Sunteți pe pagina 1din 96

The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

ABSTRACT
Purpose: The study provides a clearer understanding of the influences of
Facebook to the development of the English language proficiency of students.
The study advances a framework or model that serves as guide in the use of
Facebook in the development and/or enhancement of their language
skills/competencies.

Methods: This study made use of descriptive research design since it acquired
information through description that is useful for identifying variables and
hypothetical constructs which can be further investigated through other means
like exploratory studies. T-test was utilized to determine the significant difference
on the influence of the use of Facebook in the English language proficiency of
students. Two-way Anova was used to determine the interaction effect of the
different variables on the English language proficiency using Facebook.

Results: The users of Facebook are still learning in using appropriate vocabulary
while the non-users are developing in the said area. Both the users of Facebook
and non-users of Facebook are competent in spelling proficiency. However, in
terms of grammar proficiency, the non-users of Facebook are considered
competent while the users of Facebook are developing in the said area. In terms
of correct sentence structure the non-users of Facebook got a higher mean
score. However, both the users and non-users of Facebook are developing in the
said area. On the other hand, both users of Facebook and non-users of
Facebook are developing in using the correct and appropriate punctuation marks.
The study reveals that in giving or expressing ideas, the non-users of Facebook
are competent while the users of Facebook are developing. In the over-all
language proficiency of students, both users of Facebook and non-users of
Facebook are said to be developing.

Conclusion: This study revealed that Facebook is not effective in attaining


proficiency in the English language despite the fact that students are highly
motivated to use Facebook and their teachers are highly competent in using
Facebook as educational material. Students are inquisitive in utilizing Facebook
and enthusiast to explore the different features of Facebook especially on
gaming and chatting however, they are being sidetracked and lose their focus on
the given academic activities.

Implications: Facebook in its very nature caters for independent usage, thus the
use of facebook must be integrated in the evaluation or in the assignment part of
the lesson plan. It is for the students to develop their communication skills and be
proficient in using the English language.

Keywords: facebook, learning motivation, teaching skills, secondary


students

1
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Introduction

Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook have been used for a variety
of educational purposes and help students in educational settings (Akyıldız &
Argan, 2012; Arquero &Romero-Frías, 2013) The “social spaces” available to
students can enable a more individualized experience for learning in an online
environment and can supply what is taught in a traditional classroom setting
(Griffith & Liyenage, 2008). Most of the students use social networking sites like
Facebook in conducting group projects and assignments and have been found to
be very useful in having group work (Zanamwe, et al., 2013) Students’ language
skills are also enhanced by the amount of information disclosed on a teachers’ or
academics’ SNS. Sharing of information amongst groups can have a positive
effect on students (Griffith & Liyenage, 2008). Social networking sites improve
technology excellency, enhance social skills and motivate students to
communicate in new ways with new people (Zanamwe, Rupere, Kufandirimbwa,
2013). Facebook improves one’s personal development; increases students’
successes; assists both teachers and students when used as a supportive
material in lessons; allows to share information between colleagues; makes
learning more enjoyable; helps teachers and students to know each other better
via the profile pages; increases students’ motivation by allowing them to
communicate with each other; encourages colleagues to learn more; increases
students’ will to learn by sharing extra resources about their homework; helps
students to find out what goes on in the world through daily news; and enables
them to share information about scientific studies.

Facebook can be a new learning strategy to motivate students to learn the


English language since young people today live media saturated lives, spending
an average of 6.5 hour a day using media, and are exposed to media more than
8.5 hour a day (Roberts, et.al,2005). Media literacy refers to the understanding of
media and the use of it as a source of information, entertainment, enrichment,
growth, empowerment, and communication (Wan, 2006).

Social networking sites like Facebook have the potential to facilitate


interaction, communication, and collaboration, and as an upshot have been
outstandingly featured in discussions centering on the use of technology to
support and intensify educational endeavors (Morgan, 2014). Empirical research
on their role in online education is limited, even though researchers have
acknowledged an accelerating use of social software in formal learning contexts
(Morgan, 2014). The growth of Facebook and similar sites has influenced many
institutions. Many employers, for example, currently value digital literacy and look
to hire employees who are skilled in social media. Since corporations
increasingly value this type of literacy, researchers such as Greenhow and
Gleason (2012) argue that educators need to respond by helping students
develop best practices when using social networking and micro blogging services

2
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

in a particular subject matter. Although studies on educational microblogging are


few, some researchers are confident that this form of communication has strong
potential to enhance learning (Gao et al., 2012). Some instructors have already
witnessed the positive outcomes from using social networks like Facebook in
school, such as improvement in reading, writing, digital literacy, information
gathering, and communication with students and parents.

This paper came into realization to answer various questions related to the
implications of Facebook to the English Language Proficiency of secondary
public students especially that they are now living in a world known as the “Digital
Age”. Students feel comfortable in expressing themselves in visual form and
electronic gadgets. Thus, teachers are trying to harness this energy by using
visual media (TV, movies, video games, photography, internet, etc…) to help
students think critically from what they see.

Statement of the Problem

This study is an attempt to describe and analyze how secondary public


students use Facebook and its impact to English language learning. It seeks to
answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the students in terms of :


a. age
b. gender
c. weekly budget for Facebook usage
d. weekly frequency of Facebook usage

2. How does the English language proficiency of students a) using Facebook


and b) not using Facebook compare in terms of the following variables:
a. appropriateness of vocabulary
b. spelling proficiency
c. grammar proficiency
d. correct sentence construction
e. appropriateness of punctuation marks
f. expressing ideas

3. How do students perceive the teaching skills of their English teachers in terms
of the following?
a. efficiency in the use of Facebook
b. innovativeness in the use of Facebook
c. effectiveness in the use of Facebook

4. How do students assess their learning motivation in using Facebook?

3
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

5. Is there a significant difference in the English language proficiency of the


students in terms of:
a. appropriateness of vocabulary
b. spelling proficiency
c. grammar proficiency
d. correct sentence construction
e. appropriateness of punctuation marks
f. expressing ideas

6. Is there a significant difference in the pre-test, post-test and mean gain scores
of students using the traditional method and Facebook?

7. Is there a significant difference in the English language proficiency of students


when grouped according to gender?

8. Is there a significant relationship between the English proficiency of students


and the following variables?
a. age
b. weekly budget for Facebook usage
c. weekly frequency of Facebook usage
d. students perception of teacher’s teaching skills in the use of Facebook
e. students learning motivations

Significance of the Study

The study provides a clearer understanding of the influences of Facebook


to the development of the English language proficiency of students. The study
shall advance a framework or model that will serve as guide in the use of
Facebook in the development and/or enhancement of their language
skills/competencies.

Literature Review

English is the universal language. It is the world's second largest native


language, the official language in 70 countries. English can be at least understood
almost everywhere among intellectuals, as it is the world media language, and the
language of the entertainment industry, business and commerce and in the computer
world. All over the planet people know many English words, their pronunciation and
meaning. This is the primary reason why the rest of the world, like the Philippines keep
on improving the teaching and learning processes of the said language.

The English Language is continuously changing to accommodate


development in technology. Facebook or social networks play a vital role in
learning English as a second language. Due to the significant role of grammar in
writing improvement, there are both in-class and online teaching methods

4
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

developed to enhance grammatical knowledge and subsequently to enhance


writing abilities of students (Suthiwartnarueput, 2012).

The use of media directly affect the Linguistic Proficiency of the students
while the teaching skills, learning motivation and the profile serve as moderators
or intervening variables.

In psychology, Flow Theory helps assess human-computer interactions


and addresses people’s use of the internet. Flow is the holistic sensation that
people feel when they act with total attachment. It implies assimilation in a task
such that the person is completely engrossed by the conflict and the task being
performed. Facebook is an artifact; the tasks refer to the activities performed
using Facebook. These activities result in indispensable satisfaction. Combined
with keen inquisitiveness and gratification that encourages repetition of the
activity, but also the loss of the inability to control usage or close down the
activity (Finneran, C.M. & Zhang,P. A, 2003).

Internet and Facebook in the Philippines

The first Filipino logged in to the Internet on March 29, 1994, when the
Philippine Network Foundation, a conglomerate of private and public institutions,
obtained the country’s first public permanent connection to the Internet (Minges,
Magpantay, Firth and Kelly, 2002). Since then, the quantity of Filipino Internet
users has grown, gradually at first but drastically rapid in the past few years.

The socio-demographic distinctiveness of individuals influences their


actions and behaviors (Akman & Mishra, 2010). Research has shown that the
patterns of admittance and use of the Internet show a incongruity with across
socio-demographic groups, thus affecting how both the users and nonusers
could access the improved opportunities in education, employment and civic
engagement brought on by the facets of the Internet (Norris, 2001; Ono and
Zavodny, 2007). It is therefore indispensable to comprehend how the socio-
demographic attributes of the Internet users promote (or hinder) their access to
and use of the Internet, and to use this knowledge to bridge the gap between the
Internet users who have already benefited from the enlarged opportunities
bought by the Internet and the non-Internet users who have not experienced
these benefits.

Labucay (2011) found out those internet users who are from higher socio-
economic class, who are college graduates, and have computer and Internet
connection in the household tend to use the Internet more frequently than other
socio-demographic groups. About three-fifths of classes ABC are frequent users,
in contrast to majorities of classes D and E who use the internet less often. Two-
fifths of the college graduates are frequent users, compared to about one-fourth
of the less educated who are also daily users. About half of Internet users in
households who own computers and 54% of those in households with Internet

5
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

connection are also frequent users. Urban users are less likely than rural users to
use the Internet on a daily basis. About half of those aged 35-44 and 55 and
above are daily Internet users.

The youth are the key drivers of Internet use in the Philippines, such that
while half of those aged 18-24 are Internet users, a small 2% of those aged 55
and above also use the Internet. This pattern clearly validates stereotype of
younger individuals as bigger Internet user than the older individuals (Chinn &
Fairlie, 2004; Choi, 2008; Gardner & Oswald, 2001; Howard, Rainie & Jones,
2001; Norris, 2001; Smith et al, 2008)

Labucay (2011) explained the patterns of what Filipino Internet users do


online, online social networking is largely the most popular online activity and its
usage hardly diverge across socio-demographic groups. In gap, use of Twitter is
still low, but its convention is more accepted among those from higher socio-
economic classes and the more educated. The Philippine results are unswerving
with previous research that younger Internet users tend to do more fun activities
such as playing online games while older people do more information
seeking/learning activities particularly getting news on current events (Howard
Rainie & Jones, 2002; Madden & Rainie, 2003). Contrary to findings in the United
States, however, Filipino women are more likely than the men to use the Internet
as an information utility, particularly getting news on current events and health
information. The more educated and those from higher socio-economic classes
also tend to go online to access news and health information.

Facebook in Language Learning

Despite widespread acknowledgement of the importance of the social


dimensions of second language acquisition, there has been little research on
second language (L2) use and learning in the social networks of foreign
language learners (kurata,2010). However, media literacy education has become
increasingly present in curricular initiatives around the world as media saturate
our cultural environments. For second-language teachers and teacher educators
whose practice centers on language, communication, and culture, the need to
address media as a pedagogical site of critique is imperative (Chamberlin-
Quinlisk, 2012).

Learning Motivation

Motivation is an important issue in both face-to-face and computer-


supported collaborative learning. There are numerous approaches for enhancing
motivation, including group awareness tools that provide feedback on the group.
However, this feedback was rarely uncompounded with other constructs.
Additionally, it is only assumed and not investigated that the learners talk about
their feedback and then remedy motivational problems which leads to the
observed motivation gain. (Schoor et. al.,2014).

6
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

On the other hand, advancements in information and communication


technology (ICT) allowed several tools and systems to be proposed for improving
classroom experiences to both instructors and students. However, most of these
tools were brand-new and stand-alone programs that require users to endow
additional time and effort to become well-known with their use. This constraint
could unfavorably affect the users motivation on using these particular programs.
However, enhancing student learning motivation and participation is decisive for
the teaching and learning of new-fangled knowledge or skills since motivation
would affect how instructors and students interact with learning materials. In the
era of Web 2.0, both instructors and students are heavily engrossed in various
web applications such as SkyDrive, Evernote, DropBox, and Google Apps on a
daily basis. These web applications were also well-received by both instructors
and students in their daily lives. Therefore, the use of illustrious web applications
could be a potentially novel method to engage instructors and students in
meaningful teaching and learning activities (Lin, Yen-Ting; Jou, Min, 2013).

The Teacher in the Context of Facebook Use in Teaching

The use of online social networks in educational endeavors has been


supported by numerous educational technology researchers, who have
highlighted the benefits of participatory technologies in formal learning contexts
in K-12 (Barbour & Plough, 2009; Greenhow et al., 2009) and higher education
settings (DeSchryver et al., 2009; Veletsianos, 2011; Webb, 2009). Social
networking technologies have been viewed as tools that enable the use of
participatory pedagogies able to address the problems that have traditionally
plagued distance education: creating a sense of presence, community-building,
and learner participation in interactive discussions (Brady et al., 2010; Lee &
McLoughlin, 2010; Naveh et al., 2010). The literature suggests that using online
social networks as educational platforms may support learners in forming social
connections with others while they collaborate to share ideas, create products,
construct identities, and receive timely feedback (Dron & Anderson, 2009a;
Greenhow, 2011; Wheeler et al., 2008). Additionally, research on informal
learning within SNS contexts suggests that SNS participation fulfills important
social learning functions (Greenhow & Robelia, 2009), though Selwyn (2009, p.
170) argues the kind of learning that occurred in a study of naturally occurring
Facebook interactions among undergraduates represents the chatter of the back
row of the lecture hall. On the other hand, Schroeder et al. (2010) offer a long list
of potential issues that may arise when using social software in higher education.
These include workload concerns for faculty and students, lack of trust in peer
feedback, ownership issues with regards to public and collaborative spaces,
difficulty in adapting publicly available tools, and difficulty in protecting the
anonymity of students. Furthermore, Madge, Meek, Wellens, and Hooley (2009)
have suggested that SNSs might be more useful for informal rather than formal
learning as 91% of the undergraduates in their study never used such tools to

7
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

communicate with university staff, and 43% believed that SNSs have no potential
for academic work.

Student Characteristics in the Context of Facebook Use in Learning

Research studies on using Facebook for teaching and learning report both
positive and negative findings. Schroeder and Greenbowe (2009) used a WebCT
forum and a Facebook group to get undergraduate students discussing
questions. The use of WebCT was compulsory, while the use of the Facebook
group was optional. The result showed that the number of posts on Facebook
was nearly four times more than on WebCT, and the postings raised more
complex topics and generated more detailed replies. Possible reasons included
the students often visited Facebook and spent a lot of time in Facebook. Ooi and
Loh (2010) created a Facebook group for a class of Secondary school students
to learn the Chinese language and found the Facebook group enabled the
students to share course resources and give comments. Also, the use of events
allowed the teacher to conveniently organize learning activities such as lesson
observations. However, in a study where undergraduate students were assigned
to use Moodle or Facebook as a discussion forum, DeSchryver et al (2009) found
that the students assigned to Facebook did not write longer or more frequent
postings than the students assigned to Moodle. A possible reason was that the
students did not like having discussions in a separate system—Facebook—as
they had been using Moodle in the course. Kirschner and Karpinski (2010)
compared the academic performance of Facebook users and non-users who
were undergraduate and graduate students and discovered that on average the
Facebook users got lower grades and spent fewer hours per week studying than
the non-users.

The Facebook

According to the Centre for Learning and Performance Technologies


(2012) there are more than 100 social media being used for language learning
and educational purposes. The number of uses of the media cannot predict the
efficient or effective result of the latest teaching-learning tool. More research
needs to be conducted and tracked down regarding the never-ending evolution of
technology in terms of educational implications. However, it is the teachers’ own
premise to select what is considered best for their students. It might well be the
case that what works best for others may be the worst for oneself.

Tilfarlioglu (2011) urge that Web 2.0 changed the way people used Web in
the field of education and especially in foreign language learning. Since its
emergence in 2004, it has gained great attention of teenagers and university
students. Educators regard Web 2.0. as a language learning/teaching tool.

Facebook is a Web 2.0 application serving a large online community.


According to Socialbakers (2012), the number of Facebook users reached

8
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

15,948,040 in July 2012. In the study of Suthiwartnarueput (2012), he found out


that aged 18-24 consists mainly of students who study in the university level.
Facebook is used in this study as a social networking tool to enhance the
students’ language competence. It is believed that sufficient knowledge of
English grammar not only helps students write paragraphs in standard English
but also reduce the use of vernacular or non-standard English (i.e. using
subjective pronouns in the place of objective pronouns, omission of certain
prepositions, use of double negative form, mistakes in irregular verb forms, and
so forth) (Valentine & Repath-Martos 1997).

Facebook is one of the most popular social networking sites which allow
users to post information, with others, and collaborate within the system (Stelter,
2008). When students use Facebook a tool for their study by spending time
browsing profiles, meeting new people, and exploring relationships using the
English language, they have greater opportunities to collaborate with a large
number of people worldwide and learn the target language at the same time
(Educause Learning Initiative, 2006). Such a Facebook’s property indirectly
creates a community of practice an important component of student education in
Social Constructivist theories. Students can construct knowledge after they
interact with other people on Facebook. When students receive comments and
suggestions, they can use the information given to improve their language skills.
Apart from this, when students discuss on Facebook, they do not have to use
their real names can avoid face-to-face interaction thus lowering the level of
anxiety (Murphy, 2009). Such a learning style can reduce the Affective Filter and
eventually enhance motivation and risk taking in language learning (Krashen,
1981, 1988). Other than the benefits given to students, Facebook can also
provide many pedagogical advantages to teachers. It helps the teacher make a
connection with students about assignments, upcoming events, useful links, and
samples of work originating from both inside and outside of classrooms. Media
literacy education has become increasingly present in curricular initiatives around
the world as media saturate our cultural environments. For second-language
teachers and teacher educators whose practice centers on language,
communication, and culture, the need to address media as a pedagogical site of
critique is imperative (Chamberlin-Quinlisk, Carla 2012). The topic of teaching
and learning culture has been a matter of considerable interest to language
educators and much has been written about the role of culture in foreign
language instruction over the past two decades. English Second Language (ESL)
students whose successes in a new environment are conditioned not only in their
mastery of the new language, but also in their ability to negotiate the new culture.
Media sources significantly affect students' attitudes and dispositions towards
themselves, other people and society especially in English as a Second
Language classes (Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem.2008).

9
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Hypotheses:

1. The English language proficiency of students a) using Facebook and b) not


using Facebook has a significant difference in terms of a.) appropriateness of
vocabulary; b.) spelling proficiency; c.) grammar proficiency; d.) correct
sentence construction; e.) appropriateness of punctuation marks and f.)
expressing ideas.

2. Students’ perception on the teaching competency of their English teachers has


a significant difference in terms of a.) efficiency in the use of Facebook; b.)
creativity in the use of Facebook; and c.) effectiveness of Facebook

3. The Facebook usage has a significant influence in the English language


proficiency of students in terms of: appropriateness of a.) appropriateness of
vocabulary; b.) spelling proficiency; c.) grammar proficiency; d.) correct
sentence construction; and e.) appropriateness of punctuation marks and f.)
expressing ideas.

4. The students’ pre-test, post-test and mean score have significant difference in
the traditional method and Facebook.

5. The English language proficiency of students has a significant difference


when they are grouped according to gender.

6. The English language proficiency of students has a significant relationship in


terms of: a.) age; b.) weekly budget for Facebook usage; c.) weekly frequency of
Facebook usage; d.) students perception of teachers’ teaching skills; and e.)
students learning motivations.

Research Paradigm

Student Student
Student Learning
Learning Teaching
Teaching skills
skills of
of
Student Motivation Teachers
Teachers in
in the
the Use
Use of
of
Motivation
Profile
Profile facebook
facebook

English
English Language
Language
Proficiency
Proficiency

Use of
Facebook
The use of Facebook greatly affects the English language proficiency of
the students which is being moderated by the teaching skills of teachers in the
use of Facebook as an educational material as well as the student learning
motivation and the student profile.

10
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Each moderator or intervening variable has sub-variables. The sub-


variables in the teaching skills are the efficiency of the teacher in using Facebook
as an educational material, their innovativeness in utilizing Facebook and the
effectiveness of using Facebook as a learning aid. On the other hand, the
student learning motivation internally and externally can intervene in the use of
Facebook in attaining English language proficiency. It is also important to discuss
the profile of the students along with their age, gender, weekly budget for the use
of Facebook and weekly frequency of Facebook usage to intercede in the
English language proficiency of the students.

There is a significant relationship between the English language


proficiency of students and the intervening variables.

METHODS

Research Design

This study made use of descriptive research design since it acquired


information through description that is useful for identifying variables and
hypothetical constructs which can be further investigated through other means
like exploratory studies. These descriptions can be used as an indirect test of a
theory or model regarding Facebook education. During the round 1 of
implementation, the researcher and the expert used the Quasi-Experimental
using post test design while during the round 2 of implementation the Time
Series Design was utilized.

Participants of the Study

The participants of this study were secondary public students who were
enrolled the Continuing Educational Course (CONEC) of AMA Computer College
Tuguegarao. CONEC is an outreach program of AMA specialized in computer
training that opens every weekend only. These high school students were from
the remote barrios of Cagayan Valley and have some degree of knowledge about
computer.

Research Instruments

The researcher used a validated questionnaire to assess the student


learning motivation and their perception on the teaching skills of their teachers in
the use of Facebook as an educational material. The students’learning motivation
questionnaire was validated by a licensed psychologist who also obtained
masters in guidance and counseling while in the area of teaching skills in the use
of Facebook as an educational material was validated by an expert in
instructional materials. Also, the questionnaire includes the profile of the

11
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

respondents namely: gender, year level, frequency in using Facebook, weekly


budget in using Facebook, accessibility and accessing the Facebook.

A module was designed for the implementation of activities. It was


patterned in the K-12 curriculum of public secondary students and was further
validated by the experts.

A rubric was created for the checking of the activities of the students. The
said material was validated by a group of English teachers and experts and was
used by English teachers who served as the official checkers in all activities done
by the students.

Research Procedures

There were two rounds of implementation in this study. The first round
consists of 60 public secondary students; 30 students from the experimental
group and another 30 students from the control group.

The researcher floated a questionnaire to determine the profile of the


students and will serve as a basis for the grouping of respondents. The said
questionnaire is a standardized material designed for high school students The
population consists of Out-of-School-Youth, over-aged high school students,
elementary pupils, barangay officials and secondary students. Out of 133
population, the researcher determined the 30 non-users of Facebook. This was
the basis of creating the group for the users of Facebook. Only high school
students aged 12-15 years old were included as samples of this study. The
matching of groups was determined through their age, gender and their exam
score and was further checked, reviewed and validated by the experts.

Based on the profile of students (age, gender, intellectual capability), the


researcher had created the matching group; the experimental group and the
controlled group.

After the matching, the researcher who also served as a teacher


implemented the module. The non users of Facebook were met every Saturday
at 8:00-10:00am while the users of Facebook were met every Sunday at 8:00-
10:00am. Activities for the non users were done in a traditional way which is the
pen and paper quiz type while activities for the users were done through the use
of Facebook where the researcher created page for them. The same activities
were administered in the two groups; they only differ in the method. Students’
answers were checked by English teachers based on the validated rubrics. The
results were tabulated by a statistician.

After the activities, the questionnaire was floated to the users of Facebook
to evaluate their learning motivation and the teaching skills of their teachers in

12
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

using Facebook as an educational material. The results were tabulated by a


statistician.

To further validate the result of the 1st round of implementation, the


researcher created another group. This time, a single group was created. It was
a mixture of users and non users of Facebook in just one class. The module was
divided into three and was taught by 3 instructors. The respondents took the
activities with pre-test and post-test in both methods; traditional and Facebook.
The same rubric was used and was checked by the English teachers who were
also the checkers during the first round of implementation. The results were
tabulated by a statistician.

Data Analysis

Data collected was analyzed by the expert to show the existence of the
framework of the influence of Facebook in the English language proficiency of
the public secondary students. Descriptive statistics like frequency count,
percentage, mean score and median score were used to describe the profile of
students, English language proficiency, teaching skills in the use of Facebook as
a teaching material and student learning motivations. T-test was utilized to
determine the significant difference on the influence of the use of Facebook in
the English language proficiency of students. Pearson-r was used to determine
the significant relationship between the English language proficiency of students
and the identified variables. On the other hand, T-test of correlated/ paired
samples was utilized to interpret the results of the round 2 of implementation.

Results

Table 1. STUDENTS’ PROFILE


Users of Facebook Non-users of Facebook
Variable Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Male 13 54.2% 14 46.67%
Gender
Female 11 45.8% 16 53.33%
15 years old 2 8.33% 6 20%
14 years old 12 50% 16 53.33%
Age
13 years old 9 37.5% 6 20%
12 years old 1 4.17% 2 6.67%
P10.00 3 12.5
P30.00 9 37.5
Weekly Budget P60.00 11 45.83
No Response 1 4.17
Ave. weekly budget = P42.00
Once a week 4 16.7
Weekly Twice a week 14 58.3
Frequency of
Usage Thrice a week 6 25.0
Ave. weekly frequency of usage = twice a week

13
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Table 1 shows the profile of the respondents for the users and non-users of
Facebook. Originally, there is an equal distribution of numbers in gender and age
based on the procedures for the matching group. However, the expert and the
researcher had deleted the participants in the users of facebook who did not
make or participate in the activities. Also, the table presents that the students are
aged from 12-15 years old. Users of facebook are averagely using Facebook
twice a week with an average weekly budget of 42.00 only.

Table 2. English Language Proficiency of Facebook Users and Non-Users


Areas Group Mean Score Interpretation

Users 17.92 Learning


Appropriateness of vocabulary
Non-Users 19.54 Developing

Users 17.33 Competent


Spelling proficiency
Non-Users 19.37 Competent

Users 13.81 Developing


Grammar proficiency
Non-Users 16.65 Competent

Users 9.04 Developing


Correct sentence structure
Non-Users 10.38 Developing

Appropriateness of use of punctuation Users 4.90 Developing

mark Non-Users 5.24 Developing

Users 5.31 Developing


Expressing Ideas
Non-Users 6.95 Competent

Users 68.31 Developing


Overall Language Proficiency
Non-Users 78.13 Developing

Table 2 shows the English language proficiency of students who used and those
who did not use Facebook. Users of Facebook are still learning in the area of
appropriateness of vocabulary while they are competent in the areas of spelling
proficiency and expressing ideas. Furthermore, users of Facebook are still
developing in the areas of grammar proficiency, appropriateness of use of
punctuation marks, correct sentence structure and expressing ideas. On the
other hand, non-users of Facebook are still developing in the areas of
appropriateness of vocabulary, correct sentence structure, and appropriateness
of use of punctuation marks. However, they are competent in the areas of
spelling proficiency, grammar proficiency and in expressing ideas. Over-all, the
language proficiency level of both users and non users of Facebook is still
developing.

Table 3. Teaching Skills of Teachers in the Use of Facebook as an Educational


Material

14
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Teaching skills Mean Score Median Score Interpretation

Efficiency in the use of Facebook 16.42 15 Efficient

Innovativeness in the use of Facebook 16.25 15 Innovative

Effectiveness of using Facebook as


16.375 15 Effective
educational material

Table 3 presents that students perceived the teaching skills of their teachers in
the use of Facebook as an educational material to be efficient, innovative and
effective.

Table 4. Students’ Learning Motivations in the Use of Facebook


Motivation Mean Median Interpretation
Internal Motivation 15.5 15 Motivated
External Motivation 15.5 15 Motivated

Table 4 illustrates that students are internally and externally motivated to use
Facebook as an educational material.

Table 5. Difference in the English Language Proficiency of Facebook Users and


Non-Users
Areas Group Mean t-value p-value Interpretation

Non-Users 19.54
Appropriateness of vocabulary 1.529 0.134 Not Significant
Users 17.92

Non-Users 19.37
Spelling proficiency 2.103 0.041 Significant
Users 17.33

Non-Users 16.65
Grammar proficiency 2.825 0.007 Significant
Users 13.81

Non-Users 10.38
Correct sentence structure 2.157 0.037 Significant
Users 9.04

Appropriateness of use of punctuation Non-Users 5.24


1.074 0.289 Not Significant
marks Users 4.90

Non-Users 6.95
Expressing Ideas 4.344 0.000 Significant
Users 5.31

Non-Users 78.13
Language Proficiency 2.549 0.014 Significant
Users 68.31

Table 5 explains the influence of the use of Facebook in the English language
proficiency of students. There is no significant difference of users and non-users
of Facebook in the areas of appropriateness of vocabulary and appropriateness
in the use of punctuation marks. On the other hand, there is significant difference
of users and non-users of Facebook in the four areas of English language
proficiency namely; spelling proficiency, grammar proficiency, correct sentence
structure and expressing ideas. Moreover, there is a significant difference

15
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

between the users and non-users of Facebook in the overall English language
proficiency.

Table 6. Difference in the Pre-test, Post-test and Mean Scores of Students in the
Traditional Method and Facebook.
Result of Round 2
Paired Samples Statistics

Mean N t-value p-value Interpretation

T1 81.6667 17
Pair 1 -2.021 .060 Not Significant
T2 85.8039 17

F1 79.6863 17
Pair 2 -1.908 .075 Not Significant
F2 84.5294 17

T1 81.6667 17
Pair 3 .450 .659 Not Significant
F1 79.6863 17

T2 85.8039 17
Pair 4 .391 .701 Not Significant
F2 84.5294 17

T 4.1373 17
Pair 5 -.212 .835 Not Significant
F 4.8431 17

T1- Traditional Pretest


T2 – Traditional Posttest
F1- Face book Pretest
F2- Face book Posttest
T-Difference between Traditional Pretest and Posttest
F-Difference between Face book Pretest and Posttest

The table shows that there is no statistically significant difference in the English
Language Proficiency of students when using Facebook and the traditional way.
Specifically, there is no significant difference the traditional pre-test and post test;
Facebook pre-test and post test; Traditional pre-test and facebook pre-test;
traditional post test and Facebook post.

Table 7. Difference in the English Language Proficiency of Facebook Users


when grouped according to Gender
Gender Mean t-value p-value Interpretation
Male 18.9754
Vocabulary 1.721 0.099 Not Significant
Female 16.6673

Male 18.4369
Spelling 1.862 0.076 Not Significant
Female 16.0300
Male 14.9492
Grammar 2.036 0.054 Not Significant
Female 12.4536
Male 9.7692
Sentence 2.133 0.044 Significant
Female 8.1818
Male 5.3069
Punctuation 2.188 0.040 Significant
Female 4.4245

16
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Male 5.8715
Idea 2.892 0.008 Significant
Female 4.6355
Proficiency Male 73.3092 2.227 0.037 Significant
Female 62.3927

As reflected in the table, there is a significant difference in the English language


proficiency of male and female students specifically on the areas of correct
sentence structure, appropriateness on the use of punctuation marks, and in
expressing ideas. In addition, males are more proficient in the abovementioned
areas compared to females. On the other hand, there is no statistically significant
difference in the English language proficiency of male and female students
specifically on the areas of appropriateness of vocabulary, spelling proficiency
and grammar proficiency.

Table 8. Correlation Between English Language Proficiency and Identified


Variables
Variable Vocabulary Spelling Grammar Structure Punctuation Ideas Proficiency
Age -.013 -.006 -.174 -.135 -.070 -.116 -.085
Weekly -.348 -.465* -.354 -.408 -.421 -.391 -.431*
Budget
Weekly .198 .114 .175 .189 .305 .281 .204
Frequency
Teachers’ -.117 -.061 -.113 -.132 .012 -.096 -.102
teaching
skills
Learning .244 .238 .316 .314 .399 .322 .313
Motivations

Discussion

The influence of Facebook in English language proficiency will depend on


how the respondents utilized Facebook especially on the frequency of usage.
The respondents of this study are using Facebook twice a week. Law of Exercise
(Thorndike) states that the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are
strengthened by recency, frequency and contiguity. However, other exploratory
studies (Canales et al., 2009; Karpinski & Duberstein, 2009; Kalpidou, Costin, &
Morris, 2011) show that an extended presence on Facebook can have harmful
effects on productivity and task performance. The amount that the user will
spend on Facebook will decrease the amount he spends on studying thus it
distract him from productive academic work. Intellectual capabilities to manage
time and process information also should affect their capacity to benefit from
online activities and restrict their efficiency on any tasks performed in parallel.
Facebook users usually interrupt their work to visit Facebook profiles, because of
the short-term capacity needed for the working memory process. This split
attention paid to multi tasks causes distraction (Rouis; Limayen & Sangari, 2011).
Even though they consider the website distracting and time consuming, these
students note that they cannot quit visiting it, because they like it and use it to
keep contact with their friends and family, whether they encounter them everyday
or not (Adan, 2011). Facebook was designed for social interaction and this is

17
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

also the primary reason why students are well motivated to use the said platform.
This paper discloses that the respondents are motivated internally and externally.
Students had higher learning motivation and participation when using the
proposed web application supported learning environment during and after class
as it gave them access to adequate learning support. The proposed approach
also gave effective assistance to instructors and students in administering and
conducting learning activities during and after class (Lin, Min 2013). In the new
digital age, Siemens (2004,2005) and Downes (2007) proposed connectivism
theory, where social learning is integrated with social media technologies like
Facebook. In the world of social media proliferation, learning is not an internal,
individualistic activity. Rather, learners gather information from connecting to
others’ knowledge using Facebook and other similar platforms. One of the
principles of connectivism is the capacity to learn in more critical than what is
currently known (Siemens, 2004). The responsibility of a teacher is not just to
define, generate, or assign content, but it is to help learners build learning paths
and make connections with existing and new knowledge resources (Anderson
and Dron, 2011). Social learning theories, especially connectivism provide
insights on the roles of educators in this social network environment.

On the other hand, electronic media use is negatively associated with


grades. (Jacobsen, & Forste, 2011). This multitasking likely increases distraction,
something prior research has shown to be detrimental to student performance.
As social media websites, such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter gain
popularity, they are also are becoming increasingly dangerous as they create
modes to procrastinate while trying to complete homework.

The survey data of Madge, Meek, Wellens and Hooley (2009) also
illustrates that once at school, Facebook was part of the 'social glue' that helped
students settle into student’s life. However, care must be taken not to over-
privilege Facebook: it is clearly only one aspect of students' more general social
networking practices and face-to-face interrelationships and interactions remain
important. Students thought Facebook was used most importantly for social
reasons, not for formal teaching purposes, although it was sometimes used
informally for learning purposes.

Facebook users are predominantly students (Selami, 2012) and this is


also the reason why the researcher conducted this study to the secondary
students. On the other hand, gender plays an imperative role in who uses
Facebook, whereas age is not a considerable variable. A Survey research found
that females are particularly interested in learning by mobile (especially given its
"any time, any place" nature) (Rahman & Panda, 2012).

18
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Literature says Facebook plays an important role in determining how


dictionaries learn about potential new words. Instead of waiting for new words to
gradually make their way through traditional channels, modern dictionaries use
social media to monitor new words (Brown, 2012). In the study of Root & Mckay
(2014) students did not consider grammar and spelling to be important. For them,
expressing their ideas and receiving instant feedback are more important than
being proficient in using correct and acceptable grammar. Users of Facebook
start relying on the computer grammar and spelling check features. This reduces
their command over the language and their creative writing skills (MacEntee,
2012). Apparently punctuation and spelling have a bigger upshot on Facebook
posts and comments. It’s understandable that punctuation is important on
website, blogs and articles but punctuation in particular can persuade the
reactions that posts receive on Facebook (Jasilek, 2013).

A paper released by the English Spelling Society concludes that the


internet has revolutionized the English language, and made misspelling the
norm. Internet fosters belief that there is no need to correct typos or conform to
rules. English Spelling Society finds Internet chatrooms and social networking
sites as heartening to children to spell words incorrectly. As people type at speed
online, there is now a "general attitude" that there is no need to correct mistakes
or conform to regular spelling rules. But this means that children who have been
brought up with the internet do not question wrongly spelt words. The report's
author, Lucy Jones, a former student at Manchester University had mentioned
that we are now witnessing the effect of these linguistic variations are having on
children born into the computer age with such a high level of access in and out of
schools.

The main effect of Facebook is that sentences and phrases have become
much shorter. For example, the alteration of the word ‘Facebook’ to be both a
noun and a verb can change a sentence from “I will send her a message on
Facebook” to simply “I’ll Facebook her”. In our fast-paced society, the almost-
instant ability of social media to share thoughts with the world has also affected
our behavior in actual speech. Students mostly use slang words or shortened
forms of words on social networking sites (MacEntee, 2012).For example, this
use of terms such as ‘tweet’ as a verb to shorten sentences is very much
reflective of the limit of 140 characters in a tweet, forcing you to become more
concise and get your message across with a limited number of letters (Jasilek,
2013).

This paper divulges that students recognized their teacher as efficient in


using Facebook as an educational material, innovative in the use of Facebook
and effective in using Facebook as a teaching aid.
Media literacy education has become increasingly present in curricular
initiatives around the world as media saturate cultural environments. For second-
language teachers and teacher educators whose practice centers on language,

19
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

communication, and culture, the need to address media as a pedagogical site of


critique is imperative (Chamberlin-Quinlisk, Carla, 2012).

Though the teacher is efficient, innovative and effective in introducing


Facebook as an educational material the results reveal that students who are
using Facebook are not proficient in all areas of English language proficiency.
Furthermore, the mean score is lower compared to the mean score of the non-
users of Facebook. Mazer and Simon (2009) found out in his study entitled “The
effects of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook on teacher credibility. Learning,
Media & Technology” that teachers who personalize their teaching through the
use of humor, stories, enthusiasm, and self-disclosure are perceived by their
students to be effective in explaining course content. On the other hand, Mazer,
Joseph P. Murphy, Richard E. Simonds, Cheri J.(2007) emphasized possible
negative associations between teacher use of Facebook and teacher credibility.

On the other hand, Fewkes and McBabe (2012) state many examples of
use for educational purposes. In their study, it was found out that 73% of
respondents reported having used Facebook for educational purposes. The
results of this research point to a need for the better utilization of Facebook in
classrooms and the need for school boards who choose to "embrace" the
increasing popularity of social media to implement programs that better ensure
teachers also feel comfortable enough to embrace this informal teaching tool.

Teachers only marginally integrate the disposable technology in class


(Maglic, 2007). Results revealed that English language teachers do not
frequently use modern instructional technologies and variety of teaching
techniques in their English language lessons. It was also found that students
learn under harsh environment, which is often rowdy, congested and noisy.
(Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S. E.; Iyamu, E. O. S. 2006).

Conclusion

This study revealed that Facebook is not effective in attaining proficiency


in the English language despite the fact that students are highly motivated to use
Facebook and their teachers are highly competent in using Facebook as
educational material. It is worthy to note that socio-demographic aspect of the
respondents is very important contributing factor in the result of this study. Users
who are from higher socio-economic class and have computer and Internet
connection in the household tend to use Facebook more frequently than other
socio-demographic groups. The respondents of this study are from public
secondary schools, thus they are not well exposed to social networks but this is
also the reason why they are highly motivated to use Facebook. They are
inquisitive in utilizing Facebook and enthusiast to explore the different features of
Facebook especially on gaming and chatting however, they are being
sidetracked and lose their focus on the given academic activities. The

20
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

respondents of this study are aged from 12-15 years old, thus, they are
vulnerable. They are still dependent in their teachers in terms of instructions and
learning processes. Younger Facebook users tend to do more fun activities such
as playing online games while older people do more information seeking/learning
activities particularly getting news on current events. (Howard Rainie & Jones,
2002; Madden & Rainie, 2003). The more educated and those from higher socio-
economic classes also tend to go online to access news and health information.

Recommendation

The researcher believes that facebook can be an educational material


since it can attract the attention of the students. Furthermore, the students are
highly motivated to use Facebook in their academic activities. Facebook in its
very nature caters for independent usage, thus the use of facebook must be
integrated in the evaluation or in the assignment part of the lesson plan. It is for
the students to develop their communication skills and be proficient in using the
English language. The said integration of Facebook in the academe is strongly
recommended to all college students who can perform independent cooperative
learning. In addition, college students can control themselves in utilizing
Facebook. More research needs to be conducted and tracked down concerning
the boundless advancement of Facebook in terms of its educational implications.
Thus, the researcher strongly suggests that another research will be
implemented to the young generations aged 18-24 years old since the youth are
the key drivers of Facebook use in the country. Also, the study must be done in a
private institution catering higher socio-economic class.

References
1. Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S.E. (2010). "Factors affecting quality of English language
teaching and learning in secondary schools in Nigeria". College Student Journal.
FindArticles.com. 11 Oct, 2010.
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_40/ai_n16726393/
2. Akman, I., & Mishra, A. (2010). Gender, age and income differences in internet
usage among employees in organizations. Computers in Human Behavior.
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.12.007
3. Akyıldız, M., Argan, M. (2012). “Using online social networking: Students'
purposes of Facebook usage at the University of Turkey”, Journal of Technology
Research, Vol. 3, p1
4. Alderman, K. (2004). Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching
and Learning.
5. Al-Mahrooqi, R. (2012a). English communication skills: How are they taught at
schools and universities in Oman. English Language Teaching.
6. Al-Mahrooqi, R. (2012b). Reading Literature in English: Challenges Facing
Omani College Students. Asian EFLJournal, 57, 24-51. Retrieved from
http://asian-efl-journal.com/journal-2012.
7. Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). “Three generations of distance education
pedagogy.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distance

21
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Learning, 12(3), 80-97. Retrieved from


http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890
8. Arquero, J. L., Esteban Romero-Frías, E. (2013). “Using social network sites in
Higher Education: an experience in business studies”, Innovations in Education
and Teaching International
9. Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu. (2012). “Informal Language Learning Setting:
Technology or Social Interaction?.” Turkish Online Journal of Educational
Technology - TOJET, v11 n2 p142-149
10. Barbour, M., & Plough, C. (2009). Social networking in cyberschooling:
Helping to make online learning less isolating. TechTrends, 53(4), 56–60.
11. Bicen, H., Uzunboylu, H. (2013). “The Use of social networking sites in
education: A case study of Facebook”,Journal of Universal Computer Science,
vol. 19, no. , 658-671
12. Brady, K. P., Holcomb, L. B., & Smith, B. V. (2010). The use of alternative
social networking sites in higher educational settings: A case study of the e-
Learning benefits of Ning in education. Journal of Interactive Online Learning,
9(2), 151–170.
13. Chamberlin-Quinlisk, Carla. (2012). “Critical Media Analysis in Teacher
Education: Exploring Language-Learners' Identity through Mediated Images of a
Non-Native Speaker of English.” TESL Canada Journal, v29 n2 p42-57 Spr 2012.
16 pp.

14. Chang, Y.-P. (2010). A Study of EFL college students’ self-handicapping and
English International Journal of English Language Education ISSN 2325-0887
2013, Vol. 1, No. 1 190 www.macrothink.org/ijele performance. Procedia - Social
and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2006-2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.272

15. Chinn, M. D., & Fairlie, R.W. (2004). The determinants of the global digital
divide: A crosscountry analysis of computer and Internet penetration. Oxford
Economic Papers, 59(1).

16. Choi, A. (2008). Internet in Singapore: Findings from a national survey.


Observatorio (OBS) Journal, 6, 151-168. doi: 1646-5954/ERC123483/2008 151
17. Conference on Media, Knowledge & Education—Exploring New Spaces,
Relations and Dynamics in Digital Media Ecologies”. Retrieved from
http://www.downes.ca/post/33034
18. Crook, C. (2008). Web 2.0 technologies for learning: The current landscape-
opportunities, challenges and tensions. Learning Sciences Research Institute,
University of Nottingham, 24-27.
19. DeSchryver, M., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. & Francis, A. (2009). Moodle vs.
Facebook: does using Facebook for discussions in an online course enhance
perceived social presence and student interaction? In I. Gibsonet al. (Ed.),
Proceedings of society for information technology & teacher education

22
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

international conference (pp. 329–336). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the


Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
20. Downes, S. (2007). “An introduction to connective knowledge. Presented at
the International
21. Educause Learning Initiative (2006). 7 things you should know about
Facebook. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7017.pdf
22. Fewkes, Aaron M. & McCabe, Mike. (2012). Facebook: Learning Tool or
Distraction? Nipissing University.
23. Finneran, C.M. & Zhang,P. A (2003) Person–Artefact-Task (PAT) Model of
Flow Antecedents in Computer-Mediated Environments International Journal of
Human-Computer Studies, 59, pp. 475–496
24. Gardner, J., & Oswald, A. (2001). Internet use: The digital divide. Retrieved
from www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/faculty/oswald/bsago12.pdf
25. Greenhow, C. (2011). Online social networking and learning. International
Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 1(1), 36–50.
26. Greenhow, C., & Robelia, B. (2009). Old communication, new literacies:
Social network sites as social learning resources. Journal of Computer-mediated
Communication, 14(4), 1130–1161.
27. Greenhow, C. G., Robelia, B., & Hughes, J. (2009). Learning, teaching, and
scholarship in a digital age Web 2.0 and classroom research: What path should
we take now? Educational Researcher, 38(4), 246–259.
28. Griffith, S., Liyanage, L. (2008). “An introduction to the potential of social
networking sites in education”, Proceedings of the Emerging Technologies
Conference, University of Wollongong, 18-21 June 2008.
29. Howard, P. N., Rainie, L., & Jones, S. (2002). Days and Nights on the
Internet. In B. Wellman & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Internet in Everyday
Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
30. Hughes, G. (2009). Social software: New opportunities for challenging social
inequalities in learning? Learning, Media and Technology, 34(4), 291-305.
31. Hani (2014). “Focus on Technology: Enhancing Instruction and
Communication with Twitter”. Childhood Education, v90 n1 p75-76 2014. 2 pp.
32. Jacobsen, W. C., & Forste, R. (2011). The Wired Generation: Academic and
Social Outcomes of Electronic Media Use Among University Students.
33. Junco, R., Merson, D., & Salter, D. W. (2010). The Effect of Gender,
Ethnicity, and Income on College Students' Use of Communication.
34. Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J. (2011). The relationship between
Facebook and the well-being of undergraduate college students.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14 (4), 183-189.
doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0061.
35. Krashen, S. D. (1981). Principles and practice in second language
acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press Inc.
36. Krashen, S. D. (1988). Second language acquisition and second language
learning. New York: Prentice-Hall International.

23
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

37. Kurata, Naomi (2010). “Opportunities for Foreign Language Learning and
Use within a Learner's Informal Social Networks”. Mind, Culture, and Activity,
v17 n4 p382-396 2010. 15 pp.
38. Labucay, Iremae D (2011). Internet Use in the Philippines. Social Weather
Stations.
39. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Al-Mahrooqi, R., & Tuzlukova, V. (2012).
Meeting employers’ needs: Communication skills in Omani tertiary education.
Proceedings of Oman Symposium on Management “Inspiring Oman Towards
New Horizons, March 2012 (pp. 208-231). Ibra: Ibra College of Technology.
40. Lee, M. J. W., & McLoughlin, C. (2010). Beyond distance and time
constraints: Applying social networking tools and Web 2.0 approaches to
distance learning. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emerging technologies in distance
education (pp. 61–87). Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press.
41. Lin, Yen-Ting; Jou, Min (2013). “Integrating Popular Web Applications in
Classroom Learning Environments and Its Effects on Teaching, Student Learning
Motivation and Performance”. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
- TOJET, v12 n2 p157-165 Apr 2013. 9 pp.
42. MacEntee (2012). Negative Effects of Social Networking Sites for Students.
Blog
43. Madge, Clare; Meek, Julia; Wellens, Jane &Hooley, Tristram. (2009).
Facebook, social integration and informal learning at university: 'It is more for
socialising and talking to friends about work than for actually doing work'.
Learning, Media & Technology. Jun2009, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p141-155. 15p. 1
Chart.
44. Maglic,Marko. (2007).Media Education in English Language Teaching: Not
our job? Novitas-ROYAL, Vol.: 1(1), pp.1-9.
45. Mazer, Joseph P.; Murphy, Richard E. & Simonds, Cheri J.(2009). The
effects of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook on teacher credibility. Learning,
Media & Technology. Jun2009, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p175-183. 9p. 2 Charts.
46. Minges, M., Magpantay, E., Firth, L. and Kelly, T. (2002). Pinoy Internet:
Philippines case study. Retrieved from the International Telecommunication
Union’s (ITU) Internet Case Study webpage:
www.itu.int/asean2001/reports/material/PHL%20CS.pdf
47. Murphy, E. (2009). Online synchronous communication in the second-
language classroom. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 35(3).
Retrieved from http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/539/262
48. Naveh, G., Tubin, D., & Pliskin, N. (2010). Student LMS use and satisfaction
in academic institutions: The organizational perspective. The Internet and Higher
Education, 13(3), 127–133.
49. Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and
the Internet Worldwide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
50. Normazidah, C. M., Koo, Y. L., & Hazita, A. (2012). Exploring English
language learning and teaching in Malaysia. GEMA Online™ Journal of
Language Studies, 12(1), 35-55.

24
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

51. Ooi, C. Y. & Loh, K. Y. (2010). Using online web 2.0 tools to promote
innovative learning. In Q. Y. Wang & S. C. Kong (Eds), Workshop Proceedings of
the 14th Global Conference on Computers.
52. Rahman, Md. Mizanoor; Panda, Santosh. (2012). “Teaching English through
Open Non-Formal Education (ONFE) in Bangladesh with an Effective Integration
of ICT to Support Learning. “Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, v13
n3 p87-96.Education (pp. 72–76). Singapore: National Institute of Education
53. Roberts, D.F., Foehr, U.G., & Rideout, M.A. (2005). Generation M: Media in
the lives of 8-18 year-olds.
54. Root, Teri & McKay, Sandra. (2014). Student Awareness of the Use of Social
Media Screening by Prospective Employers. Journal of Education for Business.
2014, Vol. 89 Issue 4, p202-206. 5p. 2 Charts.
55. Rouis, S., Limayem, M., &Sangari, E. (2011). Impact of Facebook usage on
students‟ academic achievement: Role of self-regulation and trust. Electronic
Journal of Research in Educational Psychology,
56. Schoor, Cornelia; Kownatzki, Salome; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann.
(2014).”Effects of Feeding Back the Motivation of a Collaboratively Learning
Group.” Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, v12 n1 p191-
210 Apr 2014. 20 pp
57. Schroeder, J. & Greenbowe, T. (2009). The chemistry of Facebook: using
social networking to create an online community for the organic chemistry
laboratory. Journal of Online Education, 5, 4. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from
http://www.uh.cu/static/documents/AL/The%20Chemistry%20of
%20Facebook.pdf
58. Siemens, G. (2004). “ Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age.”
http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.html
59. Smith, P., Smith, N., Sherman, K., Kriplani, K., Goodwin, I., Bell, A., &
Crothers, C. (2008). The Internet: Social and demographic impacts in Aotearoa
New Zealand. Observatorio INTERNET USE IN THE PHILIPPINES 20 (OBS*)
Journal, 6, 307-330. Retrieved from
http://obs.obercom.pt/index.php/obs/article/viewArticle/234 Warschauer, M.
(2003). Technology and social inclusion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
60. Socialbakers (2012). Thailand Facebook statistics. Retrieved from
http://www.socialbakers.com/Facebookstatistics/thailand
61. Stelter, B. (2008). MySpace might have friends, but it wants ad money.
(Business/Financial Desk). The New York Times, 157(54343), C4(L).
62. Suthiwartnarueput, Thanawan. (2012). Effects of Using Facebook as a
Medium for Discussions of English Grammar and Writing of Low-Intermediate
EFL Students. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. National
University of Singapore.
63. Tafani, Vilma (2009). “Teaching English Through Mass Media.” Acta
Didactica Napocensia Volume 2 No.1.
64. Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem. (2008). “Culture and Language Teaching
through Media.” Online Submission, Paper presented at the World Council for
Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) World

25
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

65. Tılfarlıoğlu, F. Y. (2011 ). An International Dimension of The Student's


Attitudes towards The Use of English in Web 2.0 Technology. The Turkish Online
Journal of Educational Technology , 10:3.erence in Education.

66. Trawiński, M. (2005). An Outline of Second Language Acquisition Theories.


Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej.
67. Valentine, J. F., Jr., & Repath-Martos, L. M. (1997). How relevant is
relevance? In M. A. Snow & D. M.Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom:
Perspectives on integrating language and content (pp. 233–247). White Plains,
NY: Longman.
68. Wan, G. (2006). Integrating media literacy into the curriculum. Academic
Exchange Quarterly, 10(3), 174.

69. Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee. (2012). “ Effects of Using Facebook as a


Medium for Discussions of English Grammar and Writing of Low-Intermediate
EFL Students” Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 2012, Vol. 9,
No. 2, pp. 194–214. Centre for Language Studies.National University of
Singapore.
70. Zanamwe, N., Rupere, T., Kufandirimbwa, O. (2013). “Use of social
networking technologies in higher education in Zimbabwe: A learners’
perspective”, International Journal of Computer and Information Technology,
Volume 02– Issue 01.

Acknowledgment

The researcher would like to extend his sincerest gratefulness to his mentors Dr.
Pyrene T. Qulang, Dr. Emmanuel James P. Pattaguan, Dr. Olivia B. Pasicolan,
Dr. Antonio Tamayao, Dr. Imogen Claire M. Callangan and Dr. Delilah B.
Valencia. They had lead the researcher to the threshold of vast knowledge, skills
and values.

The same appreciation is given to the checkers of the students’ activities Mr. Oly
Cagurangan and Ms. Mynna Salvador, to the experts who validated the
instruments used and analyzed the data collected lead by Ms. Marie Jean N.
Mendezabal.

The researcher would like also to thank his dear friend Ms. Lorena Cabaniza for
the untiring support and to his AMA Tuguegarao family.

26
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Most importantly, mabbalo to his parents Mr. Rolanado A. Bayucan and Mrs.
Gloria M. Bayucan and to his only brother Ronald M. Bayucan for the their
unconditional love.

To the Almighty God – Jesus Christ, Mabbalo!

Appendices

Appendix A
Module

Lesson 1
Objectives: At the end of the session, the students should be able to:
a. define simple sentence.
b. construct a simple sentence.
c. identify four ways of writing a simple sentence.

Subject Matter
Simple Sentences
Four Ways of Writing Simple Sentence

27
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

References
Olivarez, Ranchez, Reyes (2015). BEC/PELC Curriculum 2015 English.

Materials
Board
Facebook

Procedures
Preparatory Activities
Review
Share with the whole class your understanding about the parts of the
sentence.

Motivation
Kindly tell me about yourself.

Developmental Activities

Presentation
Ask a student to read the selection.

Hi! I am Mark Christian Vasquez.


I have only one sister.
Maria Agnes is my sister.
She is ten years old.
She loves to sing and dance;
She’s the family’s favorite!
Do you want to meet her?
Surely, she’ll be a favorite of yours, too.

Comprehension
Answer the following questions.
Whose sister is Maria Agnes?
Why she is the family’s favorite?
What does the term “family’s favorite” mean? Explain.
Do you have someone in your family who is a favorite? Who? Why?

Discussion
Read these sentences:

1. Maria Agnes is my sister.


What is the subject of the sentence?
What is the predicate?
How many ideas does the sentence give?
2. Jack and Jill went up a hill.
What do you notice about the subject in this sentence?

28
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

3. We have lost millions of manufacturing jobs to Mexico, South America,


and Asia.
What is the subject of the sentence?
How many predicates does it have?

4. Rea and Marissa auditioned for the lead roles in the school musical but
got only chorus parts.
What are the subjects in this sentence?
What are the predicates?

Generalization
A simple sentence has a subject and a predicate.
There are four ways of writing a simple sentence;
1. Simple subject and simple predicate
2. Simple subject and compound predicate
3. Compound subject and simple predicate
4. Compound subject and compound predicate

Evaluation
Facebook Activity

Students will create their own facebook account and will be joined in a group
discussion. The teacher will post a poem. Students will choose one word from
the poem and give its corresponding description or definition. The students will
also give their interpretations or reactions with regard to the given poem.

29
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Lesson 2

Objectives: At the end of the session, the students should be able to:

a. define compound sentences


b. construct compound sentences
c. use connectors such as and, bt, or, so, and while

Subject Matter
Compound Sentence
Using connectors such as and, but, or, so, and while

References
Olivarez, Ranchez, Reyes (2015). BEC/PELC Curriculum 2015 English.

30
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Materials
Board
Facebook

Procedures
Preparatory Activities
Review
Share with the whole class your understanding about the simple sentence.

Motivation
What is your favorite poem? Why?

Developmental Activities
Presentation
Ask a student to read the poem.

Touching the Truth

Light means a lot to us


You and I stare at it
As we think about Him
There’s so much fun
To wonder on what He is
To our life with lights on!
With Him for every call we make
He tried to give and share
A gesture of love to us dear.
The light drives us to carry on
It’s easy to do good things
And believe there’s hope for everything!

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.


1. Who is Him being referred to in the poem?
2. What is the message of the author to the reader?
3. If light gives hope, then the word Him refers to what?

Discussion
The second type of sentence is the compound sentence. This sentence is
composed of two simple sentences joined together by a comma and a joining
word (coordinating conjunction). We could also describe a compound sentence
as two independent clauses joined by a conjunction.There are seven
coordinating conjunctions:

and

31
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

but
so
or
for
nor
yet.
Example

Generalization
In compound sentence two or more ideas are usually connected by
conjunctions: and, but, or, so or while.
and- is used to show similar or additional ideas
but- is used to show contrast
while – means at the same time
so- is used to show consequence or result
or – is used to show choice or alternative

Evaluation
Facebook Activity
The teacher will post a lyrics of a song (forevermore) and the
students should give their interpretations about the song.

32
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Lesson 3

Objectives: At the end of the session, the students should be able to:
a. define complex sentence.
b. construct complex sentences.
c. use conjunctions.

Subject Matter
Complex Sentence

References
Olivarez, Ranchez, Reyes (2015). BEC/PELC Curriculum 2015 English.

Materials
Board

33
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Facebook

Procedures
Preparatory Activities
Review
Share with the whole class your understanding about compound
sentence.

Motivation
What makes your summer exciting?

Developmental Activities
Presentation
Ask a student to read the selection.

Embracing New Waves

Hello, here comes the rain and storm!


Bringing headaches and problems to the nation.
Who said so?
They are needed to snuff out the heat in the air.
Just be prepared and go on with the work.
After a day or two, say goodbye with a smile.
Good weather is here to perk up the mind.
Who said so?
So come dear fellows, join hands and have fun.
Enjoy the frolicking sun with the refreshing air around!

Comprehension
Answer the following questions.

1. What are their problems when rain and storm come?


2. Are rain and storm needed by the people? Why?
3. What makes us smile and feel happy?
4. What happens if there’s a good weather? Why?

Discussion
Clauses are groups of words that form sentences. A clause must contain a
subject and a verb.
There are two types of clauses:
independent - expresses a complete idea, ie a sentence, and makes sense all by
itself
dependent - does not express a complete idea, it is a part sentence, and does
not make sense by itself).

34
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Dependent clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction, eg who, when, while,


that, because, since, although.
Example

Generalization
A complex sentence is made up of one independent clause and one or
more dependent clause. The independent clause expresses a complete thought.
The dependent clause or subordinate clause does not express complete thought
and kit can not stand by itself. All dependent clauses are introduced by
connectors like because. Other connectors are: while, though, if, unless, before,
although, so, in order that, after, nevertheless, so that, etc.

Evaluation

Facebook Activity
The teacher will post a video clip and the students should
give their reactions about the video.

35
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Appendix B
Rubrics

English Language Proficiency Rubric


Vocabulary
Novice Learning Developing Competent Exemplary
1 pt 2 pts 3 pts 4 pts 5 pts
Match words
to definitions Student is Student is Student is Student is Student is
able to match able to match able to match able to match able to match
one to two three to four four to five five to six all of the
words to their words to their words to their words to their words to their
definitions. definitions. definitions. definitions. definitions.
Complete
sentences Student is Student is Student is Student is Student is
able to able to able to able to able to
complete only complete two complete complete four complete all of
one sentence to three three to four to five the sentences
with the sentences sentences sentences with the
correct with the with the with the correct
vocabulary correct correct correct vocabulary
words. vocabulary vocabulary vocabulary words.
words. words. words.
Write
definitions Student is Student is Student is Student is Student is
able to write able to write able to write able to write able to write

36
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

only one two three four all of the


definition. definitions. definitions. definitions. definitions.
Synonyms One to two Three to four Five to six Seven to Each word
words have words have words have eight words has a correct
correct correct correct have correct synonym for
synonym for synonym for synonym for synonym for vocabulary
vocabulary vocabulary vocabulary vocabulary word
word. word. word. word.
Sentence One sentence Two Three Four All sentences
accurately sentences sentences sentences accurately use
uses the accurately accurately accurately the vocabulary
vocabulary use the use the use the word in a
word in a vocabulary vocabulary vocabulary structurally
structurally word in a word in a word in a sound
sound structurally structurally structurally sentence.
sentence. sound sound sound
sentence. sentence. sentence
Spelling
Correct
Words Nine or more Seven to Four to six One to three All words are
words are eight words words are words are correctly
incorrectly are incorrectly incorrectly spelled.
spelled. incorrectly spelled. spelled.
spelled.
Capitalization
Nine or more Seven to Four to six One to three No
words are eight words words are words are capitalization
incorrectly are incorrectly correctly errors.
capitalized incorrectly capitalized capitalized
and capitalized and and correctly
incorrectly not and incorrectly not not
capitalized. incorrectly not capitalized. capitalized.
capitalized.
Common Nine or more Seven to Four to six One to three
words words are eight words words are words are
incorrectly are incorrectly incorrectly No spelling
spelled. incorrectly spelled. spelled. errors.
spelled.

Grammar

Tenses Nine or more Seven to Four to six One to three All of the
tenses are eight tenses tenses are tenses are tenses are
incorrectly are coherent. coherent. coherent. coherent.
used.
Number Six sentences Four to five Two to three Only one All sentences
or more are sentences sentences sentence is are free from
free from are free from are free from free from subject-verb
errors in using errors in errors in errors in agreement
singular and using singular using singular using singular errors.
plural form of and plural and plural and plural
the subject form of the form of the form of the
and verb. subject and subject and subject and
verb. verb. verb.
Faulty Five Four Three Two or fewer No

37
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

sentences or sentences sentences sentences grammatical


more have have syntax have syntax have syntax errors.
syntax errors. errors. errors. errors.
Sentence Structure
Sentence One to two Three to four Five to six Seven or All sentences
Construction sentences are sentences sentences more are well-
well are well are well sentences constructed.
constructed. constructed. constructed. are well
constructed

Conventions One to two Three to four Five to six Seven or Parallelism in


of English errors in verb errors in verb errors in verb more errors in verb use,
Language use, noun use, noun use, noun verb use, noun-pronoun
pronoun pronoun pronoun noun pronoun agreement;
agreement, agreement, agreement, agreement, proper use of
adjectives, adjectives, adjectives, adjectives, adjectives,
adverbs or adverbs or adverbs or adverbs or adverbs and
prepositions prepositions prepositions prepositions prepositions
that distract that distract that distract that distract
and confuse. and confuse. and confuse. and confuse.
Punctuation Marks
Use of Seven or Five to six Three to four Two or fewer No errors in
Punctuation more errors in errors in the errors in the errors in the the use of
Marks the use of use of use of use of commas,
punctuation commas, commas, commas, semi-colons
such as colons, semi- colons, semi- colons, semi- and end of
comma colons and colons and colons and sentence
splices, end of end of end of punctuation.
misuse of sentence sentence sentence
commas, punctuation. punctuation. punctuation.
colons or
semi-colons,
and
apostrophes
disrupt the
flow of the
text.

Idea/Content Seven or Five to six Three to four Two or fewer Contextually


more errors errors that errors that errors that correct.
that confuse confuse confuse confuse
readers. readers. readers. readers.

38
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Appendix C
Questionnaire

Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency


Questionnaire
Put a check mark (/) on the box that corresponds to your answer. Data collected
will be analyzed to show the existence of the framework of the media’s impact to
language learning of secondary students. Confidentiality of the respondents’
answers will be seriously upheld in the study.
I. Profile of the Respondents
A. B.

39
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Gender 1. Once a week


Frequency in Using Facebook (weekly)

1 Male 2. Twice a week


3. Thrice a week
. 4. Everyday
2. Female Weekly Budget for the Use of Facebook
1. 10.00
Year Level 2. 30.00
1. First Year 3. 60.00
4. 100.00 and above
2. Second
Year 1.
Do you have internet connection at home?
Yes
3. Third Year 2. None
If none, how do you access Facebook?
4. Fourth Year a. computer shop
If yes, what do you b. school laboratory
c. restaurant with wifi access
use to open your d. others (pls. specify)
account?
1 laptop/comp.
2. mobile
3 both

I. Please check the different scale in terms of the impact of facebook in English
Language Learning.
5-Strongly agree
4- Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1- Strongly Disagree

5 4 3 2 1
Teaching Skills
Efficiency
1. The teacher set concrete and aspiring goals for student
achievement using facebook. Thus, I was encouraged to involve
myself in academic facebook activity.
2. As a student, I considered Facebook activity more economical
than in the paper-pencil test.
3. It was easier for me to participate in the enrichment activity
through facebook.
4. The activity became more interesting and enjoyable when the
teacher used facebook for the enrichment activity.
5. The teacher used facebook for enrichment activity to save time.
Innovativeness
6. My teacher used the different features of facebook in presenting
the activities.
7. My English teacher tried new things, both teaching skills and
educational apps, ICT tools and electronic devices.
8. My teacher utilized a variety of instructional strategies such as
facebook that for student engagement and achievement

40
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

outcomes.
9. My teacher used facebook to better meet the needs of his
students.
10. My teacher is very creative because he introduced facebook for us
to be interested and motivated to learn the English language.
Effectiveness
11. I became interested in dealing with technologies because of the
integration of computer in the classroom discussion.
12. I am motivated to explore more on internet because of the
introduction of facebook in the classroom discussion.
13. I became expressive on my ideas because of the facebook activity
done in the classroom.
14. I improved my writing skills because of the different facebook
writing activity.
15. I engaged myself in a meaningful learning because of facebook.
Learning Motivation
Internal
16. I became more resourceful in doing my assignments because of
facebook.
17. I am motivated to learn through facebook because it helped me to
connect new information and that which I already knew.
18. Facebook motivated me to learn by offering new perspectives from
other working contexts that trigger new thinking in my personal
context.
19 I am motivated to use facebook because I can assimilate my new
experience in facebook by relating it to an existing situation to
enhance my English language learning.
20. I am more motivated to learn through facebook because of the
immediacy of response.
Extrernal
21. Facebook tools, in particular, encouraged language socialization
and engagement with language in socially and pragmatically
appropriate ways.
22. Facebook was attractive; it gave high school students another
world to make friends and a good way to release pressure.
23. Facebook motivated me to engage myself in the activity because it
was a fad. It was “in” for a high school student like me.
24. Facebook enabled me to have contact with my teacher any time
anywhere and so it motivated me to pursue my studies.
25. I am motivated to use facebook because my teacher used it.
Thank you very much!

RUEL MARAMAG BAYUCAN


RESEARCHER

41
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Appendix D
Variable Matrix
OPERATIONAL
DATA
DEFINITION
TYPE OF MEASURE
(Reminder: The
VARIABLE HOW WERE
operational
VARIABLES (Independent, THE
definition results
Dependent, VARIABLES
to a numeric
Intervening/Moderat MEASURED
value or a
or) IN THE
nominal/categoric
STUDY?)
al value)

42
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Intervening Variable This refers to the Descriptive


Student Profile personal statistics like
• age background of frequency
• gender the respondents. count,
• weekly budget on percentage,
Facebook usage mean score
and median
• frequency usage of
score were
Facebook
used to
describe the
profile of
students.

This refers to the Descriptive


Student Learning Motivation Intervening Variable drive or motive of statistics like
• Internal Motivation the respondents frequency
• External Motivation in utilizing count,
Facebook to percentage,
attain proficiency mean score
in English and median
language. score were
used.
Intervening Variable This refers to the Descriptive
Teaching skills in Using perception of the statistics like
Facebook students to the frequency
• Efficiency in the use teaching skills of count,
of Facebook teachers in using percentage,
• Innovativeness in Facebook as an mean score
the use of Facebook educational and median
• Effectiveness of material. score were
using Facebook as used.
educational material

Dependent Variable T-test was


English Language The output of utilized to
Proficiency utilizing determine the
a. Facebook in significant
appropriaten English language difference on
ess of proficiency . The the influence
vocabulary use of Facebook of the use of
b.spelling greatly affects the Facebook in
proficiency English language the English
c. grammar proficiency of the language
proficiency students which is proficiency of
d. correct being moderated students.

43
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

sentence by the teaching Two-way


construction skills of teachers Anova was
e. in the use of used to
appropriaten Facebook as an determine the
ess of educational interaction
punctuation material as well effect of the
marks as the student different
learning variables on
motivation and the English
the student language
profile. proficiency
using
Facebook. On
the other
hand, T-test of
correlated/
paired
samples was
utilized to
interpret the
results of the
round 2 of
implementatio
n.

Independent It refers to the The utilization


Use of Facebook variable use and not use of Facebook
of Facebook. was identified
during the
matching of
groups
through the
conduct of an
exam.

Appendix E
Literature Matrix
Researcher Major Objectives Delineated Factor Method, Data Major Findings
Gathering Tool,
Subjects/Participants
Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S. This study Foreign Countries, A questionnaire was Results revealed that
E.; Iyamu, E. O. S. examined the Teaching Methods, distributed to 3000 English language
(2006). Factors factors responsible Secondary School senior secondary teachers do not frequently
Affecting Quality of for the poor quality Students, school students across use modern instructional
English Language of the teaching of Educational the six geopolitical technologies and variety
Teaching and Learning English as a Technology, zones in Nigeria. of teaching techniques in
in Secondary Schools second language in Secondary Schools, their English language
in Nigeria. College public secondary Language Teachers, lessons. It was also found

44
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Student Journal, v40 n3 schools in Nigeria. English (Second that students learn under
p495-504 To guide the study Language), Second harsh environment, which
three research Language is often rowdy, congested
questions were Instruction, and noisy.
posed. The Educational Media,
questions Student Attitudes,
examined the Questionnaires,
following three Secondary
variables: (1) Education
Frequency of the
use of instructional
media; (2)
Frequency of the
use of instructional
techniques; and (3)
The school learning
environment.
Arena, Carla. (2008). This paper TESL-EJ, v11 Ideally, through blogs,
Blogging in the describes the Web Sites, students would create
Language Classroom: importance of Electronic content and construct
It Doesn't "Simply guiding students to Publishing, English knowledge using the
Happen". this tool on use blogs (Web (Second Language), wonders of these
the read/write Web. logs) for Second Language publishing tools that
educational Learning, Second abound online. The
purposes. Language author definitely believes
Instruction, Teaching in the power of blogs to
Methods, Best improve students' abilities
Practices, while learning a second
Audiences, Thinking language, in her case, in
Skills an EFL context. However,
blogging doesn't simply
happen. The word has
been spread about the
potential of blogging for
the language classroom,
but there needs to be
more than an idea to
convince students that
they can really profit from
Apthorp, Helen; Wang, This report on English Language It reviews the Key findings include: (1)
Xin; Ryan, Susan; professional Learners, standards for coverage All seven Central Region
Cicchinelli, Louis F. teaching standards Elementary of six topics that the states include knowledge
(2012). Teaching in the Central Education, research literature and skills for teaching
English Language Region examines Elementary School suggests are important English language learner
Learner Students: what K-8 general Teachers, for improving student (ELL) students in their
Professional Standards education teachers Standards, Teacher achievement. teaching standards,
in Elementary are expected to Characteristics, referencing at least two
Education in Central know and be able Teaching Skills, topics: differentiating
Region States. Issues to do in order to Individualized instruction to
& Answers. REL 2012- teach English Instruction, Media accommodate the
No. 122. Regional language learner Selection, Learning learning needs of ELL
Educational Laboratory students. Theories, Second students and
Central. 30 pp. Language Learning, communicating with
Communication students and families for
(Thought Transfer), whom English is not their
Student Evaluation, native language; (2) Five
Content Analysis, states (Kansas, Missouri,
Elementary North Dakota, South
Education Dakota and Wyoming)
reference recognizing and
supporting diverse
language backgrounds;
four states (Kansas, North
Dakota, South Dakota,
and Wyoming) reference
knowing theories of
second language
acquisition and related
strategies of support; (3)
No states reference

45
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

selecting materials or
curricula to accommodate
the learning needs of ELL
students; and (4) The
number of ELL-related
topics in each state's
standards ranges from
two to five. Colorado and
Nebraska reference two
(differentiating instruction
and communicating with
students and families).
Missouri references one
additional topic
(recognizing and
supporting diverse
language backgrounds),
while North Dakota, South
Dakota, and Wyoming
reference two additional
topics (recognizing and
supporting diverse
language backgrounds
and knowing theories of
second language
acquisition and related
strategies of support).
Finally, Kansas
references one additional
topic (assessing students'
language status and
development), for a total
of five topics.
Avalos, Mary This article Literacy, Language A lesson-planning Guided reading is an
A.; Plasencia, describes guided- Skills, Reading guide and examples important component of a
Alina; Chavez, reading Instruction, English are provided for comprehensive literacy
Celina; Rascon, Josefa. modifications for (Second Language), teachers who are program. Using this
(2007). Modified ELLs, integrating Teaching Methods, facing the challenge of approach to reading
Guided Reading: reading, writing, Second Language providing language and instruction is beneficial to
Gateway to English as listening, and Instruction, Second literacy instruction to all students, including
a Second Language speaking to build Language Learning, students learning to English-language learners
and Literacy Learning. the four language Theory Practice read in their L2. (ELLs). While guided
Reading Teacher, v61 skills. Relationship, reading is generally used
n4 p318-329. Instructional in the early elementary
Improvement, grades, this approach is
Directed Reading recommended for ELLs of
Activity, Reading all ages when appropriate
Strategies, Media methods and materials
Adaptation, are used. Teachers can
Elementary modify guided reading to
Education better meet the literacy
"and" second language
(L2) learning needs of
ELLs.
Aydin, Selami. (2012). The purpose of this Foreign Countries, The study is To conclude, there has
A Review of Research study is to present Web Sites, Social categorized into six been a serious lack of
on Facebook as an a review of Networks, Computer sections: Facebook research on Facebook's
Educational Facebook as an Uses in Education, users; reasons people use as an educational
Environment. educational Educational use Facebook; harmful resource, as current
Educational environment, as Research effects of Facebook; literature reflects how
Technology Research research on its use Facebook as an Facebook might more
and Development, v60 within education is educational readily be utilized as an
n6 p1093-1106 Dec relatively new. environment; educational environment.
2012. 14 pp. Facebook's effects on Finally, the study ends
culture, language, and with practical
education; and the recommendations for
relationship between researchers and
Facebook and subject educators.
variables. Additionally,
the study compares From this review of limited

46
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Facebook usage in studies on Facebook as


Turkey to its use on a an education
global scale. environment, several
conclusions can be
drawn. First, Facebook
users are predominantly
students, although the
number of users over 25
years of age has
dramatically increased in
recent years. Second,
gender plays an important
role in who uses
Facebook, whereas age
is not a considerable
variable. Third, the main
reason why people use
Facebook centers on
communication and
interaction among
students, family
members, teachers,
administrators and
alumni. Other
significant reasons
include adaptation to new
school programs and
cultures, discovering
social activities, finding
and maintaining
relationships, seeking
knowledge on a variety of
subjects, self-
representation and self-
promotion, recruitment,
sharing knowledge,
academic
purposes and adhering to
specific agendas. Fourth,
Facebook participation
might have
harmful repercussions,
which include
inappropriate behavior,
abuse, cyberbullying, and
invasions of privacy within
friendships. Fifth,
Facebook can be used as
an educational
environment, as it
improves classroom
practices and student
involvement. Various
teaching
and learning contexts
include social learning, e-
learning, environmental
learning, business,
art, and chemistry
education. Facebook can
be a valuable educational
environment, particularly
when learning about
different cultures.
Moreover, Facebook
increases learners’
self-efficacy, motivation,
self-esteem, positively
changes perceptions and
attitudes, reduces

47
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

anxiety, and improves


foreign and second
language learning skills in
reading and writing.
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, To explore which Foreign Countries, Two types of exposure Based on the informal
Tam Shu. (2012). source of language Informal Education, were provided: language learning theory,
Informal Language input would have a English (Second audiovisual mass language learning can
Learning Setting: greater impact, this Language), Second media as a source of occur outside the
Technology or Social study investigated Language Learning, language input in an classroom setting
Interaction?. Turkish the effect of Linguistic Input, EFL context and social unconsciously and
Online Journal of exposure on Interpersonal interaction as a source incidentally through
Educational speaking Relationship, Mass of language input in an interaction with the native
Technology - TOJET, proficiency. Media, Audiovisual ESL context. A sample speakers or exposure to
v11 n2 p142-149 Aids, Technology speaking test was authentic language input
Uses in Education, administered to one through technology.
Language hundred language However, an EFL context
Proficiency, Pretests learners in an EFL lacks the social
Posttests, context (Iran) and interaction which naturally
Instructional another one hundred occurs in an ESL context.
Effectiveness language learners in an
ESL context
(Malaysia). Then, thirty
participants from each
context who scored
one standard deviation
above and below the
mean were selected as
homogenous language
learners. During the
experiment, EFL
participants had
exposure to
audiovisual mass
media while the ESL
participants were
exposed to social
interaction as a source
of language input. At
the end, both groups
took another sample
speaking test. The
post-test showed that
the EFL group
performed better which
was indicative of the
fact that exposure to
technology promotes
speaking proficiency.
Black, Rebecca W. This article draws Second Language .Primary data sources Digital Age Literacy is a
(2009). English- from literature on Learning, English were adolescent ELL category of 21st-century
Language Learners, language, literacy (Second Language), focal participants’ fan skills that includes but is
Fan Communities, and studies, and 21st Global Approach, fiction texts, reader not limited to basic
21st-Century Skills. century skills to Multimedia reviews of these texts, proficiency with print-
Journal of Adolescent & explore how Materials, Popular and interviews with based text. Other Digital
Adult Literacy, v52 n8 English-language Culture, Web Sites, focal participants. Age forms of literacy
p688-697. learning (ELL) Adolescents, Media include the ability to read
youths, through Literacy, visual and multimodal
their engagement Technological texts, as well as
with digital Literacy technological and
technologies and information literacy.
popular media, are
developing the sort
of proficiencies that
have been
identified as crucial
to effective
participation in an
increasingly
globalized and
technology-

48
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

oriented society
Brown, Alex Social media plays an
(2012.) important role in
OMG! The Impact of determining how
Social Media dictionaries learn about
on the English potential new words.
Language Instead of waiting for new
words to gradually make
their way through
traditional channels,
modern dictionaries use
social media to monitor
new words.
Chamberlin-Quinlisk, Social Attitudes, critical media analysis Media literacy education
Carla. (2012). Critical Literacy Education, (CMA) as a tool that has become increasingly
Media Analysis in Teaching Methods, cultivates discussion of present in curricular
Teacher Education: Media Literacy, language-learners' initiatives around the
Exploring Language- Native Speakers, identities as they are world as media saturate
Learners' Identity English (Second shaped by popular our cultural environments.
through Mediated Language), media. I present CMA For second-language
Images of a Non-Native Language Attitudes, in the context of critical teachers and teacher
Speaker of English. Teacher Educators, language studies and educators whose practice
TESL Canada Journal, Second Language communication centers on language,
v29 n2 p42-57 Spr Learning, Second theories that situate communication, and
2012. 16 pp. Language language in social and culture, the need to
Instruction, political landscapes. I address media as a
Language Teachers, describe a hybrid pedagogical site of
Films, Social Class, (quantitative/qualitative critique is imperative.
Language Planning, ) approach to CMA as I
Language Variation, apply it to a non-native
Criticism, Statistical speaker of English
Analysis, Qualitative (NNSE) character from
Research an internationally
successful Hollywood
film. I describe
representations that
"symbolically colonize"
(Molina-Guzman,
2010) the NNSE as
lower class, lower
status, and comfortably
positioned as
subordinate to his
native-speaker
counterparts. I then
share examples of how
students use CMA to
further explore media
cultivation of social
attitudes toward
language-learning,
language policies, and
NNSE identity. Overall,
this article offers
second-language
teacher educators a
theoretically informed
model of analysis that
engages TESL
professionals as active
participants in their
media-saturated
environments.
Chatel, Regina G. A study explored Educational Participants, 10 Student responses
(2001). the impact of Research, preservice teachers, supported an expanded
The Infusion of student voices on a Elementary were enrolled in an notion of the usefulness
Media/Technology preservice Education, elementary language of media/technology in
Literacy in "teaching language Instructional arts methods course in terms of teaching; a
Restructuring a arts in elementary Innovation, an undergraduate revised notion of the

49
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Preservice Teacher schools" methods Language Arts, elementary education student's role in teaching
Language Arts Course course when Media Literacy, program in a small and learning; an
to Performance-Based students have the Methods Courses, women's college. At acknowledgment of the
Instruction and opportunity to Performance Based the beginning and end usefulness of
Assessment. negotiate and Assessment, of the semester, performance based
expand the notions Preservice Teacher students completed projects as a means of
of content, Education, Student open-ended survey professional
structure, and Attitudes, Student questions regarding development; and an
assessment of a Journals, Student their beliefs about appreciation of the talents
course, especially Reaction, Student English language arts and contributions of each
with the infusion of Surveys, with respect to the learner to the collective
media/technology Technology teacher's and student's teaching and learning
as a vehicle of Integration, role; the nature and processes.
instruction and Elementary scope of instruction
assessment. Education and assessment of
language arts; and the
role of
media/technology in
this teaching and
assessment. In
addition, students kept
a reflective journal
during the semester.
Students and professor
developed
collaboratively course
performance based
outcomes which
include
media/technology
performance
outcomes, activities,
and assessment
measures. During the
semester, students
completed a number of
media/technology
mediated activities to
demonstrate their
ability to meet state
and national English
language arts and
technology standards.
Chen, Chih-Ming; Hsu, To promote the Reading Ability, To provide an effective Since English has been
Shih-Hsun. (2008). reading abilities of Educational and flexible learning an international language,
Personalized Intelligent English news, the Technology, environment for how to enhance English
Mobile Learning unknown or Vocabulary English learning, this levels of people by useful
System for Supporting unfamiliar Development, Item study adopts the computer assisted
Effective English vocabularies of Response Theory, advantages of the learning forms or tools is
Learning. Educational individual learner Telecommunications mobile learning to a critical issue in non-
Technology & Society, can also be , English (Second present a personalized English speaking
v11 n3 p153-180 automatically Language), Second intelligent mobile countries because it
discovered and Language learning system (PIMS) definitely affects the
retrieved from the Instruction, Second which can overall competition ability
reading English Language Learning, appropriately of a country. With the
news articles by Individualized recommend English rapid growth of wireless
the PIMS system Instruction, Pretests news articles to and mobile technologies,
according to the Posttests, Student learners based on the the mobile learning has
English vocabulary Evaluation, learners' reading been gradually
ability of individual Questionnaires, abilities evaluated by considered as a novel
learner for Technology the proposed fuzzy and effective learning
enhancing Integration, Item Response Theory form because it inherits all
vocabulary Electronic Learning, (FIRT). the advantages of e-
learning. Distance Education, learning as well as breaks
Internet, Handheld the limitations of learning
Devices, News time and space occurring
Media, Reading in the traditional
Materials, Reading classroom learning.
Material Selection,
Intelligent Tutoring Currently, the PIMS

50
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Systems, Client system has been


Server Architecture, successfully implemented
Higher Education, on the personal digital
Postsecondary assistant (PDA) to provide
Education personalized mobile
learning for promoting the
reading ability of English
news. Experimental
results indicated that the
proposed system
provides an efficient and
effective mobile learning
mechanism by adaptively
recommending English
news articles as well as
enhancing unknown or
unfamiliar vocabularies'
learning for individual
learners.
Choudhury, Using new Second Language This article describes As a summative project,
Mohammed; Share, literacies critically Learning, Media how one middle school the students created
Jeff. (2012). Critical can be an excellent Literacy, Urban teacher engaged his alternative
Media Literacy: A pedagogy for Youth, English inner-city English representations of their
Pedagogy for New motivating and (Second Language), language learners with concerns and findings in
Literacies and Urban empowering Language critical media literacy which they discussed the
Youth. Voices from the students who feel Acquisition, Middle as a way of making assets in their community
Middle, v19 n4 p39-44 alienated from their School Teachers, their learning more as well as ideas for
school and society. Learner meaningful and solving some of the
Engagement, motivating. The problems. Not only did the
English Language students interviewed students increase their
Learners, Interviews, and photographed self-esteem and sense of
Grade 6, Middle community members pride in their community,
School Students, during walking fieldtrips they also demonstrated
Literacy, Urban in their neighborhood substantial academic
Areas, Grade 6, as well as classroom gains in their English
Middle Schools interviews with guest language development.
speakers. During their
outings, students
explored the
community using an
inquiry-based approach
for observing and
documenting the
assets and the
problems around their
school. As part of the
critical media literacy,
students analyzed
portrayals in the media
of Latinos like
themselves and their
neighborhood. This
created an opportunity
for them to compare
their findings with the
mainstream reporting
from the local
newspaper.
Chamberlin-Quinlisk, . In this article, I Social Attitudes, I present CMA in the Overall, this article offers
Carla (2012). “Critical introduce critical Literacy Education, context of critical second-language teacher
Media Analysis in media analysis Teaching Methods, language studies and educators a theoretically
Teacher Education: (CMA) as a tool Media Literacy, communication informed model of
Exploring Language- that cultivates Native Speakers, theories that situate analysis that engages
Learners' Identity discussion of English (Second language in social and TESL professionals as
through Mediated language-learners' Language), political landscapes. I active participants in their
Images of a Non-Native identities as they Language Attitudes, describe a hybrid media-saturated
Speaker of English.” are shaped by Teacher Educators, (quantitative/qualitative environments.
TESL Canada Journal, popular media Second Language ) approach to CMA as I
v29 n2 p42-57 Spr Learning, Second apply it to a non-native
2012. 16 pp. Language speaker of English

51
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Instruction, (NNSE) character from


Language Teachers, an internationally
Films, Social Class, successful Hollywood
Language Planning, film. I describe
Language Variation, representations that
Criticism, Statistical "symbolically colonize"
Analysis, Qualitative (Molina-Guzman,
Research 2010) the NNSE as
lower class, lower
status, and comfortably
positioned as
subordinate to his
native-speaker
counterparts. I then
share examples of how
students use CMA to
further explore media
cultivation of social
attitudes toward
language-learning,
language policies, and
NNSE identity.
Chongrak Sitthirak This article Social Media, The discussion is varied
Social Media for illustrates how Language teaching by many studies. In the
Language Teaching Social Media has and Learning, end, it is timeto re-
and Learning. influenced teaching Learning Styl consider the roles of
Language Institute, and teachers and learners as
learningEnglish at well as their affective
Thammasat University present. Originated andattitudinal effects on
in the world of Social Media used for
Social Networking, education, since it will be
the Social Media or is nowunavoidably
hasalready been integrated into our daily
integrated into an lives.
informal education
system for
decades;
i.e.teleconference
and distance
learning before it
has evolved into a
more
sophisticatedsyste
m, e-learning.
There is also a
controversy of
using new Social
Media such
asFacebook or
WebChat.
Close, Robin. (2004). A priority of the Foreign Countries, The review, however, In 2003, the National
Television and National Literacy Language was to be based on an Literacy Trust
Language Trust is to Acquisition, objective assessment commissioned Dr. Robin
Development in the understand the Preschool Children, of available research Close to conduct a
Early Years: A Review relationship Relationship, evidence and not on literature review of
of the Literature between language Television, any prior agenda of the published research in
National Literacy Trust. development in Television Viewing, organisation. The order to understand more
46 pp. children from birth Mass Media Effects, review is written in the fully the relationship
to age three and Educational Policy, format of a report between television
later literacy Literacy, Television rather than an viewing in the early years
development. Research, Language academic review to and language and literacy
Research, Literature provide useful development.
Reviews, Global information for As television is a central
Approach, Early professionals feature of modern
Childhood concerned with western culture, the Trust
Education, understanding issues wished to understand the
Preschool Education surrounding television effects of television
use by infants, toddlers viewing on children's
and pre-schoolers in a language development
critical period of their and wider literacy. The

52
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

language development. literature review was


This literature review intended to provide
investigates the informational support for
relationship between the Trust's Talk To Your
television and Baby campaign.
language development
in children from birth to
age five. The aim of the
review is to summarise
international research
pertaining to television
and early language and
identify the effects of
high exposure (quantity
of viewing) to
television. It also
considers caregiver
roles in realising
potential benefits or
mitigating negative
effects of television
viewing.
Dockter, Jessica; Haug, Internet, Social We show how We argue that the
Delainia; Lewis, Networks, Creativity, coauthor, Delainia curriculum, which focused
Cynthia. (2010). Information Haug, and her students on media analysis and
Redefining Rigor: Technology, use Web 2.0 production, engaged
Critical Engagement, Computer Mediated technologies in students--many of whom
Digital Media, and the Communication, educational and had no access to
New English/Language Sharing Behavior, empowering ways. We computers outside
Arts. Journal of Units of Study, offer an account of school--because it paired
Adolescent & Adult Urban Education, Delainia's purposes for digital tools with
Literacy, v53 n5 p418- Access to her curriculum, along intellectual challenge,
420 Computers, with units of study and hard work, interactions
Experiential students' responses to with community members,
Learning, Learner this curriculum. and a space for students
Engagement, to represent their
Production identities and
Techniques, Student demonstrate competence.
Reaction, Criticism, Initial findings from the
Language Arts, High study suggest that rigor
School and engagement in this
urban English classroom
were inextricably tied to a
curriculum that actively
involved students in the
production of knowledge
through complex literacy
tasks and invited
emotional investment and
immersion, rather than
analytic distance, in
relationship to texts.
Elham Akbari, Soodeh Today, social We studied the The results indicated that
Eghtesad, Robert-Jan networks are expectation of there is a significant
Simons. (2012). becoming rather social networks in difference between
Students' Attitudes popular throughout learning languages, as participants' attitudes
Towards the Use of the world. Their well as on their before and
Social Networks for multi-dimensional perceived usefulness. after the course. In the
Learning the English uses and Twenty Iranian PhD pre-course questionnaire,
Language. specifications students were enrolled the majority of
increase every day. in an online English participants considered
However, research course via Facebook. Facebook to
shows that their Through a study be generally useful
scientific and composed of a set because through these
educational of questionnaires, we networks, they can
functions are still investigated students’ communicate and share
limited. We believe attitudes towards using knowledge.
that social social networks in After the online course,
networks have the learning however, most students
potential to create languages stated that, Facebook has

53
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

new high potentials for being


contexts and used as effective formal
opportunities that educational tools.
increase students’ Furthermore, the post –
motivation for course questionnaires
learning. revealed
Specifically, we that students’ positive
believe that attitudes towards the
this is the case for usefulness of social
learning a foreign networks increased. In
language (English), fact, by the
which leads to end of the course, all
more efficient and participants agreed that
more using these networks for
successful language learning can be
experiences with effective and yield
language learning, satisfactory linguistic
as well as more outcomes. This study
positive attitudes confirmed that every
towards the participant
efficiency of social considered social
networks for networks to be highly
educational effective and potential
purposes. As a educational tools,
frame of reference, especially for
we rely on the improving linguistic
Technology knowledge and
Acceptance Model performance in various
(Azjen and online contexts and
Fishbein, 1980; activities.
Davis, 1989) which
focuses on
satisfaction,
expectations and
perceived
usefulness of
technology.
Fewkes, Aaron The article will Student Attitudes, The researchers Stating many examples of
M.; McCabe, Mike. explore how a Foreign Countries, collected both use for educational
(2012). Facebook: selected sample of Secondary School quantitative and purposes, 73% of
Learning Tool or secondary school Students, Social qualitative data from 63 respondents reported
Distraction?. Journal of students in Ontario Networks, Mass Ontario high school having used Facebook for
Digital Learning in have been using Media Use, Mass students via a educational purposes. Of
Teacher Education, v28 Facebook since it Media Effects, questionnaire the students surveyed,
n3 p92-98 Spr 2012. 7 has become Questionnaires, Use distributed through only 27% said that at
pp. accessible to them Studies, Student Facebook. least one teacher had
and whether or not Surveys, found ways to include
this use "supports Technology Uses in Facebook in their lessons,
the learning Education, and further, 77% of
agenda" of Classroom students believed that
classrooms as Techniques, teachers do not support
school boards have Learning Strategies, Facebook being
envisioned Educational unblocked. The results of
Technology, this research point to a
Affective Objectives, need for the better
High Schools, utilization of Facebook in
Secondary classrooms and the need
Education for school boards who
choose to "embrace" the
increasing popularity of
social media to implement
programs that better
ensure teachers also feel
comfortable enough to
embrace this informal
teaching tool.
Garcia Laborda, Jesus. This paper Internet, English for Teaching materials in
(2011). Revisiting presents a Special Purposes, The paper begins by languages for specific
Materials for Teaching selection of Instructional defining ESP. Then it purposes have evolved in
Languages for Specific different types of Materials, Second approaches how the last few years

54
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Purposes. The recent materials for Language Learning, materials should shape dramatically. The Internet
Southeast Asian English for Specific Second Language the student's own currently plays a
Journal of English Purposes Instruction, Role, learning, how materials significant role in such
Language Studies, v17 Learning Processes, should be selected development and has
n1 p102-112. Media Selection, according to the permitted both a wider
Futures (of Society), different skills and then range of resources and its
Material emphasizes the free availability almost
Development, importance of the anywhere in the World.
Instructional Internet as a source of
Effectiveness, materials. The paper concludes with
Classification, a set of ideas for the
Electronic Learning, future development of
Educational ESP materials. The final
Technology, goal of this paper is to
Teacher Role, provide the readers with
Teaching Methods valuable tools that can
enhance their teaching
through accessible
means.
Goodman, Steven. This case study Learning Theories, The students practise a Observing and listening in
(2010). Sex, Literacy examines the Active Learning, range of literacy skills on the students in this
and Videotape: learning, identity Teaching Methods, naturally embedded in case illustrates practical
Learning, Identity and and language Case Studies, High the documentary applications of learning
Language development School Students, production process. theories including multiple
Development through experienced by Grade 8, Film The topic they have discourses, double
Documentary "overage" 8th- Production, chosen to explore abstraction, situated
Production with grade students who Instructional through their video learning, and cognitive
"Overage" Students. have been left Effectiveness, Low project is teen sex. apprenticeships and
English Teaching: behind two or more Achievement, Urban This program seeks to proposes new possibilities
Practice and Critique, years in their New Schools, create a vibrant and for literacy development
v9 n1 p48-57. York City middle Professional active learning space with low-performing
school and are Development, that is planting the students as well as the
participating in an Multimedia seeds for what might kind of hybrid
extended-day video Materials, Video grow into a sustained informal/formal learning
documentary Technology, program of youth- environments needed to
program. Educational generated media in support such
Technology, their school. development.
Computer Uses in
Education,
Production
Techniques, Media
Literacy, English
Instruction, Grade
Repetition,
Documentaries,
After School
Education, After
School Programs,
Sexuality,
Elementary
Secondary
Education, Grade 8,
High Schools,
Secondary
Education
Grau, Maike. (2009). This paper focuses Language Variation, It draws on an The data suggests that
Worlds Apart? English on German Leisure Time, Focus empirical study carried out-of-class contact with
in German Youth teenagers and their Groups, out in German English is often not
Cultures and in contact with Adolescents, secondary schools. Its integrated into the EFL
Educational Settings. English in two Language Teachers, mixed methods classroom. Thus, the
World Englishes, v28 different contexts: German, English approach combines a classroom and the
n2 p160-174 in free-time (Second Language), questionnaire study students' free time seem
activities typically Mass Media, and focus group to be, by and large, two
involving the mass Teaching Methods, interviews with 15- separate spheres,
media, and in Second Language year-old students and involving different
institutionalised Learning, Secondary English teachers. methods of exposure to
language learning School Students, English in terms of text
settings at school. Foreign Countries, types, topics, activities,
The main aim of Interviews, and language varieties.
the enquiry was to Questionnaires,

55
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

find out how Teacher Attitudes,


teenagers Second Language
experience learning Instruction,
English in school in Secondary
the light of their Education
exposure to the
language in their
free time. Another
focus lies on the
teachers'
perceptions of their
students' contact
with English
outside school and
on their practice in
the classroom as to
whether and how
they use this
experience in class
Jaffar, Akram Abood The aim of this Anatomy, Medical The study was The use of online social
(2012). study is to assess Education, Web conducted on 91 networks in medical
“YouTube: An student's Sites, Video second-year medical education can remodel
Emerging Tool in perceptions and Technology, Social students for whom and enhance anatomy
Anatomy Education” patterns of usage Networks, Student video links were teaching and learning;
Anatomical Sciences of this resource, as Attitudes, Medical suggested throughout one such network is the
Education, v5 n3 p158- well as the Students, Problem the academic year. In video-sharing site
164 May-Jun 2012. 7 effectiveness of Based Learning, addition, the Human YouTube. Limited
pp. YouTube videos Instructional Anatomy Education research in the literature
within a problem- Effectiveness, (HAE) Channel was exists on the use of
based learning Independent Study, launched on YouTube YouTube as a platform for
(PBL) curriculum. Higher Education, to support classroom anatomy education.
Postsecondary teaching with videos The results demonstrated
Education that emphasized that 98% of the students
applied aspects of used YouTube as an
anatomy. online information
resource, albeit in
different frequencies. Out
of the 86% who have
been to the HAE Channel,
92% agreed/strongly
agreed that the channel
helped them learn
anatomy. The study also
reports the popularity of
and awareness about
using YouTube as a
social network as well as
in learning. Based on
these findings, YouTube
can be considered as an
effective tool to enhance
anatomy instruction if the
videos are scrutinized,
diversified, and aimed
toward course objectives.
Faculty of average
computer literacy should
be enabled to produce
videos on their own
YouTube channels to
support independent
learning and integration in
a PBL curriculum. The
methods described for
capturing and editing the
videos can be used as a
prototype.
James, Michael The purpose of this Bilingual Education, The community and Results indicate that after
Angelo; Hull, Glynda A. study was to Sight Vocabulary, groups of children were one year of the
(2007). Geographies of examine the short- Limited English compared in terms of intervention, there were

56
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Hope: A Study of Urban term effects of a Speaking, their academic statistically significant
Landscapes, Digital two-way bilingual Bilingualism, Low achievement in English differences between the
Media, and Children's education program Income Groups, language arts. The two groups only in sight
Representations of on the literacy Elementary Urban Landscapes vocabulary (at
Place. development of Secondary included students from kindergarten and grade 1)
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ students from Education, Spanish, low-income and in alphabet
contentdelivery/servlet/ kindergarten to English (Second communities and with (kindergarten). In all other
ERICServlet? 12th grade. Language), Second limited English areas of language
accno=ED505432 Language proficiency (LEP) or development, there were
Instruction, Second lacking basic skills as no statistically significant
Language Learning, well as students who differences between the
Achievement Gap, were not LEP. One achievement scores of
Educational group of students was the two groups.
Technology, Urban instructed in English (Conclusions) Results
Environment, approximately 70% of show that students in the
Multimedia the time and in Spanish EFL program make
Materials, College approximately 30% of adequate academic
School Cooperation, the time in a two-way progress, confirming the
Service Learning, bilingual education usefulness of
After School (Extended Foreign communication and
Programs, Literacy, Language [EFL]) representation of space
Physical program. The and place. The program
Environment, academic performance in reducing the
Elementary of these students was achievement gap
Secondary compared with that of a between LEP students
Education, Higher group of students who and others.
Education, attended the schools in (Recommendations)
Postsecondary other areas were Educators need to
Education compared with children increase their knowledge
outside of the area. of the effects of
Participants were and instructional programs on
other groups children the language acquisition
from school age groups of LEP students in order
of kindergarteners, to improve the students'
compared with 41 other academic development
kindergarten students, and understanding of
and 57 first graders, space and place shows
compared with 71 other that Urban Landscapes
children from other and digital Media play a
areas and graders role in a child's
representation of self and
place.
Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Second Language In this article, Huw Jarvis
Stephen (2014) Instruction, Second and Stephen Krashen ask
Is CALL Obsolete? Language Learning, "Is CALL Obsolete?
Language Acquisition Computer Assisted " When the term
and Language Learning Instruction, Teaching CALL (Computer-Assisted
Revisited in a Digital Methods, Internet, Language Learning) was
Age Linguistic Theory, introduced in the 1960s,
Handheld Devices, the language education
Linguistic Input, profession knew only
English (Second about language learning,
Language), Thai, not language acquisition,
Telecommunications and assumed the
, Student Attitudes, computer's primary
Language Usage, contribution to second
Semitic Languages, language acquisition were
Native Language, programs based on
Undergraduate traditional language
Students, Social learning. Things have
Networks, Electronic changed dramatically--
Mail, Metacognition subconscious language
acquisition has been
shown to be more
powerful than conscious
learning. Studies strongly
suggest that consciously
learned knowledge about
language has only limited
functions. Its primary

57
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

function is as a Monitor to
edit language we
produce, either before it is
spoken or written, or after,
and there are severe
conditions that must be
met for this to happen
successfully. Second,
computers have changed.
Thanks to the Internet,
computers do a lot more
than they used to do,
supplying an astonishing
variety of visual, aural,
and written input,
providing a means of
social interaction, as well
as
"information."
Other studies confirm that
the use of English on
computers and other
mobile devices includes
both academic and social
functions. What Jarvis
and Krashen conclude is
that students have
considerable respect for
digital devices as a
source of comprehensible
input, which in turn, also
suggests that they have
at least some
appreciation for
subconscious language
acquisition. The
implications of the
research presented here
are clear: The term CALL
is obsolete, because its
focus is limited to the
computer, and because of
its emphasis on
conscious learning.
Alternative acronyms
such as Technology
Enhanced Language
Learning (TELL) or Mobile
Assisted Language
Learning (MALL) account
for some changes in the
field, but continue to focus
on conscious learning. It
is time to move beyond
CALL. MALU (Mobile
Assisted Language Use)
as defined by Jarvis and
Achilleos (2013) is a
significant improvement
when discussing
electronic devices: MALU
covers more than desktop
and even laptop
computers, and makes it
clear that more than
language instruction
and/or learning is
involved.
Judge, Jeffrey Wallace. The aim of this Foreign Countries, The research questions The results show a strong
(2012). Use of phenomenological Phenomenology, examined the specific tendency towards

58
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Language Learning study was to Learning Strategies, LLSs used by Spanish cognitive, metacognitive,
Strategies by Spanish explore the Second Language adults in business and social strategies in
Adults for Business language learning Learning, English communication tasks. business tasks. Cultural
English. International strategies (LLSs) of (Second Language), In addition, this study influences include the
Journal of English Spanish adults in a Adults, Business addressed the cultural media, past political
Studies, v12 n1 p37-54. business context. English, Business influences on LLSs situation in Spain, and
Communication, from the Spanish general issues in the
Qualitative educational system English class in Spanish
Research, Semi along with the influence secondary schools.
Structured from current and
Interviews, historical events in
Educational Spain. The conceptual
Experience, framework was the
Secondary Oxford LLS model.
Education, Teaching These qualitative data
Models, Cultural were collected through
Influences, 11 semistructured, in-
Language Usage, depth interviews with
Metacognition, Adult Spanish business
Education people who use
English in their work
and who studied
English in Spanish
secondary school. The
data were analyzed
following a typological
analysis.
Junco, Reynol. (2012). Educators and Learner This paper fills a gap in Results indicate that
The Relationship others are Engagement, the literature by using a Facebook use was
between Frequency of interested in the College Students, large sample (N = significantly negatively
Facebook Use, effects of social Measures 2368) of college predictive of engagement
Participation in media on college (Individuals), Social students to examine scale score and positively
Facebook Activities, students, with a Networks, Web the relationship predictive of time spent in
and Student specific focus on Sites, Teachers, between frequency of co-curricular activities.
Engagement. the most popular Higher Education, Facebook use, Additionally, some
Computers & social media Outcomes of participation in Facebook activities were
Education, v58 n1 website--Facebook. Education, Facebook activities, positively predictive of the
p162-171 Jan 2012. 10 Two previous Extracurricular and student dependent variables,
pp. studies have Activities, Scores, engagement. Student while others were
examined the Predictor Variables, engagement was negatively predictive.
relationship Higher Education measured in three
between Facebook ways: a 19-item scale
use and student based on the National
engagement, a Survey of Student
construct related to Engagement, time
positive college spent preparing for
outcomes. class, and time spent in
However, these co-curricular activities
studies were
limited by their
evaluation of
Facebook usage
and how they
measured
engagement.
Kessler, Greg (2013). This article English (Second The author begins with The essay concludes with
“Teaching ESL/EFL in explores the Language), Social an overview of recent some thoughts about
a World of Social emerging Networks, Internet, developments in the pedagogical and
Media, Mash-Ups, and pedagogical Computer Assisted field, focused upon technological
Hyper-Collaboration” potential offered by Instruction, Student pedagogical practice developments that
TESOL Journal, v4 n4 today's Participation, and computer-assisted teachers might anticipate
p615-632 Dec 2013. 18 technologies and Learner language learning in the future.
pp. how understanding Engagement, (CALL), and then
the relationship Literacy, Teaching describes suggestions
between emerging Methods, for incorporating
technology and Technology Uses in various forms of social
emerging Education, and new media within
pedagogy can Cooperative collaborative learning
enhance the Learning practices. By
teaching of English incorporating these

59
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

as a second or forms of popular


foreign language communication into
(ESL/EFL). language teaching,
teachers can promote
participation and
engagement. They are
also able to raise
awareness of the
benefits of various
forms of literacy.
Kisang, Benjamin This study is a Interviews, Social Based on social His study is important
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D qualitative Networks, Social network, social capital because as the increase
“The Role of Social investigation of the Capital, Play, and functional social of international students
Networks in the role that social Academic ties integrated continues, competition for
Adjustment and networks play in Achievement, framework, the study this population locally and
Academic Success of the adjustment and Investigations, focuses on how globally has intensified.
International Students: academic success Foreign Students, international students Competing effectively
A Case Study.” of international Higher Education, utilize social networks requires addressing the
Dissertation, The students. With Social Studies, to adjust and for needs and challenges
University of Arizona. large numbers of Higher Education academic success. these students face.
450 pp. of a University international Data were gathered Social networks of
in the Southwest students enrolled through 30 in-depth, friends, family members,
on US campuses, it semi-structured faculty, and
is important for interviews with administrators address
practitioners to international students. the different needs and
prepare, challenges facing this
understand and population. Yet, few
address their studies have investigated
dynamic needs. how the students utilize
social networks. Despite
their fundamental role in
students' adjustment and
academic success, social
networks have received
little attention from higher
education scholars,
particularly on the role of
social networks in the
students' adjustment and
success. This study
investigated social
networks of international
students in general,
factors that facilitate and
impede social networking,
how different networks
correspond to different
needs, and ways in which
these networks help the
students adjust and
succeed. The findings of
this study confirm that
social networks play an
important role in the
various needs and
challenges international
students encounter as
they pursue their studies
and as they cope up with
a different environment.
Kim, Kwangok. (2011). The primary Oral Language, Korea The results of this study
Language Interactions purpose of this Literacy, Grade 1, This paper is a revealed that
in English Literacy study was to Teacher Student qualitative case study opportunities to engage in
Learning: A Case Study investigate the Relationship, Parent of a Korean first grade social interactions
of a First Grade Korean nature of a first Student child. between a child and his
Child. ProQuest LLC, grade Korean Relationship, teachers, parents, and
Ph.D. Dissertation, Ball child's oral Community, Peer peers through oral
State University. 204 language Relationship, conversation contributed
pp. interactions with Interaction, Korean, to the language and
The Role of Oral teachers, parents, Sociocultural literacy learning of the

60
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

peers, and Patterns, Ecological child observed. The


community Factors, Learning analysis of the data
members and to Theories, Family showed that literacy
examine how a Influence, development in English
child's oral Educational was influenced by three
language impacts Environment, factors: individual factors,
his literacy learning Teacher Role, home and school
in English. The Parent Role, Peer environmental factors,
data were collected Groups, Mass Media and community and
over five months Effects, Qualitative cultural environmental
from three different Research, Case factors. Individual factors
settings: the Studies, Interviews, were personal motivation,
school, the Korean Observation, Field the first language effect,
Language School, Studies, Surveys, and background
and the home. Nonprint Media, knowledge. Home and
Data methods were Documentation, school environmental
interviews, Comparative factors included parents'
observations, field Analysis, support, peer group
notes, surveys, Classification, activity, and teacher's
audio and video Cooperation, Native role. Finally, community
recordings, Language, Learning and cultural
documents, and Motivation, Prior environmental factors
informal Learning, English were mass media and
assessments in (Second Language), Korean culture and
Korean and Elementary identity. The results of the
English. Data Education, Grade 1 study supported
analysis was based Vygotsky's sociocultural
on the analytical theory and
categorization and Bronfenbrenner's ecology
the constant system theory that
comparison learning occurs through
analysis. social interactions in
cooperated groups and
their environments.
Kist, William. (2013). It makes sense that Language Arts, How can young people The strategies include:
New Literacies and the an emphasis on Multiple Literacies, be prepared to thrive in (1) give students practice
Common Core. new ways of Academic today's society-- reading screen-based
Educational reading and writing Standards, Change in which people are texts; (2) give students
Leadership, v70 n6 fits easily within the Strategies, Teaching connected 24 hours a practice in digital writing;
p38-43 Common Core Methods, Reading day by media and (3) give students practice
umbrella. After all, Strategies, Writing coworkers may well in collaborative writing;
a primary thrust of Strategies, Best live in different and (4) give students
the new standards Practices, Media countries--without practice working with
is college and Literacy, Educational giving them some informational texts. The
career readiness. Technology, practice with new four strategies described
Elementary media at school? This here are not difficult to
Secondary article provides four implement and, ironically,
Education strategies that can can be attempted with
help--each one closely little new technology.
related to one or more More powerful than a
of the Common Core room full of gadgets is a
standards in English teacher who has a deep
language arts and understanding of what the
literacy. new forms of reading and
writing entail
Kurata, Naomi (2010). This study Speech Utilising activity theory
“Opportunities for examines the Communication, and a conversation
Foreign Language language use of a Second Language analytic approach to
Learning and Use student of Learning, Foreign language alternation, the
within a Learner's Japanese in Countries, Social analysis reveals that it is
Informal Social Australia in two Networks, Native not always easy for this
Networks”. Mind, informal Speakers, Language learner to create
Culture, and Activity, conversations he Usage, Japanese, opportunities to use
v17 n4 p382-396 2010. had with native Discourse Analysis, Japanese due to diverse
15 pp. speakers of Interpersonal social factors. One of the
Japanese who Communication, major factors is a
were part of his Social Influences, contradiction that
social network. English, emerges between the
Socialization socialising activity and the
language learning activity

61
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

in which this learner and


his Japanese friends are
engaged in their
conversations. However,
this study demonstrates
that the same learner
sometimes succeeds in
gaining access to
exposure to L2 as a
speaker as well as a
listener and, as a
consequence, access to
L2 learning opportunities.
This access seems to be
enabled by, amongst
other things, an indication
of his own strong
preference for L2 and his
proactive move to
introduce appropriate
subtopics.
Lam, Wan Shun This review of Literacy, Ideology, We consider how We argue that as a whole
Eva; Warriner, Doris S. research offers a Migration, Language theoretical concepts these studies show the
(2012). synthesis and Role, Social Capital, from transnational important role of language
Transnationalism and analysis of Second Languages, migration studies, and literacy practices in
Literacy: Investigating research studies Sociolinguistics, including particular constructing and
the Mobility of People, that address issues Language Research, Boudieusian-inspired maintaining social
Languages, Texts, and of language and Intercultural concepts such as relations across borders,
Practices in Contexts of literacy practices Communication, transnational social and in how migrants
Migration. Reading and learning in Language Usage, field, capital, and navigate and position
Research Quarterly, transnational Biculturalism, habitus, as well as themselves in various
v47 n2 p191-215 contexts of Computer Mediated sociolinguistic studies social fields within and
migration. Communication, of language and across national
Mass Media, transnational space, boundaries. We consider
Programming might inform and the intergenerational
(Broadcast), extend the field of process in the family in
Immigrants, literacy research. We mediating participation in
Sociology, mobilize these these social practices,
Anthropology, concepts in relation to how language ideologies
Multilingualism each other as at multiple scale levels
interpretive frames for influence family and youth
discussing an practices, and the
emerging body of variable ways in which
empirical studies that institutional structures of
address various schooling position the
aspects of language transnational affiliations
and literacy practices and linguistic resources of
as they are intertwined migrant students.
with issues of cross-
border relations and
mobility. Studies
reviewed examine
practices in families
and communities,
practices among youth
and within educational
settings, and practices
with transnational
media (broadcast and
digital
communications).
Lan, Yi-Chen; Torr, This study is Mothers, Reading We also investigate Researchers have
Jane; Degotardi, designed to Aloud to Others, whether there is a indicated that many
Sheila. (2011). investigate how Toys, Computer relationship between children from Asian
Learning English as a Taiwanese mothers Uses in Education, maternal educational countries have the
Foreign Language at attempt to facilitate Educational attainment and experience of learning
Home: The Practices of their children's Attainment, Young maternal teaching English prior to school at
Taiwanese Mothers English Children, Foreign practices and the use home or at private
and Their development by Countries, Teaching of resources. The institutes. The Taiwanese
Preschoolers. Journal exploring how they Methods, English sample consists of 647 government promotes

62
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

of Modern Education engage their (Second Language), mothers of informal and play-based
Review v1 n1 p10-21 children in English Second Language preschoolers who teaching of English in the
learning at home Learning, Parents as responded to a home if the parents would
Teachers, Family questionnaire which like their young children to
Environment, surveyed their learn English prior to
Preschool Education practices and formal instruction.
resources utilized at
home. The results showed that
mothers differed in the
extent to which they
engaged in shared
reading and provided toys
and computer media for
English instruction, and
that maternal education is
related to the types of
strategies and resources
provided. The findings
provide significant
information about what
the mothers utilized to
assist their young children
to learn English
language.
Liberal Education, v95 Majors (Students), Study in language,
n2 p30-39 Spr (2009). Cultural Literacy, literature, and culture has
The English or Foreign Cultural Awareness, long been a defining
Language Major and Academic feature of education in the
Liberal Education. Achievement, liberal arts. Speaking,
Criticism, reading, and writing have
Information Literacy, traditionally stood at the
Teamwork, heart of education
Technological because the arts of
Literacy, Liberal language and the tools of
Arts, Language Arts, literacy are key
Critical Thinking, qualifications for full
Creativity, participation in social,
Communication political, economic, and
Skills, Second cultural life. Today the
Language Learning, hallmarks of a liberal
English, Second education--
Language communication, critical
Instruction, analysis, and creativity--
Interdisciplinary are more important than
Approach, ever as prerequisites for
Literature, success in life. A college
Persuasive education should develop
Discourse, Program students' abilities to think
Development, critically and analytically
Educational and to communicate
Objectives, College knowledge and
Second Language understanding effectively.
Programs, Higher While literacy is the
Education foundational core of all
educational and scholarly
projects, it is the particular
focus of study in
departments of language
and literature, and the
twenty-first-century
knowledge commons puts
specific forms of literacy
at a premium: the ability
to communicate
effectively and
persuasively with others
through "cross-cultural
literacy," to work with new
forms of media through
"technological literacy," to

63
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

understand language and


culture in context through
"historical literacy," and to
analyze, organize, and
make sense of
information through
"information literacy." The
Modern Language
Association recommends
an approach to structuring
baccalaureate degree
programs in English and
other languages that
combines four
constitutional elements:
(1) a coherent program of
study; (2) teamwork
among the instructional
staff members; (3)
interdepartmental
cooperative teaching; and
(4) empirical research to
assess the successes
and shortcomings of the
program. At once
structured and flexible,
the major in language and
literature should follow an
integrative model that is
responsive to the
demands of technological
innovation and the
realities of globalized
societies. The major also
needs to accommodate
the explosion of
disciplinary knowledge
that, in language and
literature as in other fields
of study, creates daunting
challenges while giving
rise to new opportunities.
A twenty-first-century
liberal education must
promote the linguistic
powers, humanistic skills
of analysis and argument,
and cross-cultural
awareness required for
receiving and articulating
ideas on an international
stage, where the capacity
to work comfortably in
more than one language
is the expectation and the
norm.
Lin, Yen-Ting; Jou, Min this study Taiwan, Motivated Experimental Experimental results
(2013). “Integrating proposed a Strategies for revealed that students
Popular Web learning Learning had higher learning
Applications in environment Questionnaire motivation and
Classroom Learning supported by well- participation when using
Environments and Its known web the proposed web
Effects on Teaching, applications to application supported
Student Learning supplement learning environment
Motivation and classroom teaching during and after class as
Performance”. Turkish and learning it gave them access to
Online Journal of activities, assist adequate learning
Educational instructors in support. The proposed
Technology - TOJET, facilitating student approach also gave
v12 n2 p157-165 Apr learning and effective assistance to

64
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

2013. 9 pp. participation, and instructors and students


help improve in administering and
student learning conducting learning
motivation and activities during and after
performance. class.
Madge, Clare This paper SOCIAL integration Research was Whilst recent studies
Meek, Julia explores how pre- SOCIAL networks conducted with first suggest that over 95% of
Wellens, Jane registration UNIVERSITIES & year undergraduates at British undergraduate
Hooley, Tristram. engagement with a colleges a British university students are regularly
(2009). Facebook, university FACEBOOK Inc. using an online survey. using social networking
social integration and Facebook network STUDENTS Students reported that sites, we still know very
informal learning at influences students' ONLINE information they specifically joined little about how this
university: 'It is more for post-registration services Facebook pre- phenomenon impacts on
socialising and talking social networks. SURVEYS registration as a means the student experience
to friends about work INTERPERSONAL of making new friends and, in particular, how it
than for actually doing relations at university, as well as influences students' social
work'. Learning, Media keeping in touch with integration into university
& Technology. friends and family at life.
Jun2009, Vol. 34 Issue home.
2, p141-155. 15p. 1 The survey data also
Chart. illustrate that once at
university, Facebook was
part of the 'social glue'
that helped students
settle into university life.
However, care must be
taken not to over-privilege
Facebook: it is clearly
only one aspect of
students' more general
social networking
practices and face-to-face
interrelationships and
interactions remain
important. Students
thought Facebook was
used most importantly for
social reasons, not for
formal teaching purposes,
although it was
sometimes used
informally for learning
purposes.
Marko Maglic. Teachers’ In order to shed light
(2007).Media onto the place of new
Media 93% of the teachers and
Education in English technologies and
Utilization 95.57% of the students
Language Teaching: media literacy at a
have been working with
Not our job? Novitas- in Class, comprehensive
computers for more than
ROYAL, Vol.: 1(1), Media school in Cologne,
three years. Further, 85%
pp.1-9. questionnaires were
Literacy of the teachers and 70%
distributed to 115
of the students have
students of year 11 and
email communication at
102 teachers
least several times per
teaching at all grades.
week, and 98% of the
The school in which
teachers and 90% of the
this research was
students can handle
carried out has around
emails well on their own.
2.000
Around 95% of both
students and
dispose of a PC and
approximately 210
internet access at home.
teachers. In this
At home, more than 60%
present study, data
use the PC every day,
were collected in
around 30% several times
March
per week. Though they
2006. The
spend most of the day at
technological
school, only 20% of the
prerequisites– four well
teachers and 8.5% of the
equipped computer
students use the school
rooms, around 20
PCs every day,
additional

65
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

PCs in the library and


four beamers for
respectively 30% and
teachers.
3.7% several times per
week. Strikingly
contrasting, active media
use in the classroom
seldom takes place:
23.47% of the teachers
have never used a
computer in class. Around
40% have never been to
one of the computer
rooms with their students,
65% have never done a
PC-based presentation or
used a digital projector. In
addition, 90.63% of the
teachers and 51% of the
students have never
worked with a web-quest.
Teachers only marginally
integrate the disposable
technology in class.
Mazer, Joseph P. This experimental TEACHERS Participants who Research suggests that
Murphy, Richard E. study examined the FACEBOOK Inc. accessed the teachers who personalize
Simonds, Cheri J. effects of TRUTHFULNESS & Facebook website of a their teaching through the
(2009). The effects of computer-mediated falsehood teacher high in self- use of humor, stories,
teacher self-disclosure teacher self- SELF-disclosure disclosure reported enthusiasm, and self-
via Facebook on disclosure on STUDENTS higher levels of teacher disclosure are perceived
teacher credibility. perceptions of EXPERIMENTAL credibility than by their students to be
Learning, Media & teacher credibility. design participants who effective in explaining
Technology. Jun2009, WEBSITES viewed a low self- course content.
Vol. 34 Issue 2, p175- EDUCATION disclosure Facebook
183. 9p. 2 Charts. CLASSROOMS website. Implications
for classroom
pedagogy, technology
use, and areas for
future research are
discussed.
Mazer, Joseph P. This experimental MOTIVATION in Participants who In their responses to
Murphy, Richard E. study examined the education accessed the open-ended items,
Simonds, Cheri J. effects of teacher AFFECTIVE Facebook website of a participants emphasized
(2007). I'll See You On self-disclosure via education teacher high in self- possible negative
“Facebook”: The Facebook on CLASSROOM disclosure anticipated associations between
Effects of Computer- anticipated college environment higher levels of teacher use of Facebook
Mediated Teacher Self- student motivation, SELF-disclosure motivation and and teacher credibility.
Disclosure on Student affective learning, TEACHER-student affective learning and a Participants offered
Motivation, Affective and classroom relationships more positive recommendations for
Learning, and climate. ONLINE information classroom climate. teachers regarding the
Classroom ClimateThis services use of Facebook and
project was funded in other weblog services.
part by a Teaching-
Learning Development
GraCommunication
Education. Jan2007,
Vol. 56 Issue 1, p1-17.
17p. 3 Charts.nt from
the Center.
Meli, Rocio The purpose of this Student Attitudes, The theoretical The results of this study
(2009) study was to Second Language framework for this contribute to positive
Hypermedia and examine the impact Learning, Learning study consisted of social change by
Vocabulary Acquisition of multimedia as a Motivation, Social second language informing practices that
for Second Language delivery tool for Change, Vocabulary theories including the align to student
ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. enhancing Development, Focus acquisition-learning preferences when
Dissertation, Walden vocabulary in Groups, Control hypothesis, dual coding integrating new
University. 135 pp. second-language Groups, theory and, theory of technologies into second
classrooms. The Communication multimedia learning. language instruction.
mixed method Skills, Multimedia The vocabulary
design focused on Instruction, Second acquisition of students

66
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

specific techniques Language exposed to multimedia


to help students Instruction, Spanish lessons was
acquire Spanish Instructional compared with the
vocabulary and Effectiveness, vocabulary acquisition
communication Teaching Methods, of students not
skills Linguistic Theory, exposed to multimedia
Language Tests, lessons. A sample
Introductory comprised of 93
Courses, Spanish, students enrolled in
Academic beginning levels of
Achievement, Spanish was divided
Scores, into multimedia
Comparative intervention and
Analysis, Secondary existing curriculum
Education control groups who
completed vocabulary
tests, the Survey of
Multimedia Uses and
Perceptions (SMUP),
and participated in
focus groups. The
research questions
examined differences
in attitude, motivation,
and achievement
between these groups.
Analysis of the test and
SMUP data using
independent sample t-
test, did not
demonstrate
statistically significant
differences between
groups for vocabulary
test scores or for self-
reported motivation or
attitude toward the
subject. Parallel
qualitative data about
the students' attitudes
and motivations
regarding the two
strategies used for
vocabulary acquisition
were obtained from 13
focus group
participants.
Transcribed data were
sorted and coded for
type of activity and
preference, and coded
data was then
analyzed to describe
type/preference
matches. Student
preferences for using
multimedia for Spanish
vocabulary acquisition
were described from
these qualitative data
McCrocklin, Shannon. Student Attitudes, To analyze the impact Despite the growing use
(2012). Effect of Audio Vowels, Video of the use of audio or of media in the
vs. Video on Aural Technology, video training on aural classroom, the effects of
Discrimination of Auditory discrimination of using of audio versus
Vowels. Discrimination, vowels, 61 participants video in pronunciation
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ Audio Equipment, (all students at a large teaching has been largely
contentdelivery/servlet/ Pronunciation American university) ignored.
ERICServlet? Instruction, Pretests took a pre-test followed
accno=EJ995735 Posttests, by two training Results showed that while
Questionnaires, sessions on a vowel both groups improved

67
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

College Students, contrast (/i/-/I/). One significantly from the pre-


English (Second group received audio test to both post-tests,
Language), Second training and the other there was no statistically
Language Learning, group received video significant difference
Higher Education training. The groups between the video and
then took a post-test audio groups. Results
and delayed post-test show that reactions were
to determine the impact more favorable to the
of the training. video training.
Students' reactions to
the two training types
were also obtained
through a
questionnaire.
Morrell, Ernest. (2013). In the second Literacy, Language Being literate in this new
21st-Century Literacies, decade of the 21st Arts, Social world means
Critical Media century, Networks, Critical programming personal
Pedagogies, and information has Literacy, Media websites, sending e-mails
Language Arts. been globalized, Literacy, Teaching from mobile devices and
Reading Teacher, v66 digitized, and sped Methods, spending hours
n4 p300-302 up to move at the Educational communicating via virtual
speed of thought. Practices, social networks. Our
Elementary students are products of
Secondary this world. However, for
Education all their digital expertise,
there is still a great deal
that these youth have to
learn about how to
process the information
they are inundated with
via these new portals of
information. Teachers
today have a
responsibility to help
students acquire these
21st century literacies
without abandoning a
commitment to the
traditional literacies that
have defined education to
date. This article argues
that language arts
educators must inject the
discipline with these new
tools and ways of
communication as
concepts such as reading,
writing, listening, and
speaking take on new
dimensions in the media
age.
Nasser, Ilham; Berlin, This book is an in- Foreign The contributors to this Education and media are
Lawrence N.; Wong, depth examination volume engage exemplified as domains
Countries,
Shelley. (2011). of education and dialogue to explore that can either maintain
Examining Education, media under Mass these domains and the status quo of
Media, and Dialogue occupation. Media, their roles and oppression when used by
under Occupation: The Dialogs functioning under policymakers and
Case of Palestine and occupation while governments to do so or
(Language
Israel. Critical keeping an eye toward can be utilized as
Language and Literacy ), Critical resolution, using the mechanisms for change
Studies. Reading, on-going conflict and peacemaking. These
Multilingual Matters. Conflict between Palestine and contradictory roles are
304 pp. Israel as the focus. The highlighted throughout
Resolution
uniqueness of this this book by multiple
, Mass collection is not limited voices. Part 1: Education,
Media to the willingness of its contains the following
Effects, authors to investigate chapters: (1) Palestinian
Peace, topics that have often Education under
been left out of the Occupation: Successes
Political mainstream, but that and Challenges (K.

68
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Influences they actually enter into Shakhshir); (2) The


dialogue with one Healing Power of Stories:
, English
another. Dialogue through English
(Second Language Learning (I.
Language) Deeb and G. Weinstein);
, Second (3) Positionalities and
Personal Perspectives on
Language
Educational Research
Learning, under Occupation: Where
Foreign is Hope? (S. Wong and I.
Policy, Nasser); (4)
Emancipatory Discourse?
Education
An Ethnographic Case
al Study of English
Research, Language Teaching in an
Ethnograp Arabic-Hebrew Bilingual
hy, Case School (J. Schlam-
Salman and Z.
Studies, Bekerman); and (5) The
Second Presentation of
Language Palestinians in Israeli
Instruction Schoolbooks (N. Peled-
Elhanan). Part 2: Media,
, Semitic presents: (6) Palestinians,
Language Arab American Muslims
s, Bilingual and the Media (N. Ayish);
Education, (7) The Political
Discourse of the Israeli
Textbooks Occupation: The Spirit of
, Content Orientalism (A. Atawneh);
Analysis, (8) The War on Gaza:
Muslims, American and Egyptian
Media Framing (N.H. El-
Arabs, Bilawi); and (9) Language
North and the Art of Spin:
Americans Commendation and
, Condemnation in Media
Discourse (L.N. Berlin).
Discourse Part 3: Dialogue,
Analysis, provides: (10) Dis-
War, covering Peace:
Jews, Dominant and
Counterdiscourse of the
Education Middle East (S.
al Silberstein); (11) An
Practices Israeli-Palestinian
Partnership: Can We Find
a Joint Language? And
Should We? (M. Zak);
(12) Postcolonialism and
the Jewish Palestinian
Encounter (R. Halabi);
(13) Checkpoint: Turning
Discourse into Dialogue
(S.J. Kent, R. Sibii and
A.R. Napoleone); and
(14) Where is the Hope?
A Call for Action (S.
Wong, I. Nasser and L.N.
Berlin). [The introduction
was written by I. Nasser,
L.N. Berlin and S. Wong.]
Nichols, Maura. (2012). In this article, the Middle Schools, Middle Schools, The implementation of the
Using Digital Video author describes Alignment Common Core Standards
Production to Meet the the digital (Education), Core has just begun and these
Common Core storytelling project Curriculum, State standards will impact a
Standards. which she Standards, generation that
Language and Literacy developed in Language Arts, communicates with
Spectrum, v22 p52-55 collaboration with Video Technology, technology more than
7th grade ELA Multimedia anything else. Texting,

69
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

teachers at Materials, Media cell phones, Facebook,


Farnsworth Middle Literacy, Grade 7, YouTube, Skype, etc. are
School. This digital Technology the ways they speak with
storytelling project Integration, Student their friends and the
could easily be Projects, Public world. The Common Core
adapted to fit Service, Advertising, Standards recognize this.
different grade Information According to the Common
levels, lesson plans Dissemination, Core Standards website,
and subjects. Criticism, Grade 7, www.corestandards.org,
Middle Schools "skills related to media
use (both critical analysis
and production of media)
are integrated throughout
the standards." Therefore,
there will be a need for
students to integrate
multimedia into their
schoolwork to the point
where they are just as
comfortable creating a
video piece to get their
ideas across, as they are
writing a research paper.
There is also a need to
teach students how to use
media responsibly.
Educators understand the
importance of integrating
media and technology
into their curriculum, but
it's not always easy to
come up with a way to do
it
Nina, Jasilek The main effect of social
(2013) media is that sentences
and phrases have
The Effect of Social become much shorter.
For example, the
Media on alteration of the word
‘facebook’ to be both a
noun and a verb can
Language change a sentence from “I
http://blog.lspr- will send her a message
education.com/socialm on facebook” to simply “I’ll
edia/the-effect-of- facebook her”. In our fast-
social-media-on- paced society, the almost-
language/ instant ability of social
media to share thoughts
with the world has also
affected our behaviour in
actual speech. For
example, this use of
terms such as ‘tweet’ as a
verb to shorten sentences
is very much reflective of
the limit of 140 characters
in a tweet, forcing you to
become more concise
and get your message
across with a limited
number of letters.
O’Bannon, Blanche W. This study ONLINE social Results revealed a
Beard, Jeffrey L. examined the networks -- significant gain in
Britt, Virginia G. (2013). effectiveness of Research achievement as
Using a Facebook using a Facebook FACEBOOK (Web measured by scores on
Group As an group to increase resource) -- pre- and posttests.
Educational Tool: pre-service Research Additionally, Facebook
Effects on Student teachers’ SOCIAL learning -- was most frequently used
Achievement. knowledge of core Research to maintain existing
Computers in the technology topics. ACADEMIC relationships, to share

70
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Schools. Jul-Sep2013, Further, it achievement photographs, and to


Vol. 30 Issue 3, p229- examined their use EDUCATIONAL communicate. The
247. 19p. 4 Charts. of Facebook, their background Facebook group was
use of a course- ACADEMIC ability used to lurk/read, post
related Facebook comments, “like”
group, their comments, and post
participation habits additional information.
in the group, and The pre-service teachers
their perceptions of indicated that the
using Facebook for Facebook group was
educational beneficial in improving
purposes readiness for course
assessments, was
convenient, provided a
good means of
communication, and
enhanced learning.
Procter-Legg, The aim for this Foreign Countries, The results presented This paper presents
Emma; Cacchione, paper is to identify Social Networks, in this paper are based LingoBee users as social
Annamaria; Petersen, whether LingoBee Electronic on the content in the networkers and describes
Sobah Abbas. (2012). users act as a true Publishing, LingoBee repository and discusses the types
LingoBee and Social social network or Collaborative and the pre- and post- of users that can be
Media: Mobile some kind of Writing, Web Sites, intervention identified by analysing the
Language Learners as hybrid and to Group Experience, questionnaires and content created in the
Social Networkers. identify and Epistemology, interviews conducted LingoBee repository and
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ describe the types Handheld Devices, with the participants in the data that is available.
contentdelivery/servlet/ of LingoBee users Programming, the studies at Study Borrowing ideas from
ERICServlet? and the Computer Software, Group, other studies conducted
accno=ED542698 implications this Second Language Unimol and NTNU. on social network users,
has on how best to Learning, English we can identify that
support teaching (Second Language), LingoBee language
and learning, to Vocabulary learners use LingoBee as
positively impact on Development, a social network. As
learners’ Communities of social networkers they
engagement and Practice, Italian, are: Creators of content;
use of LingoBee. Norwegian, Native Conversationalists, Critics
Speakers, Adult of other users' entries;
Education, Collectors that download
Postsecondary entries created by other
Education users; as
Spectators that browse
the content as well as
Inactives. In addition to
this, from the post-
intervention
questionnaires and
interviews, it can be seen
that the language learners
are stimulated by the
contributions of other
users and welcome
competition. LingoBee
users as social
networkers were analysed
and discussed based on
Luckin's idea of the Zone
of Proximal Assistance
and the Zone of Available
Assistance.
The next stage of our
work is to analyse the
data that has been
gathered in more detail
and to provide statistical
evidence. In addition, we
will analyse the data for a
better understanding of
language learners as
social networkers and the
role of crowdsourcing and

71
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

social networking in
language learning to
provide better support to
language learners.
Rahman, Md. The program Teaching Methods, Survey research Survey research found
Mizanoor; Panda, entitled "English in English (Second Bangladesh that women are
Santosh. (2012). Action (EIA)", 9 Language), Foreign particularly interested in
Teaching English year period DFID Countries, Distance learning by mobile
through Open Non- funded project in Education, English (especially given its "any
Formal Education Bangladesh, was Instruction, time, any place" nature).
(ONFE) in Bangladesh launched in 2008, Technology That means, it is
with an Effective for the desire to Integration, absolutely being
Integration of ICT to bring a change in Nonformal implemented as a non-
Support Learning. the learning of Education, Program formal education (NFE)
Turkish Online Journal English language. Effectiveness, under the Open and
of Distance Education, EIA works to reach Second Language Distance Learning (ODL)
v13 n3 p87-96. a total of 25 million Learning, Second mode what is known as
primary and Language Open Non-formal
secondary students Programs, Handheld Education (ONFE). BBC
and adult learners Devices, Open Janala allows
through Education, Delivery Bangladeshis to access
communicative Systems, short (2-3 minute) audio
language learning Communicative lessons through a simple
techniques and the Competence voice call by calling a four
use of ICT, (Languages), digit short code. The
textbooks and Educational Media, program has been a real
supplementary Program challenge as it has the
materials in an Descriptions, ability to address the
innovative way. Educational need of students with an
The project has Strategies, Adult effective integration of
been running, with Education, ICT to support learning.
the help of BBC Elementary
World Service Secondary
Trust and BBC Education
Learning English,
the program
entitled "BBC
Janala", an
initiative that is
providing English
language lessons
to citizens via their
mobile phones as
part of the wider
English in Action
program in
Bangladesh.
Rouis, Sana; Limayem, The paper provides Undergraduate Paper and pencil Results support in part
Moez; Salehi-Sangari, a preliminary Students, survey was run with earlier conclusions about
Esmail. (2011). Impact analysis of the Personality Traits, undergraduate personality traits that rule
of Facebook Usage on effects of Facebook Trust (Psychology), students from Lulea the presence on
Students' Academic usage by Life Satisfaction, University of Facebook. Trust does not
Achievement: Role of undergraduate Academic Technology and data impede on Facebook
Self-Regulation and students at Lulea Achievement, Goal from 239 students was usage as it determines
Trust. Electronic University of Orientation, used to test the model. surfers' use of Internet.
Journal of Research in Technology in Personality, Foreign SmartPLS software Self-regulation and
Educational Sweden. The Countries, was employed to test performance goal
Psychology, v9 n3 proposed research Educational the proposed structural orientation characterized
p961-994 2011. 34 pp. model tests the Technology, Social equation model. the students who are
perceived effect of Networks, Computer Results: Results more in control of this
personality traits, Software, Self indicated an extensive social activity. In turn, this
self-regulation, and Control, Internet, use of Facebook by prohibits the apparent
trust on students' Computer Uses in students with negative effect on their
achievements. Education, Higher extraverted academic performance.
Based on flow Education personalities leading to Results help students to
theory, the model poor academic understand the
suggests negative performance. However, preliminary consequences
mediating effects of students who are more of their extensive usage
the use and self-regulated more of Facebook and to better
cognitive effectively control their manage their social

72
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

absorption on presence on these activities on this platform.


Facebook, platforms. Trust in
concluding that a people does not affect
decrease occurs in their presence and
students' academic interaction on this
performance but a platform. Yet students'
positive effect on cognitive absorption
satisfaction with life with Facebook is only
that would limit this regulated by their self-
undesirable effect. control and their
personality traits, which
determines how much
time they spend on
Facebook. Multitasking
skills moderate the
effect of cognitive
absorption on
academic
achievement, but they
do not impede the time
spent, frequency, or
nature of use or their
effect on academic
results. Although
students' satisfaction
with life significantly
declined due to
cognitive immersion
into Facebook, it
appeared not to play
an effective role in the
students' academic
achievement. However,
their performance goal
orientation was shown
to be a crucial
determinant of their
university
accomplishments,
which would limit the
critical effect of their
presence on the
Facebook platform.
Root, Teri Hiring BUSINESS A survey was given to Students did not consider
McKay, Sandra. (2014). professionals are education -- students enrolled in posts and photo tags by
Student Awareness of increasingly using Research College of Business friends to be important to
the Use of Social Media social media sites EMPLOYEE classes at a university employers, nor did they
Screening by as screening tools. screening -- in the Southeast. consider grammar and
Prospective Employers. The primary Research Students were spelling to be important.
Journal of Education for purpose of this SOCIAL media in cognizant that This is in stark contrast to
Business. 2014, Vol. 89 study was to business -- employers consider what recent research
Issue 4, p202-206. 5p. determine what Research posts about drugs, indicates employers
2 Charts. students thought EMPLOYEE alcohol, sex, profanity, consider important.
employers recruitment -- and negative
considered Research comments.
important BUSINESS students
information when -- Research
researching
profiles.
Schoor, Cornelia; Motivation is an Student Motivation, In our experimental Results: We found no
Kownatzki, Salome; important issue in Cooperative study, triads worked on effect of the feedback tool
Narciss, Susanne; both face-to-face Learning, Feedback a collaborative learning on motivation or
Körndle, Hermann. and computer- (Response), task either with (N = knowledge. Whether
(2014).”Effects of supported Psychology, College 33) or without (N = 18) feedback was discussed
Feeding Back the collaborative Students, Likert a motivational or not made no
Motivation of a learning. There are Scales, Expectation, feedback tool. Triads difference. Discussion
Collaboratively several approaches Questionnaires, with a feedback tool and Conclusion: These
Learning Group.” for enhancing Student Attitudes, were either prompted results indicate that a
Electronic Journal of motivation, Competence, to discuss their results motivational feedback tool
Research in including group Failure, Multivariate or not. We assessed is only effective under

73
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Educational awareness tools Analysis, Self motivation and specific circumstances


Psychology, v12 n1 that provide Evaluation knowledge before and which must be further
p191-210 Apr 2014. 20 feedback on the (Individuals), Control after their work. researched.
pp group's Groups, Computer
motivation. Assisted Instruction,
However, this Comparative
feedback was Analysis, Hypothesis
rarely Testing, Knowledge
unconfounded with Level, Higher
other constructs. Education,
Additionally, it is Postsecondary
only assumed and Education
not investigated
that the learners
talk about their
feedback and then
remedy
motivational
problems which
leads to the
observed
motivation gain.
S.E. Aduwa- 1) The population of this RESEARCH FINDINGS
Ogiegbaen, E.O.S. study included senior
Frequency
Iyamu. (2006.) secondary school
of the use Research Question 1.
Factors affecting quality students in public
of English language of secondary schools in
teaching and learning instruction the six geopolitical Do secondary school
in secondary schools in zones of Nigeria teachers use instructional
al media;
Nigeria. College The main instruments resources/media
Student (2) used for this study frequently in teaching
Journal.Alabama. Frequency were a questionnaire English Language?
of the use and observation
schedules.
of Table 1 shows that only
instruction five items were located
al above the predetermined
theoretical mean value of
technique 3.0. These are
s; and (3) chalkboards, English
The workbooks, posters,
school English textbooks and
dictionaries in that order.
learning Charts are used by the
environme teachers occasionally. All
nt other items are rarely
used.

Research Questions 2

Do the teachers use


appropriate methods in
teaching English
language frequently?

Only items 1 and 6 met


the predetermined
theoretical mean of 3.0.
This means that the
lecture method and
intensive reading of
textbooks are the only
teaching techniques
frequently used in public
secondary schools in
Nigeria for teaching
English language. The
group and debate
methods are occasionally

74
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

used with means of 2.82


and 2.57 respectively.

Research Question 3

Do secondary school
students in Nigeria learn
English language in
environment conducive to
learning?

Mean scores and


standard deviations for all
items on environmental
factors showed that
secondary school
students in Nigeria do not
learn English Language in
environment conducive to
effective learning. The
students agreed that their
schools are overcrowded,
that the furniture is not
comfortable for proper
sitting and that
classrooms are without
proper lighting and
ventilation. They
disagreed that their
schools have well stocked
libraries, adequate chairs
and tables, and adequate
classrooms.

Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi. This investigation The report is Reported findings include:


(2008) was undertaken to triangulated around (1) Understanding the
Investigating the investigate the learning from large- interrelatedness of the
Language and Literacy threshold levels of scale surveys, learning task, skill, and supports
Skills Required for literacy and from the literature, and necessitates research
Independent Online language learning from the field. and development to guide
Learning. proficiency the design of learning
necessary for adult environments and
learners to use the activities that are flexible
Internet for and that can differentiate
independent on all three dimensions;
learning. (2) The centrality of work
readiness to adults'
learning lives provides a
key leverage point for
programming and content
design to address this
goal more directly and,
through it, more basic
literacy and language
skills; (3) Adults' existing
family and social
networks that have
proven critical to learning
pursuits with technology
provide another leverage
point that could be tapped
with community-based,
authentic learning
environments, activities,
and products; (4) Self-

75
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

directed skills valued in


lifelong learners can be
nurtured by providing
facilitated access to
online, independent
learning environments; (5)
Evaluation data are
needed to determine how
users are interacting and
learning with online
material and whether
these sites are or could
be stepping stones into
more formal courses of
study; (6) Rates of access
and connectivity in the
low-income community
are definitely growing, yet
high-quality equipment
and broadband or
wireless access are far
from ubiquitous; and (7)
Although use of emerging
technologies to deliver
learning content is only
beginning to be reported
in the research,
technology enthusiasts
believe that consumer
electronics, interactive
Web 2.0 platforms, and
the convergence of media
have the potential to
reach new populations
and provide authentic
learning and
communication.
Shoffner, Melanie; de This article Language Arts, Using a case study Conceptions of literacy in
Oliveira, Luciana presents the efforts Secondary approach, the authors the secondary English
C.; Angus, Ryan. of two secondary Education, English examine each language arts classroom
(2010). Secondary English language Teachers, English teacher's today have expanded in
English Classroom: arts teachers in the Instruction, Grade 9, understanding of multiple directions,
Becoming Literate in Midwestern United Grade 10, Media literacy, views on moving far beyond former
the 21st Century. States to expand Literacy, Intermode enacting literacy in the emphases on reading
English Teaching: the meaning of Differences, classroom and efforts comprehension and
Practice and Critique, literacy in their own Computer Uses in to engage students in writing ability.
v9 n3 p75-89 classrooms. Education, English, multiliteracies The authors then discuss
Case Method the implications of the
(Teaching teachers' literacy work,
Technique), focusing on the teachers'
Perspective Taking, individual classrooms and
Classroom the preparation of
Environment, secondary English
Teaching Methods, teachers.
Grade 10, Grade 9,
Secondary
Education
Sockett, Geoffrey. Online informal In this research project, The results of the study
(2011). The Learner, learning of English; students in applied show that the general
the Media and the Complex dynamic linguistics were asked cognitive processes,
Community: How Does systems; learning to keep blogs over a suggested by Larsen
Learning Take Place in blogs; emic research three-month period in Freeman and
the Other CALL which they reported on Cameron (2008) as
Triangle?. European their online informal driving second language
Association for learning of English development, are
Computer-Assisted through activities such occurring in informal
Language Learning as social networking, learning activities.
(EUROCALL). School downloading films and The process is initiated by
of Modern Languages, TV series and listening a social drive to interact
University of Ulster, to music on demand. with others in real

76
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Northern Ireland. The study is situated cognitive tasks. The


within the framework of messages
complexity theory, received in these
many aspects of which interactions contain a
are well suited to range of intentions which
describing informal are perceived by the non-
language development. native
The blogs are analysed language user, who uses
according to a number strategies such as
of learning processes detecting patterns,
suggested by Larsen- creating categories and
Freeman and Cameron noticing novelty to
(2008) and a process the information,
corresponding range of and then, in the case of
learning activities are bi-directional
observed. Finally, communication, reuses
suggestions are made chunks of the language
as to possible in order to indicate his or
classroom applications her own intentions and
of this work. complete the task.
This study sought to
relate complexity theory
to the informal learning of
English. This is a
relatively new
area and allows scope for
further research into
language acquisition in
informal contexts,
classroom
practices with informal
learners and the extent to
which these phenomena
occur in the learning of
languages other than
English.
Teachers of English in
countries where learners
are engaging in these
activities could build on
them in
the classroom in a
number of ways. While
the private nature of much
informal communication
(particularly social
networking) precludes
direct use of many learner
activities in the
classroom,
anonymous class surveys
of these practices are a
good way of treating
learners as language
users, raising
the profile of informal
English use and
emphasizing its validity.
Classroom activities can
reflect themes favoured
by learners in their day to
day use of English, and
can be seen as “bridging
activities” (Thorne and
Reinhardt 2008) towards
real world language use.
Swan, Karen. (1999). This paper Educational The proposed Most importantly from this
Nonprint Media and proposes a set of Technology, standards, culled from perspective, the
Technology Literacy cumulative Electronic existing standards standards are categorized
Standards for K-12 standards for Equipment, created for educational to address three types of

77
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Teaching and Learning. assessing the uses Elementary technologies, literacies--basic, critical,
of nonprint media Secondary information literacy, and constructive--to
and electronic Education, and the English encourage teachers to
technologies in Evaluation Criteria, language arts, are incorporate all three kinds
elementary, middle, Language Arts, offered as a guide and of literacies when
and high school Literacy, Nonprint starting point for integrating technology
classrooms. Media, Standards, expanding notions of use in teaching and
Technology literacy and literacy learning across the
Integration, learning in the curriculum.
Elementary schools.
Secondary
Education
Tanriverdi, The paper presents Second Language Turkey The topic of teaching and
Belgin; Apak, Ozlem. prejudices and Instruction, English learning culture has been
(2008). Culture and other cultural (Second Language), a matter of considerable
Language Teaching biases learners Second Languages, interest to language
through Media. Online have about target Language Skills, educators and much has
Submission, Paper culture and Cultural Differences, been written about the
presented at the World discusses the Social Bias, Mass role of culture in foreign
Council for Curriculum positive effects of Media Effects, language instruction over
and Instruction (WCCI) media on students. Critical Thinking, the past two decades.
World Conference in Cultural Awareness ESL students whose
Education. success in a new
environment is
conditioned not only by
their mastery of the new
language, but also, and
especially, by their ability
to negotiate the new
culture. Media sources
significantly affect
students' attitudes and
dispositions towards
themselves, other people
and society especially in
English as a Second
Language (ESL) classes.
Building on the argument
that learning a second
language cannot be
separated from the
acquisition of the culture
that it embodies, this
paper argues that the
design and adaptation of
written media should
reflect multiple
perspectives and avoid
prejudices in order to
engage students in a
process of uncovering
and confronting cultural
biases and facilitate
cultural learning.

The paper suggests that


media sources should be
integrated into ESL
curriculum in order to
avoid prejudices, to
enhance students' critical
thinking and language
skills and cultural biases,
and to have a better
understanding of new
culture. Key Points for
Evaluating/Comparing
Newspapers are
appended.
Tan Lee Wee, Lynde. This paper argues Foreign Countries, The findings presented In response to the

78
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

(2010). Putting the Cart that in order to Media Literacy, here are drawn from an changing demands of
before the Horse: effectively Literacy Education, ethnographic study of new times, media literacy
Interrogating Media incorporate media Secondary School 10 adolescents' literacy has been incorporated
Literacy Education in literacy education Students, College practices in Singapore. into the current English
School English in school literacy Bound Students, In this paper, I focus Language Syllabus 2010
Lessons. New Horizons lessons, the Adolescents, only on a group of 5 in Singapore. Although
in Education, v58 n3 learners must first Language Arts, students working media literacy is
p67-77 be understood with Educational together on a group mentioned in the syllabus,
all their ideological Practices, school project that what this term means
practices. Such a Differences, Family required them to recast needs more clarification.
perspective argues Environment, Shakespeare's What is clear from the
for a social view of Classroom Macbeth in current English Language
literacy to Environment, contemporary times Syllabus 2010 in
illuminate the Ethnography, using a 3D animated Singapore is the notion of
situated nature of Second Language learning environment media literacy as skills
engagement with Learning, Teacher called "MediaStage. only. When teachers rely
media texts. This Attitudes, Learner on such a narrow
means that how Engagement, perspective of media
learners participate Student Projects, literacy without
in media text Intermode understanding how young
production, what Differences, people participate in the
values they place Learning Modalities, reading, viewing and
in such text Secondary production of media texts
production and how Education in their literacy practices,
they negotiate their they may fall into the
participation in their danger of putting the cart
media practices before the horse.
inside and outside
school are When engaging in the
necessary production of a media
considerations for text, young peoples'
teachers to better production practices
understand their problematicize the
learners' purpose of incorporating
engagement with media literacy education
media texts. into the school English
lessons. Conclusion: This
paper argues that a social
view of literacy gives
teachers more insights on
the pedagogical
implications of
incorporating media
literacy education into
school English lessons
than a narrow view of
literacy as skills only.

Tilfarlioglu, Filiz Yalçın. Warscahauer and Web 2.0 In this study, a While there are several
(2011). “An Kern, 2000) technologies, foreign descriptive analysis studies in the literature
International Dimension exploring the language learning, was carried out. After indicating that Web 2.0
of the Student’s practices of Web English language the analysis of the tools have a good impact
Attitudes Towards The 2.0 tools in foreign teaching. questionnaires, semi- on education,
Use of English in Web language structured and most all of these studies
2.0 Technology” education, there is focus group interviews had limitations such as
The Turkish Online almost no study were made. Ten being held in one specific
Journal of Educational focusing on students were chosen area, having only
Technology students’ randomly from the teachers’
perceptions upon institutions located in perspectives and not
the use of Web 2.0 Turkey. designed specifically for
tools in foreign The questionnaire language education.
language learning, allowed gathering Thus, conducting a study
though. Hence, this information about in public and private
study tries to reveal students’ perceptions institutions in Turkey and
the most recent of themselves in using Iraq would help us to
perceptions and English answer some questions
implications by regarding the following about the extent of
investigating the items: using blocks, applicability of Web
roles use of a different 2 tools in language
of Web 2.0 tools in language except education in various

79
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

foreign language English, writing status socio-cultural


education. messages, environments. During the
Furthermore, it sharing videos, sharing interviews conducted in
gives some clues writings, joining groups, Turkey, all the
about how to make creating groups, joining participants reported that
the groups to learn they were familiar with the
efficient use of English, playing use of Web 2.0 tools. The
Web 2.0 tools by games, results of both
providing some learning vocabulary questionnaire and the
practical through games, using interviews revealed that
implications for applications, linking to the need of the students
teacher education fun pages, commenting will increase towards
and training. In on photos, technology and
order to achieve commenting on videos, English.
these aims, the commenting on status Results show that there
following are the messages, making are differences in
research questions foreign friends, chatting students’ perceptions
of the study: on line, feeling about using Web 2.0 tools
1. What are the confidence in courses, in language learning.
perceptions of enhancing vocabulary No matter how various
foreign language knowledge, enhancing perceptions students
learners in using speaking skill, have, the most important
Web 2.0 enhancing listening thing that may affect their
technologies? skill, perceptions is
2. Do students enhancing reading skill, the implementation of
regard Web 2.0 as enhancing writing skill, these tools into
an opportunity for using to learn classroom. Therefore,
English language vocabulary, wasting deficiencies in practice
learning? time on internet. The may hinder the beneficial
3. Do socio-cultural cronbach’s alpha wash back. There might
differences affect reliability factor of the be a lot of reasons for it.
the students’ views pilot study was found to First of all, lack of
about the use of be .82 in the first awareness in both
Web 2.0 in foreign application. teachers and students
language learning? Additionally, it reduces the efficacy of
4. Can the use of was calculated as .89 Web 2.0 tools. That
Web 2.0 contribute in the second pilot students regard Web 2.0
significantly to study, that is quite tools as beyond game
English language reliable and valid for and free time activity
learning? Likert-type attitude could only be possible
scales when teachers and
(Nunan, 1997). The students value Web 2.0
items in the tools in foreign language
questionnaire were education. However,
analysed using the when the classroom
Statistical Package for practices are evaluated, it
Social Sciences can be easily said that the
(SPSS). For every role of Web 2.0 tools has
item, frequencies and been
percentages were underestimated. A recent
calculated. Chi-square and dramatic example of
tests were applied in that is Dynet which is a
order to Web-based program
find the significance of developed to
the distribution of the teach English. But,
answers. English language
teachers regard it time
consuming and a big
burden. As well as
awareness,
teachers need a good
background knowledge
about these tools to
implement it effectively,
which raises the
question whether English
language teaching
departments provide good
basis in teachers’
education and

80
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

technology courses fulfill


theoretical and practical
needs for application. It
can be concluded that if
teachers were
educated in the field, the
use of Web 2.0 could
contribute significantly to
English language learning
.Thus,
regarding Web2.0 tools
as an opportunity for
English Language
learning will be inevitable
for the learners of the
21st century: the new
medium
Toetenel, Lisette (2014) This study *ONLINE social The findings described
Social networking: a examined the use networks are based on the use of a
collaborative open of social *SECOND language social networking site
educational resource. networking sites as acquisition called Ning in a
Computer Assisted a means of *SOCIAL media in classroom during a
Language Learning. establishing an education summer school project,
Apr2014, Vol. 27 Issue asynchronous *INTERNET in which was conducted at a
2, p149-162. 14p. online environment education further education college
for use in language *EVALUATION in the UK. The project
learning in a *FURTHER focussed in particular on
classroom setting. education (Great informal language
Britain) practice when using
*TEENAGERS social networking sites.
The paper then examines
the effect the use of the
social networking tool had
on group cohesion and
learner-to-learner
interaction, and how
these, in turn, enhanced
informal language
learning due to an
increase in learner
collaboration. The study
found that the use of Ning
enhanced group cohesion
and that learners started
working in different
groups once Ning was
introduced. Finally, it
highlights the potential
technical and
administrative barriers
that can impede an
institution in implementing
its educational strategy in
regards to OERs – in this
case, social networking
sites in the classroom.
The further education
college in which this study
took place had no policies
in place in regards to the
use of OERs in the
classroom, thus the paper
concludes with
recommendations in
regards to training and
policies so that
researchers and
practitioners can learn
from the project.
Turner, K. C. Nat. This appear aims Sociocultural multimodal media Through a multimodal

81
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

(2011). "Rap to answer the Patterns, Multimedia production literacy media production literacy
Universal": Using following: Instruction, Literacy intervention intervention in an
Multimodal Media 1. What specific Education, English extended-day program,
Production to Develop how-to ICT skills (Second Language), Qualitative Methods culturally and linguistically
ICT Literacies. Journal did students Second Language diverse youth developed
of Adolescent & Adult develop? Learning, valuable information and
Literacy, v54 n8 p613- 2. How does the Information communication
623. acquisition of skills Technology, After technology literacies,
in the MMP School Programs, including: (1) Specific
process further Technological how-to skills useful in
students’ literacies, Literacy, Middle future academic,
namely the Schools, Poverty, professional, social, and
ability to interpret Urban Youth, Middle civic contexts; (2) Abilities
and produce texts? Schools to critically interpret and
3. How does produce media; and (3)
students’ Understanding of the
understanding of value of skills and
the utility of ICT literacies across contexts.
literacies across Instead of teaching
contexts change? reading and writing as
universally applicable
neutral skills, teachers
taught students to use
multimodal media
production as a relevant
sociocultural practice that
demanded school-based
literacies.

A critical inquiry approach


to media
production can afford
students the opportunity
to develop literacy and
critical thinking skills
across several disciplines.
Turner, K. C. Nat; This article features Transformative California Through interviews,
Hayes, Nini, Visaya; key findings from a The study took place in description of key critical
Learning, Popular
Way, Kate. (2013). study that an extended day pedagogical strategies,
Critical Multimodal Hip highlights the Culture, Music, program in a northern and an analysis of the
Hop Production: A transformative Teaching Methods, California public middle lyrical content of two
Social Justice impact of a Middle School school among a group students'
Approach to African pedagogical of 30, urban, African multimodal hip hop
Students, Minority
American Language approach that American, productions, the authors
and Literacy Practices. employs Critical Group Children, Chicano/a/Latino/a, demonstrate how CMHHP
Equity & Excellence in Multimodal Hip Hop African American and Asian youth. The was used to engage
Education, v46 n3 spec Production Students, Hispanic authors utilize a youth in (1) facilitating a
iss p342-354 2013. 13 (CMHHP). theoretical lens participatory action
American Students,
pp. informed by research research project; (2)
Asian American on African American synthesizing data from
Students, Critical Language (AAL) and the research project and
Literacy, Media literacy practices, theorizing about the data
Literacy, Critical critical media literacy, in relationship to their
social justice lives, their school, and
Theory, Interviews, education, critical community; and (3)
Singing, Learner pedagogy, and critical creating a dialectical
Engagement, After race theory to space for them to
School Programs, contextualize the integrate their new
outcomes of using understanding of social
Literacy Education, such a pedagogical justice issues with their
African American approach. hip hop production.
Culture, Language
Usage, Middle
Schools
Thanawan The present study Facebook, English The data were From the results,
Suthiwartnarueput. explored the effects language Learning, collected from the Facebook, as a means for
(2012). of using Facebook Grammar students’ utterances language learning,
Effects of Using as a medium for asking for explanations effectively enhanced the
Facebook as a Medium grammar and about English grammar writing

82
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

for Discussions of writing discussions and writing that were abilities of the EFL
English Grammar and of low-intermediate posted on Facebook, students. The students
Writing of Low- EFL students their gain scores in the had a higher mean score
Intermediate pre-test and in the post-test. Facebook
EFL Students. post-test, and interview also
Electronic Journal of responses. The built positive attitudes of
Foreign Language findings showed a students in language
Teaching. National statistically significant learning. Grammar
University of difference between the discussions seemed to
Singapore. mean scores of the lead to
pre-test and the post- the English writing
test (t = 6.65, p = 0.00). improvement.
Most common topics of
discussion involved Using Facebook as a
sentence structures, medium for language
followed by word learning actively
meanings, parts of encourages a
speech and then collaborative
relative clauses. It was environment,
found that builds positive attitudes,
English grammar was increases motivation and
worth promoting for student participation, and
discussions on sustains
Facebook because teacher-student
there were correlations relationships (Mazer,
between Murphy & Simonds,
the gain scores in the 2007). The teacher can
grammar and writing promote the use
parts at the significant of this social networking
levels (r = 0.399 in the site by encouraging
pre-test and r = students to create
0.859 in the post-test). Facebook accounts and
The students also had add their
positive attitudes teacher and classmates
toward using Facebook as friends. He or she can
as a means of learning be updated on the
grammar and writing. assignments, upcoming
As an alternative events,
learning tool, Facebook and other pedagogical
provided them a information on Facebook.
convenient and Good examples of writing
attractive can be uploaded so
means to engage in that the students could
discussions with the have an opportunity to
teacher and other share their thoughts about
users who had better the examples. Specific
grammatical office hours should be
knowledge. given to the students so
that they can contact the
teacher. In case the
teacher
is offline, they should be
allowed to post questions
on the teacher’s profile
page and discuss them
with other Facebook
users.
Vaughn, Sharon; The purpose of our Intervention, Second The authors identified
Martinez, Leticia R.; two studies was to Language Learning, instructional practices
Reutebuch, Colleen K.; examine the Grade 7, Vocabulary associated with improved
Carlson, Coleen D.; efficacy of Development, outcomes for English
Thompson, Sylvia L.; incorporating English (Second language learners (ELLs):
Franci, David J.(2010). instructional Language), English, (1) research-based
Enhancing Social practices Limited English vocabulary and concept
Studies Vocabulary and associated with Speaking, Social instruction, (2) the use of
Comprehension for 7th improved outcomes Studies, Educational media to build
Grade English into middle-school Practices, Teaching comprehension and
Language Learners: social studies Methods, concept knowledge, (3)
Findings from Two instruction as a Comparative the use of graphic
Experimental Studies. means of Analysis, Middle organizers, and (4)

83
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Society for Research enhancing Schools, Outcomes structured peer-pairings.


on Educational vocabulary of Education, Grade Students who were
Effectiveness. 6 pp. knowledge and 7, Middle Schools limited English proficient
comprehension for outperformed their
English language counterparts in the
learners. The comparison condition on
authors' primary both the vocabulary and
research question comprehension
was: How does a measures. When both the
multi-component target group (English
instructional routine language learners) and
developed to their classmates benefit
enhance effective from an intervention or
outcomes for practice, it meets the
English language criteria for universal
learners and design. This finding is
provided by particularly relevant for
classroom social teachers who have both
studies teachers ELLs and non-LEP
influence students' (Limited English
outcomes in Proficient) students in
vocabulary and their classrooms and who
comprehension? may be concerned about
Two different non- the possible detrimental
overlapping effect for other students of
samples of classes instruction that targets
of 7th grade ELLs. If effective
students (N=381 instructional practices for
and N=507) were ELLs also benefit non-
randomly assigned ELLs, teachers have a
at the classroom strong rationale for
(i.e., section) level implementing the
to a social studies instructional practice.
intervention or to Furthermore, ELLs in the
business as usual comparison condition
comparison made the least gains and
groups. Although lagged behind all other
this intervention groups on both the
was developed to vocabulary and content
address the comprehension
instructional and measures, providing
language needs of further support for
ELLs, the students interventions such as the
who were not one in this study to alter
limited English the course for ELLs.
proficient in the
intervention
classes also
benefited
Van Bauwel, Sofie This article Audiovisual Aids, We studied how This media literacy
(2008). Media Literacy examines the use Foreign Countries, children acquire and project is rooted in the
and Audiovisual of media in the Media Literacy, use media literacy realm of audiovisual
Languages: A Case construction of a Ethnography, skills through their media, within which
Study from Belgium. "new" language for Preadolescents, engagement in an children's sound and
Educational Media children. Student Motivation, educational art project. visual worlds are the
International, v45 n2 Data Analysis, focus of inquiry. Using an
p119-130 Learning Processes, ethnographic approach,
Audiovisual we examined the
Communications, Art engagement in the project
Activities of participating children,
and we analyzed how
they used this "new"
discourse as a tool to
express themselves. Our
analysis focused on how
the project was received
by children, and on the
potential for educational
media art projects to
stimulate media

84
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

knowledge.
Vilma Tafani (2009). This article aims at : It is the result of an in- Multimedia helps us
Teaching English analyzing the teaching English, depth study,surveys teachers make teaching
Through Mass Media. importance of using multimedia in and questionnaires and learning visual (easy
Acta Didactica Mass Media in the education, mass- thus trying to make the for visual learners). A
Napocensia Volume 2 classroom media in education ideas in this article picture not only tells a
No.1. andfinding the more trustworthy. It thousand words but it also
ways how to use isbased not only on the helps students improve
Printed and Audio- literature review but their thinking and
visual Media. also on long personal observation skills,it
experience. It is a brief promotes imagination,
description of some etc. Playing the video with
practical examples and or without the subtitles
some tips for novice enhances visual
teachers. Further more, learners.Radio (playing
this articletends to deal the audio) helps auditory
with some of the key learners learn better.
issues of using media Listening to the tape and
in the classroom. Here then having thescript is a
are included someof clear combination that
the findings of my helps visual and auditory
research work on a learners.By using various
post-doctorate kinds of Media in the
Fulbright Program in classroom we can
2001. The enhance students’
followingissues are understanding
open for discussion: andpromote it where
the importance of necessary.The use of
Media in general and in audio and video with
education in student teachers is crucial
particular;Media are also in giving feedback
persuasive and and training, inReflective
pervasive, Teaching, in analyzing
newspapers, and synthesizing, in
magazines, radio, tracking students’
television and internet progress over time, in
in theclassroom, etc. editingcertain options, in
testing, in peer coaching,
etc.Media can help with
many issues such as:
motivation, clarity,
recycling, drafting,
revising, editing,variety,
mixed-ability classes,
updating information in
the textbook, giving life
and color to
classroomprocedures and
methods, thus at the
same time helping the
students improve
accuracy and
fluency.There are a lot of
issues that can or cannot
be solved by
media.Internet has three
main educational uses. It
serves as a source of
information, a place for
collaboration,and a place
to learn and publish.Some
years ago it was thought
that the computers would
substitute the teachers
but it did not
work.Learning and
teaching through
computers is an
alternative approach that
stresses the student’s use

85
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

of computers to solve
real-world problems while
learning. But however
sophisticated it might
be,teachers will never be
replaced.
Waterhouse, Monica. This article maps Cartography, Canada In this classroom,
(2012). "We Don't critical literacies Immigrants, Critical It begins by describing reading a newspaper
Believe Media conceptually and Literacy, Adult Deleuze and Guattari's article provoked a series
Anymore": Mapping empirically in the Education, Second cartographic approach. of transformative events
Critical Literacies in an context of adult Language Learning, Then it traces critical or "becomings," a concept
Adult Immigrant immigrant Second Language literacies situated created by Deleuze and
Language Classroom. language Instruction, conceptually within a Guattari and which is
Discourse: Studies in classrooms Qualitative Freirean paradigm central to MLT. A
the Cultural Politics of Research, Politics, before mapping them research cartography is
Education, v33 n1 Newspapers, differently through the presented as a series of
p129-146 Vignettes, Deleuzian-informed vignettes weaving data
Transformative Multiple Literacies and concepts. This
Learning, Mass Theory (MLT). MLT empirical mapping of
Media Effects, frames critical literacies media literacies and
Foreign Countries, as reading intensively, reading intensively offers
Multiple Literacies, that is, disruptively. insights into the politics of
Adult Education This alternative becoming in adult
conceptualization is immigrant language
then mobilized classrooms and opens
empirically in relation to conceptual lines of flight
the problems and between critical literacies
politics produced in the and reading intensively.
qualitative study of one
language classroom
Webb, Sue. (2006). Foreign Countries, Empirical research is Strong claims are made
Can ICT Reduce Social Ethnic Groups, needed, including for ICT-based lifelong
Exclusion? The Case of Lifelong Learning, qualitative studies of learning as an effective
an Adults' English Adults, Second the experiences of way of reducing the
Language Learning Language Learning, socially excluded exclusion of various
Programme. British English (Second learners using ICT. groups in society, yet,
Educational Research Language), there is very little
Journal, v32 n3 p481- Educational research to support these
507 Technology, Access claims.
to Education,
Information This article reports the
Technology, Adult findings of such a study in
Education, Social relation to learners from
Isolation, Adult one socially excluded
Education group, adults from ethnic
minority backgrounds,
who are
disproportionately
deprived and often
excluded by language.
The article discusses the
study of the experiences
and perceptions of adults
learning English for
speakers of other
languages (ESOL)
through ICT in seven
different learning centres
in England. The findings
show that technology is
insufficient to overcome
existing inequalities in
access to learning, and to
engage learners who
would not otherwise
undertake formal learning,
but ICT-based learning
can reduce some aspects
of social exclusion in
terms of encouraging

86
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

minority ethnic group


learners to speak more
within the host
community. ICT-based
learning offers a space for
language learning and
practice, which is often
absent in traditional ESOL
classrooms and in the
every day lives of these
excluded groups.
Learning is a social
practice in which the level
of commitment of tutors to
encouraging the use of
these media and creating
a safe and private space
for learning affects the
range of learning activities
with which learners
engage and the impact of
these on their everyday
use of English.
Winskel, Heather. The purpose of the Grade 1, Grade 2, Forty-three children Otitis media (OM) or
(2006). The Effects of current study was Skill Development, from Grade 1 and middle ear infection is a
an Early History of to ascertain the Semantics, Human Grade 2, between 6 common childhood illness
Otitis Media on effects of a history Body, Diseases, and 8 years old with an and is most frequent
Children's Language of OM in early Age, Reading Skills, early history of OM and during the crucial first 3
and Literacy Skill childhood on later Literacy, Language 43 control children, years of life when speech
Development. language and Acquisition, matched for and language categories
British Journal of literacy skill Phonology, chronological age, are being established,
Educational development. Measures gender and socio- which could potentially
Psychology, v76 n4 (Individuals), economic status, have a long-term effect on
p727-744 Comparative participated in this language and literacy skill
Analysis, Scores, study development.
Vocabulary, Grade Children were tested
1, Grade 2 on multiple measures There was a general
of phonological tendency for children with
awareness, semantic a history of OM to achieve
knowledge, narration lower scores on
and reading ability. The phonological awareness
performance of skills of alliteration, rhyme
children with and and non-word reading,
without a history of OM semantic skills of
was compared on the expressive vocabulary
different measures. and word definitions and
reading than non- OM
children. Conclusion:
These findings highlight
the potential problems an
early history of middle ear
infection can have on
school-aged children's
later language and
literacy development.
Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; The purpose of this Foreign Countries, Ten universities in the The following are the
Teo, Adisa. (2012). study is to measure English (Second Expanding Circle that results of the study. (1)
Comprehensibility of the Language), Second participated in the The Englishes spoken in
Englishes within comprehensibility Language Learning, study, namely the Outer Circle were
ASEAN: A Synopsis of of the Expanding Language Variation, Assumption University, moderately
Results. Circle nations' Comprehension, Chiang Mai University, comprehensible to the
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ citizens, namely Mutual Intelligibility, Khon Khaen University, citizens of the Expanding
contentdelivery/servlet/ Burmese, College Students, King Mongkut Circle nations. Based on
ERICServlet? Cambodians, Asians, Educational University of the standardized
accno=ED540116 Indonesians, Attainment, Work Technology North comprehensibility scales
Laotians, Thais and Experience, Social Bangkok, Mahapanya and levels set in this
Vietnamese Networks, Travel, Vidayalai University, study, the
towards the Outer Correlation, Mahidol University, comprehensibility scores
Circle Englishes, Questionnaires, Prince of Songkla of Bruneian English,
namely Bruneian Higher Education, University Hat Yai Malaysian English,

87
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

English, Malaysian Postsecondary Campus, Rajamangala Philippine English and


English. Philippine Education University Srivijaya Singaporean English are
English and Songkhla Campus, and M = 4.90, M = 5.57, M =
Singaporean Rajamangala 5.01, and M = 4.76
English. University Srivijaya respectively. All fell under
Trang Campus in the moderate
Thailand, and comprehensibility level
University of Riau in set at 3.34-6.67. (2) The
Indonesia. Participants Expanding Circle citizens
in the data collection exhibited varying degrees
process consist of two of comprehensibility
hundred and one towards the Outer Circle
subjects in Englishes. The least
undergraduate and comprehensible variety
graduate level. Eight among the Burmese is
comprehension tests Malaysian English;
and a questionnaire among Laotians and
were used as main Thais is Bruneian English;
tools in the data and among Cambodians,
collection process. Indonesians and
Qualitative and Vietnamese is
quantitative analyses Singaporean English. The
were used to analyze most comprehensible
the results of the varieties are Malaysian
comprehension tests English among
and to reveal the Cambodians, Thais and
questionnaire's Vietnamese; Philippine
results. English among
Indonesians, and
Singaporean English
among Burmese and
Laotians. (3) There are
types of exposures
related to the Expanding
Circle's citizens'
comprehension of Outer
Circle Englishes. They
are exposures to English
through education, work
experiences, outside the
classroom, social media,
and travelling and staying
abroad. Based on
Pearson correlation
coefficients, this study
established the positive
significant correlations
between graduate studies
and comprehension
scores at p less than 0.01
level. Positive significant
correlations were also
found between
comprehension scores
and several factors,
namely exposure through
work experiences at p
less than 0.01 level, the
use of social network and
watching TV at p less
than 0.05 level, reading
newspapers and watching
movies at p less than 0.01
level, and studying in
Thailand at p less than
0.01 level. Based on
ANOVA results, there was
a significant effect of pre-
school education on
comprehension scores at

88
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

F (3, 198) = 4.94, p =


0.002; primary education
on comprehension scores
at F (2, 199) = 6.93, p =
0.001; and, graduate
studies on
comprehension scores at
F (3, 198) = 7.46, p =
0.000. However, there is
no significant effect of
secondary education and
undergraduate studies on
the subjects'
comprehension scores.
Yaman, Metin; Yaman, In the literature the Social Networks, Social network sites are
Cetin(2014). “The Use number of the Physical Education This research was widely used by many
of Social Network Sites studies Teachers, carried out by using people nowadays for
by Prospective Physical investigating the Preservice descriptive/survey various aims. Many
Education and Sports university Teachers, Foreign method. The research researches have been
Teachers” (Gazi students' Countries, was done at the School done to analyze the
University Sample) usage social Educational of Physical Education usage of these sites in
Turkish Online Journal network sites is Technology, and Sport of Gazi many different settings.
of Educational limited. This Technology Uses in University in Turkey.
Technology - TOJET, research was Education, Internet, The participants of the
v13 n1 p223-231 Jan carried out to Athletics, Student study were comprised
2014. 9 pp. determine the Teacher Attitudes, of 167 students who
social network sites Place of Residence, are attending the
usage of physical Gender Differences, School of Physical
education and Student Surveys, Education and Sports
sports students for Higher Education, of Gazi University. The
social and Postsecondary data were collected by
educational Education the researcher and
purposes. analyzed by using
several statistical
techniques like t-test,
Anova, frequency and
percentage with SPSS
program. according to
the results of the study,
most of the students
who are attending the
School of Physical
Education and Sports
think that social
network sites can be
used by university
students for
educational purposes
effectively.

You, Xiaoye. (2008). Scholars tend to Rhetoric, English The data for this study This inference model, I
Rhetorical Strategies, explain or predict (Second Language), have been collected argue, falls short in
Electronic Media, and China English's Second Language from a bulletin board studying the Chinese
China English. World rhetorical strategies Learning, Foreign forum that focuses variety of English
Englishes, v27 n2 on the basis of Countries, Chinese, on English writing. The because, first, it
p233-249. Chinese discourse Language Variation, 21st Century essentializes both China
and cultural Semiotics, Context Community is an online English and Chinese,
preferences. Effect, platform offered by treating their discursive
Confucianism, 21st strategies as two easily
Computer Mediated Century Newspapers, a generalizable, static
Communication, popular newspaper entities; second, it
Models, Language group targeting neglects context, which
Styles English-learning determines the semiotic
students of all meaning potential of any
levels in China. Due to language. I propose an
the popularity of its alternative model that
newspapers, the group studies China English
attracts a large number with context treated as
of students and college the main variable. In light

89
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

graduates to its online of the context model and


space: the 21st Aristotelian and
Century Community Confucian rhetorical
hosted concepts, I examine how
over 285,000 Chinese youths use
registered members by English to foster a
the end of 2007. community and to realize
Participation in the their particular goals in a
online community bulletin board forum. It
is on a voluntary basis has been found that they
with no access develop patterned
restriction for non- rhetorical strategies in the
registered participants; contexts of requesting
however, opinions, seeking advice,
only registered sharing experiences, and
members can post expressing feelings.
messages on the These strategies
board. In the evidence China English's
community, there are growing meaning
33 potential in electronic
forums for different medium spaces because
participants (teachers, they differ remarkably
college students, teens from those identified in
senior, teens junior, other contexts by
kids, previous scholarship, and
etc.) with varying they cannot be easily
interests (language labeled as traditional
pedagogy, language Chinese. As China
skills, opinions, Q and English finds its way into
A, etc.). more contexts and
The present study domains, I suggest that
focuses on one of the we adopt the context
forums, the “English model to fully unveil the
Writing” forum. language's expanding
According to meaning potential.
my observation, most
participants of this
forum are college
students and college
graduates.
I followed discussions
in this forum in 2005
and 2006. During these
two years, the forum
featured over 2,000
discussion threads. As
the present study
focuses on how
Chinese youths
use English to foster an
online community, and
also for the
manageability of the
study,
only threads that have
attracted more than 20
follow-up posts are
examined. A total of
eight
threads have met this
requirement.

90
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Appendix F
Data Matrix
Spellin Sentence
Respondent Vocabulary g Grammar Construction Punctuation Idea

1 20.33 16.67 17 11.33 5.33 6.01


2 16.67 21 15.67 10.33 6 7.33
3 15 14.67 11.67 7.34 3.66 5.01
4 16.67 14 12 8 4.33 4.67
5 15 15.67 10 6.67 4 3.33
6 15.67 15.33 14 9.34 4.66 5
7 10.33 11.67 7.33 4.67 4 3.33
8
9 18.34 16 13 8.66 5 5.33

91
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

10 17.66 21.67 17 9.33 5.67 6.33


11 21.34 18.67 17 11.34 5 7
12 16.67 21 11 7.66 5 5.34
13 23.33 22.67 17 11.99 7 7.33
14 21.67 21.34 19 12 6.67 6.66
15 15 12.33 9.33 6.67 3.67 3.66
16 15 12.67 10 6.67 3.33 3.33
17 3.33 4 4 2.67 1.33 1.33
18 15 16.33 11 7 4.33 4.33
19 28.33 20.99 20 13.01 6.67 6.99
20 21.34 22.67 18.33 11 5.67 6
21 15 14 11 7.33 3.33 4.33
22 15.33 19 16 10.33 4.33 5.66
23 16.67 16.67 11.33 7.33 5.01 5
24
25 19.67 16.66 13 8.67 5 5
26 12 11.67 12 8 3.66 4
27 16 15.33 12 8.34 4 4.33
28 19.33 18.33 14 9.33 6 5.01
29 10.33 13.67 10.67 5.66 3.34 3.33
30 15 12.34 11 7.33 4 4.34

Appendix G
Curriculum Vitae

RUEL MARAMAG BAYUCAN

Alinguigan 1st, City of Ilagan, Isabela, Philippines


Contact Number: 0935-502-8844
Email Add: ruelmbayucan@gmail.com

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:

Post Graduate School


• Doctor of Education Major in Educational Management

92
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

University of Saint Louis,Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines


October 2015
Graduate School
• Master of Arts in Teaching Major in English
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines
March 2011
Tertiary:
• Bachelor of Arts Majors in Mass Communication and Journalism plus a
Certificate in Teacher-Education
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines
March 2008

WORK EXPERIENCE:

Teacher I
Department of Education
Division of Isabela
Gamu Rural School
January 4, 2016-present

Teacher I
Department of Education
Division of Isabela
Sto. Tomas National High School
August 18, 2015- December 18, 2015

Asst Professor 2 (Regular)


AMA Computer College Tuguegarao Campus
#37 Caggay Highway, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines
June 16, 2008 – August 17, 2015

Designations at AMA
• Research Coordinator
June 2012 to August 17, 2015

• Extension Director/NSTP Coordinator, AMACC Tuguegarao,


June 2008 to 2012

ELIGIBILITY:

2008 Licensure Examination for Teachers major in English (LET) Passer

TRAINING PROGRAMS

INCLUSIVE DATES OF
ATTENDANCE NO. OF CONDUCTED/
SEMINAR/CONFERENCE (mm/dd/yyyy) DAYS SPONSORED BY
From To

93
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

AMA Computer College


Basic Computer Operations 09/01/2013 12/15/2013 30 days
Tuguegarao
AMA Computer College
Basic Computer Operations 10/01/2013 11/30/2013 30 days
Tuguegarao
Office of the City Mayor-
Anti-Drug Summit 09/01/2013 09/012013 1 day Tuguegarao City,
Cagayan
AMA Computer College
Psychology in Education 09/26/2013 09/26/2013 1 day
Tuguegarao
AMA Computer College
Classroom Management 06/01/2013 06/01/2013 1 day
Tuguegarao
Regional Training Workshop of Deans,
07/27/2012 07/27/2012 1 day CHED R02
Student Affairs and NSTP Coordinators
Classroom Management Webinar 08/15/2012 08/16/2012 2 days AMA Head Office
Regional NSTP Conference Cum
06/22/2012 06/22/2012 1 day CHED R02
Workshop
Crime Prevention and Drug Education AMA Computer College
03/08/2012 03/08/2012 1 day
Symposium Tuguegarao
Volunteer Fire Fighting Brigades 02/03/2011 02/04/2011 2 days CHED R02
AMA Computer College
Test Construction Seminar-Workshop 03/03/2011 03/03/25011 1 day
Tuguegarao
HIV Basics and Epidemiology 07/15/2011 07/15/2011 1 day DOH R02
Shaping Young Journalists for the New RO2 Junior Association
03/05/2011 03/05/2011 1 day
Media of Mass Communicators
Mass Communication Seminar and
03/12/2010 03/13/2010 2 days University of Saint Louis
Congress
CHED R02
Regional NSTP Congress 08/08/2010 08/10/2010 3 days

94
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

NON-ACADEMIC DISTINCTIONS / RECOGNITION:

Entitled to teach/adviser in Research in the undergarduate -CHED R02 issued August 5, 2011

Entitled to conduct and implement programs of Extension Services - CHED R02 issued August 11, 2011

Lecturer on Seminar-Workshop on Syllabi Making and Test Construction -AMA Tuguegarao on June 15,
2012

Lecturer on Seminar/Workshop on Classroom Management - AMA Tuguegarao June 14, 2012

Lecturer on Seminar Workshop on Office Ethics -AMA Tuguegarao on December 16, 2011

Resource Speaker in the Louisian Eye's Team Bonding Activity- University of Saint Louis on June 18, 2011

Lecturer on Test Construction Seminar Workshop on June 15,2011 at AMA Tuguegarao

Coach-31st National Quiz Bee - Quiz Bee Foundation on February 09, 2011

VOLUNTARY WORK OR INVOLVEMENT IN CIVIC / NON-GOVERNMENT / PEOPLE / VOLUNTARY


ORGANIZATION/S
NAME & ADDRESS OF INCLUSIVE DATES NUMBER
POSITION / NATURE OF
ORGANIZATION (mm/dd/yyyy) OF
WORK
From To HOURS

101.5 fm Radio Maria Cagayan 07/01/2011 12/31/2011 6 months Radio Anchor

Northern Digest (a local weekly paper) 06/01/2008 03/31/2009 10 months Writer/Contributor

PERSONAL INFORMATION:

Birth Date: May 04, 1988


Nationality: Filipino
Status: Single
Religion: Christianity (Roman Catholic)
Height: 5’5”
Weight: 66 kgs.
Father’s Name: Rolando Asis Bayucan
Mother’s Name: Gloria Maramag Bayucan

Character References:

95
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City
The Influence of Facebook in English Language Proficiency

Ms. Myrna T. Baquiran


School Director
AMA Computer College Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

Ms. Feliciana Cauilan, MAGC


Human Resources Supervisor
AMA Computer College Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

Dr. James P. Patuguan


Vice President for Academics
University of Saint Louis
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

I hereby certify that the above information are true and correct to the best of my
knowledge.

RUEL MARAMAG BAYUCAN

96
University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City