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Concordia University Department of Electrical and computer Engineering

ELEC – 6481

Lecture 6

Modeling and control of single and three-phase PWM ac-dc converters

Control scheme based on instantaneous reactive power

Control scheme based on instantaneous reactive power • H. Akagi et al. “Instantaneous reactive power compensators

• H. Akagi et al. “Instantaneous reactive power compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage components”, IEEE Transactions on Industry applications, Vol. IA-20, no. 3, May/June 1984, pp. 625-630.

Three-phase transformations

• Mathematical transformations are often used to decouple variables, to facilitate the solution of difficult equations with time varying coefficients.

• Clarke’s (stationary frame) transformation converts three-phase coordinates (abc) in two-phase (αβ) orthogonal time-varying coordinates.

• Park’s (rotating frame) transformation converts three-phase coordinates (abc) in two-phase (dq) orthogonal time invariant coordinates. Linear controllers result in zero steady-state error (I abc ).

Clark’s transformation (stationary frame)

⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎡ v ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ v
1
1
0
2
⎡ v ⎤
⎡ v ⎤
o
a
1
1
3
2
v
=
v
α
3 ⎢
b
2
2
2
v
v
β
1
1
3
c
⎢ ⎣
2
2
2
~
~
p
=
v
i
+
v
i
=
p
+
p
q
=−
v
i
+
v
i
=
q
+
q
α α
β β
β α
α β

• One can easily calculate the real and reactive power consumed by a certain load. The tilda values are due to harmonics and unbalance.

Possible control strategy

Inverse Clark Transformation 0αβ-frame to abc-frame Reference Current Calculation * ⎡ 1 1 1 ⎤
Inverse Clark Transformation
0αβ-frame to abc-frame
Reference Current Calculation
*
1
1
1
i
p
*
α
1
v
1
1
1
i * ⎤
⎡ v
p ⎤
α
c
− 1
− 1
α β
2
=
*
1
2
3
* 2
(
v
+ v
)
i
v
v
2
2
q
α
β
β
q
*
i β ⎦
β
α
c
3
3
0
2
2
v
α
v
β
1
v
1
0
a
2
1
1
3
2
v
b
3 ⎢
2
2
2
1
1
3
v
c
2
2
2
Clark Transformation
abc-frame to 0αβ-frame

i a

i b

i c

*

*

*

• How to choose the reference values for p and q?

• P is chosen to regulate the dc bus voltage while Q to either compensate the reactive power of a load or to regulate the ac bus voltage!

Operation with unit power factor

Operation with unit power factor • P.G. Barbosa et al, “Control strategy for grid-connected DC-AC converters

• P.G. Barbosa et al, “Control strategy for grid-connected DC-AC converters with load power factor correction”, IEE Proceedings on gen. transm. and distrib., Vol. 145, No.5, Sept. 1998, pp. 487 - 491

Design of the dc bus voltage controller • One needs a relationship between ∆V DC
Design of the dc bus voltage controller
• One needs a relationship between ∆V DC and ∆P!
dE
2
= 0.5 sCV
C
dt
~
~
P =
P
+
p
and
V
=
V
+
v
(Introducing small perturbations)
0
C
C
0
C
~
~
2
+
p
=
0.5
sC V
(
+
v
)
P 0
C
0
C
~
v
1
C
Lnearized small signal model :
=
~
p
sCV
C 0
Block diagram for the design of
the dc bus voltage controller

P

AC

= P

DC

=

P

C

P

C

=

C

1-phase UPF PWM rectifier with HCC

HCC block
HCC block

Design of the dc bus voltage controller

• One needs a relationship between V DC and I S !

2 2 dE dV V C C C P = P = P + P
2
2
dE
dV
V
C
C
C
P
=
P
=
P
+
P
,
P
=
=
0.5
C
,
P
=
AC
DC
C
R
C
R
dt
dt
R
2
V
2
C
V
I
=
0.5
sCV
+
(In the Laplace domain)
S
S
C
R
~
~
I
=
I
+
i
and
V
=
V
+
v
(small perturbations)
S
S
0
S
C
C
0
C
~
~
2 V
v
~
C
0
C
V
i
=
sCV
v
+
(remove pure dc and products of small perturbations)
S
S
C
0
C
R
V
R
S
~
v
2 V
C
C 0
Linearized small signal model :
=
~
i
CR ⎞
S
1 + s
2

Transient response

Transient response • Integral controller was designed base d on the “closed loop approach”

• Integral controller was designed based on the “closed loop approach”

Other alternatives for HCC?

• Hysteresis current control (HCC) presents great transient response. This block can be represented by a gain of 1 for the design of control loops. Problems: Variable switching frequency.

• Solutions: 1) Error triangulation. Project of a student. 2) SPWM. Limitations of these schemes:

Small steady-state error for the phase of the ac currents. This is a common problem of controllers designed for operation in stationary frames where the quantities to be regulated are AC.

Modeling in the rotating (dq) frame • Based on Park’s transformation [ ][ ][ ]
Modeling in the rotating (dq) frame
• Based on Park’s transformation
[ ][
][
]
[
]
[
][
1
]
θ q angle of q-axis. If θ q =θ a then:
f
=
T
(
θ
)
f
and
f
=
T
(
θ
)
f
qd
0
qd
0
q
abc
abc
qd
0
q
qd 0
V q =V a_peak and V d =0

Example: Voltage regulation with STATCOM

Example: Voltage regulation with STATCOM • G. C. D. Souza, F. N. Martins, J. P. Rey

• G. C. D. Souza, F. N. Martins, J. P. Rey and J. A. Bruinsma, “An Autonomous Induction Generator System with Voltage Regulations,” in Proc of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS 2001), Indonesia, 22-25 Oct. 2001, Vol. 1, pp. 94-98.

Equivalent circuit in the dq0 frame

Equivalent circuit in the dq0 frame θ q angle of q-axis. If θ q = θ

θ q angle of q-axis. If θ q =θ a then:

V q =V a_peak and V d =0

The amount of active and reactive power injected by the converter is then given by:

P = 1.5V I

q

q

Q = −1.5V I

q

d

• The active and reactive power injected by the STATCOM depend on I d and I q which can be controlled by varying E d and E q with SPWM.

• Note a coupling between the d and q circuits. This means that when one varies I d , I q also varies until E q is adjusted by the control circuit.

• A “decoupling scheme” based on feedforward is discussed in the paper

Derivation of model in Chee-Mun Ong, Prentice Hall PTR, pp. 145.

Control block diagram

Station. coord. inner loops Decoupling network outer loops
Station. coord.
inner loops
Decoupling network
outer loops

• Goals: Regulate the dc and ac bus voltage.

• Transformations are used so that the controllers operate with dc quantities. Input and output are three-phase ac signals.

• 2 inner and 2 outer loop controllers need to be designed.

• Limiters to avoid exceeding rated current and voltage of the converter.

Design of the inner current loops

• Equivalent circuits are identical and so are the controllers.

E d , E q

are identic al and so are the controllers. E d , E q ξ=0.707 • L.
are identic al and so are the controllers. E d , E q ξ=0.707 • L.
ξ=0.707
ξ=0.707

• L. Ping et al. “Synchronous frame based control …”, PIEMC 2000,

Vol. 2, pp. 537-541.

Design of the outer dc voltage loop • One needs a relationship between ∆V DC
Design of the outer dc voltage loop
• One needs a relationship between ∆V DC and ∆I q .
2
dE
dV C
C
= P
=
P
P
=
= 0.5 C
P AC
DC
C
C
dt
dt
2
1.5 V
I
= 0.5
sCV
(In
the Laplace domain)
q
q
C
~
~
~
V
=
V
+
v
, I
=
I
+
i
and
V
=
V
+
v
(small perturbations)
q
q
0
q
q
q
0
q
C
C
0
C
~
~
1.5 V i
= sCV
(remove pure dc and products of small perturbations)
q
q
C
0 v
C
~
v
C 1.5 V
q
0
Linearized small signal model :
=
~
i
sCV
q
C
0
• Voltage loop diagram with inner current loop (H i = 1/G isens )
*
V DC
V DC
1.5 V
q
GC v (s)
H i (s)
+
-
sCV
C 0

Design of the outer ac voltage loop

• Simple relationship between V AC and I d .

relationship between ∆ V A C and ∆ I d . = jX I + V
= jX I + V V S S d T o where, V = V
=
jX
I
+
V
V S
S
d
T
o
where, V
= V ∠
δ , V
= ∠
V
0, I
=∠
I
90
S
S
T
T
d
∆ V
AC
V
=
V
jX
I
d Then
= X
T
S
S
S
∆ I
d

Thevenin equivalent

• Voltage loop diagram with inner current loop (H i = 1/G isens )

* V AC V AC GC v (s) H i (s) X S + -
*
V AC
V AC
GC v (s)
H i (s)
X S
+
-