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Vol 01 No 9 August 2018 Pages 64 MARKET

Chairman of the Board


Neil Viegas
Editor 17 COUNTRY!


National Design Editor


Assistant Art Director ANNOUNCED BETWEEN
Pravin Temble 54 THERMOSIFT AND
Chief Designer
Senior Designer

Rekha Bisht
Water Infrastructure
Graphic Designer

Gauri Deorukhkar

Head of Internet
Web Developer
While there is consensus that the infrastructure 43 SECURITY - INTERVIEW
Dhaval Das
Senior Executive - Online
improvements must be the top priority in projects like SZÖLLÖSI-NAGY

Pushkar Waralikar smart cities, their sustainability and efficiency in the WATER SECURITY:
Executive - Online long run are also a cause of concern. Express Water 46 THREATS AND THE WAY
Salil Sule
talks to experts and explores the reasons.

Santosh Lokare
Photo Editor
Sandeep Patil
Kailash Shirodkar

Mohan Varadakar
General Manager

B R Tipnis

Bhadresh Valia

Express Water


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4 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


A ‘Green’ Infrastructure In Our Menu

Water authorities around the world have been fac- maintain a smart water infrastructure, we tend to
ing some serious backlash on how they manage their forget that even those water utilities in India which
water infrastructure and plan their water resources have a cash reserve bigger than the budget of some
for the future. Whether it is the problem of ‘Day Zero’ states have failed to implement the solutions sug-
in Cape Town of South Africa, or closer to home in gested by water experts. Our performance in man-
metropolitan cities of India like Mumbai, Delhi, and aging the problems of urban floods, stormwater, leak-
Chennai where water loss and stormwater manage- age detection and water loss shows where we are.
ment practices, at best, can be described only as reac- And that is only part of the problem. New and regular
tive measures to the problems. In this issues, we have investments in our infrastructure are important, but
explored few trends as well as project case studies to we cannot hide behind the lack of funds and re-
understand the issues and share the best practices. sources every time. We need to our basics right.
According to the findings of a new report which I Our focus should also be on “overall asset man-
recently read, the global market for water infrastruc- agement” instead of only a few areas highlighted in
ture repair technology (WIRT) market reached USD the projects or in media. Then we would be able to
68.8 billion in 2016. And it is expected to reach USD create a system where each component supports the
92.3 billion by 2021 - with a compound annual growth others. And that, perhaps, is the key to achieving a
rate (CAGR) of 6.1% through 2021. This shows that green and sustainable water infrastructure.
there are opportunities for project companies and In the Tech Focus section (on Water Safety & Se-
water experts, and the need for exciting new tech- curity) this month, we have an interesting interview
nologies which must be cost-efficient in long-run. with Prof. András Szöllösi-Nagy. Read his views on
While there is a consensus that the infrastructure ‘water governance’ and you will get a good insight
improvements must be the top priority in plans of into the topic. We have also done interviews with two
smart cities, their sustainability and efficiency, in the “If you only design menus industry stalwarts from India this month - Rajiv Mit-
long run, are a cause for concern. tal, MD & Group CEO of VA Tech WABAG and Ran-
New trenchless pipe repair technologies and re- that are essentially junk or ganath NK, MD of Grundfos Pumps India.
mote assessment & monitoring of networks are some fast food, the whole As always, I welcome editorial contributions on
of the areas where we still need to achieve a lot on the all the topics which you find significant for the water
ground, specifically in the developing countries.
infrastructure supports
sector. Keep sharing...
Smart water meters will also help the water utilities a junk."
lot, for example in India, in creating a robust water
supply network where not only the usage will be effi- - Jamie Oliver
cient but the billing and other relevant services will
be more reliable for customers. Editor
While there could be different views on the need
of huge budgets, funds and resources to create and @TheExpressWater

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6 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


LANXESS Appoints Neelanjan WABAG CSR Project to Benefit 250 Farmers

and 350 Hectares of Farm Land
Banerjee as the NewMD in India
Mayur Sharma
EW Staff Kingdom. Born in
India France, he has also held WABAG HAS LAUNCHED a Pro-
the position of Chief Poor and Pro-Farmer project at
N E E L A N J A N Financial Officer (CFO) Sokkan Odai, Killai, Chidambaram
BANERJEE WILL be of LANXESS India Taluk, Cuddalore District under CSR
the new Country Private Limited since program. This project aims at restor- Sustainability Plan, Sokkan Odai
Representative and 2013. ing traditional irrigation through Conservation Committee has been
Managing Director for “India is an important structural renovation in Sokkan formed consisting of beneficiary
India effective region for LANXESS Odai, part of Cauvery river drainage farmers to take ownership of the
September 1, 2018. He that offers a lot of poten- system. This would facilitate sustain- community assets post project com-
will assume these tasks tial,” said Matthias able crop production in both flood pletion. This WABAG CSR project
in addition to his current Neelanjan Banerjee Zachert, Chairman of and drought situations. Activities would benefit around 250 farmers
function as head of the the Board of include channel de-silting, pipe out- and 350 ha. of farm land, supporting
Advanced Industrial Banerjee follows Management at lets on channel banks, creation of livestock rearing and livelihood
Intermediates business Jacques Perez who will LANXESS. “The new farm ponds for water storage and bio enhancement of the local farming
unit (BU AII) in India. take over new responsi- regional organization mass production on the channel community. This project was con-
Banerjee had joined bilities as Managing under the leadership of banks. The total project outlay is ceived by the Agricultural
LANXESS in 2006 as Director of LANXESS Neelanjan Banerjee is around Rs.20.00 lakhs which is fully Engineering Department of the
head of the former Basic Holding UK Unlimited specifically geared funded by WABAG. Cuddalore Collectorate and imple-
Chemicals business unit and Country toward driving growth in The project is executed by Hand mented by WABAG with the support
and the Saltigo business Representative of India in the coming in Hand India, a reputed social devel- of Government, NGO and the Killai
unit in India. LANXESS in the United years.” opment organization. As part of farmers.

Manchester CityAnnounces New Aquarius Spectrum and TaKaDu Announce Integration

Partnership for Effective Water Management
Global Partnership with Xylem
EW Staff
EW Staff
are collaborating to provide water utili-
THE PREMIER LEAGUE ties with a centralized, cloud-based solu-
Champions, Manchester City has tion for improved network efficiency,
announced a global multi-year water loss reduction, and asset manage-
partnership with Xylem to become ment. Based on big data analytics and tai-
the Club’s Official Water lored algorithms, TaKaDu’s Central
Technology Partner. The partner- Event Management solution is being inte- solution facilitates follow up action (for
ship was announced at an event in grated with Aquarius’s automatic leak repairs, etc.) and provides management
Singapore, which was attended by The Launch Event at Singapore detection and monitoring system to dashboards, actionable insights and
Club legend, Joleon Lescott, during International Water Week (l-r): Damian detect, monitor, analyze and manage detailed reports for strategic decisions
the Singapore International Water Willoughby, Senior VP of Partnership at faulty pipes, hidden leaks and other and budget planning.
Week - the world’s premier global City Football Group; Club Legend - anomalies in the water network. “The collaboration with Aquarius is
platform for co-creating innovative Joleon Lescott; and Patrick Decker, Integration between the two systems an important step in our efforts to inte-
water solutions. President & CEO of Xylem enables users to receive two independent grate TaKaDu with other alerting sys-
Xylem will also partner with indications about the same problem in tems giving customers a one-stop-shop
City’s sister club New York City FC and solutions. Xylem will also work the same area, one from TaKaDu and one for effective water management,” said
and the Manchester City women’s with Manchester City on Xylem from Aquarius. Using the centralized Udi Geismar, VP Customer Success,
team. Watermark projects, such as build- platform, operational teams can validate, TaKaDu. “We’ve already successfully
Through the partnership, Xylem ing water towers in communities track, prioritize and resolve events more implemented a pilot at our joint customer
aims to raise awareness about around the world without access to easily, in coordination with other depart- Hagihon here in Israel, with substantial
pressing global water challenges clean water. ments in the organization. The combined water savings.”

8 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


With Rajiv Mittal
Managing Director and Group CEO, VA Tech WABAG Ltd.

Rajiv Mittal is the Managing

Director and Group CEO of
VA Tech WABAG Limited - a pure
play water technology Indian
multinational. Her Excellency
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President
of Liberia and Nobel Laureate
presented him the Distinction
Award in 2014 for the Water
Company of the Year at the
Global Water Summit. The Indian
Desalination Association has
conferred ‘Lifetime Achievement
Award’ on him in 2015. In 2017, he
was ranked among the Top 3
Global Water Leaders, for the
second time in a row, by WWi.
Under his leadership, WABAG has
been ranked among the top 10
global water companies and top
10 global desalination companies
by GWI. During a recent
conversation with Mayur
Sharma at the head-office of
WABAG in Chennai, he spoke
candidly about his journey into
the water sector, the status of
WABAG’s current and upcoming
projects and its ambitious future

10 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Please tell us about your Our first major breakthrough The parent company contin- few years, we have witnessed duties. From that point of
journey into the water sec- was getting the first project ued not to do well and in the a subdued activity in India, view, I think GST has more or
tor so far. from an oil & gas major like meantime, Siemens had since progressive policies less streamlined the taxation,
Mr. Mittal: I did my Reliance in 1997, April. They acquired VA Tech in 2005. So, were being drafted, and new made it simple for every com-
Chemical Engineering from were setting up their that time Siemens had their schemes were coming up. We pany to comply with it. I think
the University of Mumbai and Jamnagar refinery which is own water business and they hope to see quick implementa- this will bring about better
I was one of the few guys who one of the largest Greenfield couldn’t integrate WABAG tion in the months to come efficiency and better compli-
didn’t want to go abroad for refineries globally and we into their water business. So, and it has already picked up ance. On a long-term, it will be
higher studies and wanted to were lucky to get our first they decided to put WABAG under the flagship schemes of beneficial to the industry. In
start working straight away. major account with an efflu- on the block. So, we decided Namami Gange and AMRUT. short-term, yes there are
One of the first companies on ent treatment plant. This cre- it’s a great opportunity to con- Projects are progressing with going to be glitches like even
the campus that time was ated ripples in the sector and vert the Indian company into new standards coming in. The in our contracts with some of
Dorr Oliver and I got selected we had made a mark a global company. Though it government has given clarifi- these local bodies, they are
and started my career. overnight. was a much bigger business cation on the new discharge still not able to change to GST
Fortunately for me, I was posi- Post that, we experienced compared to our size in India, standards. With this clarity on because they don’t know how
tioned in R&D and was given a continued success with quite a we could get our board’s norms, it is an opportunity for much is the impact of GST
project to develop a system few major clients in the indus- approval to bid for it. all local bodies to get their versus the earlier tax regime.
for treating highly complex trial sector. We had devised a There was huge competi- projects on the line with a bet- This discussion is definitely
wastewater. That’s how my detailed strategy for India to tion but we were successful ter idea on what the budgets leading to delays and funding
journey started, way back in diversify risks and optimize and we could sign a deal with would be. I feel the metropoli- issues because if we cannot
1983. Since then, there’s been order intake based on macro- Siemens to buy their global tan cities across India such as raise the bill, we cannot get
no looking back! With my economic conditions. When Mumbai, Bangalore, and Delhi funded and we cannot put the
association in R&D, I was the industrial business was will be the first ones to come cash back into the operation.
excited about developing slowing down and we had up with mega schemes. Tier-II But this is short-term, and I
viable technologies for Dorr aspirations to grow, we moved cities will follow closely. And I think going forward in medi-
Oliver which was globalized into the municipal business think next 2-3 years will see a um to long-term, it is definite-
by them. At an initial stage, I for water and wastewater lot of wastewater treatment ly going to be beneficial and
also added key accounts to our treatment. Our first success Most of our plants coming up for tender- tax compliance will be defi-
clientele and made a begin- was with the Chennai Metro research and ing. nitely easier because it is
ning in India. I have been in Water Supply and Sewerage We are also focused on the going to eliminate multiple
the water industry for the last Board - an order for the refur- development goes international market especial- taxes and the compliance
35 years. In my formative bishment of a sewage treat- into making ly in Africa and Latin which was related to that.
years, I had grown from Dorr ment plant. Because India, as America, which we feel are
Oliver, winning and executing a country, had a vision to be an technologies more goldmines of opportunity con- The Municipal market had
special projects, was selected economic superpower and affordable. sidering the gap in supply and been stifled in the recent
by John Brown Engineering in infrastructure was a critical demand infrastructure. This years by the slow economy
the UK for their water treat- need with a huge gap in net- water business towards the will also help boost exports and lack of funds. What is
ment division and that’s how I work and treatment infra- end of 2007 and that’s been from India with us being an your take on the market
spent about seven years in the structure, the municipal mar- the journey. Since then we Indian multinational. We also going forward?
UK. ket gained traction across tier have been growing not only in look at reinforcing our pres- Mr. Mittal: Yes it’s true
Towards the end of my 1 and 2 cities. This helped us, India but globally. Also, we ence in the Middle East, South because especially waste-
career in John Brown, I was and due to the sheer size of helped WABAG get closure by East Asia and Europe where water takes the last priority
approached by WABAG to the projects, we became more completing the projects they we have had a historic pres- for funding in infrastructure.
work for them on internation- of a municipal company than couldn’t. We supported them. ence. It is always power, roads,
al projects. WABAG was a an industrial one. But our ini- We then went in for a very On the industrial front, Oil drinking water which take
German company at that time, tial industrial skill which we successful listing in 2010. We and Gas is the growth driver precedence, so the industry
owned by Deutsche Babcock developed remained with the were the first pure play water where we have had huge suc- has suffered from the lack of
and I moved to Germany, near company and today we do company to be listed on the cess in the last couple of years funds. But, I think, this all-
Munich, took charge of inter- almost 40 percent industrial Stock Exchange. Our stocks with global giants for techno- new focus of the government
national project development and 60 percent municipal. have done very well and they logically intensive projects. to expedite projects, to put
and also strategy. Towards the After Deutsche Babcock continue to be very attractive Going forward, we look for- more money into Swachh
end of the first year, we had started having huge financial in the market. So, that’s been ward to capitalize on the Bharat, more money into
developed a strategy on how problems globally, especially the journey so far and I think potential in this sector further AMRUT, and of course bring-
to penetrate the South East in Germany and France where we are looking for further with more accounts added to ing in this new concept of
Asian market, and India it was not doing so well, they growing our business globally. our kitty. hybrid annuity models, I think
turned out to be a bright spot wanted to sell their business Already, we have 20 sub- this will definitely pump in
to start WABAG’s business in in India. So, we were put in a sidiaries across the globe, we How do you see the overall funding into these projects
South East Asia. I was given fashion parade in front of a lot have 3 R&D Centers. And we impact of GST on the In- and bring greater prominence
the responsibility in 1996 to of potential buyers and we continue our journey towards dian water sector? with global investors looking
return to India and manage found immediately that the becoming one of the top three Mr. Mittal: I think, when- at the sector for good returns.
the business for WABAG in potential buyers would not fit water companies globally. ever you bring about a change With the concept of reuse
India. in with our culture and the like GST, it’s a major change. gaining traction and policies
We started from scratch as focus of our business. That Tell us about a few upcom- In India, we had a very com- being drafted on municipal -
nobody knew about WABAG was why we went ahead with ing national and interna- plex indirect taxation system industrial partnerships for
in India at that point in time the Management Buyout of tional projects of WABAG. with the Sales Tax, Service reuse, the way for a sustain-
and we could develop a brand. the WABAG’s India business. Mr. Mittal: Over the last Tax...and all these excise able water management and

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 11


focussed on bringing the pri- make it more economical

vate sector into the funding because something which may
because I believe the govern- be very relevant in the
ment is never short of money advanced world may not be
and the private sector is never affordable for a developing
short of technologies to han- country like India. So, I think
dle any challenges. It was most of our research and
always the project manage- development goes into making
ment or administrative skills technologies more affordable.
of a private sector which gov-
ernment was not able to use in Please tell us about your
the past. By making this a International water market
hybrid model and getting the and current performance
private sectors’ money into of WABAG geographically?
this execution, I think the pri- Mr. Mittal: Currently,
vate sector will be more WABAG is divided into 4 clus-
involved in administrating and ters. Firstly there is India
managing these projects. It cluster which not only
will also ensure completion includes India, the home mar-
because it’s their money and ket but also the neighboring
Kodungaiyur STP any delay will affect them. countries and South East
Also, there was a policy of Asia.
water being a resource rather The 2nd one is the Middle
revenue generation model is approach to the vision for have any shortage of funds or than a liability. They said it’s East and Africa cluster. We
also evident. I’m very bullish making Ganga nirmal and avi- for that matter Swachh an economic resource and call it MEA. They focus on
going forward that we will see ral, in line with the PM’s Bharat or Smart Cities. But they want to assign some GCC countries and Africa -
more projects coming up. vision. how to go about structuring value to water. Earlier in our both North Africa and Sub
Funding will not be an issue, that spending, that will country, it was taken more as Sahara Africa.
because the government is How much of WABAG’s fo- remain as one of the impor- a right rather than an obliga- The 3rd one is our
committed to clean our water cus is on research and de- tant issues. tion to pay. With payment European cluster which is the
bodies and make sure we have velopment? Second is how do you exe- mechanism coming in over business we acquired from
a cleaner environment around Mr. Mittal: A lot, a lot! As I cute the projects...and how do the years, I’m sure there will Siemens.
us and 2018 will see a turn- said before, we are a technolo- you control the projects so be more money available for And the last one which was
around. gy company and we feel with that the projects are complet- the sector to re-invest into started very recently, about a
Talking about Municipal the no. of markets in which we ed on time so that the people building new infrastructure couple of years back, is the
projects, tell us about your operate, with dynamic get benefit from the money and maintaining the existing Latin American cluster which
views about Namami requirements, there is a need spent by the government. This infrastructure. This way, is a South American cluster
Gange and smart cities to innovate with an eye for fea- has to be very well monitored. going forward, we can see that where we already got a proj-
project specifically. And sible solutions. We don’t want It is good to see that the gov- our water sector will definite- ect last year in Ecuador and
how do you see the role of to be a simple, general con- ernment is giving that focus ly have a greater focus. we are bidding for many more
WABAG in these projects? tractor where we won’t have a right from the top- right from projects.
Mr. Mittal: I think both differentiator or a value the Prime Minister and Chief Do you think there are still So, this is how we have
these are right in our domain - proposition. We are also an Ministers are getting into gaps between what water strategically divided our geo-
Namami Gange and Swachh asset-light company - so we reviewing the project. That’s a utilities need and what wa- graphical presence and
Bharat. Yes, projects of this also don’t believe in investing healthy sign for India. ter current technologies aligned our vision. We already
magnitude and with such a a lot of money into assets. And thirdly, it’s getting all are offering? have a leading market share in
vision - it was slow to start Technology is our USP and we the approvals whether it’s Mr. Mittal: No, as I said India cluster. Our aim in the
with and both these projects will continue to focus on that. land acquisition, whether it’s before I don’t see there is a next two years is to improve
took a long time to be stream- I’m happy to say that today, right of way, that kind of technology gap in what is our position in the Middle
lined and administratively get we are spending more than 1 things. If they have a proper required. The private sector East and Africa cluster con-
this moving. But I think that is percent of our total turnover organization or agency where has done enough- especially sidering a huge potential in
behind us. Going forward in on R&D. Going forward in there is a single-window- globally we have some half a the region. We are, therefore
2018 we will see a number of next few years, we will bring clearance, this will enhance dozen companies who have a strengthening both our capa-
projects coming up in Swachh that number closer to 2 per- completion of projects and solution for all problems, for bility and capacity with a new
Bharat, Smart Cities and also cent of our top line. will reduce the cost overruns all challenges. So, I firmly structure in place.
in Namami Gange. And I see due to delays in completion. believe technologically there If we focus on the right tal-
large projects coming up, What would be the 3 most is no gap in meeting the stan- ent and the technology, I think
especially in Namami Gange important issues in the wa- Are you satisfied with the dards. Yes, there can be WABAG has a tremendous
they are going for an integrat- ter industry, within the Government policies for always an improvement and future in the Middle East and
ed city model, where the next 5 years? the water sector? that’s why we invest money in Africa. Europe is primarily a
budget for each project will be Mr. Mittal: To me, it will Mr. Mittal: I would say our R&D work which we are breeding ground for new tech-
at least INR 1500-2000 remain the administrative yes, reasonably satisfied with doing in Switzerland or in nologies with not much
crores. In addition to such competency of the govern- whatever I have seen in the Austria or for that matter in growth happening in terms of
huge budgets, such integrated ment to manage this kind of last 3-4 years. The govern- Chennai along with some of project development since it is
concepts will act as a role spending. Like we have seen in ment has focussed on the the universities here. Our aim already developed barring
model and ensure a holistic the past Namami Gange didn’t right things. They have is always to see how we can potential in the industrial sec-

12 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


very handy coupled with a we are treating the waste-

very good quality of water for water and preventing pollu-
potable purposes. For indus- tion around us and preserving
trial or commercial use, you the environment around us.
can reuse the water, but you To me, our business itself
need fresh water for potable qualifies for CSR. Coming to
purposes and that’s where I the CSR, every corporate
see its more use especially the should invest 2% of their prof-
coastal cities are planning for it into CSR. We were already
it and going for it. into CSR because we strongly
There is a little bit of hesi- believe what we are today is
tation as far as the investment contributed by the society in
Nemmeli Plant and decision making is con- growing us, in making us what
cerned, but I think going for- we are today. So, part of that
tor for which our Czech and especially cities like Chennai future. ward we will see more and should go back to the society
Romania offices have been and other cities which are more investments. In the as an investment to improve
actively working on. water scarce. This is water After the successful per- pipeline, Chennai has plans the quality of their life. That
which can be used for potable formance of desalination for a 150 MLD plant right next has been the philosophy for us
WABAG’s Ujams waste- purposes, but still, there is a projects in Chennai, Do to the existing 100 MLD and I think with this new act
water treatment and water lot of PR required to be done you see a major shift in Nemelli plant and a 400 MLD we have more money at our
reuse project recently re- to explain the potable use to how desalination is viewed plant for which they applied disposal.
ceived a distinction award everyone. in India? for JICA loan. A lot more Our aim is always to be in
for industrial water project But reuse for industries, Mr. Mittal: Definitely, I plants in the southern dis- the water part in CSR
of the year. How do you see reuse for commercial purpose think when we built this plant tricts of Tuticorin, whether it is providing safe
the future of water reuse? or for construction or even for almost about 5 years back, Ramanathapuram are drinking water to villages, to
Mr. Mittal: As I told you, that matter irrigation and everybody was talking about planned as well. Chennai will schools, to other organiza-
WABAG is always associated agriculture, awareness should tions who cannot afford to
with new technologies and be created and the concept have safe drinking water. So
advanced technologies. Ujams must be promoted. The that’s the first point.
is one of those places where Government has played an The second point is that if
we have a cocktail of waste- active role with key notifica- we can help the poor, the mar-
water from tanneries, from tions in this regard as well to ginal farmers, who do not
breweries, from slaughter- exhort industries to reuse Treated water is no longer a liability.The have water for irrigation and
houses etc. This is a complete treated water from municipal- government is looking at this to be that is their livelihood. If they
mixture of very complex ities. don’t have water what will
wastewater. We just didn’t go Recently, we got a project converted into an asset because every they grow and then they
and execute this project. We in Chennai Metro, where we component of wastewater can help migrate to the city and that
did one year of piloting this are taking the treated sewage itself is a problem.
plant and that’s how we came and treating it to industrial- generate revenue.Whether the organics So, if you want them to stay
up with the solution. Because grade water and sending it out convert into power, the liquid can be in their own villages and be
once we give the commitment to an industrial cluster, which able to generate revenue for
to our customers, we ensure is 70-km from this plant. I reused or the nutrient-rich solids used as their family, you need to bring
that our solution works. This think this is where the future manure, it offers a comprehensive water to them. We are getting
is also one of the projects in is and more and more of this is into a lot of watershed pro-
which, very rarely, we have happening. Even in Namami revenue generation model.This is what we grammes in ensuring that
invested our own money as a Gange, they are looking at a call - Waste-to-Wealth, which will provide a there is water for them. We
major investor. The project sustainable model, and this are digging wells for them, we
has been giving us good sustainable model can only sustainable model for the future. are desilting the existing wells
returns as well. come when you have revenue and we are going for drip irri-
We have faith in the gov- generation from that project. how expensive desalination is, be desalination capital of gation to conserve water. So,
ernment of Namibia as well Today, treated water is no that it is not reliable, mem- India where currently desali- those are the things which we
considering our earlier stint longer a liability. The govern- branes are an issue, etc. But, nated water caters to over are doing.
with the world-famous potable ment is looking at this to be since we have commissioned 25% of the daily supply, and Lastly, there are a lot of
reuse project in Windhoek, converted into an asset this plant in 2012-13, I see industries across India have water bodies, even in our
Namibia. For the last 15 years, because every component of there is a change in mindset been using desalination water cities and around us which get
we have been operating and wastewater can help generate since proof of the pudding is in for more than a decade. polluted and misused. We
maintaining the plant. The revenue. Whether the organ- eating it and we have proven have been adopting some of
capital city of Namibia, ics convert into CNG or the viability and reliability in I will end with the CSR ac- these water bodies and ensur-
Windhoek, is getting this power, the liquid can be practice for over 5 years now. tivities of WABAG, what is ing that they are maintained
water for their potable pur- reused or the nutrient-rich The myth that it is expensive the philosophy behind it? and become a good source of
pose. We are very proud of solids used as manure, it is slowly going away and peo- Mr. Mittal: See there are recharging the groundwater
this achievement. offers a comprehensive rev- ple believe that it is affordable. two philosophies behind it. table. Otherwise, especially
Talking about the potential enue generation model. This is In Chennai, we have expe- First let me say that our busi- coastal cities will have a lot of
for reuse, I think it’s tremen- what we call - Waste-to- rienced an acute water crisis ness itself is a CSR because seawater ingress into it. So,
dous. Reuse today is giving an Wealth, which will provide a for last 2 years and desalina- what we are doing we are pro- we are spending a lot of tech-
alternative source of water sustainable model for the tion as an option comes in ducing clean, safe water. And nologies and our efforts in

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 13


With Ranganath N.K.
MD, Grundfos Pumps
Grundfos India is a 100% subsidiary
of Grundfos Denmark - a global
leader in advanced pump solutions
and a trendsetter in water
technology. It is one of the world’s
leading pump manufacturers with an
annual production of more than 16
million pump units. Ranganath NK is
the Managing Director of the
company. He joined Grundfos in
February 1998 and established
Grundfos India in March 1998.
Ranganath has been involved in
technology transfer to India from
other countries including Denmark.
He is currently the Co-chair of the CII
National Committee on Water and the
Southern Regional Chair for the
Committee on Ease-of-Doing-
Business. He discusses the journey of
Groundfos India and its future plans
with Mayur Sharma...

Grundfos India completed Currently, we have 350-

its 20 years in India earlier employees covering sales, pro-
this year. How will you de- duction, service, software
scribe your journey for our development, with a presence
readers...including the in all the major cities of India.
highs and lows? Any growing company will
Mr. Ranganath: We start- go through many highs and
ed the company in 1998 with lows, we are no exception. We
only about eight sales employ- have had our fair share of ups
ees, out of which four were in and down but the trend has
the Chennai office, three in always been positive. Our
Mumbai and one in Bangalore. compounded average growth

14 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


rate since inception has been cases. Even today we look to than before. We believe that orate on that. adapt itself to work efficiently
20%+, which (in a market that identify pumping issues faced with upcoming regulations on Mr. Ranganath: It is esti- based on the usage patterns.
is fragmented and saturated in India and look at them as energy consumption by build- mated that the world economy Under the iSolutions
with pump manufacturers) is opportunities to find solutions ings, the demand for such could more than double in size range, we have Grundfos’
a satisfying growth. that in turn help us under- solutions will rise even more. by 2050, far outstripping pop- SMART Digital XL DDA and
The major issue we face is stand how better to cater to Another segment where ulation growth, due to contin- DDE dosing pumps that can
the disregard amongst Indian the growing and ever-chang- we have seen a huge jump is ued technology-driven pro- dose very accurately, thereby
manufacturers for intellectual ing demands of India. This the drinking water segment. ductivity improvements, and saving expensive solutions
property rights and the bla- helps to accelerate the learn- Lack of access to clean drink- emerging markets like India and chemicals in industries
tant copying of our products. ing curve, be ready with reli- ing water has been a problem could grow around twice as like food, pharma etc. It also
Some of these products are able products that can for many years, but today the fast as advanced economies. improves the quality of the
sold at prices lower than our address issues and always be awareness of this issue has India will perhaps by 2015 be end product due to the consis-
material cost which means one step ahead. gone up multifold. Secondly, the third largest centrifugal tency of dosing.
some corners are being cut. Since then we have come a the rapid depletion of water pump market in the world. It SMART Digital XL DDA
But the good thing is that long way. Today we can boast sources has raised an alarm in is this potential market that and DDE are all based on tried
majority of our customers are of intelligent, innovative solu- the public as well as adminis- Grundfos is aiming to be a and tested Digital Dosing™
repeat buyers, some of them tions like Grundfos iSolutions, tration. Many cities/ countries part of. Our products are one technology from Grundfos.
returning after trying out the Digital dosing pumps, Smart are now looking for solutions of the best and most advanced They offer powerful, variable-
copies. Solarz - a made in India solar that can provide them with in the world. Our solutions speed motors, a universal
pump. access to clean drinking even if more expensive, not power supply, and
In the initial years, the im- water. Therefore, our solu- only deliver the ‘Return on diaphragms that meets the
pression was that Grund- Was it a difficult decision tions that address the issues Investment’ to the customer most demanding require-
fos was a little behind, to start production facili- of water conservation, water but also help them maximize ments for chemical resistance
whereas other major pump ties in India or was that recovery and efficient water resource conservation. With and durability.
players were already in In- something that you distribution as now seeing a our capabilities and the ability
dia. So, was there any ap- thought from the very be- spurt in growth. to come up with innovative How do you approach ‘sus-
prehension? What was the ginning? solutions, we are sure that our tainability’?
approach then? Mr. Ranganath: No, it was Geographically, which are contribution to the India Mr. Ranganath: Our goal
Mr. Ranganath: That is not a difficult decision as we the markets that you see growth story will be signifi- has always been to be capable
not true. Except for KSB knew that if we need to grow growing faster in India and cant. We don’t aim to be the to contribute towards the
(1960) no major player was in India we need to make in which are the stronger biggest company in India in making of a cleaner and
present in India until we India, whatever we can. But markets for Grundfos? terms of turnover but we cer- greener world. Due to this, we
entered in 1998. There were getting the right approvals in Mr. Ranganath: The mar- tainly aim to be the most ensure that all our products
apprehensions until we decid- time in 1998 – 99 was not easy ket growth varies from year to trusted company in India are energy efficient not just
ed to enter as India was a pro- in-spite of the fact that the year, segment to segment and which adds value to cus- when they run but also when
tected market and pump man- country had started the liber- region to region. In 2018 we tomers. they are made.
ufacturing was reserved for alization process in the early see a spurt in demand in the Around 10 % of the world’s
the small-scale sector. We, at nineties. Anticipating growth building industry which was a Innovation has been a energy is consumed by
Grundfos, had immense faith in volumes due to the change bit dull in 2017. The south has buzzword in the market for pumps. If these pumps are
and confidence in our brand’s in policies and to keep in mind always been a big market for a long time now. How does replaced with energy efficient
quality and innovation and so that we needed to be competi- us perhaps since we are based Grundfos see it? What are pumps (like Grundfos), we can
we decided to set up in India, tive in cost especially in a in the south. We have opened some of the recent innova- save around 4-5% of this ener-
perhaps the toughest market market such as India, starting another factory in tions Grundfos is really gy. Also, most pumps waste
even today for pumps. During a product-facility was always Ahmedabad and with a bit of proud of? energy due to incorrect sizing,
our entry into the Indian mar- on the cards. focus on the west, we can now Mr. Ranganath: The inno- lack of intelligent control,
ket, we saw that there was a see a spurt of growth in the vation is the key driving force operation at an inefficient
large gap in what industries In terms of the stages of west. Last year it was the east at Grundfos Pumps. We are duty point or outdated tech-
required and what was being evolution right now, which which had the highest growth committed towards the devel- nology. A Grundfos Pump
delivered. We saw this as a big are the segments where percentage though the overall opment of new and innovative Audit evaluates pump effi-
opportunity and decided that you see more acceptance sales are not that high. solutions that are future ciency and the potential for
our approach must be to play of various product ranges Grundfos is very strong in the ready. This is the reason why saving energy at a site. A
to our strength which was to of Grundfos India? real estate sector and indus- we annually invest up to 4% of Pump Audit results in an
provide innovative solutions Mr. Ranganath: Solutions try, especially in water treat- our profits in R&D, higher overview of pump perform-
with unmatched quality and that run on renewable energy ment. We also are strong in than any other pump manu- ance and suggestions for
reliability, something that the are gaining acceptance in the the automotive sector where facturer in the market. improvement. Pump audits
competition could not provide. market. Our solar powered reliability is a vital factor. One of our very successful have produced tangible
Matching global expertise and pumps are seeing a growth in solution in this domain is the results for all types of cus-
local wisdom (understanding demand as both the govern- Recently you had said Grundfos iSOLUTIONS. With tomers. Many types of indus-
market needs and dynamics) ment as well as end users lay that…“The potential in In- its state-of-the-art pump intel- tries and water supply compa-
helped in sustaining our more emphasis on conserving dia is immense and by ligence, it ensures that all the nies have cut their energy
growth. It made business energy and reducing their 2050 India will be the third pumps, drives, control & pro- consumption by 40-60%.
sense for industry to buy our carbon footprint. Energy effi- largest economy in the tection units, measurement Their new pumps pay for
pumps even at double the ini- cient products with embedded world after China and the and communication units all themselves in a short time.
tial price as the payback due intelligence are seeing a rising USA. And Grundfos needs work together as one com- From 2011 till date, Grundfos
to the higher efficiency, was demand. The cost to benefit to be a part of this growth plete, energy efficient and India has conducted 2304
less than 12 months in most ratio is now more attractive story of India’. Please elab- connected system which can pump audits on 16,741 pumps.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 15


This has resulted in identify- ‘Ek Boondh Pani’ and ‘i Save installed on a desktop com- CSR initiatives. How satis- of the product. However, what
ing power savings of 43,619 Energy’ and through these puter. factory is that? they fail to understand is
KW which is equivalent to pages, we encourage our Mr. Ranganath: It’s a mix almost 85% of the lifecycle
reductions of around 1,88,134 members to engage with us to Do you think that the new of understanding local needs cost is power/energy costs and
tons/ year of CO2 emissions. help create awareness on reforms or initiatives an- and challenges, developing inefficient pumps end up con-
Grundfos India also con- water and energy conserva- nounced by the govern- focused products via engi- suming more energy thus
tributes towards energy and tion. ment will help? neering and R&D, developing incurring recurring costs.
water conservation by reduc- Beyond this, we use our Mr. Ranganath: We long-lasting relationships with Studies have shown that in
ing its own impact on the envi- CSR funds to rejuvenate believe that these reforms/ini- customers while being sensi- the lifecycle of a pump the ini-
ronment. Its headquarters in water bodies whenever possi- tiatives are necessary for the tive of our social responsibility tial cost is only 5% while the
Chennai is India’s first gold- ble. development of the nation. All as a corporate. While we play power cost is 85% and the
rated green building (LEED these initiatives are in the nas- hard in the market, we also remaining 10% accounts for
certification by USGBC in Grundfos India is also re- cent stage and we, wherever want to give back to the socie- the maintenance costs. In
2005) and is energy efficient sponsible for the business possible, are in touch with the ty and environment that sup- such a situation, it is better to
with 100% recycling of the in Bangladesh, Bhutan, stakeholders to evolve the ports our growth. Maintaining invest in efficient products.
sewage, rainwater harvesting Maldives, and Nepal. Give right approach and solutions. this balance is very important Though it might be expensive,
and with solar collectors and us the status update of Cities are smart when they for us. We believe in leaving the extra cost is easily recov-
photovoltaics. Grundfos these markets as well. can cater adequately to its behind a more energized plan- ered in less than three years in
India’s factory also received Mr. Ranganath: These are inhabitants with minimum et then the one we inherited almost all cases and many a
the gold certification in 2011 small markets compared to impact to the environment. and these awards are good to time within a year.
from the Indian Green India but important markets Clean air, water, transporta- remind us to tread this chosen All our pumps and motors
Building Council (IGBC). In for us. The approach to each tion etc are vital and at path. need to be energy efficient.
August 2013, the Grundfos country is different and is Grundfos, we have many solu- We have introduced super-
office building was elevated to based on the local needs. tions for sustainable water for Do you look at Grundfos In- efficient IE5 motors with our
a LEED EB Platinum certifi- There are some products smart cities. dia contributing in terms pumps in the Indian market
cation. made in India by us that are For example, Grundfos’ of being engineering, man- which is just now moving to
We have an internal target sold there but there are also Demand Driven Distribution ufacturing, and innovation IE2.
of not using more water or products made in other coun- (DDD) is a unique pumping hub as well for Grundfos
emitting more CO2 than we tries that we sell. The focus in solution where the supply of Denmark in near future? Overall, what is your view
did in 2008 in-spite of an all these countries except water is programmed as per Mr. Ranganath: on the macro-economic
increase in production. Bangladesh is more on the the demand at the consumer’s Possibilities do exist and we situation in India in the
Among our initiatives that building sector. Bangladesh end. This system can auto- are exploring the options. next 12-24 months?
help us reduce our environ- has a mixture of commercial matically monitor grid use Mr. Ranganath: The last
mental footprint are recycling buildings, industry and water patterns with remote sensors In a lot of the projects and six months have seen a very
the process water used for utilities. and adjust the water pressure applications, energy is one good growth for most sectors
testing the pumps, recycling accordingly. This reduces of the key drivers. People of industry. We are positive
100% of the sewage and har- Grundfos India has both water and electricity are now looking more at about the continuation of mar-
vesting rainwater not just for launched ‘SmArt Serv’ - a consumption by up to 20%, the operating costs and ket growth in the long run.
our own use but also to mobile app to enhance its and water pipes will last the lifetime costs. What is But in the short/ medium
recharge the aquifers in the customer service. What is longer because they are less Grundfos’ approach there? term, there are dark clouds on
area. Pallets and frames made the philosophy behind likely to crack. Mr. Ranganath: As men- the horizon. With the imped-
of recyclable wood used in overall Grundfos Service? Another interesting offer- tioned earlier, around 10 % of ing trade wars, the rising oil
Grundfos India are sent to Mr. Ranganath: Our ing from Grundfos is the the world’s energy is con- prices and the strengthening
suppliers for packing the com- SmArtServ app was launched Grundfos Remote sumed by pumps. Also, almost US dollar, the possibility of
ponents to avoid deforesta- with the objective of reducing Management - an internet- 9 out of 10 pumps are ineffi- high inflation cannot be
tion. Through this initiative, the reaction time and provid- based, secure and technologi- cient. Therefore, if these ignored. Couple this with the
we have saved around 6264 ing service support for any cally advanced system for pumps are replaced with impending election in 2019, we
kilograms of wood with the Grundfos product. Through monitoring and managing energy efficient pumps (like can be in for a lot of head-
cost reduction of 1.2 Mn INR. this app, one can locate the pump installations in com- Grundfos), we can save winds. Hope that the quick
We have installed a Rooftop nearest service provider, fill in mercial buildings, water sup- around 4-5% of this energy. solutions are found for these
Solar Panel of 146 kW to the details of the ply networks, wastewater Grundfos has always focused macro issues and going for-
reduce the cost of energy. In complaint/request, attach a plants, etc. Through this sys- on providing solutions that ward, the government will
the year 2017, we have started picture of the pump/system tem, pumps in an entire com- are energy efficient. Energy continue their efforts in sus-
an initiative called RECYCLE and raise a service request mercial building complex, or efficiency is a major USP of taining this economic momen-
Food Waste. By recycling the and track the progress of the water, and wastewater treat- Grundfos’ products. It is in tum without hurting the econ-
food waste with the help of a service request. ment plants can be remotely our DNA. We develop our omy by bringing in populist
compost conversion machine, The SmArtServ app also monitored from a control solutions in such a way that initiatives.
there was zero wastage and enables one to also escalate if room with minimal human they require significantly less
the manure does not have to the customer is not satisfied intervention. maintenance and repair than Finally, how do you see
be bought from external with the response, archive some of the other products in Grundfos getting posi-
sources for the garden. service reports, and quotation Grundfos has won the the market. Many a time peo- tioned in the Indian market
We also work on promoting for spare parts. award for ‘India’s Best ple end up buying products in the coming years?
water conservation and ener- SmArtServ is available on Company of the Year 2017’, that have a low initial cost Mr. Ranganath: As I said
gy efficiency through social iOS, Android, and for its current year market without any regard to the before, not as the biggest but
media platforms (Facebook & Windows. This user-friendly standing, innovation, lead- costs of power consumption as the most trusted and
Twitter). These forums are mobile app can also be ership, governance, and and maintenance over the life admired company.

16 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


It’s Amazing to See the Long-Lasting Impact of

Desalination on a Country!
Gilad Cohen is the CEO of IDE Americas. Gilad joined IDE in 2009 as Corporate Business
Development Manager, responsible for investment evaluations and M&A activity, as well as
the development of new business platforms in target markets. In January 2017, he was
appointed CEO of IDE Americas, managing sales, marketing and business development
activities for North and Central America. Here he discusses the status of desalination market
and shares his views about some interesting technologies, trade practices and IDE’s
strategies for the same, with Mayur Sharma.

energy recovery devices pro- significant reduction in mem-

duced by Energy Recovery, brane handling for mainte-
Inc. The energy recovery nance purposes.
devices work by capturing the In addition, due to the larg-
hydraulic energy created by er volumes of feed water,
the high pressure reject there is a lower tendency for
stream of seawater produced membrane fouling and polar-
during the reverse osmosis ization in the second stage. If
processes and transfers it into required, the same configura-
incoming seawater, without tion can produce larger quan-
consuming any electrical tities of permeate by operat-
power themselves. These ing at the high production
devices save the plant an esti- regime for longer periods and
mated 146 million kilowatt- increasing the flux through
hours of energy per year, the membrane elements with-
reducing carbon emissions by in the limits of manufacturer
42,000 metric tons annually - recommendations.
roughly equivalent to the To reduce the environmen-
annual greenhouse gas emis- tal impact of chemicals in the
sions from 9,000 passenger desalination process, IDE has
vehicles. developed IDE PROGREEN™
In the Sorek Desalination - the first Reverse Osmosis
Plant, large diameter (16-inch) (RO) technology designed to
membranes are incorporated produce clean water from
in a vertical array that standard seawater, without
includes the use of a minimal the use of chemicals. IDE
number of independent trains PROGREEN™ is based on two
fed by both feed pumping cen- concepts: Direct Osmosis
ters. The behavior of the 16- Cleaning (DOC) and Contact
inch membrane element is Media Coagulation. DOC is a
identical to that of the 8” patented process that keeps
membrane, resulting in identi- the membranes constantly
cal salt rejection performance clean, without the use of the
and a correspondingly four chemicals normally required
times larger flow rate at the for membrane cleaning. By
same feed pressure and oper- equalizing external pressures
How can desalination best vironmental impact of pol- energy during the desalina- ation conditions. This for a short time, DOC allows
mitigate and address the luted membranes after tion process. In addition to the approach allows a significant the osmosis process to flush
high energy, cost, and toxic use? reverse osmosis membranes reduction in plant footprint, the membranes with perme-
effluent from membrane Mr. Cohen: Desalination and pressure vessels, the shorter high-pressure pipe ate water, keeping them clean
problems? And what is the can address the high energy Carlsbad Desalination Plant headers, an improved mem- while eliminating the need for
best way to reduce the en- usage by finding ways to reuse houses 144 state-of-the-art brane loading method, and a chemicals in the RO process.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 17


This results in reduced energy which has been operating suc-

consumption, as less mainte- cessfully for more than two
nance is required and the years on Hayman Island in
need to neutralize and dispose Australia's Great Barrier
of harsh chemicals is eliminat- Reef. The plant delivers 1,000
ed. m³/day of fresh water and
The IDE PROGREEN™ replaces three thermal desali-
biological pretreatment nation systems that supplied
process is a combination of a water to the island for 27
particulate bio-flocculation years. The combination of bio-
unit and a set of multimedia logic pre-treatment and the
filters. The system removes natural direct osmotic clean-
suspended solids and organic ing proves that an RO system
matter from the feed seawa- can produce stable and high-
ter. Any community can sup- quality permeate without the
port IDE PROGREEN™ as use of any chemicals.
the water produced can be Moreover, operational data
used for numerous purposes, demonstrates that operating
including potable water for at higher than common fluxes
municipalities and resorts, provides additional cost sav- Aerial View of the Sorek Desalination Plant, Israel
agricultural purposes and ings, reducing capital and
Boiler Feed Water for indus- operation costs through the Osmosis (BWRO) plants limited by the brine osmotic vides solutions which will
trial usage. total elimination of chemicals today is increasing the system pressure, BWRO treatment allow these systems to realize
All of these are the efforts and lower energy consump- recovery to improve its eco- plant recovery is limited by its potential and maximize
made by IDE in order to tion due to decreased fouling nomics and better address the water chemistry which recovery to astonishing levels
reduce environmental con- developed on the membranes. issues related to brine dispos- prevents the systems from of up to 98 percent. These
cerns by optimizing energy One major challenge facing al. As opposed to SWRO maximizing its potential, due technological developments
consumption in the process, Brackish Water Reverse where the recovery is mostly to the risk of scaling. IDE pro- provide an unprecedented
reducing the chemicals foot-
print, and extending the usage
lifetime of the membranes
used in IDE's desalination

In the desalination market,

the latest studies and ad-
vances are aimed at cost
savings, both in energy
consumption and in the fi-
nal cost of desalinated wa-
ter. In addition to the in-
corporation of renewable
energies, what other tech-
nologies would contribute
to further reduce these
Mr. Cohen: In desalination,
a reduction in chemical usage
in the desalination process
can reduce operational costs
by an astounding 10 percent
for the customer. IDE PRO-
GREEN™ is a modular “plant
in a box” and the capacity of
the fully customizable modu-
lar units ranges from 500
m³/day to 20,000 m³/day. The
plant delivers affordable clean
water with reduced energy
consumption and can also be
easily transported, eliminat-
ing the need to invest in
expensive infrastructures,
thus increasing ROI.
In 2014, IDE installed its
first IDE PROGREEN™ plant, 16" Membranes in a Vertical Array, Sorek Desalination Plant, Israel

18 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


cent of the original feed flow. reverse osmosis desalination IDE’s MVC plants are being
This allows higher recovery of solutions are ideally suited to customized for economic per-
potable water from the same growth situations and start formance over the longer-
water source, and lower reject with capacities of 500 m³/day, term, delivering lower opera-
disposal. In a brackish water the systems can very easily be tion and maintenance costs,
desalination plant with high expanded to capacities in with eco-friendly solution
potential of calcium carbonate excess of 30,000 m³/day. which recycles waste steam to
scaling, the brine desalter generate electricity, and com-
increased the recovery from Thermal Desalination pact size for reduced footprint
80 to 95 percent. Refineries, power plants, and capex. IDE's MVC evapo-
and other industries need rators are also utilized in the
Please shed some light on high purity water so thermal oil and gas industry to treat oil
the product and services desalination is ideal. The ther- and gas water (Produced
portfolio of your company mal desalination process uses Water) to a high level of purity.
related to seawater desali- energy to evaporate water IDE's MVC power consump-
nation. and subsequently condense it tion is 30 percent lower com-
CIP and Flushing, Carlsbad Desalination Plant, CA, USA Mr. Cohen: IDE offers again. When there is waste pared to other evaporators in
membrane desalination as heat or sufficient electricity the market
resolution for applications to increase the recovery of old well as thermal desalination available, as is often the case
and projects that, until now, and new brackish water solutions to provide a reliable, with refineries and power How long have you worked
were not economically viable reverse osmosis (BWRO) sustainable and economical plants, thermal desalination is in the field of seawater de-
due to the high costs related plants up to 98 percent recov- solution for municipalities and an efficient and viable solu- salination? Could you tell
to brine disposal issues, or ery. The technology is based industries. tion. IDE’s low-temperature us something about your
due to limited feed water on simple ideas of chemistry thermal distillation units are own experience in this
availability. and physics that were not Membrane Desalination capable of producing both field?
implemented until recently. Municipalities, power, oil & drinking and boiler feed water Mr. Cohen: I have worked
Tell us about any ‘one’ cut- The barriers that prevent gas, mining, resorts and many from seawater. They are avail- in seawater desalination for
ting-edge technology BWRO plants and reuse other industries need clean able in two versions differenti- almost nine years. Over the
which you believe will set plants to increase the recov- desalinated water for a variety ated by the method used for years, it’s been amazing to see
the trend for the future of ery above 80 percent were the of domestic, industrial and the supply of energy: the long-lasting impact desali-
desalination? presence of ions including agricultural uses. Key benefits Multi-Effect Distillation nation can have on a country.
Mr. Cohen: IDE has Calcium Carbonate, Silica and of IDE’s membrane desalina- (MED) - A Low-Pressure Take Israel for example. When
recently developed MAXH2O, Calcium Sulfate, which can be tion plants include: Steam Process: Its underlying faced with the worst drought
a new technology for brine grouped under the name of Customized Pre-treatment concept is a multi-effect in 900 years, the Israeli gov-
management which allows sparingly soluble salts. The systems: These systems process in which a spray of ernment began the implemen-
Reverse Osmosis (RO) plants presence of these salts in the assure maximum efficiency seawater is repeatedly evapo- tation of a long-term, large-
water or part of these salts in and lifespan of plants to deliv- rated and then condensed, scale SWRO desalination pro-
the water prevent existing er improved cost efficiencies with each effect at a lower gram. This led to the creation
BWRO plants to increase and ROI. temperature and pressure. of a wave of five large desali-
recovery as they cause salt Advanced membranes: This highly efficient process nation plants - three of which
precipitation on the RO mem- IDE’s membranes increase multiplies the quantity of pure were designed and construct-
branes. capacity while minimizing water that can be produced ed by IDE. Today, IDE’s Sorek,
The future of By the synergy of two sim- investment. using a given quantity of ener- Ashkelon and Hadera desali-
ple methods, the salt precipi- Consistent quality stan- gy, resulting in a significant nation plants now supply 70
seawater tation barrier can be removed dards: IDE’s small to large reduction in cost. Key benefits percent of Israel’s drinking
desalination in to open the way for high scale plants produce high- of IDE’s MED plants are safe water.
recovery RO plants. IDE's quality drinking and industri- and reliable continuous opera-
India is prolific. Our brine desalter implements al water from both seawater tion, lower operation and What is the state of your
partnership with two concepts: first, working and brackish water while maintenance costs, and eco- company’s current and up-
Reliance has with high brine flow which meeting strict health and safe- friendly solutions to minimize coming seawater desalina-
increase the cross-flow veloci- ty standards. the impact on the environ- tion programs and proj-
created the first ty inside the membrane feed IDE’s modular ment. ects? Can you give us
Reverse Osmosis brine spacer reducing the ten- Sea/Brackish Water Reverse Mechanical Vapour some facts and figures?
dency for salt precipitation; Osmosis (SWRO/BWRO) Compression (MVC) - A Mr. Cohen: IDE has more
plant in Gujarat. IDE and second is removing the units are ideal if a customer Proprietary Electrically than 400 desalination plants
has an office in sparingly soluble salts by needs a desalination solution Driven Mechanical in 40 countries across the
using a fluidized bed crystal- that is flexible, able to grow Compressor: IDE’s self-con- globe including India, China,
Noida, as part of lizer on the brine exiting the and completely self-contained. tained MVC unit is a reliable, U.S., Chile, and Australia. Our
IDE's engineering RO plant which uses a huge IDE utilizes the most recent cost-effective desalination notable membrane desalina-
precipitation area made from RO technologies for small to solution when electricity is the tion projects include:
base as well as Silica sand. mid-size desalination projects. only source of power. MVC
sales, marketing, The brine desalter field These are designed to provide plants use waste steam to gen- Sorek Desalination Plant
results are very promising - high performance and reliabil- erate electricity so opera- (Israel)
and business there is 90 percent reduction ity, together with ease of oper- tional costs are reduced and It’s the largest and most
development. in disposable waste and over- ation and low energy con- less steam is released into the advanced SWRO plant world-
all recovery of up to 97 per- sumption. IDE’s modular environment. Key benefits of wide, with a capacity of

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 19


624,000 m³/day. It has the eliminates dependence on ance while minimizing costs. of coal dust by the wind. and it falls under the defini-
world’s first use of 16-inch external freshwater It uses a proprietary preven- tion of Public-Private
membranes vertical array in a resources. It is also shortlist- tative maintenance approach Could you tell us about Partnerships (PPP): This is a
large-scale facility (increased ed for 'Desalination Plant of without the use of chloramine some of the most interest- contractual agreement
water output, cost savings, the Year 2011' from Global and hence avoiding the forma- ing projects seawater de- between IDE and a public
reduced energy consump- Water Intelligence. tion of N- salination that you have agency (federal, state or
tion). Nitrosodimethylamine participated in? What con- local).
What were the achieve- (NDMA) - an organic contam- ditions have you encoun- Engineering-Procurement-
Carlsbad Desalination ments of your company in inant suspected as carcino- tered? Construction (EPC): With this
Plant (U.S.) 2017-18? How has the com- genic. One of the most interesting model, IDE is responsible for
It is the largest seawater pany grown? The Regional Recycled seawater desalination IDE has all the activities from design,
desalination plant in the Mr. Cohen: In 2017, IDE Water Advanced Purification ever built was in Cape procurement, construction, to
Western Hemisphere, with a was involved with the expan- Centre Demo Facility, in part- Preston, Australia. It is the commissioning and handover
capacity of 204,000 m³/day. sion of the world’s largest nership with the Metropolitan first pre-assembled large- of the project to the end-user
It’s also the winner of refinery, the Reliance Water District of Southern scale desalination plant. The or owner.
'Desalination Plant of the Year Jamnagar Refinery in India, to California and the Sanitation plant has a capacity of 140,000 Operation and
2016' and 'Desalination Deal of include two new desalination Districts of Los Angeles m³/day and provides clean Maintenance Services (O&M
the Year 2013' from Global plants. The expansion County, will have a capacity of water to CITIC Pacific Services): based on IDE's
Water Intelligence. It is includes three 24,000m³/d 500,000 gallons of water per Mining’s Sino Iron project. extensive expertise in the field
named as Membrane Facility plants using thermal desalina- day. IDE’s new RO process for The greatest hurdle IDE faced IDE offer operation and main-
of the Year at Membrane Tech tion technology - IDE’s Multi- wastewater reuse will be inte- with design and construction tenance services to existing or
Conference in 2017. Effect-Distillation (MED) - as grated into a novel process was the remote location of the new desalination plants.
well as one 168,000m³/d. using membrane bioreactors project. Therefore, a tactical
Santa Barbara Desalina- Seawater Reverse Osmosis (MBR) as a pre-treatment to decision was made to build the What is the future of sea-
tion Plant (U.S.) (SWRO) plant. Reliance’s the RO to remove tiny parti- plant in China and assemble it water desalination in India,
The plant was recommis- expansion to include a petro- cles, biodegradable pollutants, in Australia. in your opinion?
sioned after being mothballed chemical complex will contin- and nitrogen compounds. The Along with the assembly Mr. Cohen: The future of
for 25 years. It was reopened ue to provide high-quality RO system will then be used challenges, IDE had to over- seawater desalination in India
in 2017 and expected to pro- boiler feed water, cooling to remove suspended and dis- come environmental obstacles is prolific. While IDE has seen
duce 3 million gallons of water water and potable water and solved components, such as with the plant. The feed sea- success with desalination for
per day to meet 30 percent of brings the refinery’s total bacteria, viruses, pharmaceu- water conditions at Cape industrial usage, there is also
city’s demand. It uses 40 per- capacity to 240,000 m³/d. ticals, and salts, eliminating Preston are difficult, including the opportunity for municipal
cent less energy than the orig- This year, IDE completed more than 99 percent of all very high levels of Total water usage. With the right
inal design, greatly reducing the installation and commis- impurities Suspended Solids (TSS), high financing model, a seawater
its electricity demand and sioning of two MVC evapora- levels of organics, and large desalination project may not
carbon footprint, by using tors in an oilfield near the city What are some of the ma- numbers of jellyfish, which necessarily require high
high-efficiency pumps, of Karamay, in the Xinjiang jor orders won by your create challenging require- upfront costs. Our partner-
motors, and improved filter region in western China. It company in the last two ments of the pre-treatment ship with Reliance has created
technology. has a total production of 5,000 years? system. There are also signifi- the first reverse osmosis plant
m³ distillate/day. The MVC In 2017, IDE was awarded cant daily tidal variations and in Gujarat, India. IDE has an
Our notable thermal evaporators treat produced by Formosa Petrochemical conflicting currents that office in Noida, Uttar Pradesh,
desalination projects include: water from Steam-assisted Corporation (FPCC), engaged reverse seawater temperature in India as part of IDE's engi-
Gravity Drainage (SAGD) in the refining and distribu- and characteristics every six neering base as well as sales,
Gujarat/Reliance (India) sites nearby. The produced tion of oil products, to design, months. Therefore, IDE had marketing, and business
This is the largest desalina- water is treated before reach- build and supervise opera- to ensure that the plant’s pre- development.
tion plant in India, with a ing the evaporator. This pre- tions at its SWRO desalina- treatment technology could
capacity of ~160,000 m³/day, treatment includes oil and tion plant. The desalination address these unusual condi- Finally, what are your
and will be increased to Total Suspended Solids (TSS) plant will be located at the tions arising from the nearby growth and expansion
232,000 m³/day. It is having a removal and softening (i.e. Mai-Liao Power Corporation marsh areas and changing plans for the next 5 years?
continuous and successful removal of hardness, silica, in Yunlin County, Taiwan and daily tide differentials. Mr. Cohen: IDE continues
operation for more than a and metals). have a capacity of 105,000 to see steady growth in our
decade, with low energy con- This year, IDE is setting up m³/day. How are your seawater de- business and strong regional
sumption. IDE’s Expansion of two new wastewater reuse IDE was also commis- salination projects fi- presence around the world.
the Reliance Jamnagar demo facilities in California sioned by OTEKO, a diversi- nanced, and structured? We are working hard to con-
Refinery was shortlisted as which will open later this year. fied holding company involved Seawater desalination tinue helping to change the
‘Industrial Desalination Plant The Central Coast Blue in transport services for the projects are financed in vari- world and help our customers
of the Year’ by GWI. Advanced Water Purification Russian Federation, CIS coun- ous ways, including: overcome the increased
Demo Facility, in partnership tries, to deliver reverse osmo- Build-Operate-Transfer scarcity and instability in
Tianjin (China) with the City of Pismo Beach, sis systems to OTEKO’s (BOT): With this model, IDE water resources.
This is the largest desalina- will have a capacity of 58,000 desalination plant. The IDE receives a concession from the Our goal is to continue
tion plant in China, with a gallons of water per day. It will PROGREEN™ reverse osmo- private or public sector to offering water solutions, from
capacity of 200,000 m³/day. allow IDE to demonstrate and sis desalination units will pro- finance, design, construct, desalination, wastewater
Its technology enables recy- test its proprietary new recy- duce 11,000 m³ of drinking- own, and operate a facility reuse and industrial water
cling the waste saline brine cled water process, Ecological quality water per day in the stated in the concession con- solutions that would be sus-
output for processing into Reuse (Eco-Reuse) which is coal terminal to spray the coal tract. This is one of our most tainable, affordable and envi-
salt. The unique technology designed to optimize perform- piles and eliminate the spread common financing structures, ronmentally responsible.

20 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


While there is consensus that the infrastructure improvements

must be the top priority in projects like smart cities, their
sustainability and efficiency in the long run are a cause of concern.
Express Water talks to experts and explores the reasons...

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 21


Adequate Water Infrastructure Must

Keep Up with the Urban Development!
Bentley Systems provides engineers, architects, geospatial professionals, constructors, and
owner-operators with comprehensive software solutions for advancing the infrastructure.
Mayur Sharma recently interacted with the Bentley team (Amit Trehan - Director -
Corporate Communications, Frank Braunschweig - Senior Project Manager, Perrine Parrod
- Senior Product Marketing Manager Water, Slavco Velickov - Global Water Industry Sales
Director, and Alan Lamont - VP Digital Advancement Academies) on various topics ranging
from the growth of water sector - to the state of infrastructure and the role of new software-
based platforms in their sustainability.

focus on reducing water loss, of Big data, Industry 4.0, tions you are offering
both leakage and water theft, and really drive the when it comes to “Urban
so that nonrevenue water can water industry forward? Water Infrastructure” de-
be recuperated to improve Bentley Team: To learn velopment?
water supply. Bentley water about your infrastructure, you Bentley Team: As a solu-
software, such as must have data. Without data, tions provider to the urban
WaterGEMS, HAMMER, and utilities cannot really be water industry, Bentley brings Frank
Open Utilities, can help with informed about what is hap- together the capital and oper- Braunschweig Alan Lamont
remediating water loss. We pening in their water and ational aspects of managing
recommend applying our wastewater systems. urban water infrastructure to cessful wastewater projects
water applications to the IWA However, this type of data- realize gains on all sides. have taken the smart waste-
Best Practices, which com- driven technology can only Bentley’s solutions span every water network approach, a
Amit Trehan bine four strategies to address provide limited information. step in the cycle, linking plan- recent emerging approach
water leakage: Active Leakage Utilities need to take the ners, engineers, construction where utilities leverage exist-
How do you see the “Indian Control, Pressure Smart Water Network staff, operations, and manage- ing infrastructure data in sim-
Water & Wastewater sec- Management, Speed and approach. to leverage their ment with the information ulation software to make bet-
tor” growing going ahead? Quality of Repairs, and infrastructure data, a simula- they need to implement the ter-informed decisions about
Bentley Team: With the Infrastructure Management. tion application such as strongest asset performance how to operate their waste-
rapid population growth and Regarding wastewater, the WaterGEMS is needed so that strategies. Our software plays water systems.
urbanization rate that India is government created the Atal their water professionals can a key role in facilitating deci- In Brazil, AEGEA’s Smart
seeing (jumping 2.63 percent Mission for Rejuvenation and review the behavior of the sys- sion making about new and Wastewater Management
from 2001 to 2011, according Urban Transformation tem and the impact that any existing infrastructure, in Network approach prioritized
to India’s census), adequate (AMRUT) with the objective changes will have on the rest each phase of the water lifecy- investments.
water infrastructure must to improve water and waste- of the system. Simulation cle, determining the viability Prolagos provides water
keep up with urban develop- water infrastructure, so we capabilities can also automate of legacy systems and optimiz- and sanitation services for
ment. Existing water and recently witnessed an many aspects of water system ing the construction of new five municipalities in Rio de
wastewater systems continue increase in wastewater infra- analysis. For example, networks and treatment Janeiro’s Region of the Lakes,
to need to be improved and structure projects, where new WaterGEMS includes opti- plants. BIM, hydraulic model- where seasonal populations
developed. There is still need wastewater systems were mization algorithms that ing, GIS, asset management, fluctuate from nearly 400,000
for pipe replacement and built, improving sanitation assist with detecting water and reality modelling all serve to more than 2 million. As an
repair, as well as an extension services, hygiene, and reduc- leakage, identifying the most as critically important solu- operator of the Prolagos con-
of existing water and waste- ing pollution in nearby water energy efficient pump sched- tions in making certain that cession, AEGEA Saneamento
water systems to cater to pop- bodies such as rivers and uling strategy, and finding the investment in urban water e Participações S.A. (AEGEA)
ulation growth. In the last few lakes. Bentley’s SewerGEMS optimum designs and rehabil- infrastructure is spent wisely prepared the Sewer Master
years, we have seen new and SewerCAD hydraulic itation strategies. Ultimately, and effectively and that the Plan 2041 for expanding sew-
urban areas such as Navi modeling products are help- with Smart Water Networks, systems will be in place for erage coverage from 76 to 90
Mumbai emerge with newly ing many projects in India water utilities will not only decades. percent and stopping contam-
designed infrastructure. analyze and design effective increase their ROI on infra- ination of Araruama Lagoon.
Regarding water distribu- wastewater systems. structure data but also make Can you cite a few recent SewerGEMS enabled
tion, the current focus is on better decisions about their cases of successful “inter- AEGEA to model the 900-kilo-
improving service levels for What do you think will be water systems. national sewer & waste- meter drainage network,
existing infrastructure. For the next biggest technol- water projects”? incorporating GIS, CAD, and
example, there is a strong ogy development in terms What are the latest solu- Bentley Team: A few suc- SCADA data to accurately

22 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


ling software business of storm drainage systems can stormwater drainage system on engineering.
“Action Modulers”. Can be difficult because water and developed a prioritized Regarding land develop-
this platform support the always has to flow downhill, capital investments plan. TCE ment projects, with Bentley’s
Indian municipal agencies meaning that the design of used StormCAD to analyze easy-to-use hydraulics and
facing the challenges as- such systems has to be gravi- 1,100 kilometers of existing hydrology software
sociated with climate ty-flow based. Engineers need drains and perform hydraulic WaterCAD and SewerCAD,
change, rising sea levels, to determine elevations and modeling of proposed drains. water professionals are
and increased incidences pipe sizes that will provide The software reduced design ensured about the ability to
of flooding? enough capacity without time by three months, opti- cost-effectively deliver quality
Bentley Team: Flood risk requiring excessive excava- mized drain sizes, and projects through advanced
is the result of natural tion. reduced project costs. With functionality providing accu-
processes (e.g. intense precip- When inputting catchment this INR 7.45 billion project, rate analysis and automated
itation), which are enhanced and rainfall information, TNUIFSL will help minimize design. These capabilities
by climate change and by the Bentley’s stormwater and flooding and improve result in high-quality design
impact of anthropogenic sewer software applications stormwater collection and projects, customizable model
Perrine Parrod activities on the water cycle such as StormCAD and conveyance in Salem in the outputs to streamline regula-
(e.g. soil sealing, river regular- SewerCAD, automatically state of Tamil Nadu. tory approval processes, and
reflect the complex region and ization). Risk mitigation on a compute the optimum pipe CAD- and GIS-platform sup-
compare multiple scenarios municipal scale can be sizes and invert elevations What is the latest update port (with no platform restric-
for improving operational effi- achieved by different actions, that will provide sufficient on “The Year in Infrastruc- tion), all of which reduce proj-
ciency. AEGEA determined among them: (a) acting on the capacity at the lowest cost. ture 2018 conference & ect time. Treatment plant
that future network interven- processes determining the The automated design capa- awards”? design and construction proj-
tions could reduce untreated rate of accumulation of water bility provided by our soft- Bentley Team: The nomi- ects are a multidisciplinary
discharges by 6.6 cubic in a particular region; (b) ware products enable users to nation deadline for the awards problem. Bentley solutions
meters per year, lower energy reducing the socio-economic add constraints on design ele- ended recently. More than 80 provide all the necessary
costs by BRL 700,000 per consequences of the floods; vations, such as avoiding projects have been submitted capabilities to design and
year, and reduce investments and (c) transmitting early existing underground servic- from India, including a signifi- build a treatment plant from
by 60 percent compared to warning so proactive meas- es/utilities. Also by providing cant number of entries in the initial site grading to 3D
prior plans. ures can be taken. The flood the terrain model, our soft- water, wastewater and visualization of the final
In the heart of Antipolo modeling software acquired ware applications can ensure stormwater networks catego- design and efficient construc-
City, Rizal, Philippines, by Bentley helps with all that minimum cover is ry. tion management and help
Hinulugang Taktak waterfall above-mentioned actions. achieved throughout the EPCs do so in record time
and the park is a popular Regarding (a), MOHID Studio stormwater system. under budget, in a fully man-
attraction and protected the & MOHID Land can create The automated design can aged, collaborative team envi-
landscape. In recent years, detailed performance analysis also be generated from within ronment. Bentley’s plant,
uncontrolled wastewater from on how specific measures will CivilStorm or SewerGEMS structural, and building appli-
rapid urbanization has reduce the rate of accumula- (using StormCAD and cations are used together with
degraded water quality and tion (e.g. construction of the SewerCAD gradually varied ProjectWise around the world
deterred tourists. Manila dams, retention basins, LIDs). flow solved). If users want to on projects ranging from
Water Company, Inc. devel- Regarding (b), MOHID Land analyze potential overflows, small retrofits to existing
oped a USD 40 million master can help define areas that are the Saint Venant equations facilities to the creation of
plan to implement a sewerage likely to be flooded and, need to be solved. To do this, large greenfield facilities.
system in the affected catch- together with municipal mas- users can choose between Regarding asset perform-
ment area and restore the ter planning, the socio-eco- SewerGEMS/CivilStorm’s ance, with Bentley’s
waterfall to its pristine condi- nomic impacts can be reduced explicit EPA SWMM solver AssetWise, asset performance
tion. by prohibiting construction in and the implicit dynamic wave Slavco Velickov and reliability strategies can
Serving 150,000 residents areas that are likely to flood, engine. These two dynamic be intelligently planned and
by 2021, the project will for example. Action Flood can engines account for storage What are some of the spe- implemented. AssetWise pro-
include a 20 million liter-per- help with regards to (c). effects within structures and cific water/sewage related vides informed decision sup-
day sewage treatment plant Having a reliable FEWS, quantify flooding should it solutions by Bentley for port from capital planning
and 12-kilometer sewerage which transmit early warn- occur. Engineers can also use the ‘Construction and through proactive asset main-
network. Manila Water used ings, mitigates the impact by the SWMM water quality fea- Buildings’ projects? tenance, which allows owner-
SewerGEMS to design and preparing response teams tures to comply with water Bentley Team: The fact operators and their consult-
analyze alternatives for net- and protecting or evacuating quality regulations. that infrastructure budgets ants to mitigate risk, increase
work alignment, with scenar- people and goods from areas Tamil Nadu Urban are limited for consultants operational efficiency, and
ios mapped through GIS and that will be affected. Infrastructure Financial and constrained by revenue ensure regulatory compliance.
integrated with land develop- Services Limited (TNUIFSL) for owner-operators is an With improved information
ment plans. The software Stormwater systems, appointed Tata Consulting industry challenge. flow and interoperability that
optimized the collection and storm drainage & sewer Engineers Limited (TCE) to Consequently, Bentley under- can be collected, water profes-
conveyance system for pipe development projects can prepare a detailed project stands that it is important for sionals in this industry can
sizes, pump capacities, and be very difficult to design report for integrated and engineers to be as effective as analyze and control relevant
heads to achieve the most eco- and build. How can you comprehensive stormwater possible on short-term infra- asset information. AssetWise
nomical capital and operating help the engineers, urban management facilities in the structure projects such as delivers actionable informa-
expenditures. master planners, and mu- city of Salem, a municipal cor- land development, construc- tion that supports owner-
nicipal agencies? poration covering 91.34 tion, and building projects so operators’ business processes
Last year Bentley Systems Bentley Team: Indeed, square kilometers. that less time is spent on mod- and drives the performance of
had acquired water model- designing stormwater and TCE analyzed the existing eling and more time is spent their infrastructure assets.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 23


Water Infrastructure - Need of the Time

One of the most critical aspects of the aging infrastructure is literally buried underground,
out of sight and, usually, out of mind. When failures occur, then only we are reminded of how
much we take for granted our access to safe drinking water.
By Subhash Sethi

In the past century, people tion in water-we cannot drink,

have steadily moved from air-we cannot breathe, toxic
rural to urban areas to environment around us and
improve their standard of liv- our failure to manage by-prod-
ing as well as the quality of ucts and waste. In earlier
life. In 1901, only 11% of India’s days, we responded through a
population was urban. A cen- number of regulations, laws,
tury later, over 34% of people and international treaties for
are living in urban settle- water and made some
ments which are expected to progress in limiting and miti-
grow further to reach 60% in gating the consequences.
urban areas by the year we Those restrictions, even the
reach 2050. A rapidly increas- alternative strategies to
ing urban population and the replenish and recycle the
expanding middle class have resources are weakening and
driven up water demand, we are again returning to old
while years of pollution, ineffi- values, policies, and behaviors
cient farming, decentralized which were considered obso-
governance, groundwater lete and not relevant. Water
exploitation and poor infra- utilities in India are now
structure have depleted the tasked with the job of
water supply. attempting to conserve a pre-
200 MLD Water Treatment Plant, Surajpura, Rajasthan There are several chal- viously unregulated natural
lenges being faced by water resource as it quickly
THE FUTURE OF water in dimensions of water scarcity. Water Infrastructure utilities in India, but the age- becomes a politicized source
India is turbulent and our With the world’s second If current trends continue, ing infrastructure is at the of contention for different
water infrastructure develop- largest population at 1.37 bil- India is set to become a water root of them all. In particular, groups within society.
ment and management is lion currently and expected to scarce country in not too dis- urbanization and population This is an issue that needs
mostly non-sustainable for a become the most populous by tant future. The scarcity is growth contribute to water urgent attention from policy
longer period. We need to 2024 and continue growing to looming large on Indian cities scarcity and intensify the makers, relevant government
think differently and swiftly 1.7 billion by 2050, India finds and water utilities are facing strain caused by ageing infra- officials, private partners and
how to manage water, dramat- it difficult to serve the vast their biggest challenge from structure. Among other key people at large, especially in
ic changes are required to majority of that populace with aging infrastructure across challenges is the problem of cities where urbanization has
develop robust water infra- safe, clean water. the country. One of the most water loss or non-revenue become a more serious prob-
structure and maintain them Supporting 16% of the critical aspects of the aging water. Global non-revenue lem. While urbanization is a
professionally. world’s population is a daunt- infrastructure is literally water estimates range from very important consideration
With economic develop- ing task considering that buried underground, out of 30 to 40% of water produced, which all developing countries
ment, rapid urbanization and India possesses only 4% of the sight and, usually, out of mind. whereas it is as high as 50 to need to manage efficiently, a
population growth, India’s world’s fresh water. Imagine When failures occur, then only 60% in several cities in India. significant number of cities in
water demand is increasing the crisis that out of the very we are reminded of how much Water utilities in India are India is witnessing rapid pop-
significantly. The demand- limited water availability, we take for granted our access faced with the need to address ulation growth and utilities
supply gap is getting wider almost 80% of our surface to safe drinking water. The all of these challenges and are finding they have con-
and water conflict is becom- water is contaminated. Nearly water supply to household revamping of infrastructure structed much lesser infra-
ing a common phenomenon. 60% of India’s groundwater and businesses in cities on priority for social, econom- structure than they needed.
The affliction point is the reserves are already contami- depends on a network of aging ic and environmental implica- We need to develop water and
insufficient availability of nated with biological, organic, underground pipes, many of tions. For decades, we have wastewater infrastructure
clean water for distribution and inorganic pollutants. The which are reaching, or have invested heavily in fossil fuels sustainability policy that has
and scarcity that is spreading Central Pollution Control exceeded, the end of their use- - coal, oil, gas, and their deriv- to promote sustainable infra-
very fast. The water pollution, Board (CPCB) has found that ful life. The pumping ative chemicals and plastic structure in the water sector.
in general, and the degrada- 18 major rivers in India are machineries are dilapidated with little or no concern for The policy’s objective should
tion of groundwater quality, in unfit for any domestic and and the number of water main consequences that today are be to ensure that all invest-
particular, are the added industrial water usage. breaks frequently. evident in the form of pollu- ments, policies, and actions

24 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Himalayas and increased vari- Irrigation Funds, Smart City greater allocations of budget-
ability of rainfall in large parts Mission etc. The international ary resources, more efficient
of the country. funding for water infrastruc- use of those resources, and
The large investments ture development has also greater contributions from
required in water infrastruc-
ture will help in augmenting
the economic and social devel-
opment of India. The assured
supplies of water meant that
crop yields on irrigated land
were consistently much high-
It is very clear that India’s water
er than yields from rain-fed infrastructure needs a complete
agriculture, allowing India to
achieve national food security overhaul and there is not much
and associated affordability of time left to do that.
food. Hydropower from many
of the large dams will provide
the reinforcements for Indian increased from development water users.
industrial growth and ground- agencies such as ADB, World We could consider a combi-
water irrigation. It is not just Bank and JICA in the past few nation of methods to promote
huge water storage infrastruc- years. However, the overall sustainable water infrastruc-
ture that is needed every- investment required in the ture:
where; in many parts of the sector is estimated to be INR • Efficiency in
500 MLD Water Pumping Station, Bangalore country there are also sub- 620,000 crore (USD 129 bil- Management: The utilities
stantial returns from invest- lion). India currently spends could emphasize on cutting
support water infrastructure remains extremely short with ments in smaller-scale, com- about 6 percent of its GDP on costs and investing in water
in the most efficient and sus- such infrastructure. munity-level water storage infrastructure, less than sev- systems using a risk-based
tainable manner to help water India’s water harvesting infrastructure such as tanks, eral countries in Asia, and approach with adopting the
utilities, enhance economic and storage capacity from the check dams, ground reser- nearly half of the 11 percent best practices and bring
competitiveness and promote rainfall is extremely limited voirs, water harvesting and invested by China. Both cen- much-needed efficiency.
affordable operation & main- compared to other arid coun- local water recharge systems. tral and states’ governments The utilities must adopt
tenance. tries such as the United And there are massive needs are finding themselves water efficiency at all levels
SPML Infra has been pro- States and Australia where for investment in water sup- increasingly constrained to from assets - pipeline, treat-
moting access to clean drink- they have built over 5,000 ply systems for growing cities fund large infra development ment, pumping, supply line,
ing water to all with sustain- cubic meters of water storage and for underserved semi- projects for augmenting metering and set efficiency
able water infrastructure per capita; China can store urban and rural populations. water supply and wastewater levels for manufacturers
development for more than about 1,000 cubic meters per India’s cities and industries management. The financial and others to promote
three decades and has execut- capita, India’s dams can store also need to use water more needs of the water sector are water efficiency in opera-
ed over 600 projects in water only 200 cubic meters per effectively, and there will have growing exponentially with tions and services.
and wastewater segments person. Moreover, India can to be massive investments in major gaps to meet the costs • Optimum Pricing: Water
along with other key develop- store only about 30 days of sewer networks and waste- of rehabilitating the existing in India is mainly subsidized
ment. Being a leading player rainfall, compared to 90 days water treatment plants. infrastructure and to build and water utilities may con-
in the Indian water sector, it in major river basins in devel- This need arises because new facilities. sider charging the con-
continuously features oped countries. Water, espe- much of India’s existing water The budgetary allocations sumers for the full cost of
amongst the world’s top 50 cially in the water-rich north- infrastructure is crumbling to the water sector are not construction, and operation
private water companies. east part of the country can be and so there is an enormous sufficient as per the current & maintenance of water
With a number of water infra- transformed from a curse to a backlog of deferred mainte- requirement of infrastructure systems that are essential
structure development and blessing only if major invest- nance. The end result is the development and there is a for sustainability.
key executed projects, it is ments are made in developing familiar sight of crumbling, large and growing financial • Watershed Approach: The
providing drinking water sustainable water infrastruc- rusting, leaking pipes, dams, gap, which can only be met by importance of infrastruc-
facilities to over 40 million ture that will also deal with canals, and other vital water
people across several states in constant floods and draught infrastructure.
India. situation. We need to recog-
nize water as a stimulus for Financing Water Infra-
Water Storage growth by combining major structure
India has a highly variable water infrastructure with a The financing of water
climate and vastly seasonal modern management infrastructure is getting diffi-
pattern of rainfall. Estimated approach. India needs to grow cult for the government
50% of rainfall happens in just the capacity of its water stor- whereas the need for invest-
15 days and 90% of river flows age from the existing about ment is becoming more criti-
during three to four months of 200 billion cubic meters and it cal and urgent. Although
monsoon period only. is more critical because of there is some investment
Investments in large-scale global climate change is going being done by the government
water infrastructure develop- to have major impact in India, with new schemes and grants
ment in India have been very there is likely to be rapid gla- made available under
few and by all international cial melting in coming AMRUT, Clean Ganga
comparisons, the country decades in the western Mission, Water Supply and 3000 MM Dia MS Sauni Pipeline, Gujarat

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 25


Bank, JICA and others pro- water infrastructure develop-

vide funding for water infra- ment and management to
structure projects and also ensure that water is managed
explore blended finance and in a much more flexible, effi-
local pooled finance facili- cient and environmentally
ties to mobilize private sec- sustainable manner.
tor investment. Given these dynamics,
• Alternative Rate there should be an ongoing
Structures: Water tariffs role for the private sector in
can be designed in such a the development of water
way that encourages effi- infrastructure and public
ciency and conservation. services delivered through it.
This practice not only saves
water but generate money About the Author
for infrastructure develop- Subhash Sethi is Chairman
ment and management by of SPML Infra Limited, a listed
Kalisindh Concrete Gravity Dam, Rajasthan making everyone aware infrastructure development
that water is not a free or company in India. In the past
ture development and with the matter. ects in water supply, SPML infinite resource. Utilities over three decades, he worked
growth decisions within the • Alternate Financing of Infra had mixed experience can consider higher water relentlessly with his mission to
context of how water flows Water Infrastructure: with PPP projects for cities
through a watershed must This has become significant water distribution.
be taken universally barring due to several factors • Public Bonds: Bonds are
boundaries of cities and including limited public useful for financing large
states. Watershed bound- money and increasing con- water infrastructure proj-
aries may not conform to struction and maintenance ects that will generate serv-
state or municipal bound- costs that are encouraging ices and income for many
aries, so partnerships governments to explore years, as the money can be
among center, state, and alternative investment repaid over time. The
local authorities are essen- models. For India, some advantage to municipal and
tial for development and financing alternatives could public utility bonds are typ-
financing of pan India water be: ically tax-advantaged,
infrastructure. • P ublic-Private which allows the borrowing
• Water Governance: Partnership (PPP): Public- entity to pay lower rates to
Improving governance in private partnerships have investors.
the water sector is impor- been tried earlier in India • Local Taxes: The funding
tant since water availability with water infrastructure of water infrastructure can
is fragmented in the coun- projects, but with limited be done by levying some
try. Water is a state subject; success as people think of kind of local taxes from con-
water supplies, irrigation & water as their right and as a sumers rather than com-
canals, drainage & embank- government obligation to pletely relying upon the
ments, and the storage falls provide them. The need is government funding. The
tax amount and period can
vary depending on the
requirements of specific
municipalities with consid-
eration of water availability
and future demand.
It gives me a deep satisfaction that • Insurance, Pension Subhash Sethi
we have been involved to provide Funds: India has a huge
reserve in insurance and rates for any water used create enduring value and
clean drinking water facility to over pension segment and these beyond the fixed quantity wealth for the country and the
40 million people of our country. funds can be utilized for which will also improve the organization. Under his leader-
financing water infrastruc- efficiency of its system ship, SPML Infra went on to
ture projects directly or operations. establish itself as a leading
in the state list. There is a to provide complete control through the viability gap Engineering and Infrastructure
need to recognize water as of water infrastructure funding (VGF) scheme The Way Forward Development organization in
a finite and vulnerable from source to tap, meter- which is a one-time grant to Water infrastructure is the India with over 600 completed
resource. The government ing, and billing with cost augment public-private- need of time as our existing projects in the domains of Water,
should take urgent action implications. The return on partnerships (PPPs) proj- infrastructure is on the verge Power, Sanitation,
for comprehensive water investment in the water sec- ects to fill the funding gap of perishing. Environment, and Civil
legislation at the national tor should be enhanced and making projects com- But simply building addi- Infrastructure. The sustainable
level for effective water through regulations to mercially viable. tional infrastructure cannot infrastructure created by SPML
management, conservation, make the sector a reward- • Development Finance: enhance India’s looming Infra helps water utilities to
development and equitable ing business proposition for Major development institu- water-stress. deliver safe and clean drinking
distribution with regulatory the private companies. tions such as the World We need to consider a water to about 40 million people
authority to deal exclusively With a number of PPP proj- Bank, Asian Development more integrated approach to of India.

26 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Buried No Longer: Confronting the U.S.

Water Infrastructure Challenge
Restoring existing water systems as they reach the end of their useful lives and expanding
them to serve a growing population will cost at least USD 1 trillion over the next 25 years if the
United States is to maintain current levels of water service.
By American Water Works Association (AWWA)

A NEW KIND of challenge is and geographic region, but in announced that a new era was likened to a silhouette of the don’t elevate it and begin to
emerging in the United some communities, these dawning: the replacement era, Loch Ness Monster, revealed take action now.
States, one that for many infrastructure costs alone in which the United States that each of the 20 water sys- The present report (on
years was largely buried in its could triple the size of a typi- would need to begin rebuild- tems faced unprecedented which this article is based)
national consciousness. Now cal family’s water bills. Other ing the water and wastewater needs to rebuild its under- was undertaken to extend the
it can be buried no longer. communities will need to col- systems bequeathed to its cit- ground water infrastructure - Dawn report beyond those 20
Much of the nation’s drinking lect significant “impact” or izens by earlier generations. its pipe network. For each sys- original cities and encompass
water infrastructure, more development fees to meet the AWWA’s seminal report - tem, the future investment the entire United States. The
than 1 million miles of pipes needs of a growing population. Dawn of the Replacement Era was an “echo” of the demo- results are startling. They
beneath its streets, is nearing Numerous communities will - demonstrated that signifi- graphic history of the commu- confirm what every water util-
the end of its useful life and need to invest for replacement cant investments will be nity, reflecting succeeding ity professional knows: the
approaching the age at which and raise funds to accommo- required in coming decades if generations of pipe that were country faces the need for
it needs to be replaced. date growth at the same time. the United States is to main- laid down as the community massive reinvestment in its
Moreover, the country’s shift- Investments that may be tain the water and wastewater grew over many years. Most water infrastructure over the
ing population brings signifi- required to meet new stan- systems that are so essential of those generations of pipe coming decades. The pipe net-
cant growth to some areas of dards for drinking water qual- to its citizens’ way of life. were shown to be coming to works that were largely built
the country, requiring larger ity will add even more to the The Dawn report exam- an end of their useful service and paid for by earlier genera-
pipe networks to provide bill. tions - and passed down to
water service. Although the challenge to current residents as an inher-
As documented in this the US water infrastructure itance - last a long time, but
report, restoring existing has been less visible than they are not immortal. The
water systems as they reach other infrastructure con- nation’s drinking water infra-
the end of their useful lives cerns, it’s no less important. structure - especially the
and expanding them to serve The country’s water treat- Much of the drinking water underground pipes that deliv-
a growing population will cost ment and delivery systems er safe water to U.S. homes
at least USD 1 trillion over the provide public health protec- infrastructure in the USA, more and businesses - is aging and
next 25 years if the United tion, fire protection, economic than 1 million miles of pipes in need of significant reinvest-
States is to maintain current prosperity and the high quali- ment. Like many of the roads,
levels of water service. ty of life its citizens enjoy. Yet beneath its streets, is nearing the bridges, and other public
Delaying the investment can most U.S. citizens pay less end of its useful life and assets on which the country
result in degrading water than USD 3.75 for every 1,000 relies, most of its buried
service, increasing water gallons of safe water delivered approaching the age at which it drinking water infrastructure
service disruptions, and to their taps. needs to be replaced. Moreover, was built 50 or more years
increasing expenditures for This article demonstrates ago, in the post-World War II
emergency repairs. that as a nation, the United the country’s shifting population era of rapid demographic
Ultimately the nation will States needs to bring the con- brings significant growth to some change and economic growth.
have to face the need to “catch versation about water infra- In some older urban areas,
up” with past deferred invest- structure above ground. areas of the country, requiring many water mains have been
ments, and the more this is
delayed the harder the job will
Deferring needed investments
today will only result in
larger pipe networks to provide in the ground for a century or
be when the day of reckoning greater expenses tomorrow water service. Given its age, it comes as
comes. and pass on a greater burden no surprise that a large pro-
In the years ahead, all US to future generations. ined 20 water systems, using a lives in a relatively com- portion of US water infra-
residents who pay for water relatively new technique to pressed period. Like the pipes structure is approaching, or
service will absorb the cost of The Era of Infrastructure build what came to be called a themselves, the need for this has already reached, the end
this investment, primarily Replacement “Nessie Curve” for each sys- massive investment was most- of its useful life. The need to
through higher water bills. More than a decade ago tem. The Nessie Curve, so ly buried and out of sight. But rebuild these pipe networks
The amounts will vary the American Water Works called because the graph fol- it threatens the country’s must come on top of other
depending on community size Association (AWWA) lows an outline that someone future if the nation’s citizens water investment needs, such

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 27


as the need to replace water structure renewal needs. The in the most affected communi- that the water system there pipes laid after 1960, and so
treatment plants and storage keys to the analysis include ties could in some cases triple be expanded to serve the new on. In that respect, these capi-
tanks, and investments need- the following: household water bills. This customers. tal outlays are unlike those
ed to comply with standards • Understanding the original projection assumes the costs required to build a new treat-
for drinking water quality. timing of water system are spread evenly across the There are Important ment plant or storage tank,
They also come on top of development in the United population in a “pay-as-you- Differences Based on where the capital costs are
wastewater and stormwater States. go” approach (See “The Costs System Size incurred up front and aren’t
investment needs which, judg- • Understanding the various Keep Coming” below). With As with many other costs, faced again for many years.
ing from the most recent “gap materials from which pipes respect to the cost of growth, small communities may find a Rather, infrastructure renew-
analysis” from the US were made, and where and other caveats are important. steeper challenge ahead on al investments are likely to be
Environmental Protection when the pipes of each Many communities expect water infrastructure. Small incurred each year over sever-
Agency (USEPA), are likely to material were likely to have growth to pay or help pay for communities have fewer peo- al decades. For that reason,
be as large as drinking water been installed in various itself through developer fees, ple, and those people are often many utilities may choose to
needs over the coming sizes. impact fees, or similar more spread out, requiring finance infrastructure
decades. Moreover, both • Understanding the life charges. In such communities, more pipe “miles per cus- replacement on a “pay-as-you-
water and wastewater infra- expectancy of the various established residents will not tomer” than larger systems. go” basis rather than through
structure needs come on top types and sizes of pipe be required to shoulder the In the most affected small debt financing.
of the other vital community (“pipe cohorts”) in actual cost of population growth to communities, the study sug-
infrastructures, such as operating environments. the extent that these fees gests that a typical three-per- Postponing Investment Only
streets, schools, etc. • Understanding the replace- recover those costs. But son household could see its Makes the Problem Worse
Prudent planning for infra- ment costs for each type regardless of how the costs of drinking water bill increase by Overlooking or postponing
structure renewal requires and size of pipe. replacement and growth are as much as USD 550 per year infrastructure renewal invest-
credible, analysis-based esti- • Developing a probability allocated among builders, above current levels, simply to ments in the near term will
mates of where, when, and distribution for the “wear- newcomers, or established address infrastructure needs, only add to the scale of the
how much pipe replacement out” of each pipe cohort. residents, the total cost that depending as always on the challenge the country faces in
or expansion for growth is must be borne by the commu- caveats identified above. In the years to come. Postponing
required. This article summa- Key Findings nity will still rise. the largest water systems, the investment steepens the
rizes the conclusions of a com- The Needs are Large costs can be spread over a slope of the investment curve
prehensive and robust nation- Investment needs for There are Important large population base. Needed that must ultimately be met. It
al-level analysis of the cost, buried drinking water infra- Regional Differences investments would be consis- also increases the odds of fac-
timing, and location of the structure total more than The growing national need tent with annual per house- ing the high costs associated
investments necessary to USD 1 trillion nationwide over affects different regions in dif- hold cost increases ranging with water main breaks and
renew water mains over the the next 25 years, assuming ferent ways. In general, the from roughly USD 75 to more other infrastructure failures.
coming decades. It also exam- pipes are replaced at the end South and the West will face than USD 100 per year by the The good news is that not all
ines the additional pipe invest- of their service lives and sys- the steepest investment chal- mid-2030s, assuming the of the USD 1 trillion invest-
ments that can be anticipated tems are expanded to serve lenges, with total needs expenses were spread across ment through 2035 must be
can anticipate to meet pro- growing populations. Delaying accounting for considerably the population in the year they made right now. There is time
jected population growth, this investment could mean more than half the national were incurred. to make suitable plans and
regional population shifts, and either increasing rates of pipe total. This is largely attributa- implement policies that will
service area growth through breakage and deteriorating ble to the fact that the popula- The Costs Keep Coming help address the longer-term
2050. water service or suboptimal tion of these regions is grow- The national investment challenge. The bad news is
This analysis is based on use of utility funds, such as ing rapidly. In contrast, in the the United States faces will that the required investment
the insight that there will be paying more to repair broken Northeast and Midwest, roughly double from about level is growing, as more pipes
“demographic echoes” in pipes than the long-term cost growth is a relatively small USD 13 billion a year in 2010 continue to age and reach the
which waves of reinvestment of replacing them. Nationally, component of the projected to almost USD 30 billion end of their effective service
are driven by a combination of the need is close to evenly need. However, the population annually by the 2040s for lives.
the original patterns of pipe divided between replacement shifts away from these regions replacement alone. If growth As large as the cost of rein-
investment, the pipe materials due to wear-out and needs complicate the infrastructure is included, needed invest- vestment may be, not under-
used, and local operating envi- generated by demographic challenge, as there are fewer ment must increase from a lit- taking it will be worse in the
ronments. The report exam- changes (growth and migra- remaining local customers tle over USD 30 billion today long run by almost any stan-
ined the reinvestment tion). across whom to spread the to nearly USD 50 billion over dard. Aging water mains are
demands implied by these fac- cost of renewing their infra- the same period. This level of subject to more frequent
tors, along with population Household Water Bills will structure. investment must then be sus- breaks and other failures that
trends, to estimate needs for Go Up This regional perspective tained for many years if cur- can threaten public health and
pipe replacement and concur- Important caveats are nec- reveals the inherent difficulty rent levels of water service safety (such as compromising
rent investment demands to essary here because there are of managing infrastructure are to be maintained. Many tap water quality and fire-
accommodate population many ways that the increased supply and demand. Although utilities will have to face these fighting flows). Buried infra-
growth. investment in water infra- water pipes are fixed in place investment needs year after structure failures also may
Although this report does structure can be allocated and long-lasting, the popula- year, for at least several impose significant damages
not substitute for a careful among customers. Variables tion that drives the demand decades. That is, by the time (for example, through flooding
and detailed analysis at the include rate structures, how for these assets is very mobile the last cohort of pipes ana- and sinkholes), are costly to
utility level as a means of the investment is financed, and dynamic. People move out lyzed in this study (predomi- repair, disrupt businesses and
informing local decisions, it and other important local fac- of one community, leaving nantly the pipes laid between residential communities, and
constitutes the most thorough tors. But the level of invest- behind a pipe network of fixed the late 1800s and 1960) has waste precious water
and comprehensive analysis ment required to replace size but with fewer customers been replaced in, for example, resources. These maladies
ever undertaken of the worn-out pipes and maintain to support it. They move into 2050, it may soon thereafter weaken our economy and
nation’s drinking water infra- current levels of water service a new community, requiring be time to begin replacing the undermine our quality of life.

28 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


As large as the cost of rein- were built in the latter part of and they are coming. structure, which was buried Finance and Innovation
vestment may be, not under- the 19th century and through- The United States is reach- for years, can be buried no Authority (WIFIA).
taking it will be worse in the out much of the 20th century ing a crossroads and faces a longer. Ultimately, the cost of Finally, in many cases, dif-
long run by almost any stan- have, for the most part, never difficult choice. The nation the renewal we face must ficult choices may need to be
dard. experienced the need for pipe can incur the haphazard and come from local utility cus- made between competing
This suggests that a cru- replacement on a large scale. growing costs of living with tomers, through higher water needs if water bills are to be
cial responsibility for utility The dawn of the era in which aging and failing drinking rates. kept affordable.
managers now and in the these assets will need to be water infrastructure. Or, the However, the magnitude of Water utilities are willing
future is to develop the replaced puts a growing finan- United States can carefully the cost and the associated to ask their customers to
processes necessary to con- cial stress on communities prioritize and undertake affordability and other invest more, but it’s important
tinually improve their under- that will continually increase drinking water infrastructure adverse impacts on communi- this investment be in things
standing of the “replacement for decades to come. It adds renewal investments to ties - as well as the varying that bring the greatest actual
dynamics” of their own water large and hitherto unknown ensure its water utilities can degrees of impact to be felt benefit to the community.
systems. expenses to the more appar- continue to reliably and cost- across regions and across Only in that spirit can we
Those dynamics should be ent above-ground spending effectively support the public urban and rural areas - sug- achieve the goal to which we
reflected in an Asset required to meet regulatory health, safety, and economic gest that there is a key role for all aspire, the reliable provi-
Management Plan (AMP) and, standards and address other vitality of U.S. communities. states and the federal govern- sion of safe and affordable
of course, in a long-term capi- pressing needs. AWWA undertook this report ment as well. In particular, water to all Americans.
tal investment plan. The 2006 It is important to reempha- to provide the best, most states and the federal govern-
AWWA Report Water size that there are significant accurate information avail- ment can help with a careful This article is an adapted
Infrastructure at a Turning differences in the timing and able about the scale and tim- and cost-effective program excerpt from AWWA’s original
Point includes a full discus- magnitude of the challenges ing of these needed invest- that lowers the cost of neces- Buried No Longer report, which
sion of this issue. facing different regions of the ments. sary investments to our com- can be downloaded in its entire-
country and different sizes of It is clear the era AWWA munities, such as the creation ty at
Conclusion water systems. But the invest- predicted a decade ago - the of a credit support program - longerreport. AWWA offers val-
Because pipe assets last a ments we describe in this replacement era - has arrived. for example, AWWA’s pro- ued resources to water profes-
long time, water systems that report are real, they are large, The issue of aging water infra- posed Water Infrastructure sionals around the world.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 29


24x7 Water Supply Project in Nagpur Uses

Trenchless Installation with PE100 Black Pipes
The Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) implemented a revolutionary 24x7 programme to
improve the Nagpur city’s water supply under this project - water for all and 24x7 supplies
with a focus on safety, equity, and reliability.
By Chanchal Dasgupta and Prashant Nikhade

amounted to an estimated
USD 53.8 billion.
The running water supply
of most Indian cities with pop-
ulations exceeding 1 million is
highly intermittent and under
very low pressures due to the
shortage of treated water and
high water losses within
underground pipe systems.
Water supply planning, opera-
tions & maintenance are also
Figure 1: Water Supply Situation in Nagpur not managed by a central
authority, leading to low finan- Figure 4: Using HDD Installation in the Streets of Nagpur to Reduce the
Introduction will significantly impact its cial investments and a strong Disruption to the City Life
According to data from the economy and urban dependence on low capital
World Bank, India’s 2015 pop- resources, especially with subsidies from state govern- high number of leakages • Rehabilitation and capacity
ulation stands at 1.29 billion. regard to water and sanita- ments. requiring repairs, high level of enhancement of water
This forms 17.2% of the world tion. Today, an estimated 600 non-revenue water, pollution treatment plants.
population at a growing rate million Indians have no access A New Approach in Nagpur and water-borne disease, and • Commissioning of leak
of almost 1/8% p.a. (according to modern sanitation, and City poor service delivery levels. A detection and pilot studies
to the World Development only a fifth of the country’s Maharastra’s second water and energy audit was to deliver 24x7 water supply
Report), with India predicted collected sewage is treated. A largest city, Nagpur spans an conducted by NMC in 2005 to in one distribution zone
to overtake China as the study conducted by the Water area of 217 sq km has a popu- determine the upgrading with 15,000 consumers
world’s most populous coun- and Sanitation Program lation that is expected to needs of the existing water • Raw water pipelines to
try by 2025. (2006) showed that the annual reach 4 million in the next 30 supply system. eliminate water losses in
The continued rapid economic impact of inade- years. the canals.
growth of India’s population quate sanitation in India Nagpur’s water distribu- The Water & Energy Audit • Tariff revisions
tion network is owned by the The water balance for the • Implementation of a 24x7
Nagpur Municipal Nagpur water supply system water supply program for
Corporation (NMC), who is is shown in Figure 1. It the whole city under a long-
manages the long-term devel- revealed that in 2005, NMC term and performance-
opment of the city’s water was purchasing and paying based rehabilitate, finance,
supply and sewage services. for 620 million liters per day operations & maintenance
The NMC recently imple- (MLD) from the Water contract through a Public-
mented a revolutionary Resource Department. Of Private-Partnership for sus-
“24x7” programme to improve this, 140 MLD was lost during tainability.
the city’s water supply under transportation from the treat-
the project “Water for all and ment plants, with a further 20 Implementation of 24x7
24x7 supplies with a focus on MLD lost during treatment. Water Supply Project for
safety, equity, and reliability” Thus, NMC was only able to Nagpur Using PPP Model
funded by the Jawaharlal supply 480 MLD for the distri- The main target of the per-
Nehru National Urban bution system. formance-based PPP scheme
Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The results of and water was to improve the efficiency
As with most Indian cities, and energy audit spurred a of the water services in
Nagpur’s water treatment number of initiatives to Nagpur City, including
plants are overloaded. improve water efficiency: decreasing non-revenue
Figure 2 & 3: Some Typical Scenes from the Pilot Project in the Deficiencies in the system • New higher efficiency water, providing affordable
Dharampeth Area of the City include low water pressure, pumps. and accessible water for all,

30 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


connections. The pipe jointing Indian Standard IS: 4984 with HDD installation enjoyed by
was carried out using electro- the ISO 4427 standard and OCW is the timely execution
fusion fittings of up to 110mm included an extended slow of the project. There was also
and with butt fusions in larger crack test requirement for the zero incidence of pipe failure
sizes of up to 250mm. PE100 material. during the process.
Leak detection studies of Training workshops were
the project area revealed that also conducted by Borouge Conclusion
the tertiary network (150mm India on the importance of The HDD technique for
and below) was mainly using quality materials and installing PE water pipes in
responsible for the leaks, with the correct installation tech- Nagpur city in India has
44% being galvanized iron niques. proven to be beneficial by sig-
main leaks and 37% from nificantly reducing the overall
house connections. The major HDD Installation Using costs and environmental
reasons for the commercial HSCR PE Pipes Keep Pro- impact. The HSCR PE 100
Figure 5: Training Session Conducted by Suppliers for the OCW Site losses were faulty poor quality ject on Track material for critical HDD
Teams and aging meters, illegal con- One of the major concerns applications will provide the
nections, inefficient billing highlighted in the pilot project most reliable and enduring
and improving water quality to 450,000 homes to the dis- systems, non-existing struc- was to use HDD during the service life of the water net-
and the accountability of the tribution network and tured consumer service cen- installation process to reduce works, giving the utility oper-
water authority. The scheme increasing the amount of ters and poor recovery mech- the overall disruption of the ator a “peace of mind”. India’s
structure is shown in Figure 2 water available per person anisms leading to corrupt city as much as possible. first PPP 24x7 water supply
where the Nagpur from 90 to 130 liters a day practices. Other benefits of HDD project is an excellent case
Environmental Company over the next five years. To reduce the disruption to include: that demonstrates how a utili-
Limited (NESL) grants a 25 OCW’s USD20 million invest- daily life, trenchless installa- • Avoiding damages to other ty company can benefit from
year performance oriented ment will cover renovations tion techniques, particular utilities not mapped on the collaborations with the pipe,
leased contract to a Special on the city’s water production Horizontal Directional plan that causes inconven- equipment, and raw material
Purpose Company (SPC) plants and repairs and exten- Drilling (HDD), were ience and penalties suppliers.
formed by the selected opera- sions the 3,000 km pipe net- employed wherever possible. • Avoiding lengthy clearance
tor with recognised experi- work. The targeted produc- procedures for open trench About the Authors
ence in improving O&M effi- tion capacity of the system Project Implementation digging of roads and traffic Chanchal Dasgupta is
ciency of source-to-delivery will be approximately 750 mil- Following the pilot project, diversion Application Marketing
water supply systems and in lion liters a day and the leak- OCW worked with Borouge • Maintain the PE pipe instal- Manager at Borouge (India) Pvt
implementing infrastructure age from the network, which India to determine suitable lation rate and keep the Ltd. For past 18 years, he is
investment projects in the is currently 60%, will be grad- PE materials for their HDD project on schedule working for Borouge for market
water sector. The SPC will ually reduced to meet interna- operations. High-Stress Crack • Minimize disturbance to development of Borstar
operate, maintain, repair, tional standards. Resistance (HSCR) PE100 congested urban areas Technology PE and PP grades
refurbish and provide for compounds from Borouge • Avoid restricting access to for film, moulding, pipe applica-
replacing any granted facili- Initial Pilot Project were selected as they offer the hospitals or other impor- tions.
ties from source to connection A pilot project was under- best protection from scratch- tant public buildings.
plots and deliver water supply taken in the Dharampeth area es and scores on the pipe’s The determination of HDD
to consumers according to of the city to validate scheme exterior during installation installation sites are on a case
committed service levels tar- parameters and garner public and any point loads that aris- to case basis and conducted
gets. The 25-year contract feedback. Veolia and the con- ing from stones or other hard by local site engineers and the
was ultimately awarded to sultants chose PE pipes and objects in the soil. consultant team. The mini-
Veolia Water India. To accom- electro-fusion fittings after an HSCR PE100 materials are mum length for an HDD
plish this, Veolia set up evaluation based on bimodal, with a Hexene co- installation was set at 50m,
Orange City Water (OCW), a JNNURM guidelines. The monomer rather than the with 200m as the maximum
joint venture with Vishvaraj water piping system was Butene used in standard depending on site conditions.
Environment Ltd. designed for a maximum of 10 PE100 materials. This results PE pipe lengths in terms of
The technical challenge of bar pressure using PE100 in a PE molecular structure percentage of the total length
the project is considerable as material water mains and with more and longer side executed are as follows:
it involves connecting 350,000 MDPE PE80 pipes for house branches and in turn, • 110 mm - 90% (HDD bore
stronger tie molecules that size 150 mm),
resist crack propagation • 125 to 160 mm - 9% (HDD
through the pipe wall or dra- bore size 200 or 250 mm),
matically slow down the and
process. This is measured by • 180 up to 250mm - 1% (HDD
the Notched Pipe Test (NPT) bore size 350 mm)
under the international PE The total length of mains
Water pipe specification ISO installed by HDD would be
4427. In this test, an HSCR around 190 km - almost 30% of Prashant Nikhade is Sr.
PE100 pipe will not fail within the total network length, mak- Application Development
10,000 hours as compared to ing it the first time in India Engineer - Infrastructure at
the minimum 500 hours where HDD is used so exten- Borouge India Pvt. Ltd. He is
required by the specification sively in a water network proj- working for Borouge India for
Figure 6: Concrete Overburden on Utility Lines Difficult to Handle by for standard PE100 pipes. ect. last 7 years for Infrastructure
Open Trench The project specified the One of the key benefits of applications of PE and PP.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 31


Addressing the Gaps in Water Infrastructure Needs

By Joseph Kane

U.S. Households are Using dictable water demands and Riverside (-106 million), and
Less Water, but What Does mounting infrastructure San Francisco (-63 million), all
That Mean for Metros and costs, which results in higher while seeing significant gains
Infrastructure? water bills for many house- in population. Consequently,
The last few months have holds. With more timely and residential water use per capi-
seen a growing number of cli- geographically detailed infor- ta in these metros also tended The last few months have seen a
mate concerns - from histori- mation, however, they can to be below national averages.
cally devastating floods to more easily measure and Yet, multiple other metro
growing number of climate
record forest fires - with many define their water needs - and areas actually saw an increase concerns - from historically
regions still assessing the ultimately design the plans, in residential water use. In
damage. Beyond recovery, develop the asset manage- fact, households in 50 of the
devastating floods to record forest
planning and paying for more ment strategies, and deploy 100 largest metro areas used fires. Beyond recovery, planning
resilient infrastructure also the technologies in support of more water each day in 2015
remains an enormous chal- more efficient and equitable than they did in 2010, reveal-
and paying for more resilient
lenge, and no quick and easy outcomes. The latest USGS ing clear room for improve- infrastructure also remains an
solutions seem to be on the report helps clarify what ment in achieving greater effi-
way from Washington or else- these needs look like at a ciencies. Among the 10 metro enormous challenge.
where. household level, but now it’s areas with the biggest gains,
One bit of positive news up to local leaders to monitor several represent sprawling affordability in many regions. across the United States. As
came out recently, though: as and address them. Sun Belt metros, such as To achieve greater long- pipes, plants, and other facili-
the drought in the Western For example, recent Atlanta (+39 million gallons term certainty managing their ties reach a breaking point,
United States has eased, national trends only reveal each day) and Phoenix (+28 water resources - in addition utilities and local leaders must
many households are using part of the story. U.S. house- million). Not surprisingly, con- to planning and paying for any plan and pay for increasingly
less water and putting less holds reduced their water use tinued population growth and needed infrastructure invest- costly repairs. However, many
strain on the country’s scarce nationally by almost 850 mil- development in many of these ments - utilities and their local places have responded with
water resources. According to lion gallons each day from markets translated into fur- and state partners should con- innovative approaches, using
a new report from the U.S. 2010 to 2015, a 3 percent ther rises in residential water tinue monitoring these trends new management techniques
Geological Survey (USGS), decline (based on Brookings use per capita as well. closely. Doing so requires and modern technologies to
U.S. household water use is on analysis of aggregated county For the most part, contin- ongoing attention to the infra- deliver water infrastructure
the decline, approaching lev- totals, as reported by the ued declines in household structure itself, including that is more cost-efficient,
els not seen since the mid- USGS). This reduction came water use show that the U.S. technological upgrades and durable, and resilient.
1990s. Steps toward greater even as the U.S. as a whole as a whole is making great water supplies, but also a pri- Crucially, these challenges
water conservation in saw its population increase by strides toward a more effi- oritization of water’s role in and opportunities do not sim-
California and several other 12 million people (or 4 per- cient, cost-effective service, the larger built environment ply end with the infrastruc-
states appear to be taking cent) over the same time span. but that is not true across the and economic development ture itself.
hold, alongside a number of Put together, this means that board. On the one hand, some efforts. Areas with dense, The country’s water work-
regulatory and technological residential water use per capi- areas are ahead of the curve, compact development pat- force is also undergoing
advances in support of water ta fell from 88 gallons each particularly in drought-strick- terns, for instance, tend to use change. Similar to millions of
efficiency, including plumbing day in 2010 to 82 gallons each en parts of the West where less water, and planning other workers involved in
fixture upgrades. And with day in 2015 - a far cry from the water conservation has not strategies should continue infrastructure nationwide, the
greater efficiency come sever- 98 gallons each day in 2005. only become a necessity and making it easier for all house- water workforce is aging,
al benefits: from preserving Many of the country’s most way of life but has also benefit- holds to gain the affordable experiencing rapid turnover,
long-term water supplies to populated metro areas are ed from forward-looking plan- water access they need to sur- and facing a huge gap to fill in
reducing the need to build leading this charge toward ning focused on environmen- vive and thrive. The U.S. faces terms of hiring, training, and
new infrastructure. more efficient water use. tal stewardship and economic sizable water infrastructure retention - from operators and
Still, even as households Households in the 100 largest stability. On the other hand, needs, but many areas are engineers to accountants and
use less water, these drops are metro areas reduced their some areas along the already getting a head start on office clerks. At the same
not equal nationally, and ongo- water use by 723 million gal- Colorado River and elsewhere addressing their gaps in this time, these jobs offer competi-
ing challenges remain con- lons each day from 2010 to are grappling with rising way and should serve as mod- tive wages, have lower educa-
cerning water efficiency and 2015 – meaning they were water demand and challenges els to consider for future tional barriers to entry, and
affordability in many regions. responsible for 85 percent of collaborating on region-wide improvements. consequently provide a path-
As our recent report on the U.S. decline, despite planning approaches, includ- way to greater economic
metropolitan water use high- accounting for two-thirds of ing more responsible ground- Investing in Water Infra- opportunity for all types of
lights, utilities - alongside its population. As shown water management. structure and Workers: Ex- workers across all skill levels.
other local and state leaders - below, five of the 10 metro Still, even as households amining the Bay Area’s Re- While many localities -
are striving for a cleaner, areas with the greatest use less water, these drops are gional Approach and water utilities, in partic-
more reliable water service, declines were found in not equal nationally, and ongo- Investing in water infra- ular - continue to struggle to
but they must often do so California, led by Los Angeles ing challenges remain con- structure represents a major fill these positions, some
amidst increasingly unpre- (-193 million gallons each day), cerning water efficiency and challenge and opportunity places are leading the charge

32 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


toward more coordinated, grams. Toward the South Bay, candidates by connecting ities lack the staffing and workforce gap, they do not
proactive recruitment and the Santa Clara Valley Water workers with training oppor- budgetary capacity to create reduce the need. The clock is
training. California’s Bay District and the City of San tunities and stewarding new new recruitment and training ticking for many utilities and
Area represents one such Jose, each spearhead efforts partnerships. Similarly, Young programs or struggle to con- other employers nationally,
national leader. focused on targeted recruit- Community Developers nect with other regional part- and the need to accelerate
Like most parts of ing, skills development, and a (YCD), a non-profit group ners, as their workers retire workforce development is
California, the Bay Area faces more inclusive workforce. with activities concentrated in or leave for opportunities else- only growing. However, having
a confluence of environmental This sense of shared San Francisco’s Bayview where. Moreover, hiring addi- a collective, aspirational
and economic concerns. The responsibility helps set the Hunters Point neighborhood, tional workers and setting up mindset that prioritizes work-
state is ground zero for a vari- table for BAYWORK, a con- provides job-readiness train- pathways for continued learn- force development at a region-
ety of national water chal- sortium of Bay Area water ing and job placement assis- ing are part of a winding, long- al scale is an important start -
lenges, including water scarci- and wastewater utilities tance to residents who may term process, which requires and it’s an approach worthy of
ty and affordability issues that focused on workforce develop- face significant barriers to monitoring and evaluation. replication.
extend to the Bay Area. Of ment. This multi-stakeholder launch water careers. A num- Utilities must also contend Source: The Brookings
course, getting even more approach helps provide a ber of high schools and techni- with an ever-growing number Institution Metropolitan Policy
attention are the region’s eco- regional platform to coordi- cal schools, such as Los of financial and programmatic Program.
nomic issues, including its nate utility and community- Medanos College and Laney responsibilities that can be About the Author
astronomical cost of living wide activities. In addition to College, also remain instru- hard to balance all at once. Joseph Kane is a senior
and rising income inequality. holding workshops, meetings, mental in helping students Even regions with a track research associate and associate
However, by forging new and other events to promote gain essential skills and on- record of success like the Bay fellow at the Brookings
partnerships and programs greater regional collaboration the-job training through Area are not immune to these Institution’s Metropolitan
across the entire region, Bay around (and visibility of) the direct partnerships with utili- challenges. Policy Program. Prior to
Area water utilities are work- workforce challenge, BAY- ties. While all of these issues Brookings, Kane was an
ing closely with one another WORK also uses new Individual utilities, public can increase the degree of dif- Economist at the U.S. Bureau of
and various community research and other training agencies, workforce organiza- ficulty of filling the water Labor Statistics.
groups to tackle these chal- resources to help clarify tions, and regional coalitions:
lenges head-on - with a partic- strategic priorities. For exam- each is instrumental in hiring,
ular emphasis on workforce ple, by identifying the skill training, and retaining work-
development. Although most needs and current positions ers at a larger scale.
utilities across the country available for mission-critical Indeed, for other regions
remain highly fragmented and occupations, such as water looking to replicate the Bay
localized in their operations, treatment operators, machin- Area experience, it is the
capital planning, and work- ists, electricians, and elec- coalition of partnerships and
force development strategies, tronic maintenance/instru- the emergence of shared
the Bay Area demonstrates ment technicians, BAYWORK strategies that deserve closer
how to build additional finan- is supporting additional com- attention. Recruitment, for
cial and technical capacity in munity outreach and building instance, must touch all cor-
support of the water work- local capacity to hire and train ners of a community to attract
force, often through broader that specific workforce. more workers and achieve
regional collaborations. To be sure, prioritizing greater diversity, which
Individual utilities, public regional workforce develop- depends on gaining traction
agencies, workforce organiza- ment does not simply begin or among a broad set of regional
tions, and regional coalitions: end within the walls of utili- players. To promote more
each is instrumental in hiring, ties; the need for broader col- inclusive economic develop-
training, and retaining work- laborations with workforce ment, utilities and local lead-
ers at a larger scale. groups, local educational ers must be able to tap the tal-
The efforts begin within institutions, unions, economic ent of the entire region, and
individual utilities and public development officials, and water jobs must be more
agencies that depend on for- political leadership is essen- accessible to more prospec-
ward-looking leadership to tial to build additional capaci- tive workers in more places.
implement more purposeful, ty for these efforts. Of course, adopting such a
long-term programming. The Among the Bay Area’s shared, regional approach
San Francisco Public Utilities numerous workforce organi- flies in the face of the jurisdic-
Commission continues to play zations, for instance, Jewish tional fragmentation and com-
a lead role - both regionally Vocational Service (JVS) is petition that frequently exists
and nationally - in driving the helping utilities find qualified in the water sector. Many util-
creation and implementation
of youth work programs, local
job training programs, and
other strategic plans in sup-
port of a more skilled, diverse
workforce. Similarly, the East Similar to millions of other workers
Bay Municipal Utility District
promotes awareness and out- involved in infrastructure, the water
reach for careers in the water
sector through diversity ini-
workforce is facing a huge gap to fill in
tiatives and internship pro- terms of hiring, training, and retention.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 33


Emergency Sanitary Sewer Line Repair Done

Down Deep
Crumbling pipe undermined upstate New York Island.
By Advanced Drainage Systems (ADS)

caused a sinkhole the size of a

dump truck and 27 feet deep.”
Among other plastics,
polypropylene is inert to the
effects of hydrogen sulfide
present in sanitary sewers,
making it a highly recom-
mended material of choice to
replace deteriorating infra-
structure across the country.
SaniTite HP has been used in
similar emergency repairs to
replace failed infrastructure
in Kentucky, Mississippi, Ohio,
and Pennsylvania.
"In other sections also,
there was a tremendous
amount of dirt that had infil-
trated into the pipe from
cracks," he said. "We ran a
camera in there and looked
upstream from one of the
downstream manholes and
saw that the dirt went right to
the ceiling of the pipe. And
because the pipe was in such a
deteriorated condition, we
would not have been able to

The Crew at Grand Island Preps the Site for an Emergency Repair Using 30-inch Diameter SaniTite HP Pipe to Replace 35-year-old, 30-inch Diameter
Asbestos Cement Pipe (ACP) That Failed Due to "Swamp Gas".

THE FINAL STRAW for a diameter SaniTite® HP triple- aster. The USD 500,000 cement pipe that over the
long section of the sanitary wall polypropylene pipe emergency repair took a years was being eaten away by
sewer line here was a sinkhole replaced the failed ACP at month to complete. hydrogen sulfide gas,"
"large enough for a dump depths of 22 to 24 feet. Since the 1700's the Town explained John Whitney, P.E.,
truck" and sewage that flood- Due to the extreme nature of Grand Island has been a Grand Island engineer. "This
ed local residences and busi- of the pipe failure and because resort, a lumber town, a colo- pipe originates upstream and
nesses during August 2013. the Town of Grand Island is nial battleground, part of the the end of it is a tributary to a
Running under Whitehaven surrounded by the Niagara City of Buffalo and part of very long force main. Sewage WIth Burial Depth Ranging from
Road, the main east/west River, it was imperative that nearby Town of Tonawanda. goes septic in that force main. 22 to 24 Feet, It was Important
multi-lane street, the 35-year- the destroyed pipe between Today, it is the home for more When it gets discharged into That the New Pipe Could be Easily
old, 30-inch diameter asbestos Grand Island Blvd. and Stony than 20,000 residents and the gravity sewer, which is the Handled with Minimal Equipment
cement pipe (ACP) failed due Point Road be replaced to pre- hundreds of businesses, rang- 30 inch ACP, hydrogen sulfide and Crew. Its Stick Length
to "swamp gas" - hydrogen vent further damage to homes ing from small stores to major gas mixes with air and you Reduced the Number of Joints,
sulfide gas, a naturally occur- and buildings, and to stop any corporations with 500 people end up with various perme- Which Also Saved Time and Labor
ring result of decomposing effluent from flowing into the and more. The island town is ations of sulfuric acid. That is and Provided a More Secure
sewage present in all gravity Niagara River, eventually over eight miles from Niagara very destructive to cement System Versus the Several-ton
flow sanitary sewers. Six hun- Niagara Falls, causing a Falls. and the pipe got so thin it just Weight of Each Short Section of
dred and fifty feet of 30-inch potential environmental dis- "We had an asbestos collapsed. It had already Comparable Concrete Pipe.

34 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


The New Pipeline Ran Near Power Transmission Lines Coming Out of Niagara Falls That Carry 230,000 Volts. This Required That a High-Voltage Certified Electrician be with the Crew, and
the Equipment Grounded All the Time.

clean it without destroying it. struction, as was used for this requirements of ASTM D3212 eral-ton weight of each short 230,000 volts. This meant that
We replaced it in the same project, that provides a for water tightness with dual- section of comparable con- we had to have a high-voltage
trench with the SaniTite HP smooth interior and exterior gaskets and banded rein- crete pipe. certified electrician with us
pipe." wall design supported by a forced bell. Rugged and light- According to Bill Kelley of and have the equipment
SaniTite HP pipe is a prod- corrugated structural core for weight, the pipe is easily han- Lock City Supply (Lockport, grounded all the time."
uct of Advanced Drainage improved stiffness and dled with minimal equipment NY), who provided the materi- During the repair, the crew
Systems, Inc. (ADS) (NYSE: greater beam strength to min- and crew. Its stick length als for the job, "This was a used eight inch and 12-inch
WMS) (Hilliard, Ohio). imize deflection and enhance reduces the number of joints, very deep cut near a very busy pumps to bypass the area. A
Manufactured in 30 to 60 inch long-term performance. It which also saves time and highway, and the repair had to doghouse manhole was used
(750-1500mm) diameters, it is meets ASTM F2736, ASTM labor and makes for a more be done quickly and safely. to tie in the new SaniTite HP
available in triple-wall con- F2764 and also exceeds the secure system versus the sev- Not only is the pipe we used a pipe with the existing ACP.
good quality product, but it "The new pipe worked out
was also easy to install, and great. The procurement was
we could get it delivered to the very rapid, the cost was favor-
job site from a nearby plant. If able and it went together very
ever there was a case to prove well," said Whitney.
the benefits of this pipe, this Advanced Drainage
was it. It truly is the next gen- Systems (ADS) is the leading
eration of the pipe." manufacturer of high-perform-
Aside from the depth, the ance thermoplastic corrugated
project also had other chal- pipe, providing a comprehensive
lenges including a one-and-a- suite of water management
half inch rainstorm, a ductile products and superior drainage
iron pipeline that had to be cut solutions for use in the construc-
and reinstalled, plus high-volt- tion and infrastructure market-
age electric lines overhead. place. Its innovative products
"The break was right in are used across a broad range of
front of a water pumping sta- end markets and applications,
tion with a three million gallon including non-residential, resi-
water tank," Whitney dential, agriculture and infra-
explained, "and there was a structure applications. The com-
16-inch ductile iron water pany has established a leading
transmission main which we position in many of these end
had to cross. The only way to markets by leveraging its
do this was to physically iso- national sales and distribution
late it, cut the line, run the platform, its overall product
new sanitary line and then breadth and scale and its manu-
reinstall the iron pipe. facturing excellence. Founded in
"We were also adjacent to 1966, the company operates a
Grand Island, New York is Surrounded by the Niagara River, Making it Imperative That the Destroyed Pipe be the National Grid power global network of approximate-
Replaced to Prevent Further Damage to Homes and Buildings, and to Stop Any Effluent from Flowing into the transmission lines coming out ly 57 manufacturing plants and
Niagara River, Eventually Over Niagara Falls, Causing a Potential Environmental Disaster (Photo Credit: NASA) of Niagara Falls that carry over 33 distribution centers.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 35


Compare Trenchless Methods for Water

Main Rehab
Every day, water utilities face major challenges of renewing aging underground
infrastructure. Trenchless technologies offer several approaches for rehabilitating and
renewing old, crumbling underground water pipelines.
By Behnam Hashemi and Md. Mo Najafi

at least USD 1 trillion during conditions, exfiltration or out- surface of the host pipe from
the next 25 years. The US flow, pipe breakage, joint or corrosion. Class II and III lin-
Environmental Protection pipe misalignment, hydraulic ings are interactive and semi-
Agency estimates there are capacity, corrosion, abrasion, structural systems. Finally,
nearly 17,000 US public drink- and water quality problems. class IV linings are considered
ing water systems, including Features of a replacement or fully structural or structurally
54,000 community water sys- renewal system also should be independent with two charac-
tems, that serve more than considered, such as project teristics: A long-term (50-
246 million people. Out of applicability, constructability, year) internal burst strength
these systems, approximately cost factors, service provider and the ability to survive with-
4,000 to 5,000 miles of drink- availability, and the new pipe’s out the host pipe support, con-
ing water mains are annually life expectancy and future use. sidering any dynamic loading
replaced. This replacement The following sections associated with the host pipe’s
rate is projected to be around briefly describe and compare sudden failure because of
16,000 to 20,000 miles by the Cured-In-Place Pipe (CIPP), internal pressure loads.
year 2035. Spray-In-Place Pipe (SIPP),
Traditional pipeline Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Characteristics
replacement or renewal meth- Polymer (CFRP), and Pipe CIPP technologies can
ods use expensive open-cut Bursting (PB). Other common cover water line diameters
excavation that disrupts citi- trenchless renewal and ranging from 6 in. to 60 in.
zens’ lives, with costs escalat- replacement methods in the Small-diameter service con-
ing dramatically in developed water industry are sliplining nections (=2 in.) are reinstat-
areas and in projects with dif- and close-fit, which aren’t cov- ed using robotic equipment,
ficult site conditions. In con- ered here. thereby avoiding excavations
trast, trenchless technologies in front of every home. CIPP
use innovative methods, mate- Cured-In-Place Pipe technologies used for potable
rials, and equipment that CIPP is a well known water should be certified to
require minimum surface trenchless technology used NSF/ANSI standard 61. This
excavation to renew aging for structural and non-struc- method works in varying soil
underground infrastructure. tural pipeline renewal. The conditions. When high
These new methods are con- process involves inserting a groundwater levels are
sidered safer and more cost- liquid thermoset resin materi- encountered, liner thickness
effective, efficient, and pro- al into the host pipe and cur- should be sufficient to address
A LARGE PORTION of estimated 240,000 water main ductive than conventional ing the material with hot additional groundwater load-
North America’s underground breaks occur each year in the open-cut projects. water, steam, or ultraviolet ing. Following are CIPP’s
water infrastructure was more than 1 million miles of light. The liner material is typ- major characteristics:
installed during the 1950s and water pipe beneath US Trenchless Technologies ically polymeric felt/ fiber or • Good for pipes with exfiltra-
1960s during a period of rapid streets. Such breaks waste Selecting a trenchless woven fiberglass tube. Lateral tion and minor structural
economic growth in Canada more than 2 trillion gallons of pipeline replacement or reconnection can be done defects
and the United States. Today, treated drinking water annu- renewal method depends on internally without excavation • Capable of negotiating
on average, these systems are ally. the physical conditions of the using a robotic cutter. bends and deformations in
more than 70 years old and As documented in AWWA’s existing water pipe, including According to AWWA’s the host pipe, depending on
have deteriorated to the point Buried No Longer report pipe length, material type, Manual of Water Supply the size of the pipe and
that failures are daily news. ( size, service connections, Practices M28, Rehabilitation CIPP method used (invert-
According to the American longer), restoring existing bends, and the nature of the of Water Mains, there are four ed or winch)
Society of Civil Engineers’ water systems as they reach problem or problems structural levels defined for • 50-year lifespan
2017 Infrastructure Report the end of their useful lives involved. Problems with an lining techniques. Class I is
Card, which gave US water and expanding them to serve existing pipe may include non-structural systems used Access and Excavation
infrastructure a “D” grade, an growing populations will cost structural or non-structural primarily to protect the inner Needs

36 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Restoring existing water systems as they reach the end

of their useful lives and expanding them to serve growing
populations will cost at least USD 1 trillion during next 25
years. There are nearly 17,000 US public drinking water
systems, including 54,000 community water systems that
serve more than 246 million people. Out of these systems,
approx. 4,000 to 5,000 miles of drinking water mains are
annually replaced. This replacement rate is projected to
be around 16,000 to 20,000 miles by the year 2035.

block connections, and later- is quick, negotiates bends and

als don’t need to be reconnect- deformations, and increases
ed. hydraulic capacity.

Limitations Limitations
Heavy surface preparation Access excavation is
is required, and sometimes a required. CFRP can’t repair
project requires a completely ruptured or severely
dry, clean surface. Tees and deformed pipes, and the sur-
bends might be difficult, and face must be completely pre-
some projects require a pared and smooth. Bypassing
bypass system. SIPP doesn’t is normally unavoidable.
typically use a structural
Unlike sewer systems, size and specification that the usually below operator-entry material unless it’s specially Pipe Bursting
water systems don’t have installation contractor had in size, which means cleaning is formulated. PB is defined as a replace-
access holes, so water main stock. Before and during the limited to removing scale and ment method in which an
renewal using CIPP generally CIPP process, careful moni- corrosion by high-pressure Carbon Fiber Reinforce- existing pipe is broken by brit-
requires excavating two pits toring is necessary to keep the water jetting, scraping, and ment Polymer tle fracture, using mechanical-
to provide pipe access. As a chemical and physical proper- other mechanical approaches CFRP involves applying ly applied force from within.
trenchless method, CIPP min- ties at the required tempera- detailed in AWWA guidelines. epoxy over the internal wall of The resulting pipe fragments
imizes surface disruption, but ture and to prevent any In operator-entry sizes, the an existing pipe and covering are forced into the surround-
flow bypass is required during obstruction to the lining cleaning process can be per- it with layers. The product is ing ground while a new pipe of
the installation and curing process. Water service during formed by abrasive blasting, thin and strong. the same or larger diameter is
processes. the installation process must shot blasting, high-pressure
be maintained through a tem- water cleaning, or hand grind-
Advantages porary water bypass, but this ing.
Besides the need for open- is true for any water renewal For water mains, a broad
cut access points, minimum method. However, CIPP’s cost range of materials and prod-
excavation is favorable for for large-diameter (36 in. or ucts is available on the market
CIPP; small-diameter service larger) projects may not be from which to choose.
connections are reinstated competitive with other Polymers have been proven to
from inside the pipe without trenchless methods. be good corrosion protection
any excavation. Although a materials, and, because they
CIPP liner’s inside diameter is Spray-In-Place Pipe don’t need solvents, the cur-
slightly less than the host SIPP basically entails ing process doesn’t emit VOCs
pipe, it will increase hydraulic spraying (via a handheld or to the environment. The
capacity because of the liner’s spin-spray device) a new cementitious material is also a
smooth interior surface. material over the inside wall common SIPP option for
Volatile organic compound of the existing pipe to mitigate water mains, providing good
(VOC)-free resins are used for further degradation and flow- corrosion protection and a
potable water (no styrene). decreasing problems such as smoother surface, but such drawn in, replacing the old
Reconnections at the pits can tuberculation, scale buildup, material might plug valves or Characteristics pipe.
be accomplished with com- and corrosion. Depending on lateral connections and does- CFRP is typically used for
mon pipes and fittings. the water main material and n’t provide any structural pipes 36 in. and larger. The Characteristics
Although CIPP negotiates process, SIPP may enhance a capacity. approach is good for pipes In general, the new pipe
minor bends and deforma- deteriorated pipe structurally with infiltration and minor material, diameter, and diam-
tions, it can’t renew severely with spanning holes and Advantages structural damage but isn’t eter - thickness ratio of the
deformed pipes. cracks using polymeric lining. SIPP improves flow capac- recommended for severe new pipe will determine the
SIPP material can be cementi- ity and offers good corrosion structural defects such as full length of the entry pit
Limitations tious, polymer, epoxy, protection, with a relatively or partial pipe rupture. CFRP required. The pit’s width
Usually, the CIPP liner isn’t polyurea, polyurethanes, or quick installation that may has a 50-year lifespan. depends on the pipe diameter
a shelf-ready product and polyester. prevent the need for flow and Occupational Safety and
should be ordered and special- bypassing if residents can Advantages Health Administration
ly manufactured for each proj- Characteristics afford not having water for a CFRP is a thinner material (OSHA) confined space or
ect - an exception would be if In water pipelines, except- few hours. Moreover, SIPP compared with other meth- shoring requirements. The
the project called for a typical ing main lines, the diameter is applications typically don’t ods. The installation process use of appropriate pit shoring

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 37


is defined by depth and nection that needs to be rein- using more powerful equip-
ground conditions as stated. ment if needed.
described in OSHA regula- Pipe bursting can be
tions. The required pit length applied to a wide range of Advantages
is determined by the mini- pipe sizes and types in a vari- PB’s ability to upsize a
mum safe bending radius rec- ety of soil and site conditions. Common Trenchless Renewal and pipeline gives it a unique
ommended by the manufac-
The size of pipes being burst
typically ranges from 2 in. to
Replacement Methods in the Water advantage compared with
other trenchless techniques.
Service laterals can be 48 in., although some projects Industry Include: Cured-In-Place For example, a 41 percent
reconnected with specially
designed fittings by various
have used larger diameters
(e.g., 80 in.), and more sizes
Pipe (Figure 1), Spray-In-Place Pipe upsizing doubles a line’s
capacity without considering
methods. The saddles, made will be possible with larger (Figure 2), Pipe Bursting (Figure 3), the effect of the new pipe’s
of a material compatible with equipment in the future. The smoother surface. Also, com-
that of new pipe, are connect- most common PB method is
and Carbon Fiber Reinforcement pared with other trenchless
ed to create a leak-free joint. size-for-size, or upsizing the Polymer (Figure 4). techniques, PB is more cost-
Different types of mechanical diameter of the existing pipe effective in cases in which few
connections and fused sad- up to three sizes (e.g., 8 in. to service connections are to be
dles, such as electro-fusion 12 in.). Large upsizing fied clay, cast iron, plain con- replaced with PB using a stat- reinstated within a replace-
and conventional fusion sad- requires more energy and crete, asbestos, or some plas- ic method. ment section, when the host
dles, are installed according may result in ground move- tics. If it isn’t heavily rein- The bursting length is usu- pipe is structurally deteriorat-
to manufacturer-recom- ment. The larger sizes slow forced, reinforced concrete ally between 300 ft and 400 ft, ed, and when additional
mended procedures. New the replacement operation pipe can be successfully which is a typical distance capacity is needed.
service laterals can be con- and require careful evalua- replaced; it can also be between access holes in sewer
nected to the pipe by com- tion and project planning. replaced if it’s substantially lines. In water lines, it would Limitations
pression-fit service connec- Pipes suitable for PB are deteriorated. Thanks to be the distance between fire Excavation is required to
tions. A small excavation is typically manufactured of recent improvements, ductile hydrants or fittings. Longer reinstate service connections
required at every service con- brittle materials, such as vitri- iron, and steel pipes can be bursts may be achieved by and at every change in direc-

38 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Except for pre-stressed pipe should be large enough in which approach is selected.
concrete pipe and precast for an operator to enter the Overall, CFRP and SIPP have
concrete cylinder pipe, which pipe (36 in. or larger). the thinnest layer and offer a
aren’t economically feasible minimum capacity reduction.
for PB using existing tech- Service Connection CIPP and SIPP require small-
Selecting a trenchless pipeline nologies, all other pipe materi- Reinstatement er equipment and a minimal
replacement or renewal method als are feasible for CIPP, SIPP, Service connection rein- setup area, perhaps making
and CFRP. statement with CIPP liners is these options more suitable
depends on the physical conditions normally accomplished with- for smaller-diameter pipe
of the existing water pipe, including Access Point Excavation out excavation because the projects in residential and
For operator entry large- portion of new liner that cov- congested urban areas with
pipe length, material type, size, diameter sizes (36 in. and ers an existing service con- more adjacent utilities. PB
service connections, bends, and above), all methods require
access pit excavations.
nection can be robotically
removed from inside the pipe
requires a larger setup area,
but the approach is highly rec-
the nature of the problem or However, PB typically after liner insertion and test- ommended when a need to
problems involved. requires larger excavations
because of the continuous
ing. Future service connec-
tions can be installed in a lined
increase service capacity
requires upsizing a pipe’s
nature of the new pipe. In water main with tapping diameter.
tion. Expansive soils could existing pipe. smaller sizes, access pit exca- equipment. As for reinstating water
cause bursting difficulties. A vation might be minimized to Service connection rein- main service connections,
ruptured pipe, previous joint Surface Preparation any appropriate pipe connec- statement in a new pipe SIPP and CFRP are the best
and local repairs, or excessive CFRP and SIPP need more tion or valve, but only CIPP installed with PB requires options, and even CIPP can be
sag at certain points along a surface preparation than the and SIPP devices can pass external excavation to gain suitable. PB usually needs
pipe run may require correc- other two methods. With through smaller spaces. CFRP pipe access. Once the pipe is open-cut excavation or recon-
tive action to fix the pipe sag if CIPP, grouting may be is applied by hand, so that exposed, an opening must be nections, especially in small-
such a point isn’t used as an required if the pipe’s surface is approach requires larger carefully cut and a saddle er-diameter sizes. Because
insertion or pulling pit. If the uneven and sharp. entry and exit pits. installed. With these two the PB method uses a new
host line is significantly out of steps accomplished, new pipe pipe material, PB life cycles
line and grade, the new line Bypass Pumping Diameter Size and fittings are installed to typically are more than those
will also tend to be out of line A water bypass is typically PB is the only trenchless reconnect the existing service of the other methods (up to
and grade, although some cor- required when using these renewal method that can to the new liner. The same double), although some CIPP
rection to localized sags may methods in distribution water increase the diameter of an steps are required when materials claim up to 80-year
be possible. Insertion and main renewal. However, existing pipe, which makes it installing a new service lateral life cycles.
pulling pits are needed for because PB’s process time is more suitable for conditions in to the new liner pipe.
water mains, especially for somewhat longer, it would which a pipe has an inade- Excavated service connec- About the Authors
larger bursts. PB is rarely need more bypass pumping, quate hydraulic capacity tion reinstatement is more Behnam Hashemi is a
used in areas with large con- so costs would increase, espe- and/or future growth is disruptive and might be more Pipeline Engineer with George,
centrations of utilities (e.g., cially with large-diameter expected. Current CIPP tech- expensive, although vacuum Miles & Buhr, Sparks, Md. Mo
gas and fiber optics) buried in sizes. In contrast, SIPP instal- nology for water lines is avail- excavation can reduce some of Najafi is a Professor and
the same vicinity as the water lations, in certain cases and able for pipes up to 60 in. in PB’s disruption and excava- Director of the Center for
main. shorter installation periods, diameter, and PB can be used tion cost. SIPP doesn’t need Underground Infrastructure
may skip bypassing. for pipes up to 48 in. in diame- service reconnection. With Research and Education at the
Comparing the Four Meth- ter. However, diameter sizes of CFRP, the reconnection can University of Texas at
ods Structural Enhancement 8 in. to 18 in. are the most be easily performed by the Arlington.
All four methods can pro- common sizes for both meth- operator inside the pipe. Source: This article original-
Common Characteristics vide full structural renewal, ods. ly appeared in the September
All four methods leave a but SIPP needs to be adjusted For SIPP and CFRP, Weighing the Options 2017 issue of Opflow, the water
smooth surface and increase and enhanced to do so. there’s no limit on how large There are pros and cons industry’s most popular
flow capacity. None need the pipe can be, but because for all four methods, so proj- resource on operations issues
grouting between the new and Existing Pipe Material CFRP is applied by hand, the ect conditions play a large role published by the American
Water Works Association
(AWWA). The award-winning
monthly magazine presents
new and established technolo-
gies and ideas that readers can
apply to water treatment and
distribution as well as waste-
water operations. Opflow is a
benefit for members of
AWWAIndia and a valued
resource for water professionals
around the world. To join
AWWAIndia, visit awwain- To view the original
article, see
There are Pros and Cons for All Four Methods, so the Project Conditions Play a Large Role in Which Approach is Selected. 017.43.0054.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 39


Advancing Management of Urban Water

This article examines how technology and the ever-increasing capabilities of software
solutions are enabling better-performing projects and assets, predicting issues and
proposing solutions, and reducing operating costs for utilities around the world.
By Cyndi Smith

requires thorough and careful man- • Structural change in the manage- water because it represents a negli-
agement. ment and finance of utilities: gible operational cost. Today, howev-
Let’s take a close look at the issues Utilities have felt pressure to change er, with a wide range of hazards
facing water utilities today and on the the way they are managed and threatening the ability to bring
near horizon so that we may under- financed for some time, but most do water to end-users, the focus has
stand how technology solutions can not have the resources to respond. shifted to technologies used in risk-
make a positive difference in the water New financing practices include pri- based planning and emergency pre-
infrastructure lifecycle. vate activity bonds, special subsi- paredness, as well as applications
• Improved water efficiency in dized bonds, infrastructure equity that can reduce total expenditures
response to pressures on water sup- funds, water-focused loans, and across the lifecycle.
ply: Global climate change is taking state revolving funds. These may be • Networks remain at the heart of util-
its toll on the water cycle, making required to work around the lack of ity operations: The biggest potential
water scarcity an ever-greater issue. infrastructure spending by the opportunity in the water market is
The Famine Early Warning System United States government. Other the need to extend safe and conven-
Network forecasts grain shortages countries may have models that ient water services to all. In 2017,
due to drought conditions in South could work for individual utilities. according to the World Health
The Urban Water Lifecycle Africa. In Ethiopia, the severest Organization, 2.1 billion of the
drought since the 1960s may cause The Urban Water Lifecycle world’s 7.4 billion population do not
A WIDE RANGE of issues can disrupt another famine. In the United These trends impact every stage of
the normal functioning of an urban States, rain and snowfall shortages the water lifecycle, especially in devel-
water system, such as storms and have diminished the Colorado River. oping countries receiving their first
other natural disasters, pollution, • Greater emphasis on wastewater modern urban water systems. The
physical damage, cyber incidents, treatment in growing cities: Rapid software can facilitate solutions to
aging and insufficient infrastructure, urban and industrial growth places resulting issues occurring from the
and rapid urban growth. In response, significant pressure on the environ- planning stages through construction
many utilities are looking more closely ment. The United Nations (UN) and operations, using simulation, mod-
at advanced technologies to manage reports that in the coming decades, eling, and analysis to bring conditions Bentley Stormwater Modeling Software Led
their water systems more effectively. 95 percent of the urban expansion and obstacles to light. Not only does to the Design of an Open Channel in the
In this article, we will examine how will take place in the developing this allow urban water organizations to Center of Dholera to Collect, Harvest, and
technology and the ever-increasing world, especially in Asia and plan for potential scenarios before a Allow Stormwater Reuse.
capabilities of software solutions are Africa.2 The UN says that every day shovel hits the ground, but it extends
enabling better-performing projects 2 million tons of human waste are to daily operations, proactively have access to a reliable 24/7
and assets, predicting issues and pro- disposed of in untreated waterways, addressing potential issues before they potable water supply.
posing solutions, and reducing operat- leading to pollution of ground and become problems. The following
ing costs for utilities around the world. surface water resources. examines challenges and software Stormwater Networks
• The need to manage increased vol- solutions for the urban water lifecycle. To have confidence in stormwater
Issues and Challenges Facing the umes of sludge: With more waste- • Uncertainties in private financing: conveyance systems, urban water
Global Water Market water treatment investment comes Private investment has not swung management must simulate and exam-
The global water market - that is to more sludge, without a disposal its interest toward the water, even ine its performance under a range of
say, the sum of both operating and cap- strategy. Methods in place include though many countries are looking conditions. These systems are hard to
ital expenditures by utilities and indus- land use, which may bring up issues to the private sector as a source of model, with flow backups and rever-
trial water users of both water and involving heavy metal content and funding for infrastructure improve- sals, surcharged pipes, and so on.
wastewater - is currently estimated to other risks, especially in developing ments. Stormwater modelling and analysis
be worth USD 714 billion globally. It is countries. Deregulation of sewage • Greater reliance on technology to solutions allow users to model and
expected to grow at an average annual sludge treatment is on the horizon in drive performance: The water examine potential storm events, land
rate of 3.8 percent until 2020.1 This the United Kingdom, which may industry has been hesitant to adopt uses and runoff characteristics, and
massive enterprise takes place on the spur new opportunities for waste- new technologies. Utilities tend to other basin drainage conditions.
local level in every community in the water treatment plants around the value safety over financial gain, and Different automated and manual
world - and every local water utility world. industrial users typically ignore designs can then be evaluated and

40 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


concrete ducts to carry stormwater that used membrane bioreactor ProjectWise, United Utilities already
under roads. The use of Bentley’s (MBR) technology and an integrated expects to reap significant savings and
stormwater modeling and analysis water cycle to reduce potable con- efficiencies on capital delivery proj-
software saved the project USD 45 sumption by 62 percent. The technolo- ects, providing a truly collaborative
million by designing an open channel gy provides the ability to meet the environment to manage all digital data
in the center of the city that would col- water demand of 18,000 residents, in a shared information model.
lect, harvest, and allow reuse of using the same amount of water that
stormwater, repurposing the area for would serve only 6,500 people with Water Distribution Networks
The Integrated Design Approach Used for irrigation and as a public park. traditional methods. To deliver clean, potable water reli-
the Googong Water Recycling Plant Taking advantage of Bentley’s ably to every customer, urban water
Reduced Potable Water Consumption by Water Treatment multi-discipline treatment plant management must understand how
62%. Urban expansion, modernization, design solution, MWH Global used an the water distribution network
and other issues have resulted in the integrated design approach, harness- behaves, how to identify problems, and
compared for these different condi- development of new water and waste- ing resources from Sydney, how to choose the best course of action
tions, ensuring that the final system water treatment facilities and the Melbourne, and Brisbane, Australia, as to address the customers’ and the util-
will perform well no matter what upgrading of existing ones. Water and well as from Pune, India, to simultane- ities’ needs. Aging infrastructure, pop-
Mother Nature throws at it. wastewater treatment plant design is a ously deliver drawings and models ulation shifts, climate change, among
Bentley’s CivilStorm stormwater large-scale, complex engineering effort with managed version control. The other influences can change the way
modeling and analysis application pro- that requires a multi-discipline design team used 3D modeling from concept the system reacts to increased stress-
vides comprehensive system modeling, team and involves collaboration through to detailed design to include es.
with the ability to analyze pressure among different consulting firms, con- earthwork, roads, structures, piping, Bentley’s water distribution appli-
and free surface flow conditions tractors, and owners. Greenfield and and mechanical equipment. cations can help urban water organiza-
through networks of channels and brownfield projects require team col- The 3D model helped minimize risk tions optimize designs, manage leaks,
closed conduits. CivilStorm performs laboration, in a comprehensive model- and construction costs by providing prioritize investments, manage energy
analysis of all aspects of stormwater ing and connected data environment. valuable information to the construc- consumption, maintain assets,
systems: rainfall, runoff, inlet capture Multi-discipline plant design applica- tion firm, such as material take-offs, enhance operational workflows, and
and bypass, gravity and pressure pip- tions are required, as well as modelling and enabled all stakeholders to identi- provide predictive analytics for better
ing, ponds, outlet structures, open of complex structures. For upgraded fy and address operational, mainte- decision making. Using decision-sup-
channels, culverts, and more. Design and retrofitted plants, project teams nance, construction, and design issues port capabilities such as hydraulic
can be effortless since CivilStorm rec- need to reuse legacy P&ID drawings, (such as clashes) at the 3D model modeling and GIS, Bentley’s applica-
ommends the most cost-effective pipe create intelligent P&Ids for managing review stage before beginning con- tions can determine the location and
sizes and invert elevations while meet- tags in the facility, and use reality mod- struction. routing of new transmission mains,
ing design restrictions. It guides you eling with point clouds and photo- Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom, pumping stations, and storage facili-
through the complex pond and outlet graphs to capture existing plant condi- United Utilities turned to Bentley to ties, balancing service priorities
design process and streamlines com- tions. Ultimately, the design process ensure efficient implementation of its against risks and costs. OpenUtilities
plicated culvert hydraulics. Users can should result in intelligent digital engi- asset management programs. It used is a complete water and wastewater
run CivilStorm within familiar plat- neering models that allow information ProjectWise with its BS 1192 compli- GIS that includes intelligent layout
forms like MicroStation or AutoCAD, to be preserved, augmented, and vali- ance to bring all parties into a connect- capabilities that provide real-time
or in its stand-alone interface to mini- dated from preliminary design to con- ed data environment, allowing them to costing so designs can be quickly
mize capital investments and detect struction and through to operations. standardize data naming convention refined. Costing is based on compati-
system bottlenecks, improve capacity, This leads to lower risk, improved and enhance information mobility. ble units from an organization’s Work
and limit stormwater flooding to com- asset performance, and reduced costs. This saved significant time that would Management Systems (WMS).
ply with stormwater regulations. Bentley’s multi-discipline treat- ordinarily be dedicated to data trans- OpenUtilities is fully integrated
CivilStorm played a key role in ment plant design and analysis solu- mission, reduced overall risk, and cre-
stormwater management in Dholera, tion comprises plant design applica- ated a single source of truth accessible AssetWise CONNECT
an ancient port city in India. The tions for just about any portion of the to all team members. ProjectWise Bentley’s AssetWise CONNECT
development of Dholera marks a new project. At the heart of the solution is allowed United Utilities to extract dig- Edition is a comprehensive asset
stage of growth for India that will drive OpenPlant, an intelligent 2D and 3D ital data about its assets from deliv- condition management and analysis
economic growth and generate jobs in plant design environment based on ered projects and import it into corpo- solution incorporating a network
the region. The Delhi Mumbai open ISO 15926 standards and rate systems with minimal effort for model and a robust asset register.
Industrial Corridor Development ProjectWise, enabling collaboration complete data ownership. Owning the This comprehensive asset register
Corporation aims to enhance India’s among distributed multi-discipline data from conception to commission- also encompasses full asset data:
manufacturing base by developing a teams. Bentley’s ContextCapture ing combined with the ability to cus- origin, type, installation date and
920 square-kilometer city that will allows teams to quickly produce even tomize the system to enforce a data cost, history of all incidents, inspec-
employ state-of-the-art green infra- the most challenging 3D models of structure tailored to its business, tions and interventions, current
structure. The first 22.5-square-kilo- existing conditions from photographs United Utilities can more efficiently condition, cost of replacement, and
meter USD 500 million phase is under or point clouds. Highly detailed 3D integrate new assets and soft land its more. AssetWise captures and
construction and planning is under- reality meshes provide precise real- projects – which is estimated to save coordinates all inspection and sur-
way for the next 153 square kilometers world context for design, construction, GBP 40 million on the capital delivery vey data and keeps a historical
at a cost of USD 5 billion. As the pro- and subsequent operations. program. record of all operation and mainte-
gram manager, AECOM employs One example of a project where With its four construction delivery nance activities. This enables the
advanced technologies to accelerate Bentley applications were deployed is project partners adopting a BIM strat- utility to monitor and manage net-
planning and decision making. the Googong water recycling plant in egy, United Utilities is focusing its work asset deterioration and failure
Flat, low-lying terrain in Dholera New South Wales, Australia. The plant efforts on expanding the BIM risk by supporting educated deci-
makes storm networks a particular is a major component of a 6,200-home approach to obtain buy-in from asset sions to prioritize future improve-
challenge, as stormwater management Greenfield residential development. maintenance to further facilitate effi- ments.
requires more than 30-meter wide The plant’s owners wanted a design cient delivery of capital projects. Using

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 41


ronmental impacts. should be embedded in the day-to-day ing maintenance planning and execu-
Sabesp integrated field data from work of operations and maintenance tion, shutdown, inspection, compli-
GIS and SCADA including historical departments. An asset lifecycle infor- ance, and reporting.
operating information, consumptions, mation management (ALIM) system
For the Cantareira Water Supply System in and registration in WaterGEMS to provides a single point of entry to con- Advancing Management of Urban
São Paulo, WaterGEMS was Used to Model diagnose exceeding speeds and defi- solidate inventory, inspections, inter- Water Infrastructure
a System That Would Meet Future Needs cient flow rates on future consumption ventions, and incidents. Utilities can The water infrastructure lifecycle
and Maximize Returns. projections. WaterGEMS identified support many cross-discipline work- begins with the planning and design of
which pipelines to duplicate and when. flows for operations and maintenance, the assets required to operate the
with WaterGEMS, Bentley’s hydraulic With WaterGEMS, they could model obtain reports on the biography of a urban water network. Capital expendi-
modeling application for water distri- necessary changes and develop an single asset, or a category of assets tures (CAPEX) to build new infra-
bution systems with advanced interop- infrastructure investment pipeline for defined by area, installation date or structure may be driven by data, col-
erability, geospatial model building, the Cantareira Water Supply System other definitions, and track the “as- lected, and used in modeling to predict
optimization, and asset management that will maximize returns and meet maintained” state of the network. This and understand the performance of
capabilities like Pipe Renewal Planner. future needs at the right time. In addi- provides insights into why some assets each asset involved in water and
From fire flow and constituent concen- tion, Sabesp was also able to optimize or areas of the network outperform wastewater networks and treatment
tration analyses to energy consump- the operation of the pumps outside others, are costly to run, deteriorate at plants. Operational expenditures
tion and capital cost management, peak hours, saving electricity costs. a faster rate, or exhibit higher risk to (OPEX) should also be data-driven in
WaterGEMS provides an easy-to-use the organization. Thus, ALIM provides order to make informed decisions
environment for engineers to analyze, Wastewater Collection Networks utilities with a compelling decision about the maintenance of urban water
design, and optimize water distribu- Population shifts can change the support platform. infrastructure. Asset performance
tion systems. WaterGEMS runs in its sources and volume of wastewater, software and strategies can be used to
stand-alone platform and within requiring up-to-date analysis and Wastewater Treatment ensure dependable operations in all
ArcGIS, AutoCAD, and MicroStation renewed modelling based on new The water treatment considera- conditions, and reduce the total mone-
and offers full interoperability with parameters. To stay ahead of these tions and solutions discussed above tary expenditures (TOTEX) across
SCADA systems. changes, urban water utilities must also apply to treating wastewater re- capital investment and operations.
The impact of Bentley’s distribution employ the most effective system plan- entering the system. Once again, BIM In each phase of the water lifecycle,
solutions became clear in Manila. To ning techniques available to them. and digital engineering models play an software plays a key role in facilitating
address inefficient pump operation Bentley’s SewerGEMS streamlines important role, one critical for infor- decision making about new and exist-
that led to low pressures during peak the modeling process so that you have mation flow from planning and engi- ing infrastructure, determining the
demands, but caused pipe breaks more time for solving wastewater neering through plant construction viability of legacy systems, and opti-
resulting from high pressure during engineering problems for sanitary and and operations. mizing the construction of new net-
off-peak periods, Manila Water used combined sewer systems, such as The digital engineering model works and treatment plants. BIM,
data logging to develop accurate improving capacity. Beyond just the delivered from the capital project hydraulic modeling, GIS, asset man-
demand patterns for various customer basics of network capacity, phase becomes the backbone of an agement, and reality modeling all
profiles in its WaterGEMS hydraulic SewerGEMS helps analyze every information management strategy. serve as critically important solutions
model. It then used that same model to aspect of a system, finding obvious as Being able to compare the ‘as-operat- in making certain that investment in
define optimal pump operations, bal- well as hidden problems, and deter- ed’ asset with the digital asset held in urban water infrastructure is spent
ancing peak power costs with the mining how to fix them. From rainfall- an information or asset management wisely and effectively and that the sys-
desired pressure conditions. They derived inflow and infiltration to over- system enables operators to make bet- tems will be in place for decades.
reduced power consumption by nearly flow investigations, and from hydrogen ter decisions when planning mainte- As a solutions provider to the urban
5 percent during off-peak hours, and sulphide studies to pumping and ener- nance, in operating assets, and devel- water industry, Bentley brings togeth-
more than 15 percent during peak, gy management, SewerGEMS covers oping both strategic and tactical asset er the capital and operational aspects
resulting in an annual cost savings of every aspect of sanitary and combined management plans. The need to man- of managing urban water infrastruc-
approximately USD 367,000. sewer infrastructure analysis. Like its age and effectively utilize data and ture to realize gains on all sides.
In another example, WaterGEMS counterpart WaterGEMS, information collected during the entire Bentley’s solutions span every step in
was used to model the Cantareira SewerGEMS runs in its stand-alone lifetime of an asset is at the heart of the cycle, linking planners, engineers,
Water Supply System, the largest platform and within ArcGIS, Bentley’s AssetWise. construction staff, operations, and
water production system in São AutoCAD, and MicroStation and offers All aspects of the treatment plant management with the information
Paulo’s metropolitan region, which full interoperability with SCADA sys- assets and conditions are subject to they need to implement the strongest
serves 9 million people. The project tems. varying degrees and rates of change. asset performance strategies.
was undertaken to understand the Wastewater collection and treat- To implement maintenance strategies
current infrastructure’s potential to ment also face a wide variety of uncer- for predictive, preventive, or condi- About the Author
serve predicted population growth, tainties on a daily basis, from climate tion-based activities, wastewater engi- Cyndi Smith is the Senior Industry
identify vulnerabilities, and ensure change to aging infrastructure and the neers need visibility into comprehen- Marketing Director at Bentley Systems.
continued operational safety as well as environmental, health, and economic sive real-time engineering information Bentley is dedicated to providing engi-
minimize costs and model investments risks they represent. at any moment. By integrating with neers, architects, geospatial profession-
needed to ensure ongoing quality of One of the main challenges for Bentley’s AssetWise capabilities for als, constructors, and owner-operators
water services while minimizing envi- water and wastewater service asset lifecycle information manage- with comprehensive software solutions
providers is keeping track of ever- ment and reliability, the up-to-date for advancing infrastructure. Founded in
The global water market, i.e., changing asset conditions. Currently, accurate digital engineering model is 1984, Bentley has more than 3,500 col-
the sum of both operating and many utilities exhaust time and money enhanced with detailed asset informa- leagues in over 50 countries and is on
capital expenditures by utilities trying to connect information from dif- tion. It is then available to engineers, track to surpass an annual revenue run
and industrial water users of ferent silos and software systems. This contractors, and maintenance profes- rate of USD 700 million during 2018.
both water & wastewater - is makes asset management activities sionals to support plant operations Since 2012, Bentley has invested more
worth USD 714 billion globally. and capital investment planning diffi- and maintenance activities such as than USD 1 billion in research, develop-
cult. Instead, asset management responding to emergencies, perform- ment, and acquisitions.

42 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Hydrodiplomacyand Addressing Water Security:

Lessons from 40 Years of Experience
Prof. András Szöllösi-Nagy is one
of the most recognized names in
international water management.
Currently, he is a professor of
Sustainable Water Management at
the National University of Public
Service in Hungary and serves as
Chair of the Intergovernmental
Council of IHP. Over the past 40
years, he has been instrumental in
the shaping both institutions and
approaches to freshwater
By Karen Delfau, IWC for the
Australian Water Partnership

Q. Tell us about the World look at the progress made. exercised on that resource. the UN, a comprehensive set of indicators which lie
Water Assessment Pro- So in 1997, the General Unless you understand that, assessment on how water and between zero and one. And
gramme. Assembly of the United you run the risk that major various sectors of the socioe- that would give the political
Prof. András: The idea of Nations examined the various uncertainty will develop and conomic system are intercon- community and the policy-
having a World Water recommendations arising perhaps water will become an nected. And perhaps we making community some idea
Assessment Programme from the work of the previous important issue. should develop indicators to of where potential problems
began back in 1992 at the five years, and how much Therefore, the UN General measure the degree of this lay and where investment was
United Nations Conference on progress had been made, and Assembly invited the UN interconnectedness: for needed. It might be political
Environment and they came to the conclusion System to come up with a reg- instance, how water and dis- investments in terms of imple-
Development - the Earth that water was, by and large, a ular assessment of the asters are interconnected; menting negotiations, for
Summit at Rio de Janeiro. forgotten commodity. That resource. That was in 1997. how water and public health; instance over the transfer of
That was a milestone time in was the first time the UN Nothing happened for two how water and food security; resources, or financial invest-
environmental affairs. It was General Assembly adopted a years, because nobody had the how water and energy securi- ment to build sustainable
when the first climate agree- resolution, and it said that money. Then, I remember, we ty; how water and climate plans, or whatever was need-
ment was signed, known as action needs to be taken to were down in Beirut in variability are interconnected. ed.
‘Agenda 21’. Lots of new things understand how much water Lebanon, at one of the annual We could measure that link- I argued that no UN
were opening up. The govern- we have, and what sort of meetings of the UN Water age between the two sectors, agency can do this job alone.
ments agreed that in five social pressures and environ- Directors, and I suggested water and other parts of the But nobody else can do it
years’ time they would have a mental pressures are being that perhaps we should do, as socioeconomic system, by a except the UN System bodies

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 43


together. And this was the Forum series, which is still These days we are seeing grown immensely and there agement, where you ask your-
idea of the World Water continuing, run by the World the emergence of digital water are ten million people living in self the question: How can we
Assessment Programme, that Water Council, which is an management, and capacity to Bengaluru now. However, the do things right? Those ques-
it would be a UN System pro- NGO. When the various play- work at different scales. groundwater table has tions are not exactly the same.
gram. All of us, each of us, ers come together at these Formerly our scale of the dropped more than 500 There are considerations
would bring in an element. forums, we can say things that operation was large, plane- meters, and they no longer in water governance that go
UNESCO would bring in would not be heard if said by tary, and we used global circu- have access to it. But in 30 far beyond water availability
Science, FAO would bring in just one person. The next lation models to see how the years, Bengaluru will be a city and forecasting and manage-
Food, UNIDO would bring in World Water Forum is in atmosphere is changing and of 31 million human beings. ment. Some of these consider-
Industrial aspects, the Atomic March 2018 in Brasilia. It is a how the climate is changing That will be a totally new ball- ations include:
Energy Agency would bring in huge gathering - 30,000 peo- and forecast the impacts of game in terms of how people • How to share, particularly
groundwater systems, and so ple. The forum is very effec- those on the hydrological communicate with one anoth- in a trans-boundary con-
on. I proposed a conference, tive in bringing together the cycle. Even ten years ago, the er, and how social security and text, educational issues
but there was still no money stakeholders. Scientists are spatial distance between two water security are implement- • Research issues
so we had to look for a spon- able to connect there to not computational points would ed for that size population. It • Corruption - how do we
sor...and there I was lucky in only the political players but be more like 500 kilometers is going to be a tall order to minimize corruption?
knowing Matsuura San. also to the public that we are than it is these days. Now the provide enough water for the • The rule of law in water
I suggested to Matsuura supposed to serve. points are only 500 meters people. We are moving in that management
that perhaps UNESCO should While I’m very proud of the apart, and that’s because of direction now using digital These kinds of issues were
take the lead because World Water Assessment digital technology. At the water management, integrat- always present, but the water
UNESCO has a timeless man- Programme, there are ups planetary scale, you are con- ed water management, inte- management community by
date, the least defined of all and downs and we are now sidering the huge movements grating social, economic and and large avoided those big
the UN agencies because it’s a revitalizing it with a new ini- of water masses. The other environmental aspects. questions. They require a dif-
long-term thinking institution tiative, ‘Water Futures’, which end is the microscale: for ferent kind of knowledge than,
rather than one aiming for is a part of the major program example, how you operate a Q. Can we have your say, engineering. These are
short-term fixes. I outlined called Future Earth. sewage treatment plant and thoughts about water gov- the big issues that water gov-
the whole assessment pro- Future Earth explores model the water quality of a ernance? ernance focuses on.
gram, and Matsuura, who was where we are heading: What’s pond or a lake, and what sort Prof. András: The ques- The next Water Forum, in
a diplomat by training and a going to happen? Is it really of cultural barriers you have tion which I am always asked Brasilia, will be devoted to
politician, took the initiative. true that if you go at the same to leap to improve the water by politicians or the public is: sharing water. So here is the
In a famous meeting in The pace, in 80 or 90 years’ time quality of small water bodies Is it true that we are running contradiction. On the one
Hague, the Second World our systems will collapse such as those we have around out of water? Well partially, hand, you have a finite
Water Forum, he declared in because of population pres- us day to day. but never fully, because the resource which is exactly the
his opening speech that sure and climate change There’s a huge gap hydrological cycle is a renew- same today as at the begin-
UNESCO was taking the lead impacts? between the two scales, and ing cycle. But if you look at the ning, though the number of
to launch the World Water We have the tools. You may there are 50 shades of grey in past 35 years, the drop in users has triple exponentially
Assessment Programme. have heard of ‘Water Futures’. between, and how do you water availability was indeed grown since the industrial
That evening, I was not popu- It is a program run from jump from one scale to the dramatic globally. Some 35 revolution. Of course, as a net
lar with my UN colleagues! Brisbane with nearly 6000 other? In other words, how do years ago, grosso modo, on result of that, water available
Eventually, the Japanese scientists around the world you integrate the systems of average, there were 15,000 has triple exponentially
Government gave us $10 mil- who are working on building various time and space scales cubic meters of water avail- reduced. How do we resolve
lion to start work, and I was up a global model of the water into one wholeness? With the able per person, per year. that conflict?
able to convince my UN col- circulation. That is a large emerging Internet of Things Today it is down to 5000: not If you look at climate data
leagues that if they didn’t take amount of data to deal with, we now hope that in five to ten because we have overused the and climate change, roughly
part they would become total- from a system that covers the years’ time the bio-geo-chemi- resource, which is also true, 80% of climate change, or
ly irrelevant. whole globe, with observation cal systems, physical systems, but because of the increasing more, will be manifested
We set up this program data every 500 meters. Of social systems, will be all con- number of users, a triple expo- through, with and by water.
and were fortunate to hire course, those observation data nected, and we will see how nentially increasing number Probably at the global scale,
Gordon Young, who had been are not ground observations these interact. of users. How do we meet that the hydrological cycle will
the Secretary-General of the but derived from earth obser- We need this, because if situation? Everybody says, accelerate. If that is the case,
International Association of vation systems: satellites and you look ahead, not far, just 32 ‘Oh yeah, there is the sea, and then the probability of the
Hydrological Sciences remote sensing. years, we expect to have nine we do desalination’. extremes will increase, which
(IAHS), an outstanding scien- Over the last ten years or billion human beings. The cur- Really, a solution for water means that we will have more
tist, to lead the process. so, computational capabilities rent world population will be security requires us to think frequent flooding, and they
Gradually we built up the pro- have improved so much that living in cities – and the major over how we govern water will be larger floods. But in
gram and it resulted in the now we can compute any- issue there will be water. resources. How do we do it? order to keep the first law of
publication of the World thing; and we can observe Recently, Anik Bhaduri, What sort of institutions have thermodynamics, or continu-
Water Development series almost anything with satellite who is the Executive Director to deal with it? Part of the ity (in other words), at work,
every third year. systems and remote observa- of the Sustainable Water answer is integrated water we can expect there also to be
tions. The combination of the Future Programme in management. a negative side to the changes:
Q. How does the World Wa- two, and digitalization, means Australia, and I were in That is why lately the issue namely, more or worse
ter Assessment Pro- the community can identify Bangalore, or Bengaluru as it of water governance has sur- droughts in terms of their spa-
gramme lead to action on- and tell the politicians where is called now, which is one of faced, where you ask yourself tial extent and duration. At
ground? there are ‘hot spots’ existing the capitals of the Indian IT the question: What are the the same time, the amount of
Prof. András: That hap- and developing. This is going industry. Take that as an right things to do? Note the water will be the same. These
pens via the World Water to be a leap forward. example. The population has difference from water man- are not far off processes, these

44 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


are processes which are prob- Now, in conflict manage- very high-level panel consist- can be applied to purify water Slovenian President, Danilo
ably already observed and are ment, you often ask the par- ing of heads of states, to come at a mass scale. Think of a Türk, and it includes a couple
highly likely by the end of this ties to look at the source of up with proposals on the large aquifer such as the of Prime Ministers, a few
century. conflict from different angles, financing of water projects. So Nubian Sandstone Aquifer Environmental Ministers, a
A concern for water gover- so that they begin to see a dif- things are moving on the polit- under the Sahara. It is the French General who was
nance is climate change miti- ferent picture. Joint vision- ical front, which is good news. biggest amount of water that involved in the French Army
gation, and that is the essence building is very important, In principle it is doable. Now we have in the world, but it’s water supply operations and
of the Paris Agreement, to and we now hope to develop we need to forge closer rela- fossilized water, so using it is understands the protection of
keep the global average tem- tools to enable that. These are tions between the various par- effectively mining it. The critical water infrastructure
perature increase to less than organization support tools, ties - the scientists, the deci- more you pump out for people, against terrorism and in war
two degrees centigrade. The mathematical computer mod- sion makers and the practi- the lower the elevation of the situations. That panel has
reason why we need to do that els. We need to know how to tioners - and for them to stop groundwater table. That is completed its work. It pro-
is because if the temperature build those models in a operating in silos. happening in Beijing for duced a 100-page volume
increases beyond two degrees process which helps confi- Some big countries still example. The Chinese are which contains a set of recom-
then perhaps it will set off dence building, so the parties don’t recognize what water transferring Yangtze River mendations: you can find it by
irreversible processes in trust each other. security is. Some of them, water to Beijing, not just for googling ‘A Matter of
terms of the acceleration of Without water sharing, until recently, declared that fun. They have two options: Survival’. The recommenda-
the hydrological cycle. That’s what will be the impact on the security is a military concept, either they take Beijing to the tions are rather strong in rela-
the bad news. environment, ecosystems, the not understanding that water Yangtze River where there is a tion to transboundary cooper-
groundwater tables of down- security is not the same as good flow, or they take the ation, and in terms of having
Q. How can people in the stream countries? Up to now, being able to walk at night Yangtze waters to Beijing, access during military skir-
water sector be more ef- transboundary water issues without being mugged. Water where there are the more peo- mishes and wars. Water can
fective in addressing some have generally meant two par- security is security against the ple. They’ve opted for the lat- be used as a weapon, for
of these global challenges ties fighting one another. vagaries of water: low flow, ter, because Beijing became instance, by building reser-
in the future? What we need to move high flow, bad water quality almost unliveable in terms of voirs or water supply net-
Prof. András: I think we towards is two (or more) par- and all the rest of it. Luckily water availability, and that is a works. The volume looks at
are moving in the right direc- ties cooperating with one the UNESCO international huge issue. some very fundamental ques-
tion in that regard. We have to another. There’s no other way. agricultural program has a . tions that had not really been
increase our knowledge base, Another big challenge is definition that describes what Q. Please tell us briefly looked at by the engineering
not only on the availability of lack of access to water and water security is all about. I about the High-Level Pan- community. It’s quite an inter-
water but also on how people sanitation. It’s not a rosy pic- remember chairing a political els on Water. esting report. Among its
are related to water. ture at all. At the end of the process of the World Water Prof. András: Currently, major recommendations are:
In Europe, what we may Millennium Development Forum in which the world’s there are three separate High Don’t weaponize water; water
refer to as ‘water culture’ has Goals (MDG) period, after 15 water ministers come togeth- Level Panels, although they is a peace builder; consider
gone. If you ask an average years of investing heavily into er and we try to build their communicate. Earlier I men- the role of data; transbound-
European ‘Where does the water supply systems, the for- understanding and consensus tioned the High Level Panel of ary data should be openly
water come from?’, their mer UN Secretary-General, around the big issues that are Heads of States. The accessible, or databases ought
response is: ‘From the tap’. Ban Ki-Moon declared that we ahead, and potential solutions. Presidents of Mauritius and to be opened up.
They take it for granted. But had reached the water supply One issue was the notion of Mexico are leading a panel of The report I mentioned is
that obviously is wrong. goal. Its principal objective water security. What broke some 10 presidents, including dealing with transboundary
The Africans still have an was to halve the number of the ice was when those gov- the President of Hungary. water cooperation, diplomatic
extremely powerful water cul- people living under absolute ernments were confronted This panel is dealing with approaches, strengthening
ture, based more on anthro- poverty, including access to with the UNESCO definition, financing issues - such as by the knowledge base, and data-
pology than natural sciences. water, compared to the begin- and told an intergovernmental setting up a fund, or a global driven decisions with open
They look at water totally dif- ning of this century when 1.4 program with an intergovern- water bank - to help develop- access databases.
ferently, and that is why, for billion people had no access to mental negotiation process ing countries finance their
instance, Africa shows a very water. And in certain parts of had adopted this resolution problems. There’s another Q. Is there anything else
positive attitude to trans- the world, thanks to the poli- High Level Panel on Water you’d like to share with us?
boundary cooperation. cies of China and India, there Q. Is there enough water if and Disasters. South East Prof. András: I would like
In other parts of the world, has been tremendous we use it wisely? Asia is the region most affect- to leave on an optimistic note:
upstream and downstream progress. Prof. András: Yes, we have ed by water disasters, particu- namely, that water should not
countries are at each other’s I’m pretty much hopeful enough water, never mind larly in terms of flooding. The be a source of conflict.
throats over how to share that we will get there. these Doomsday people who Japanese and the Koreans are Instead, it is a potential source
water. Around 4 billion people Essentially, it all depends on say, ‘We’re going to be all very sensitive about it, so they of cooperation, and that’s how
- 40% of humanity - actually the governments. Principally killed because there is no are working on recommenda- negotiation tools in the foreign
live in transboundary basins. the issue which was missing water left’. There is a huge tions for disaster manage- ministries ought to be devel-
Some upstream countries before was political will, and amount of water, with 90% of ment, based on a previous UN oped. There needs to be a new
consider water to be their now it seems that the political it under the ground. But document, the Sendai whole subject called Water
property and they insist upon community recognizes that groundwater resources are Framework, and others. Diplomacy.
absolute sovereignty over they have forgotten about extremely vulnerable and These two panels are still at
resources, and they say to the water and that we must do once they are polluted then we work. The Australian Water
downstream countries: ‘It is something about it. cannot use it because it takes The third panel is called Partnership (AWP) is an
none of your business how I For instance, the millions until the sub-purifica- the Global High Level Panel on Australian Government devel-
use my water resources on my Secretary-General of the UN tion process takes its effect. In Water and Peace. I was on it opment initiative enhancing the
territory’. And that is a source and the President of the contrast to surface waters, as a scientist. It’s a 15-member sustainable management of
of conflict. World Bank have created a there is no technology that panel led by the former water across the Indo-Pacific.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 45


Water Security: Threats and the Way Out

The population growth, at almost 80 million a year since 1992, is one major reason for
heightening water scarcity or worsening water security.
By Shikhar Sharma

ties at the needed pace, the untreated

or partially treated waste is rejected
and discharged into the rivers. This
causes water quality deterioration and
can affect an ecosystem. Higher indus-
trialization and urbanization is causing
environmental pollution which in turn
is causing climate changes.
The anthropogenic climate change
is, today, considered to be a major
predator of the balanced ecosystems.
Emission of large quantities of green-
house gases has resulted in an increase
in temperature globally. Many experts
argue that the rising temperature is a
natural trend. However, the unprece-
dented rate of the rise is recognized by
all. The elevated temperature has been
causing glacial melting, which has
severe effects on the water in rivers as
well as in the sea. The sea levels are
rising world over. Most of the coastal
mangrove forests of the world have
been flooded.

Costs of Not Taking Action

Increased Water scarcity has
forced people to extract groundwater,
Map of River Ganga Basin. The River Originates from Glaciers in Himalayas and Flows through the States of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar lowering the water tables. This is caus-
and West Bengal. It Drains into the Bay of Bengal After Crossing Bangladesh. ing seawater ingression in places like
Bangladesh. Altered water availability
What is Water Security? ing with nature and affecting the 80 million a year since 1992, is one is expected to lead to population dis-
Water Security has for long been ecosystem the minimum. However, major reason for heightening water placement, agricultural and fishing
seen from the perspective of humans most developing and under-developed scarcity or worsening water security. losses, disease outbreaks, and conflicts
only. However, the environmental con- nations still struggle to do so. It is esti- The demand for water for the day- that could become violent and spill
cerns are now taken into consideration mated that by 2025 almost fifty per- to-day needs like drinking, cooking, over state boundaries.
to define this term. Global Water cent of the world population shall be washing, and bathing is increasing. The glacial retreat is expected to
Partnership states that “Water securi- living in the areas facing severe water The escalating food requirements are reduce the flow in perennial rivers and
ty, at any level from the household to shortage, much to cause the food increasing the need for the agricultur- convert them into seasonal. Global
the global, means that every person shortage. al water. Shortage of food supplies in warming is estimated to change the
has access to enough safe water at an The escalating human population South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa rainfall and other seasonal patterns
affordable cost to lead a clean, healthy has led to an elevation in the demand are the examples of food security thereby causing floods in some areas
and productive life while ensuring that for water for human consumption affected due to water scarcity. In order and droughts in others.
natural environment is protected and directly and indirectly. The rapid to suffice the daily needs and to pro- The pollution of river water is not
enhanced”. Due to various reasons like industrialization and urbanization vide a quality life, the number of indus- only killing the organisms lowest in the
rising pollution, population and cli- after the industrial revolution have tries is expected to grow. The industri- food chain but is also causing poison-
mate change, the availability of water also resulted in worsening climate al consumption of water, thus, shall ing in the predators in the top of the
is depleting not only for humans but changes which are apparently other also elevate. The quantity of waste- food chain. Due to lower population,
also for the environment itself. than the natural ones. water generated (domestic and indus- these predators are usually unable to
Many developed nations have man- trial) is also expected to increase. develop immunity against such
aged to bring the water quality of their Factors Affecting Water Security Since most countries are not able to impacts and become susceptible to be
rivers to appropriate levels harmoniz- The population growth, at almost grow the wastewater treatment facili- annihilated from the area. In absence

46 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


and official agencies. The involve- charge in 25 years has caused 50% ty and sustainable development of the
ment of users and affected interest drop in water availability on the sur- Ganga basin and the entire country,
groups is important for a variety of face, and from groundwater table and there is a need for the development of
reasons”. this may, in long-term result in the cre- expertise in the field as highlighted by
ation of new surface features having the National Water Policy, 2012. The
The Scene in India different thermal properties. The international community has been a
India’s Water demand in 2030 is Gangotri glacier is retreating at an pool of expertise for guiding the devel-
estimated at around 1.5 trillion cubic alarming rate of 28 meters a year. opment of various parts of the world.
meters, almost double of present The major causes of the problems The success of GAP was assisted by
Indicator Species are the Best Measure of a value. In 2006, the per capita water confronting the river today have been the support from India’s technological
River’s Health. Depleting Population of Such availability in India was 1730 m3/year, identified as follows: partnership with the UK and
Species like Gangetic Dolphins and Ghariyals which shall dip to 1240 m3/year in • Over-withdrawal of fresh water from Netherlands. The Anglo-Indian proj-
is a Cause of Worry (Image Source, IANS, 2030, making India water scarce, seri- the basin. ects have yielded great results in past.
2015). ous efforts are required to deal with • Discharge of pollutants into terres- Australian Water Partnership with
the situation. trial and aquatic environments. India is another way by which the
of the predators, the organisms lower Majority of India’s water demand is • Reduction in water-holding capaci- progress is being made. Similar initia-
in food chain goes unchecked and may catered by the basin of river Ganga ties and replenishment rates of tives shall pave way for a future
increase in number. Excessive grazing which has a catchment area of water bodies. enlightened with much-needed expert-
by such animals can result in the alter- 1,080,000 km2 across Nepal, India, and • Mutilation of rivers by piecemeal ise that can cater to the need of a
ation of terrains like the desertification Bangladesh. 80% of the area of river engineering operations. growing nation.
when combined with lowering water Ganga basin lies in India. The giant • Changes in geological factors gov- Public participation is by far the
tables. river is 2525 km in length and houses a erning the basin. most important aspect in bringing
It can, thus, be said that increasing population of 370.2 million people with about changes. There is a need to cre-
population and climate change are the a density of 550 people per square kilo- Water Security in River Ganga ate awareness among masses about
barriers in the way of water security meters. The basin covers almost 26% Basin the importance of water, rivers, and
for the mankind. The importance of of the total geographical area of the The issue of Water Security in conservation of the environment.
water security lies in the fact that any country and provides residence to 45% River Ganga basin is of great impor- Further, the modern practices of
compromise with it can have conse- of the population. It boasts a net irri- tance for the Indian people and grow- integrated catchment management,
quences on food, political, social and gated area of 22.41 Mha which is ing economy. Though the majority of that has proved itself in various parts
ecological security! approximately 43% of the net irrigated the river basin lies within the bound- of the world, maybe a way forward for
area of the entire country. 63% of its aries of India, the Ganga’s waters are India.
How Can it be Achieved? irrigated area is fed by the groundwa- shared by India with Nepal, Bhutan, History has been a witness of polit-
Strong and strict steps are ter. and Bangladesh. As a result, analysis ical will proving to be a driver of
required to ensure growth in harmony The river provides 525 km3/yr of and management of basin become a change. The augmenting political sce-
with nature and to restore freshwater water to India. While 17.52% of the tricky task as the availability of data is nario in India promises to continue the
resources to avoid the life-giving water total hydropower potential of this very limited. This also puts a restric- ascendant journey of the national
transforming into a vector of diseases basin has already been harnessed, tion on public participation. Easier economy while preserving the tradi-
for man and his environment, both bio- another 12.77% shall soon be tapped as access to the water-related data for the tion of fostering the nature.
logical and social. part of future plans. rivers shall lead to better and detailed
Ensuring water security in every The river holds a spiritual and reli- analysis, attracting more public partic-
part of the world needs to be the pri- gious significance for the nation. ipation. This shall also give a sense of
mary target of the governments world Ganga has been symbolic of purity and ownership of the river to the public
over. A model of sustainable growth is peace and is respected as a mother by which will attract a responsibility to
required wherein all the economies most Indians. The divine mother is keep the river and the environment
shall go hand in hand. A keen focus on believed to absorb all the sins and clean.
following points should pave the path. cleanse its children of the negativity. The water has been a reason for
• Population Control: The first target The river has lived up to the belief for tensions between nations. There are
is to adopt sufficient measures to ages, but the negativity of pollution has examples where neighboring nations
retard the rate at which the seemingly started to take a toll on it have been able to better manage the
mankind is growing world over. now. The man’s exploitation of nature river basins ensuring collateral devel-
• Use of Alternate Sources of has affected the messenger of purity. opment by helping each other in man-
Freshwater: As population and Recognizing its importance to the peo- aging the river basins by adopting the
water demand have grown, man- ple and the role it plays in the economy practices of Integrated Catchment
made infrastructure became neces- and goodwill of the country and its Management. European Union is a
sary to supplement natural assets in people, the river was declared the good example. Evidently, better shar-
order to maintain water security. National River by the Government of ing of data between India and About the Author
• Integrated approach for total envi- India in 2008. Bangladesh has successfully eased the Shikhar Sharma is Head (Plant &
ronmental management is essential. The major cities on the banks are political tensions in last few decades, Environmental) at CLEANFLO® India
Proper management practices inte- Hrishikesh, Haridwar, Kanpur, this also gives both the nations the joy Private Limited. He has an experience of
grating land, water, and ecosystem Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna and of joint ownership of the river. over seven years in implementation of lat-
as a whole, giving due regard to sus- Kolkata. These cities are the tourist or Integrated catchment management est water treatment and recycling tech-
tainable growth, should be adopted. industrial centers and have been grow- shall help all the stakeholders to grow nologies.
• Policies and Regulations Need ing at a rather fast pace. The increas- sustainably in the future. CLEANFLO® (formerly known as
Revision: “new water policies must ing population pressure has lead to Deioners Specialty Chemicals Pvt. Ltd.)
reflect the fact that no policy can be overexploitation of the entire river sys- Towards ‘Water-Secure’ Future works in the field of water management
implemented solely by professionals tem. The reduction in Gangetic dis- In order to ensure the water securi- since 1979.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 47


Policyand TechnologyChallenges in Managing

Water Supplyand Consumption in India
By Amrita Chowdhury

Comparing rivers, it estimates up as a case in point, but simi- of a nation. reports suggest that mere 7-
that less than 5 percent of the lar scenarios exist in high den- 8% for domestic consumption,
water of the Brahmaputra is sity, high rise, high-end Defining India’s Water and the rest for the industry,
usable, due to topographical enclaves around the country, Consumption Challenges energy, and other uses. It proj-
challenges. In contrast, a sig- and even semi-urban areas in India’s water predicament ects that the usage of water by
nificant fraction of the waters water-deficient states. Large- is further influenced by its agriculture will decline mar-
of the Ganga, and a large frac- scale deforestation has led to unique consumption patterns, ginally by 2050, with most of
tion of the waters of Godavari, the reduction in moisture in leakage and loss patterns, this being used for energy
Krishna, Indus, Narmada, and the air and an increase in wasteful consumption behav- generation.
Cauvery are usable. ambient temperature, further iors and regulatory policies The predicted usage of
increasing ambient water that do not reflect the critical- water is set to increase across
Groundwater: An analysis loss. Air quality pollution can ity of the challenge. India has every sector, with a dispropor-
paper published in the Journal influence the pattern of trade traditionally focused on tionate increase in industrial
of Earth Science System in winds and monsoonal rains. increasing water supply. and domestic usage as urban-
2008 posited that groundwa- Government subsidies and However, Indian utilities lose ization happens and popula-
ter availability was even lower incentives have encouraged roughly 40-60% of their water tion and affordability
than estimated by policymak- farmers to shift to water- compared with 3.7% loss in increase. While the per capita
ers. Research conducted sub- intensive crops in water- Tokyo and 7% loss in Phnom consumption of water in the
Defining India’s Water sequently by Indian Institute deficit states, severely affect- Penh. Estimates from the United States is projected to
Availability Challenges of Science (IISc) and Indian ing the availability of water. Third World Center for Water decrease by 2050, the per
India has one of the lowest Space Research Organization This includes practices such Management indicate that capita consumption of water
per capita availability of water (ISRO) verified this position as growing rice in Punjab or less than 10% of wastewater in India is set to increase sub-
in the world, and that avail- and further found that loss of sugarcane in Maharashtra. generated in India is treated stantially. India already con-
ability is set to decrease fur- water through evapotranspi- Water sharing agreements and recycled. sumes a lot more water than
ther as its population increas- ration equaled or exceeded its have been put in place globally the USA and China, and our
es. A report from the Water replenishment through annual to manage water flows across Consumption Patterns: per capita consumption of
Resources Information rainfall in northern states and geographies and national India’s water consumption water is slightly lower than
System of India (WRIS) sug- the Indo-Gangetic plains. A boundaries. India shares its patterns are uniquely differ- China currently. As India
gests that India has 2.4% of McKinsey report published in water from rivers that origi- ent from developed markets. becomes the most populous
the global land area, 4% of the 2009 suggested that India will nate in neighboring states. Agriculture accounts for high- country in the world, its
global water resources, only be able to meet half of its But this situation is affected est water usage, largely requirements for water will
shared between 17% of the water requirements by 2050. by geopolitical sensitivity and because most farmers still use increase further.
world population. questions around water flow flow irrigation rather than
Rainfall: India relies heavily and quality data. advanced, water efficient Infrastructure and
River Water: Despite its wet on monsoons to replenish its Furthermore, improper practices such as drip irriga- Distribution: Indian utilities
and warm climate and exten- aquifers and water bodies. disposal of sewage, industrial tion. Lack of regulatory incen- spend on water infrastructure
sive river system, ground level While there is great media waste, and chemicals runoff tives for agricultural water has lagged. There is incom-
water retention is low across focus on monsoonal rains, from farms has contaminated conservation leads to greater plete coverage. Only 49% of
the country. The WRIS report which influence short-term India’s water systems and inefficiencies and water Indian household have access
further suggests that despite cropping patterns and effi- rivers and reduced access to wastage. Europe consumes to the formal water distribu-
4000 km³ of average annual ciencies, there are several clean water for domestic, 33% of water for agriculture, tion network and piped water
rainfall and snowfall in India, other factors influencing long- drinking and industrial usage. 54% for industry and 13% for supply. Poor infrastructure,
the country has a deficit of term availability of ground Lower availability of water domestic usage. Central older technologies, and aging
usable water. Much of the and surface water, even when has a further downstream Water Commission reports systems have led to ineffective
rainwater evaporates or flows rainfall is adequate. effect on quality of life indica- suggest that over 85% of management of water.
into rivers, and a large frac- tors such as hygiene, sanita- water in India is used for agri- Non-revenue water rate,
tion of river water is unusable Factors Impacting Water tion, and prevalence of water- culture. Clearly, just increas- due to theft or loss, stands at
due to inaccessibility. Central Availability borne diseases. In fact, the ing supply is not the answer. 41% in India compared with
Water Commission data from Rapid urbanization and water project suggests that Shifting consumption pat- 21% in China. It is significantly
2000 suggests that only a poor regulatory norms have creating access to safe and terns and reducing inefficient higher than the global aver-
third of the water potential of led to excessive pumping of clean water leads to improve- use of water will be key. age. This has led to the prolif-
the river system is usable. groundwater. Gurgaon is held ments in economic outcomes Central Water Commission eration of informal water net-

48 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


works and costlier water sup- new canals can also have allocated for the Namami enable measurements driven ing them to use grey water
ply options. Asian unanticipated ecological Gange project, however behavior change to prevent sources and reduce leakage.
Development Bank’s 2004 effects, easier solutions such detailed project and impact wasteful usage. Surat Municipal Corporation
report estimated that Delhi as rainwater harvesting at the reports are needed to under- Even without the regulato- recently deployed smart
had 53% non-revenue water, city level can improve sup- stand the progress. ry change of allowing water to metering solutions in com-
whereas Dhaka at 40% and plies. However, given that rough- be chargeable at individual mercial establishments, along
Hong Kong at 25% showed The demand for water is ly 40% of available domestic household level in buildings with other water distribution
better water security. In con- fast outpacing supply and the water is lost due to illegal con- and housing societies, AMI and management strategies,
trast, Delhi had 32% metered situation will only worsen. nections and another 40% lost technology can offer trans- to reduce consumption.
connections and 19.9 staff per Hence India needs to focus due to leakages and wastage, parency and visibility. Thirdly, policy directives
1000 connections, compared more on managing demand to huge changes can be made by However, in longer run, water should influence municipal
with 50% metered connec- reduce water shortage. simply focusing on metering. regulation and taxing policies decision makers to better
tions and 11.6 staff per 1000 • Given that agriculture con- Ensuring complete coverage will need to be revisited. deploy the funds available
meters in Dhaka and 100% sumes over 80% of available of metered connections, espe- While India has seen a under AMRUT, for greater
metered connections and 2.3 water supply, the govern- cially smart meters that give handful of pilots of Automated metering of cities.
staff per 1000 connections in ment should create incen- granular information on con- Meter Reading (AMR) tech- Consumption tariffs were
Hong Kong. tives for efficient watering sumption and losses, is an eas- nologies, it does not offer the introduced in electricity a
Clearly, lack of metering mechanisms and mandate ier change. deeper benefits of real-time while back. However, water is
and manual infrastructure consumption monitoring. Sensor-enabled smart data and thus dynamic opti- charged at the building level
leads to poor water outcomes. • While agricultural subsidy metering infrastructure can mization that will be required based on the size of homes or
In contrast, in 2004, Chengdu management may be a con- enable cities and utility serv- over the coming years. The flats, rather than actual con-
in China was making one of tentious and political issue, ice providers to monitor and country needs to leapfrog into sumption. Again, this does not
the highest capital invest- key investments can signifi- manage water supplies at the the next generation of AMI create incentives for citizens
ments in water and showed cantly improve infrastruc- distribution level, as well as technology. Under the Smart and homeowners to regulate
18% non-revenue water, 98.5% ture, availability, efficiency monitor and manage water Cities Mission and additional consumption and wastage. In
metered connections, and and revenue generation in consumption at the building funding available through the contrast, many parts of many
employed a large force to urban water distribution. level. Changes in regulation AMRUT program, cities will cities do not get 24/7 water
manage distribution and col- • Investments and incentives will be needed to create incen- be able to access funds for the and require tank water substi-
lections with 33.8 staff per to build wastewater and tives for measuring water con- much-needed water infra- tution to meet their needs.
1000 connections. sewage treatment infra- sumption at the household structure improvements.
In recent times, City structure and increase level. The end to end, source Conclusion
Reports published by Ujjain adoption. to user solution encompasses Using Policy to Direct Wa- Water availability is fast
Municipal Corporation, for • Regulatory changes to cre- pipes infrastructure, smart ter Consumption becoming the most critical
example, estimates that 25% ate consumption linked tar- meters, communications plat- The real challenge in water challenge of our times. It
of its water supply gets lost iff structure for domestic forms, data aggregation and is the lack of regulation and affects farmers, businesses,
during distribution and trans- and commercial establish- visualization platforms. the ability to monitor misuse, and citizens - and the acute
mission stages. Physical loss- ments in conjunction with Aggregating and visualizing wastage, or illegal consump- shortage is being felt by every
es due to leakage and illegal smart metering initiatives data across households, build- tion. Both create inappropri- citizen from every walk of life.
connections account for most to encourage judicious use ings, wards, or cities will allow ate behaviors that further India needs to focus attention
of these losses. A smaller frac- of water and monitor for administrators to identify pat- exacerbate an already critical on both supply-side measures
tion is lost due to unbilled con- losses and theft. terns, monitor consumption, problem. Regulatory changes and demand-side measures. It
sumption or other reasons. and track losses. are needed on many fronts to may need to create the intent,
Using Technology Enabled Using Automated address this. Demand for commitment and processes to
Critical Imperatives to Smart Metering Solution Metering Infrastructure water is expected to rise in the enable early wins - such as
Solve India’s Water Short- In Systems Thinking (AMI) solutions, water service coming decades, and supply mandatory water harvesting,
age approach, monitoring and providers and utilities can will remain constrained. wastewater recycling, and
India requires a compre- minimizing water consump- measure real-time consump- Hence, it is critical to manage automated metering infra-
hensive water management tion at the household or com- tion data on daily basis. This the demand-side parameters structure solutions - to create
approach, from better man- mercial establishment level data offers providers visibility to create incentives for con- a platform on which larger
agement of watersheds and may be a small fraction of the into usage patterns by ward, servation and charge based on reforms and high budget, high
rainwater harvesting to overall water requirements locality, building or consumer actual consumption. impact initiatives can be built.
improve supply side to water for the country, however, it type and help them under- Firstly, farm water regula- It needs to consider a partner-
monitoring, wastewater recy- can have a disproportionate stand consumption patterns tion and tariffs can influence ship approach - between cities
cling and usage led behavior impact on the availability of by day, time, month or season. behavior on conservation and and water service providers,
change on the supply side. water in urban areas. Providers could integrate need-based usage. Easy tech- between water service
There are key imperatives for Recent government initia- automated billing and pay- nologies like remote switching providers and real estate
the government at the central, tives are encouraging ments systems, offer online off or timer based switching developers, and between cities
state and city levels as well as researchers and practitioners records, and improve the effi- off of irrigation pumps or drip and citizens - to ensure the
for each category of users. to use Artificial Intelligence, ciency and cost of their opera- irrigation methods can reduce success of this effort.
While programs such the satellite and groundwater tions. Furthermore, this data water wastage. But lack of About the Author
ambitious US$ 150 Billion data imagery to map a more can be used to manage and regulation or tariffs create Amrita Chowdhury is the
Interlinking of Rivers (ILR) by accurate picture of India’s optimize distribution, meas- disincentives for deploying Director of Gaia, a smart feed-
the National Water water availability or map the ure consumption, create such technologies. back and automation firm
Development Agency pollution and contamination usage-based tariff structures Secondly, commercial focused on Human-to-Machine
(NWDA) to interconnect 30 levels in rivers and lakes. at the building or house level, usage of water can be regulat- and Machine-to-Machine data
rivers through 15,000 km of Massive investments were identify leaks or losses, and ed and monitored, encourag- acquisition and analytics.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 49


European Swimming Pool Water Treatment

Systems Market
By Frost & Sullivan

water treatment maintenance Dryden Daisy®. Maytronics has pioneered the developed and launched Blue.
can lead to serious health The activated filter media development of Robotic pool Blue is a multi-sensor (4 in 1)
implications. Most European is made from recycled cleaners since 1983 and it is equipment. It can sense and
countries have regulatory crushed green and brown one of the global market lead- communicate pH, tempera-
standards for swimming pool glass. It undergoes a 3 step ers for robotic pool cleaners. ture, salinity and redox/ORP
water treatment, which speci- activation process that pro- The pool cleaners are eco- to a smartphone APP which
fies the level of residual chlo- vides a highly catalytic sur- friendly, plug & play model. helps the customer monitor
rine to be used for disinfec- face area. As a result, the sur- All Maytronics pool cleaners the pool water quality 24/7.
tion, the number of recircula- face area is more than 300 operate independently, it has a Blue helps in optimizing the
tion cycles based on the pool times greater than sand superior filtration, and its chemical dosage and it also
usage, and other chemical media which helps in doubling innovative brushes are com- helps the customer by provid-
parameters. Currently, tech- the performance of the filtra- patible on any pool surfaces ing customized solutions if the
nological advances are being tion. The metal oxides, in the which enhances its compati- pool water quality is not opti-
made to reduce the use of green and brown glass pieces, bility and efficiency. It is also mal. Additionally, it helps to
chemicals and their by-prod- helps in producing a negative equipped with intelligent prevent corrosion and any
ucts. charge that attracts the heavy scanning to asses and effi- other chemical damages due
THE EUROPEAN SWIM- The efficiency of the filtra- metals and organic particles ciently cleans the entire pool. to overdosing.
MING pool water treatment tion directly affects the chem- thus making the AFM self- Other products such as Other treatment technolo-
has achieved tremendous ical consumption. Disinfection sterilizing and thus prevents robotic pool cleaner for natu- gies like Salt chlorinator for
growth during the recent by-products have proven to be biofouling. ral pools and cordless battery disinfection and energy-effi-
years due to increased aware- detrimental to human health. AFM has also been inde- powered pool cleaners are cient variable speed filtration
ness of pool water quality. Lack of efficiency and biofoul- pendently tested by IFTS unique to Maytronics. pumps are increasingly being
Various technological ing has constantly plagued the Institut de la Filtration et des adopted by end-users.
advances in the pool water sand filter media which in Techniques Séparatives in Smart Pool
treatment have gradually turn increases chemical con- France which is the leading Fluidra has recently European Market Size
transformed the industry but sumption and subsequently swimming pool water treat- launched Fluidra Connect France is the largest mar-
media based filtration and escalates the overall operation ment market in Europe. which is smart control sys- ket for pool water treatment
chlorine-based disinfection cost. AFM’s performance was test- tems through which a cus- systems in Europe with a mar-
continue to dominate the pool Smart and Sustainable ed against quartz sand filter tomer can control the entire ket share of almost 25% it is
water treatment market due solutions are in high demand and other glass-based media pool through a smartphone followed by Spain and
to its cost-effectiveness. by the customer as it helps to filters. The test results fur- application (app). The control Germany.
The two main components reduce energy and chemical ther highlighted AFM media’s system is compatible with The growth of pool water
of a swimming pool water consumption and also superior performance than more than 100 pool products treatment among residential
treatment cycle are filtration improve water conservation quartz sand filter and any (including pool water treat- and commercial end users in
and disinfection, which lead to which in turn is cost effective other glass-based media. ment product). The APP countries like France, Spain,
a key challenge of high opera- and reduces labor. allows for remote monitoring Czech Republic and Italy are
tion and maintenance needs. Robotic Pool Cleaners and control of the entire mainly due to their strong
Pool water must be filtered Key Disruptive Technolo- Robotic pool cleaners have swimming pool through the tourism potential and tight-
and disinfected before use and gies & Solutions disrupted the swimming pool APP interface. The APP can ened pool water quality regu-
recirculated for treatment water treatment. The robotic also help in seamlessly con- lations and standards.
based on usage. Apart from Glass Based Filter Media pool cleaners clean the sur- nect to a support center who Frost & Sullivan estimated
cleaning swimming pool Dryden Aqua pioneered face floors, walls and water can remotely troubleshoot the that the European Swimming
water, special efforts should the development and launch lines of the swimming pools. pool water treatment opera- Pool Water Treatment market
be taken to prevent bio-film of AFM® (Activated Filter This helps in the removal of tion. Fluidra connect is revolu- was USD 1.24 billion in 2016
growth or algae from collect- Media) which is a direct debris or any other solids set- tionizing the pool water treat- and it is expected to reach
ing on the pool’s floor or walls. replacement of sand media fil- tled at the bottom. It also ment industry by optimizing USD 1.7 billion in 2023 at a
Maintaining the correct pool tration. It doubles the per- helps in removing the algal the pool water treatment and CAGR of 5.7%.
water chemistry is also criti- formance and reduces chemi- growth or biofilm growth. The providing immense value in
cal. The water should have a cal consumption. Based on use of robotic pool cleaners the form of sustainability and Paul Hudson is a Senior
neutral pH, and residual chlo- AFM® media Dryden Aqua improves the efficiency of the quality service to the cus- Research Analyst at Frost &
rine levels should be main- has developed and launched filtration unit and helps in tomer. Sullivan.
tained for continuous disinfec- an integrated pool water reduction of the chemicals Fluidra has recently
tion. Improper swimming pool treatment system called used for disinfection. acquired Riiot Labs which has @FrostSullivanEE

50 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Water Quality Solutions: Some Experiences from

the Ground
themselves to sort their own lishing well-equipped labora- most likely to be impacted in
problems. The government’s tories with well-trained staff. case of the degradation of the
approach of one-size-fits-all, Capacity Building of water supply system. This
where engineers in no way get Communities: The role of pan- calls for a joint implementa-
involved with the community, chayats is critical. tion by panchayats and com-
results in a pre-mature death Increasingly, stress is being munities. With the coming of
due to the lack of proper laid on community-based decentralized funds to villages
Operation and Maintenance approaches in dealing with via the 14th Finance
(O&M) compounded with water-related problems. A Commission, increased fund-
heavy recurring cost. This is prerequisite for increasing the ing is now available to look at
exactly what has happened in community participation is these eventualities.
the village in Gaya in Bihar the training of people from the Also, the benefit of institu-
that I wrote about a few communities so that they are tionalizing community partici-
months back - An expensive able to make well-informed pation is that it propels the
engineering driven solution decisions. search for alternate water
without any thoughts on Making the Service sources, water harvesting
O&M. Provider Accountable: Article options, and simple, low-cost
It’s not that those options 21 of the Constitution of India treatment technologies.
are not viable or shouldn’t be relates to the Protection of Similarly, the revival of tradi-
tried. But in a context where Life and Personal Liberty and tional water conservation
DUNGURIPADA, A SMALL tributed INR 11,150 to meet the state is often found want- the right to pollution-free structures like tanks, lakes,
village in Saipala Gram the cost for sand, cement, ing in terms of its reach and water is guaranteed under ponds that have been in use in
Panchayat of Nuapada district transportation and the mason. willingness to invest in those this provision. The user has India since ages could provide
in Odisha, had only one tube- Even fluorosis affected people who are on the margins, it is the right to know whether the another viable option. These
well fitted with a handpump to contributed in some form or imperative that solutions are water, being provided at served as sources of water for
get water for drinking and the other. found near to the people. And source, is free from any con- people by capturing rainfall
other domestic purposes. The The reasons behind the as they say, till the cows come tamination as claimed by the and surface runoff. However,
community was under the popularity of the sanitary well home! authorities. Financial expen- in the past few decades, one
impression that tubewell as a safe water source were, However, the government diture on water supply has seen many of these struc-
water is safe for consumption. firstly it was easy to install, does need to play a critical schemes and testing water tures becoming dysfunctional.
In 2013, WaterAid India along operate and maintain. role in several areas. Here is a quality should be known to the However, awareness, sur-
with their local partners Additionally, it was cost-effec- select list to ponder over from public. A clear chain of com- veillance, monitoring and test-
Regional Centre for tive and could be done at the a report WaterAid published mand and accountability ing, mitigation measures,
Development Cooperation community level. Since then, a on water quality issues some needs to be established in all availability of alternate water
(RCDC) intervened in the dis- number of villages in the dis- years ago. these instances. Bihar’s sources and adoption of
trict and conducted a ground trict have already adopted the The government can take a recently enacted Public hygienic practices continue to
assessment. The assessment sanitary well concept to get cue from its own massive Grievance Redressal Act (a remain roadblocks. There is a
found that the tubewell con- safe drinking water. Kadameri awareness drive being con- national version of it was need to promote sanitary
tained fluoride of 5 parts per is another village in Nuapada ducted in the Swachh Bharat drafted some years ago and inspection along with commu-
million, which is way beyond that has constructed 16 sani- Mission. If people’s lives are at lays buried now) can be a good nity-based water quality mon-
the permissible limit. tary wells so far. The model stake, it certainly needs to start for any such redressal. itoring and surveillance at the
With some guidance, the has been well appreciated by drive a much more urgent and On the other hand, the lack grass root level as a mecha-
villagers learned that a sani- the Government and Rural a massive campaign around of maintenance of rural water nism to identify problems and
tary well (dugwell fitted with Water Supply and Sanitation the perils of contaminated supplies and infrastructure is take corrective measures.
handpump with due assess- department has so far con- water. an area of concern. This may None of these solutions is
ment and protection meas- structed 45 sanitary wells Testing and Remedial be due to lack of funding novel or untested. The ques-
ures from the sanitary point of across the district to combat Action: There is an urgent capacity, apathy or unwilling- tion is that of the political will
view to avoid physical and the issue of fluoride. need to enhance the monitor- ness on the part of the com- of the people. If they can be
bacteriological contamina- The key lessons learned ing network by establishing munities to handle operation mobilized, governments will
tion) can be a safe source of from Dunguripada communi- monitoring stations across all and maintenance. This calls be forced to respond.
water. However, it was not an ty is that once an ideal solu- regions and seasonal assess- for a change in the shift
easy task to implement. Each tion to a community’s problem ments of all water sources. In among the users that the onus Avinash Kumar is Director
household contributed man- has been identified, it makes case of contamination detect- of maintaining a water source - Programme, and Policy at
power to dig the 18 feet deep sense to work on their capaci- ed, an action plan for dealing rests with the people and the WaterAid India.
well, break boulders and con- ty development as well as with sources should be provid- communities as they are the
struct the wall. They also con- encourage them to rely on ed. The challenge lies in estab- owners of the system and are @Avinashkoomar

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 51


Leading Water Utilities Reducing Water-Energy

Nexus Pressures
By Robert C. Brears

power delivery solutions that Athens area for treatment, around $200,000 in annual supply agreement).
can be brought online quickly. there are existing energy-dis- royalties from the sale of the Commercial, private, and pub-
In total, the 14 hydro-electric sipation works (small water- biogas, reducing the costs of lic customers who sign up
power stations can generate falls along the aqueduct). SAWS operations and keeping with the innovative heat sys-
up to 69,5000-megawatt EYDAP is in process of con- rates affordable, while envi- tem do not pay any up-front
hours of electricity per year. verting these energy dissipa- ronmentally the harnessing of investment costs. Instead, the
By operating these power tion works into energy pro- biogas instead of flaring customer signs up to a long-
stations, Melbourne Water duction plants, therefore tak- reduces 19,739 tonnes of car- term heat supply agreement
prevents over 75,800 tons of ing advantage of the aque- bon dioxide each year. with all the design, installa-
carbon dioxide emissions each ducts’ hydropower potential. Scottish Water Horizons - tion, and supply of equipment
year, which is equivalent to These energy production a commercial subsidiary of costs.
the emissions of over 14,000 plants consist of temporarily Scottish Water - has teamed In a joint project between
households or taking more redirected water flowing up with SHARC Energy Hamburg Wasser and
than 29,000 cars off the road. through a turbine that con- Systems to establish a joint Eisenbahnbauverein Harburg
Meanwhile, at Melbourne verts the hydraulic energy venture to expand and accel- (EBV), around 220 housing
Water’s Western Treatment potential into electricity by erate the deployment of units of a residential complex
Plant, which serves 1.6 million use of a generator. The water wastewater heat recovery sys- of the housing cooperative in
people in the central, north- then re-joins the aqueduct at a tems across Scotland. Hastedtstraße were retrofit-
ern, and western suburbs of lower elevation and continues Scottish Water Horizons will ted to enable heat from waste-
Melbourne, sewage is consid- its flow to the water treatment provide commercial funding water to warm their water
ered more than a waste prod- plant. for the projects while SHARC and night storage heaters. In
uct, with the utility generating To date, EYDAP has con- Energy Systems will provide this, residual heat from waste-
electricity by combusting bio- structed six small hydropower the design, build, and opera- water is captured and an
gas that is captured under plants along its aqueducts tional expertise for the green exchanger transfers it to the
covers that are placed over located in Kirfi (760 kW), energy installations. heating center of the residen-
WATER IS REQUIRED to the sewage treatment lagoons. Elikona (650 kW), Kartala The Scottish Government tial district. From there, the
produce nearly all forms of The Western Treatment Kihairona (1,200 kW), Mandra is supporting the scheme too heat is transferred to a buffer
energy. At the same time, elec- Plant uses biogas to meet (630 kW), Evinos Dam (820 by providing 50% capital sup- storage ready for use by the
tricity is needed to provide nearly all its electricity needs kW), and Klidi (590 kW). port through its Low Carbon housing units. During peak
drinking water and treat with 71,500-megawatt hours San Antonio Water System Infrastructure Transition times, any additional heat
wastewater. Recognizing ris- of renewable energy generat- (SAWS) is harnessing Programme. required is generated from a
ing water-energy nexus pres- ed each year, which prevents methane gas generated during The SHARC heat recovery modern gas heater.
sures, a range of water utili- 87,000 tons of carbon dioxide the wastewater treatment technology, which took six Meanwhile, in Hamburg’s
ties around the world are being emitted through the process as a renewable energy years of research and develop- Stellingen district, Hamburg
developing innovative solu- burning of fossil fuels. At source. The biogas - which is ment, extracts the natural Wasser makes use of the fact
tions to reduce these pres- times the treatment plant gen- 60% methane - is a by-product warmth found within the that its groundwater has a
sures. erates excess renewable ener- of the anaerobic digestion wastewater network, which constant temperature of
Melbourne Water has gy which is exported to the process from biosolids, with sits at around 21 degrees around 9 degrees Celsius
hydro-electric power stations electricity grid to offset usage SAWS producing around Celsius by a) Using a patented throughout the year by trans-
operating throughout its sup- at the utility’s other sites. 140,000 tons of biosolids per system to separate solids and ferring this natural cold to a
ply network, generating Athens Water Supply and annum. SAWS has partnered liquids within the wastewater cooling system that is con-
renewable energy from the Sewerage Company (EYDAP) with Ameresco, Inc., a nation- stream via a unique clog-proof nected to the neighboring
flow and pressure of moving has launched an ambitious al energy company that focus- mechanical filtration system, Arctic Ocean of the
water, with the electricity program of renewable energy es on renewable energy. b) Directing the filtered Hagenbeck Zoo. This ensures
being fed back into the grid. utilization with the objective Since 2010, Ameresco has wastewater through a heat that the polar bears and pen-
In addition to the nine of contributing to the opti- processed more than 1.5 mil- exchanger to extract the natu- guins stay cool in the summer
existing power stations, five mization of the energy bal- lion standard cubic feet of bio- ral heat, and c) Using a heat .
additional mini-hydro plants ance across the country and gas a day and delivered a min- pump to boost the tempera- Robert Brears is the author
were commissioned in 2016- society and exploring the pos- imum of 900,000 cubic feet of ture even further (to around of Urban Water Security,
2017. The plants were deliv- sibility of expanding to new natural gas each day to the 60 degrees Celsius) before Founder of Mitidaption, and
ered in pre-assembled, self- profitable business. nearby commercial pipeline to transferring the heat for heat- Our Future Water."
contained units and provide Along the aqueduct system sell on the open market. ing of buildings and hot water
simple, weather-resistant that brings raw water into the Economically, SAWS receive systems (done under a heat @Mitidaption

52 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


What Role Can People Play to Effectively Achieve

SDG 6 and Other SDGs?
By Karen Delfau, IWC for the Australian Water Partnership (AWP)

Getting Involved With

Slatyer asks “everybody
who is in a position to do any-
thing that is a step towards
achieving that goal to get on
with it and to talk about it and
mobilize their peers and col-
leagues and exercise the lead-
ership that is needed if we’re
going to achieve this in the
next 13 years.”

What Does This Look Like,

For stakeholders who are
directly involved, it may be
easier to find a role in the
framework of making SDGs a
reality. For those who want to
help but are not already
involved, the task may seem
daunting, but there are sever-
al ways to help.
Consider raising aware-
ness of SDG 6 and other goals
through campaigns and infor-
mation sharing, particularly in
TONY SLATYER EMPHA- ability. for the Australian have to go in the next 13 years, areas where people may not
SIZED during his Kini While SDG 6 has direct Government. how much good can be have heard about these efforts
Interview that each and every links with activities profes- achieved to start to create before. If you have expertise in
one of us has a role to lay in sional undertake in the water Making SDGs Happen conversations and new think- water management or anoth-
achieving SDG 6 by 2030. sector, it is also a goal that Slatyer explains that lead- ing about that.” er applicable field, volunteer
Bringing the SDGs and SDG 6, people of all abilities, profes- ership means inspiring and While not every idea will your time and your skills. Use
in particular, into our every- sions, and interests can con- encouraging others, raising be the best one to accomplish your own behavior as a good
day lives is an admirable but tribute to. public awareness and continu- SDG 6 or other goals, they are example of sustainable water
also achievable objective that “Whatever you do, whatev- ing conversations about all valuable as contributions use, explaining to others why
made me pause and reflect. er you’re doing, whatever your SDGs. and may work to spark other it is important to you in the
This column explores Tony’s profession is, whatever your “Everybody from the most plans and projects that will context of SDGs. Help collect
ideas for how we can all con- skill and mandate is, wherever junior official or young scien- impact the world. data, amass knowledge, and
tribute, as a part of our pro- you are in the whole land- tist to the wizened gurus in “Don’t be afraid to bring encourage participation in any
fessional and personal lives, to scape, you have a leadership the world can all exercise that forward radical new ideas that activities that further the
SDG 6. It is hard to think of a role to play,” counsels Tony leadership,” he says. “You only could contribute to SDGs,” SDGs. Every role counts in
resource more precious, and Slatyer, Special Advisor for have to look at the basic facts, says Slatyer. “Let’s let all the making these goals a reality.
more important, than water. the High-Level Panel on Water statistics around how far we good ideas bloom and bring
Sustainable Development them into whatever governing The Australian Water
Goal 6 (SDG 6) strives to body framework you work Partnership (AWP) is an
ensure availability and sus- Attaining SDG 6 is key to reducing conflict. Water re- with, put up your hand, get Australian Government devel-
tainable management of water sources are finite. These finite resources face pres- involved. These are things opment initiative enhancing the
and sanitation for all, recog- sure and competition that is only increasing, both lo- everybody can do wherever sustainable management of
nizing how important this is cally and globally. they’re working and wherever water across the Indo-Pacific.
for health, economic prosperi- they’re sitting.”
ty, and environmental sustain- @WaterPartnersAU

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 53


Strategic Partnership Announced Between

Thermosift and Memsift Innovations to
Establish Business in South-East Asia
The partnership will allow the companies to conduct a joint pilot project in Singapore. This
joint pilot project will start in August 2018.

and membranes are based on includes a close commercial pilot project in Singapore. The really combines the best of
patented award-winning tech- collaboration between the joint pilot project will start in both worlds and it will help
nologies that provide unique companies, optimizing com- August 2018. our clients with better brine
benefits over traditional brine mercial synergies and making Dr. J Antony Prince, treatment and zero liquid dis-
treatment and zero liquid dis- use of the complementary the Founder of Memsift charge solution. We are very
charge solutions. Thermosift’s geographical presence and Innovations said, ‘Through excited about the opportunity
TS-30™ system uses an inno- client bases in South East this strategic partnership we to work with Thermosift and
vative Joule Thomson Effect Asia region. In addition, the will be able to reach our the important commercial
(JTE) based thermal separa- partnership will allow the clients with a larger and even opportunities it presents to
tion process and a proprietary companies to conduct a joint better product offering. It our companies’.

EXPRESS WATER Exclusive Which industries can specifically get

benefit from TS-30 system, STOMATE
TS-30 Pilot System Mayur Sharma talked to Dr. J Antony membranes, and MEMSIFT's mem-
Prince (Founder, Memsift Innovations) about branes, and why?
T H E R M O S I F T this new announcement. Dr. Prince: Mining, galvanizing, electro-
ENGINEERING AND plating, and semiconductor industries are
Memsift Innovations has What was the basis of this partnership using an excess of inorganic acids and the
entered into a strategic part- (technology and market wise) and how wastewater containing these inorganic acids
nership in which they will did it materialize? are categorized as hazardous waste and there
combine their expertise and Dr. Prince: The basis of this partnership are regulations to transport and incinerate
technologies in order to pro- is to combine the effort to commercialize the these wastes. If we use this novel decentral-
vide a superior solution for technology in a wider market. Both parties ized membrane based ZLD system, it can
brine treatment and zero liq- are focusing on the zero liquid discharge recover the acid from the waste, which can be
uid discharge for their clients mark where Thermosift has a unique product potentially used in the process again. The dis-
in India and South East Asia. TS-30™ (a novel membrane-based ZLD sys- solved metals will be concentrated and recov-
Thermosift Engineering’s tem) and Memsift found there is a huge mar- ered from the wastewater, which can also be
thermal separation process ket opportunity for this technology in the used in the process; this will help the industry
Dr. J Antony Prince SEA region. Hence, Memsift decided to work to be more sustainable.
with Thermosift to expand the market for the
membrane STOMATE™ that TS-30 system. Give us some more background of your
brings down the water treat- planned joint pilot project with Memsift
ment costs significantly. Tell us more about your marketing and in Singapore.
Similarly, Memsift growth plans in South East Asia. Dr. Prince: As per our current plan,
Innovations is developing and Dr. Prince: In the coming year, Memsift’s Memsift will identify the potential end user to
licensing innovative mem- primary focus will be on bringing this tech- pilot the technology in one of the above indus-
brane technologies to provide nology to the market. try in Singapore. Thermosift will provide the
solutions for the South East As an initial step, Memsift will identify technical expertise to develop the pilot sys-
Asian market. Memsift’s potential end users to pilot this technology in tem in Singapore. The feed flow to the system
membranes could compliment the real field condition and we are committed will be at least 2500 L/day. In this pilot, we are
the TS-30 system, by expand- to start the first commercial pilot in expecting to recover diluted acid and concen-
ing its application in various Singapore by August 2018. Memsift will also trate the metal salt from the industrial efflu-
industry sectors. look for strategic partners to bring this tech- ent. If this project is successful, it will be an
TS-30 Membrane Modules The partnership also nology in the SEA market. ideal example for the circular economy.

54 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


1st SCCP II Workshop on Water and
June 26-27, New Delhi, India
The event highlighted the benefits of internationally approved standards and codes.

regulators, private-sector international water standards

organizations, trade associa- and codes, and facilitate con-
tions, water utilities, stan- versation on actions needed to
dards developers, and individ- be taken.
ual companies. The U.S.– India Standards
Presentations by U.S. and and Conformance
Indian experts from both the Cooperation Program (SCCP)
private and public sectors Phase II is a comprehensive
focused on standards-related project to facilitate interac-
aspects of water supply to tion and engagement between
US Speaker BB Singh from NSF point of use, water quality, and the public and private sectors
International (India office) Asks a wastewater management. U.S. in the United States and India.
Question during the Workshop on private-sector speakers The goal is to increase cooper-
Water and Sanitation Systems in included individuals from the ation in the areas of stan-
India American Society of Session 3 Speakers (from left to right): Frank Kurtz, Standards Engineer, dards, conformity assess-
Mechanical Engineers AWWA; Kanwarjit Singh, Chairman, IWWA Delhi Chapter; Vinay Gupta, ment, and technical regula-
THE AMERICAN (ASME), the American Water Vice Chairman, Indian Plumbing Skill Council; Dr. Chandrasekhar, tions in three sectors of inter-
NATIONAL Standards Works Association (AWWA), Director (Water Systems), IAPMO India; CS Gupta; Nita Sharma, est to industry: smart and sus-
Institute (ANSI) recently Headworks International, the Consultant (Water resources) ; Aninda Sen, AWWA India; Varun Tandon, tainable cities, water and san-
organized the Workshop on International Association of Vice President, IPSC itation, and clean energy.
Water and Sanitation Systems Plumbing and Mechanical Sponsored by the USTDA
in India: Leveraging Officials (IAPMO), and NSF The Workshop on Water senior vice president of gov- and coordinated by ANSI and
Standards for Infrastructure International. Additionally, and Sanitation Systems in ernment relations, Dain CII, the program aims to facil-
Improvement in New Delhi, representatives from USTDA India provided an opportunity Hansen, high-quality product itate India’s development of
India. It was the first of six and the U.S. Commercial to share experiences and best standards are a "vehicle to transparent and streamlined
workshops to be held in India Service gave opening remarks practices from a U.S. company drive industry and foreign standards, conformity assess-
under the United States and were in attendance. The and standards developing a investment. IAPMO stands ment, and a technical regula-
Trade and Development Indian water sector was rep- perspective on water efficien- eager, ready, and willing to tions system. SCCP also aims
Agency (USTDA)'s U.S.–India resented by the following pri- cy, utility management and work together with Indian to provide information on U.S.
Standards and Conformance vate and public organizations: distribution of safe water, stakeholders to update con- and Indian standards and con-
Cooperation Program BIS, the Ministry of developing a skilled work- struction codes, adopt inter- formance and U.S. technical
(SCCP), Phase II. The SCCP Commerce and Industry, the force, water quality, and nationally recognized product assistance to facilitate
II is carried out in coordina- Indian Plumbing Association wastewater and treatment standards, and not only create increased U.S.-India trade and
tion with the Confederation of (IPA), the Safe Water management. The speakers an environment for companies investment; encourage
Indian Industry (CII), and the Network, the Defence conveyed the importance and to invest, but also increase the greater Indian public and pri-
workshop, on June 26-27, was Research and Development benefits of internationally overall health and safety of the vate sector participation in
co-hosted with the Bureau of Organisation (DRDO), the approved standards and country’s water and sanitation international and regional
Indian Standards (BIS). Indian Plumbing Skills codes to the quality and safety at the same time." Further, standards and conformity
Over 100 people were in Council (IPSC), the Indian of this vital resource. this workshop successfully assessment fora; and support
attendance during the course Water Works Association Additionally, they stressed the brought together many of the increased cooperative
of the event including individ- (IWWA), the Delhi Jal Board, importance of standards har- sector's vital Indian stake- exchange between U.S. and
uals from U.S. companies, U.S. the Water Quality Indian monization, certification, and holders into the same room to Indian counterpart organiza-
standards developing organi- Association, and the Ministry compliance to foreign invest- reflect on the successes and tions working to address
zations, U.S. government, of Drinking Water and ment in India. challenges for their water sec- trade-related issues at the
Indian government ministries, Sanitation. According to IAPMO's tor, enhance their exposure to technical level.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 55


Cityof San Diego Pure Water Program

Dudek announces approval of Pure Water San Diego environmental impact report/
environmental impact statement.

The Miramar Reservoir

DUDEK, A LEADING multi- sis of the proposed Pure

disciplinary environmental Water Program by Dudek.
and engineering consulting One of the most ambitious
firm, has announced the certi- water recycling programs in
fication of the Pure Water San the nation, the Pure Water The Plant Schematic
Diego Environmental Impact facility seeks to treat 83 mil-
Report and Environmental lion gallons per day to produce The Project pumping, and conveyance facilities, as well as
Impact Statement (EIR/EIS). potable water for San Diego’s As one of the most ambitious water recy- upgrades to existing facilities.
The milestone marks the com- more than three million resi- cling programs in the nation, the City of San • City of San Diego, Public Utilities
pletion of a three-year analy- dents. Diego’s Pure Water Program seeks to treat 83 Department, San Diego, California
million gallons per day to produce high-quality • EIR certified in 2016
drinking water through the design and con- • 83 million gallons per day
struction of newly advanced water purification, • One-third of San Diego’s water supply by 2035

Currently, the County of

San Diego imports 85 percent
of its water supply from the
Colorado River and Northern
California Bay Delta. As
imported water costs contin-
ue to rise, the County is
increasingly vulnerable to
water shortages and drought.
The Pure Water Program
aims to provide one-third of
San Diego’s water supply by
2035 by increasing local con-
trol of a sustainable water
supply and alleviating depend-
ence on imported water. The
Pure Water Program also
Pure Water Cycle boasts notable environmental Reverse Osmosis

56 August, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


advantages for the region, nearly 3,000-page Final water recycling on such a
including a reduction in the EIR/EIS on schedule. The San grand scale,” said Project
flow of treated wastewater Diego City Council unani- Manager Shawn Shamlou.
effluent to the Pacific Ocean. mously certified the documen- “Our team was fortunate to
Dudek analyzed potential tation in April. Dudek is now work directly with the City of
environmental impacts asso- supporting the City with San Diego and Bureau of
ciated with construction and obtaining key permits from Reclamation agencies. Their
operation of the Pure Water the Army Corps of Engineers, professionalism and technical
San Diego facility, as well as California Department of Fish expertise inspired the Dudek
long-term effects associated and Wildlife, and Regional team to work even harder to
with changes in water supply Water Quality Control Board. meet their schedule targets
procurement. The expertise “Dudek is absolutely and successfully deliver a
of the Dudek team ensured thrilled to have the opportuni- comprehensive environmental
the City of San Diego ty to work on the Pure Water document that will serve as a
Development Services San Diego project which sets a benchmark for similar proj-
UV System Department received the new nationwide precedent for ects.”

EXPRESS WATER Exclusive activated carbon filters, membrane lection system will be supplied to the prepared in compliance with the
filtration, reverse osmosis and ultra- facility via a new 12-inch diameter California Environmental Quality Act
Mayur Sharma discussed the violet disinfection with advanced oxi- Landfill Gas Pipeline. The new facility (CEQA) and National Environmental
project and its significance with its dation will produce 30 MGD of safe, will produce a total of 15.4 MW of new Policy Act (NEPA). The EIR/EIS
project manager - Shawn Shamlou, high-quality, potable water that generation capacity and will incorpo- evaluated three alternatives: the No
AICP. He is a principal with 20 years’ meets all state and federal drinking rate 5 MW of existing power genera- Project/No Action Alternative, the
experience preparing environmental water standards. The purified water tion capacity already at North City Miramar Reservoir Alternative, and
documentation for land-use planning will blend with the City’s imported Water Reclamation Plant. The power the San Vicente Reservoir
and infrastructure projects for public and local water sources at Miramar supplied by the North City Alternative. The City approved the
and private clients. He has prepared Reservoir and be treated again at the Renewable Energy Facility will be Miramar Reservoir Alternative.
more than 200 reports complying Miramar Water Treatment Plant used for additional energy needs at CEQA requires a determination of
with the California Environmental before being distributed to the public. the significance of impact on the envi-
Quality Act (CEQA) and the National ronment.
Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Q. What is the significance of this Environmental issue areas includ-
and has served as project manager project for the region, looking at ing land use, aesthetics, air quality,
and primary author of many environ- the water shortages and rising biological resources, environmental
mental review documents throughout costs of water import? justice, geology and soils, greenhouse
San Diego County and California. Mr. Shawn: San Diego relies on gas emissions, health and safety, his-
Shamlou has overseen and managed importing 85% of its water supply torical resources, hydrology and
a broad range of environmental docu- from the Colorado River and water quality, paleontological
ments for healthcare, transportation, Northern California Bay Delta. The resources, recreation, public servic-
aviation, rail, port, water, and energy cost of this imported water has es, public utilities, and water supply
infrastructure projects. tripled in the last 15 years and contin- were found to be less than significant
ues to rise. With limited local control with or without the need for mitiga-
Q. The San Diego Pure Water proj- over its water supply, the City of San tion measures. The project would,
ect is one of the most ambitious Diego is more vulnerable to droughts, however, result in significant and
water recycling programs in the climate change, and natural disas- unavoidable impacts to noise and
USA. What is the plan to produce ters. Pure Water San Diego is a transportation.
high-quality drinking water on a phased, multi-year program that will Shawn Shamlou Preparation of the document
large scale? Which technologies provide 1/3 of San Diego’s water sup- required coordination between the
will be used? ply locally by 2035. the expanded North City Water City of San Diego and the US Bureau
Shawn: The North City Project is Reclamation Plant as well as for the of Reclamation in order to meet each
Phase 1 of the Pure Water Program. Q. How green and sustainable is new Pure Water Facility and pump agency’s needs for the environmental
This phase includes several projects this project? stations (with the exception of the assessment. The North City Project
that will clean recycled water to pro- Shawn: The project will be a Morena Pump station). Backup would require a variety of discre-
duce 30 million gallons per day tremendous net benefit and alterna- power would be provided by SDG&E tionary actions, approvals, and per-
(MGD) of high-quality purified water tive to the environmental costs of only to maintain minimal critical mits by the City, US Bureau of
starting in 2021, reducing the City’s importing potable water from distant operations if the main power supply Reclamation, and various agencies.
dependence on imported water. sources, including a substantial failed. The document must provide suffi-
Approximately 32 MGD of waste- reduction in energy and use of green- cient analysis and conclusions to
water will be transported to the house gases resulting from the dis- Q. Can you summarize the overall meet the needs of the various agen-
North City Water Reclamation Plant, tant transport of water from the environmental impact assess- cies that have approval responsibili-
where it will be treated before being Colorado River and Bay Delta. ment of this project for us? And ties for items such as permits and
sent to the new North City Pure Also, a new North City Renewable what were the practical chal- easement acquisitions. The already
Water Facility located across the Energy Facility is proposed to be lenges in preparing this report? complex nature of the environmental
street for further purification. Using located at the North City Water Shawn: A joint Environmental analysis was further compounded by
the proven five-step water purifica- Reclamation Plant. Landfill gas from Impact Report/Environmental an aggressive schedule and required
tion process of ozonation, biological the City’s Miramar Landfill gas col- Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) was coordination amongst agencies.

EXPRESS WATER August, 2018 57