (Cross) in S-plane: As shown in Figure 6.6 (c)
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

+j S-plane F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S) plane


+j

CS2 CS1
CG1
CG2
-σ CS1 σ -σ (0+j0) σ
CG2
CG2

in
O: ZEROS
X: P OL ES

CS2 -j
-j

n.
Figure 6.6 (c) Figure 6.6 (d)

Now consider path C S1 (CCW) on S-plane for which:

Z: 2, P =1

io
Consider another path C S2 (CCW) in the same S plane for which:

Z = 1, P = 4
ut
CG1 and CG2 are the corresponding paths on F(S) plane [Figure 6.6 (d)].

Considering C G1 [plot corresponding to C S1 on F (S) plane]


ol
N0+j0 = Z – P = 2-1 = +1

CG1 will encircle the origin once in the same direction of CS1 (CCW)
us

Similarly for the path C G2

N0+j0 = Z – P = 1 – 4 = - 3

CG2 will encircle the origin 3 times in the opposite direction of CS2 (CCW)
vt

Note: The mapping on F(S) plane will encircle its origin as many number of times as the

difference between the number of Zeros and Poles of F(S) enclosed by the S-plane locus.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

From the above it can be observed that

In the expression

N= Z - P,

N can be positive when: Z>P

N = 0 when: Z=P

in
N can be negative when: Z<P

 When N is positive the map C G encircles the origin N times in the same direction as that of

n.
CS 

 When N = 0, No encirclements 



 N is negative the map CG encircles the origin N times in the opposite direction as that of CS 




Nyquist Path and Nyquist Plot io
ut
The above Cauchy‟s principle of argument can be used to investigate the stability of control

systems. We have seen that if the Zeros of characteristic function lie on the right half of S-plane
ol
it will lead to system instability. Now, to encircle the entire right half of S-plane, select a closed

path as shown in Figure 6.6 (e) such that all the Zeros lying on the right-half of S-plane will lie

inside this path. This path in S-plane is known as Nyquist path. Nyquist path is generally taken
us

in CCW direction. This path consists of the imaginary axis of the S-plane (S = 0+j, - <  < )

and a closing semicircle of infinite radius. If the system being tested has poles of F(S) on the

imaginary axis, it is customary to modify the contour as shown Figure 6.6 (f) excluding these
vt

poles from the path.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

+j∞ S-plane
+j
+j

r= ∞
0+j0 S=+j0 r= ∞
-σ 0-j0 σ
-σ S= -j0 σ
r≈ 0

in
-j
S= -j∞

n.
-j∞ -j
Figure 6.6 (e): Nyquist Path Figure 6. 6 (f)

Corresponding to the Nyquist path a plot can be mapped on F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S) plane as shown

counted.
1+ G(S) H(S) plane
io
in Figure 6.6 (g) and the number of encirclements made by this F(S) plot about its origin can be
ut
Img
ol
0+j0
Real Real
us

Img

Figure 6.6 (g)

Now from the principle of argument


vt

N0+j0 = Z-P

N0+j0 = number of encirclements made by F(S) plane plot

Z, P: Zeros and Poles lying on right half of S-plane

For the system to be stable: Z = 0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

N0+j0 = - P Condition for Stability

Apart from this, the Nyquist path can also be mapped on G(S) H(S) plane (Open- loop transfer

function plane) as shown in Figure 6.6 (h).

Now consider

F(S) = 1+ G(S) H(S) for which the origin is (0+j0) as shown in Figure 6.6 (g).

in
Therefore G(S) H(S) = F(S) – 1

= (0+j0) – 1 = (-1+j0) Coordinates for origin on G(S) H(S) plane as shown in

n.
Figure 6.6(h)
G(S) H(S) plane
Img

(-1+j0)
0+j0
io
ut
Origin of the plot
for G(S) H(S)

Figure 6.6 (h)


ol

Thus a path on 1+ G(S) H(S) plane can be easily converted to a path on G(S) H(S) plane or open

loop transfer function plane. This path will be identical to that of 1+G(S) H(S) path except that
us

the origin is now shifted to the left by one as shown in Figure 6.6 (h).

This concept can be made use of by making the plot in G(S) H(S) plane instead of 1+ G(S) H(S)

plane. The plot made on G(S) H(S) plane is termed as the Niquist Plot and its net encirclements
vt

about (-1+j0) (known as critical point) will be the same as the number of net encirclements made

by F(S) plot in the F(S) = 1+G(S) H(S) plane about the origin.

Now, the principle of argument now can be re-written as

N-1+j0 = Z-P

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Where N -1+j0 = Number of net encircle ments made by the G(S) H(S) plot (Nyquist Plot) in
the

G(S) H(S) plane about -1+j0

For a system to be stable Z = 0

N-1+j0 = -P

Thus the Nyquist Criterion for a stable system can be stated as The number of net

in
encircle ments made by the Nyquist plot in the G(S) H(S) plane about the critical point (-

1+j0) is equal to the number of poles of F(S) lying in right half of S-plane.

n.
[Encircle ments if any will be in the opposite direction. Poles of F(S) are the same as the

poles of G(S) H(S)].

io
Thus the stability of closed-loop control system is determined from its open- loop transfer

function.
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
CHAPTER VI

SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING LOGARITHM IC PLOTS (BODE PLOTS)

Frequency Response:

The term frequency response refers to the steady state response of a system subjected to a
sinusoidal input of fixed amplitude, but with the frequency varied over some range. This
concept is illustrated in the figure shown, in which a linear system is forced by an input a sin

in
t.

b (sinωt+Φ)

n.
a sinωt

Input

0
a B
io
ut
Φ
Output
ol
Frequency Response
us

The output is b Sin (t + ). The expression for the output is given in general form in which
+  indicates the addition of anangle which may be either positive or negative.

The input and output wave forms are as shown and of interest is the ratio of the amplitudes
and the phase angle , both of which are functions of frequency.
vt

This ratio, is commonly called as “Magnitude Ratio” and will be designated as M().

The phase angle (or phase Shift) will be denoted by ()

The main concern is . . . . ?


“Determining the frequency response information analytically although such data can
be obtained experimentally if the system exists”

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Procedure to obtain frequency response data analytically.

Step.1: Obtain transfer function for the element or combination of elements


o(S )
involved i.e., F (S )
I (S )

Step.2: In the transfer function replace S, by Jw


(Justification . . . . ?)

in
Step.3: For various values of frequency , determine the magnitude ratio „M‟ and the phase
angle .

Step.4: Plot the results form the above step 3, in polar co-ordinate or rectangular coordinator

n.
form. These plots are not only convenient means for presenting frequency response
data, but are also the basis for analytical and design methods.

Frequency response data can be presented in rectangular co-ordinate form. The most useful
representation is a “logarithmic” plot which consists of two graphs one consists of logarithm

scale”.

These plots are called “BODE PLOTS” io


of | G(j) | and the other phase angle of G(Jw) both plotted against frequency in “logarithmic
ut
The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(Jw) is 20 log10 |G(Jw)|
decibels.

Here curves are drawn on Semi- log paper, using log scale for frequency and the linear scale
ol
for either magnitude (db) or phase angle (degrees).

The main advantage of using the log-plot is that multiplication of magnitudes can be
converted into additions.
us

Basic Factors:
Four basic factors,

18) Constant (Gain K)


1
19) Integral & derivative factors, j (Zeros or poles at origin)
vt

iii) First order factor 1  jT  1 (Sim ple zeros or poles)

jw jw 1
    2 
iv) Quadratic factors, 1 2   
  
  n  n 
  

    

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

We can draw log plots of these basic factions, then it is possible to use these basic plots to
construct a composite log plot of any general factors of G (jw) H(jw) by sketching curves for
each factor and adding individual curves graphically because adding log of gains corresponds
to multiplying them together

Now, the standard representation of logarithmic magnitude of G(jw) = 20


log10 | G(j) |

Unit, = decibels (db)

in
 Mag = 20 log10 | G(jw) | db

n.
1 3 5 71
+ 80

60

10) + 20
40
io
ut
ZERO

- 20
ol
db
- 40

2 3 4
- 60 0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
us

Seme – Log Graph Sheet


Gain K :

K (indb) = 20 log10 K db
vt

i.e A log-mag curve for a constant gain K, is a horizontal straight line at the magnitude of 20
log10 K db

The phase angle of K is ZERO

 |M| = 20 log10 K

= ZERO

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

1 3 571
+ 80
a. Gain K K 
1
+ 60
-1
(i) (K)
2
+ 40 +1 K = 10
(K)
(M) + 20 K = 10

in
ZERO
- 20 -1
K = 10
Db (K)
2
- 40 K = 10

n.
- 60

0.1 1.0 10 102 10


3
10
4

(b) Integral or derivative factor

jw 1 io
ut
1
i) ,
jw

1
 |M| = 20 log jw = -20 log10
ol
= -20 log10  db
 M
1 Zero  Slope = -20 db / decade
10 - 20
us

100 - 40
1000 - 60  =- tan-  =- 90

1 3 571
+ 80
vt

1
+ 60 b. Integral or derivative factor
-1
j 
(i) (J)
+ 40

(M) + 20

ZERO

- 20 -1
db (J) -20 db/deca de,
- 40 Slope,
- 60

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10

ii) jw1
 M = 20 log |jw|
= 20 log10 |w| db

 M
1 Zero  Slope = + 20 db / decade

in
10 + 20
102 + 40
103 + 60

 = + tan  = + 90

n.
+ 80
+ 60
1 3 571

io
ut
1
b. Integral or derivative factor j
+1
+ 40 (ii) (J) +1
(J)
(M) + 20
ol

+20 db/decade,
ZERO Slope,
- 20
us

db
- 40
- 60
vt


2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

What about j


-n 1
(iii) (a) (j) = ( j) n

1
M = 20 log n
( j)
n
= -20 log (j)

in
= -20 x n log (j)

 Slope = - 20 x n db / decade

n.
Similarly  = - 90 x n
+n
(b) (j)

 M = 20 log (j)n

= 20 x n log (j)

 Slope = 20 x n db / decade io
ut
Similarly  = + 90 x n
ol
1 3 57 1

+ 80
n

+ 60 b (iii) j + 60 db/de (n=3)


us

+ 40 + 40 db/de (n=2)
n

(M) + 20 j
ZERO
vt

n
- 20 j
db
- 40 - 40 db/de (n=2)
- 60 - 60 db/de (n=3)

2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

+ 160
n
+ 120 b. (iii)j
n=4

in
+ 80 n=3 n
j
+ 40 n=2

n.
ZERO

- 40
db n=2
n
- 80
- 120
0.01 0.1
io1.0  10
n=4
n=3

10
j

2
10
3
ut
1
ol
(c) First order factors : (1 + jwT)
-1 1
(i) (1 + jwT) = (1  jwT )
us

1
(1jwT
M = 20 log10 = )

2 2 2
1  T
vt

= - 20 log10 (1 + jwT)
T

= - 20 log10 db
h
e

For low frequencies , i.e.,  < < i.e.  n


M
T << 1 Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
1
= -20log10 1= 0, (ZERO) If  t >>T
1
i.e., T >> 1 Then M = -20 log10 T
T
db

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Now  M
1
T Zero
10
- 20  Slope = - 20 db / decade
T
10
- 40
T
-1
 = - ta n T

in
 
0 0
1 -1
- tan 1 = -45
T

n.
 = - tan-1  =- 90

+ 80 io
C First order Factors 1 jT
ut
1
+ 60
(i) 1  jT
ol

+ 40 1
T = 0.1
us

(M) + 20
1
ZERO CF = T = 10

- 20
-20 db/de
vt

db
- 40 1 1
2
 0  10 
     
- 60 T  T   T 
 

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

+1
(ii) (1+ J T)

| M | = 20 log | 1 + J T |
2 2 2
= 20 log10 1  T db

1
Now, for low frequencies, i.e  <<
T

in
i.e, T << 1
|M| = 20 log10 = Zero

If T >>1, Then,

n.
|M| = 20 log10 T db

 (M)
1
 If T Zero
10
T

10
2
+ 20 db

+ 40 db
io
 Slope = +20 db/decade
ut
T
3
10
+ 60 db
T
ol

 =- tan-1 (T)
 

0 0
us

1
-1
T tan 1 = 45
-1
 tan  = 90
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

+ 80
1
+ 60 C First order Factors 1  jT
1jT
1
+ 40 (ii) 

in
(M) + 20 +20 db/de
ZERO T = 0.1

n.
CF = 10
- 20
 1
2
db 1  0  10 
- 40      

- 60
0.1 1.0 io
T 

10
T 

 10
2

 T

10
3

10
4
ut
ol

+ 80
1
C First order Factors1 jT 
+ 60 31 jT
us

1
(iii) 2
+ 40 1
(M) + 20 T CF
1 0.2 5.0
vt

ZERO
2 0.4 2.5
- 20 3 0.8 1.25
db
1 1

1  jT
- 40 2 

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
- 60 3
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10  10 10 10

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
n
(iii) for (1+jT)
-n
We can show that in case of (1+jT)
db
Slope = - 20 x n dec ade
 for n = 2 Slope = -40 db/de

= 3 = -60 db/de
: :

in
10 = -200 db/de

again,  =- tan-1 T x n

n.
+ 80

+ 60
C First order
io
Factors 1  jT
n=4
1
n=3

1jT 
n
ut
+ 40 (iv) n=2
(M) + 20
ZERO
ol

- 20
db
n=2 n
us

- 40 1jT 
n=3
- 60
2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10 10 10 10
vt

+n
In case of (1+jT)

Slope = +20 x n db/decade

and  = tan-1 T x n

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

HOW TO GET FIRST ORDER FACTORS:

Consider the system shown in figure the differential equation is

x dy
C ky 
kxt dt
K
. .
c

in
yk  xt  yk
y k  x(t)
C

n.
Taking laplace, and rearranging the terms, we get transfer function.

TF  Y (S )  1  1
X (S ) 1 S 1 TS io
ut
C
Where   = Time constant = T
k
ol
Now making substitution, S=J and assuming some suitable value for
 =0.1 see, yields
Y ( j) 1 1
1
us

x( j) = j  = 10.1 j

Now a table can be constructed giving the magnitude ratio M(w) and the phase angle  (w)

To illustrate this, let w = 10, as an example,


vt

Y 1 1
 = =
1 12
2
x 1  j1

1
= 1. 41 45

= 0.71 45

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Based on the above calculation for different values of , = 0, 2,5,10 . . . . . . .


 can be tabulated as shown below

  () (de grees)


M()
(rad/sec) Zero
O 1. 0 Zero
2 0. 98 -11. 3
5 0. 89 -26. 6

in
10 0. 71 -45
20 0. 45 -63. 4
40 0. 24 -76. 0

n.
 0. 00 -90

 M=20log 10 M
M()
(rad/sec)
O
2 io
1. 0
0. 98
(dec ibels)
Zero
-0. 175
ut
5 0. 89 -1. 01
10 0. 71 -2. 97
20 0. 45 -6. 93
40 0. 24 -12. 39
ol

 0. 00 

HOW TO GET QUADRATIC FACTORS:


us

Consider k- m-c, system as shown the differential equation, is


.. .
x M y cy k y kx(t)
and transfer function is
K
vt

Y (s)  k
X (s) Ms 2 CS k
M

y  1  1
2
C M C s 2 S
s2  S 1   1
2
k k n n

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

To form a tabular column, as done earlier,

let us assume, natural frequency = 10 rad/sec and a damping ratio of 0.5, and making the
substitution s = j,yields,

Y ( j) 1 1
2 2
0.01( j) 0.1 j (1 0. 01 ) 
x( j) = 1 = j.0. 1

in
Now, a table is made giving the magnitude ratio and phase angle for various values of , let
=5, as an example, then

Y 1

n.
(0 1.25) 
x = j0.5
1
=
0.9 -33.7

= 1.11 -33.7
io
ut

M()  () (de grees)
(rad/sec)

O 1.0 Zero
ol
2 1. 02 -11.8

5 1. 11 -33.7

8 1. 14 -65.8
us

10 1.0 -90

12 0. 78 -110.1

15 0. 51 -129.8
vt

20 0. 28 -146.3

40 0. 06 -165.1

70 0. 02 -171.7

 0. 00 -180.0

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

 M( )
M()
(rad/sec) (dec ibels)

O 1.0 Zero

2 1. 02 0. 172

5 1. 11 0. 906

in
8 1. 14 1. 138

10 1.0 Zero

n.
12 0. 78 -2.15

15 0. 51 -5.84

20 0. 28 -11.5

40

70 io 0. 06

0. 02
-24.43

-33.97
ut
 0. 00 
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
1
(d) Quadratic factors:  2 j j2  1     

  
   
  n  n 
1
2
(i)  j  j
12   
 
    
  n   n 

1
= M = 20 log10
 j j 2 

in

1 2  
 
   
 
 n   n 
 
j

n.
2
 j   

= - 20 log10 1 2  
     

  n   n 
 2 

= -20 log10 




  

1

n 
2
j
  2

io

 

n



2 1/ 2


ut
 2 2

    

= -20 log10 1  2
 2 
  n 
   


 n   
 
ol

If  <<n , then
(M) = - 20 log10 1 = ZERO db

If  >>n , then,
us

 2
 

( M) =- 20l og10 


vt

 
= - 40 log10   db

 n 

If  =n , M = -40 log1 = ZERO

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
= 10 n = -40 log10 = -40 db

= 102 n = -40 log102 = -80 db

 Slope = - 40 db/deca de

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Phase angle:
2/
 n 
 =- tan-1 
 / 2 

 1 
 n 

The phase angle is a function of both  and 

in
 If  = 0,  =- tan-1 0 = ZERO

= n = -tan-12 = -tan  =- 90

n.
0

= = -tan-1 2 = - 180

io
ut
1 3 5 71
+ 80
(d) Quadratic factors 1
ol
1 3 571
+ 80
(C) Quadratic factors
+ 60
us

(ii) [ ] -1
+ 40 C.F = 1.0
Slope:+40 db/de
(M) + 20
vt

ZERO
- 20
db
- 40
- 60 2 3 4
0.1 1.0 10  10 10 10

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

CHAPTER VIII

System Compensation.

Introduction:

Automatic control systems have played a vital role in the advancement of science and

in
engineering. In addition to its extreme importance in sophisticated systems in Space vehicles,
missile- guidance, aircraft navigating systems, etc., automatic control system as become an
important and integral part of manufacturing and industrial processes. Control of process

n.
parameters like pressure, temperature, flow, viscosity, speed, humidity, etc., in process
engineering and tooling, handling and assembling mechanical parts in manufacturing industries
among others in engineering field where automatic control systems are inevitable part of the
system.

io
A control system is designed and constructed to perform specific functional task. The concept of
ut
control system design starts by defining the output variable( Speed, Pressure, Temperature Etc.,)
and then determining the required specification ( Stability, Accuracy, and speed of response). In
the design process the designs must first select the control Media and then the control elements
ol
to meet the designed ends.
In actual practice several alternative can be analyzed and a final judgment can be made an
overall performances and economy.
us

Systems have been categorized as manual and automatic systems. Based on the type of control
needed most systems are categorized as - Manual & Automatic. In applications where systems
are to be operated with limited or no supervision, then systems are made automatic and where
vt

system needs supervision the system is designed as manual. In the present-day context most of
the systems are designed as automatic systems for which one of the important considerations was
economics. However, the necessity for the system to be made as an automatic system is to make
sure that the system performs with no scope for error which otherwise is prone to a lot of errors
especially in the operations. Other classification of a system is based on the input and output
relationships. Accordingly, in an Open Loop Control System the output is independent of the
input and in a closed loop control system the output is dependant on the input. The term input

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
refers to reference variable and the output is referred to as Controlled variable. Most of the
systems are designed as closed loop systems where a feedback path with an element with a
transfer function would help in bridging the relationship between the input and the output.

A system can be represented by the block diagram and from a s imple to a complicated system,
reduction techniques can be used to obtain the overall transfer function of the system. Overall
system Transfer function can also be obtained by another technique using signal flow analysis
where the transfer function of the system is obtained from Mason‟s gain formula. Once the

in
system is designed, the response of the system may be obtained based on the type of input. This
is studied in two categories of response namely response of the systemic time domain and
frequency domain. The system thus conceived and designed needs to be analyzed based on the

n.
same domains. At this stage the systems are studied from the point of view of its operational
features like Stability, Accuracy and Speed of Response. Development of various systems have
been continuous and the history of the same go back to the old WATT‟S

io
Speed Governor, which was considered as an effective means of speed regulation. Other control
system examples are robot arm, Missile Launching and Guidance System, Automatic Aircr aft
Landing System, Satellite based digital tracking systems,etc to name a few. In the design of the
ut
control systems, three important requirements are considered namely STABILITY,
ACCURACY and SPEED OF RESPONSE.
Stable Systems are those where response to input must reach and maintain some useful value
ol
with in a reasonable period of time. The designed systems should both be Unstable Systems as
unstable control
us

3
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

systems produce persistent or even violent oscillations of the output and output will be driven to
some extreme limiting value.
Systems are also designed to meet certain levels of Accuracy. This is a relative term with limits
based upon a particular application. A time measurement system may be from a simple watch to
a complicated system used in the sports arena. But the levels of accuracy are different in both
cases. One used in sports arena must have very high levels of sophistication and must be reliable
showing no signs of variations. However, this feature of the system is purely based on the system

in
requirement. For a conceived, designed and developed system, the higher the levels of Accuracy
expected, higher is the Cost.
The third important requirement comes by way of SPEED OF RESPONSE. System must

n.
complete its response to some input within an acceptable period of time. System has no value if
the time required to respond fully to some input is far greater than the time interval between
inputs

EXAMPLES

DIGITAL CAMERA
io
ut
In the present day technology, a digital camera is a mechatronic system with many
features and multiple functions. The same camera is used to capture still images as well
ol
as video recording of
events. The controls are so effective that the change of light or the
4
us

position of the object/subject the camera sets automatically. The objective of


design of such a system is to provide the best shot with the best lighting and
without much fuss of photography. This means an amateur should be able to
vt

shoot the best subject with the same finesse as that of a professional. The three
basic requirements of the control system must be met in order tot see that the
system is highly efficient.

AUTOMATED TRAFFIC SIGNAL

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
Another example of a control system is the automatic traffic control system. Most of
these signals are timer based. But these days with the advent of new technology,
these systems are becoming intelligent systems which adopt themselves to the
present conditions and work for the best results. In case of a Traffic light in a four
road junction, the signal may overlook the normal routine when there traffic is more
in one direction. Also, present day networking technology has helped in integrating
of multiple computers so that system can share information needed for effective
control of traffic.

in
Basic Characteristics Of Lead, Lag And Lag-Lead

n.
Compensation:

R(S)
COMPENSATOR
io PLANT
C(S)
ut
FEEDBACK
ol
ELELMENT

Lead compensation essentially yields an appropriate improvement in transient resonse


us

and a small imrovement in steady state accuracy. Lag compensation on the other hand,
yields an appreciable improvement in steady state accuracy ast the expense of increasing
theh transient responsetime. Lag- lead compensation combines the characterisitcs of both
lead compensation and lag compensation. The use of a lead or lag
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

compenastion saises the order of the system by one. The use of a lag- lead compensator raises the
order of the system by two (unless cancellation occurs between the zeroes of the lag- lead
network and the poles of the uncompensated open- loop transfer function), which means that the
system becomes more complex and it is more difficult to control the transient response behavior.
The particular situation determines the type of the compensation to be used.

in
Lead Compe nsation
Procdure for the design of suitable compensator starts from the type of network adopted in the
process. For example a Mechanical Network or an electrical network and derive the transfer

n.
function for the type of network chosen.Once the transfer fucntion is obtained, then the
procedure for designing lead compensator based on the root-locus aproach or frequency response
approach.

io
Lead Network. A schematic diagram of an electrial lead network is shown . Mechanical Network
comprises of SPRINGS and DAMPERS and Electrical Network comprises of RESISTORS
ut
AND CAPACITORS. The name lead network comes from the fact that for a sinusoidal input, ei,
the output e0 of the network is also sinusoidal with phase lead. The phase lead angle is a function
of the input frequency.
ol

2
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

The transfer fucntion of the network is derived assunming the sourec


network to be ZERO and the output load impedance is infinite.

in
n.
io
ut
20) Basic Step involves finding out the Transfer Function (TF) of the network
21) Next step involves procedures for designing lead compensator based on the root
locus approach and /or Frequency Response approach
ol

1. TRANSFER FUNCTION
11) Consider a system represented by an ELECTRICAL & a MECHANICAL
network
us

12) Lead Network comes from the fact that for a sinusoidal input ei, the output eo is also
sinusoidal with phase lead
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

• Phase lead angle is a function of input frequency


• In order to derive the TF, the complex impedances Z1 and Z2 Z1=[ R1/(R1Cs+1)]
and Z2=R2
• Assumption made is that the source impedance is ZERO and that of the output load is
INFINITE
• XO(S)/XI(S) = (S+1/T)/(S+1/αT)

in
• This has a ZERO at s= -(1/T)
• This has a POLE at s = -(1/αT)

• Zero is always located far to the left

n.
• Minimum value of α is limited by the physical construction of the lead network
• If α is very very small then it is necessary to cascade an amplifier in order to
compensate for the attenuation of the lead network.

io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

D In the polar plot, for a given value of α, the angle between the positive real axis and the
tangent line drawn from the origin to the semicircle gives the MAXIMUM PHASE
ANGLE Φm
E Frequency at the tangent point is ωn
F Phase angle at ω = ωn is given by
G Sin Φm = (1-α/2)/(1+α/2)= (1-α)/(1+α)

in
H Shows relationship of LEAD ANGLE &Value α

n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

(N) In Bode Plot of lead network for α=0.1 shows that corner frequency as ω=1/T and
ω=1/αT , ωm is the geometric mean of two corner frequencies
(O) Log ωm = ½ { log(1/T) + log(1/ αT)}, which is ωm = 1/√ αT

(P) Lead Network is a high pass filter ,hence low frequenc ies are attenuated
(Q) Additional GAIN is required elsewhere to increase low frequency gain

in
Consider the elctrical lead network as shown. Using defined symbols, Z1={R1/(R2Cs+1)}
and Z2= R2
The transfer function between the output Eo(s) and input Ei(s) is [Eo(s)/Ei(s) ] =

n.
[Z2/(Z1+Z2)]
= [R2/(R1+R2)] [(R1Cs+1)/((R1R2/R1+R2)Cs+1)] Defining R1C=T &
[R2/(R1+R2)]=α<1 and substituting in the above, then the transfer fucntion becomes
[Eo(s)/Ei(s) ] = α{Ts+1/ (αTs+1)} =[( s+(1/T))/ (s+(1/ αT))]

io
[Eo(s)/Ei(s)] = [(s+(1/T))/ (s+(1/ αT))]
ut
On the similar lines, the transfer fucntion for a mecanical lead network may also be
obtained which is the same as that of an electrical lead network.
ol

6
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

[Eo(s)/Ei(s)] = [(s+(1/T))/ (s+(1/ αT))]

A lead network has the following transfer fucntion.


α{Ts+1/ (αTs+1)} =[( s+(1/T))/ (s+(1/ αT))] (for α <1)
This has a ZERO at s= -1/T and a pole at s= - [1/(α T)]. Since α <1,

ZERO is always located to the right of the pole in the complex plane. It may also be noted tat for
a small value of α, the pole is located far to the left. The minimum value of α is limited by the

in
physical construction of the lead network. The minimum value of α is usually taken to be 0,.07.
If the value of α is small, it is necessary to cascade an amplifier in order to compensate for the
attenaution of the lead network. In the polar plot of the lead network replacing s by jω

n.
α [(jωT+1)/( jω αT+1)] (0< α<1)
For a given value of α, the angle between the positive real axis and

the tangent line drawn from the origin to the semicircle gives the

ωm, the phase angle at ω = ωm, is

Sin Φm = [((1- α)/2)/ ((1+ α)/2)] = [(1-


io
maximum phase angle Φm, calling frequency at the tangent point to be
ut
α)/ (1+ α)]
This relates the maximum phase angle and the value of α.
In the Bode diagram of the lead network (when α= 0.1), the corner
ol
frequencies for the lead network are ω = 1/T and ω = 1/( αT). From
us

7
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

the figure it is clear that ωm is the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies or ,
Log ωm = ½[ log (1/T) + log 1/( αT)] ω = ωm =
1/√ αT
As seen from the figure, the lead network is basically a high passs filter. (The high
frequencies are passed but the low frequencies are attenuated). Therefore an additional
gain elsewhere is needd to increase the low frequency gain.

in
LAG COMPENSATION: The Procedural aspects of designing a suitable lag
compensator is exactly the same as given in the lead compensator design.

SYSTEM COMPENSATION

n.
Compensation is the minor adjustment of a system in order to satisfy the given
specifications. Specification refers to the objective of a system to perform and obtain the
expected output after the system is provided with a proper input. Some of the needs o f the
system compensation are as specified.

io
ut
PERFORMANCE SPECIIFICATIONS - Control systems are designed to perform
specified tasks. The requirements imposed upon the control system are usually spelled out as
performance specifications. They generally relate to accuracy, relative stability and speed of
response. For routine design problems, performance specifications may be given in terms of
ol

precise numerical value. In other cases, they may be given partially in terms of numerical
values and partially in terms of qualitative statements. In the latter case, the specifications
may have to be modified during the course of design since the given specifications may have
us

to be modified during the course of design since the design specifications may never be
satisfied (because of conflicting requirements) or may lead to a very complicated system or
may also be a system which in not an economical system or an expensive system.
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

Generally speaking, the performance specifications should not be more stringent than
necessary to perform the given task. If the accuracy at steady state operation is of prime
importance in a given control system, then the performance specifications on the transient
response must not be rigid since such specifications will require expensive components or
make the system expensive. Most important feature of the control system is to state the

in
performance specifications precisely so that they will yield an optimal control system for the
given purpose. In general the desired objectives must be achievable & subjective based on
the product features so that the cost of the product is kept in mind before the same is

n.
designed.
TRIAL & ERROR APPROACH TO SYSTEM DESIGN -
In most practical cases, the design method to be used maybe
determined by the performance specifications applicable to the particular case. In designing
control systems, if the performance specifications are given in terms of time domain

io
performance measures, such as rise time, maximum overshoot or settling time or frequency
domain performance measures such as Phase Margin, Gain Margin, resonant peak value, or
bandwidth, then, there is no other choice but to use the method of trial and error approach
based on Root Locus Method and/or Frequency response method.
ut
The systems which may be designed by a trial and error approach are usually limited to single
input and single out put linear time invariant systems. The designer repetition. After a system
is designed, the designer checks to see if the designed system satisfies all the performance
ol
specifications. If it does not, then design process is repeated by adjusting parameter settings or
by changing the system configurations until the given specifications are met. Alt hough the
design is based on the trial and error procedure, the ingenuity and the know- how of the
us

designer will play an important role in a successful design.

In analysis we have seen that system a gain is adjusted to meet the requirements of control
system specification. However high gain results in reduction of steady-state error but reduces
vt

stability of the system when this is not found sufficient in the design of control system. It is
required to modify the shape of the actual plot. This is done by redesigning the system and
the control elements. This is done by placing compensating elements in series or parallel.
Series compensation is placed in feed- forward loop. Parallel compensation is placed in feed
back loop.
Compensation devices have been classified into three categories. The irst is phase-Lag,
second is phase lead and the third is Lag-lead Compensation.

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in
General Consideration To Choose Compensating Devices

There are many specific criteria which can be used to determine the form of
compensating elements and the particulars value for the parameters. However it is
possible to make some generalized characteristics which serve as guides to choose
specific compensating elements.

in
Firstly in the lower range of frequencies (Frequencies below crossover point) it is
desirable that the output of the system follow the references variable with a minimum of

n.
error. This correspond to a high dB level at low frequencies in BODE Diagram.
Secondly in the middle range frequencies (i.e. frequencies near the crossover point) slope
of attenuation curve should be limited to 20 db/decade. This generalization refers to
systems which are unstable.

io
Third at high frequency range ( Frequencies above the crossover point), it is genera lly
desirable to attenuate as rapidly as possible i.e greater negative attenuation.
It is therefore appropriate to point out that compensation is an area which requires
ut
creative application of the basic principles to meet the stated set of specification.
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in
Vtusolution.in

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

Vtusolution.in