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IDENTITY FORMATION Vandana Thakur Asst Professor RIE Bhopal

IDENTITY FORMATION

IDENTITY FORMATION Vandana Thakur Asst Professor RIE Bhopal

Vandana Thakur

Asst Professor RIE Bhopal

Definition of identity  the distinctive characteristic belonging to any given individual, or shared by

Definition of identity

the distinctive characteristic belonging to any given individual, or shared by all members of a particular social category or group.

Identity may be distinguished from identification; identity is a label, whereas

identification refers to the classifying act

itself. Identity is thus best construed as being both relational and contextual, while the act of identification is best viewed as inherently

processual.

 Identity formation strategies [ edit ]  Another issue of interest in social psychology

Identity formation strategies[edit]

Another issue of interest in social psychology

is related to the notion that there are certain identity formation strategies which a person may use to adapt to the social world. (Cote & Levin 2002, pp. 35) developed a typology which investigated the different manners of behavior that individuals may

have. (3) Their typology includes:

  Psychological symptoms Personality symptoms Social symptoms Refuser Develops cognitive blocks that
 

Psychological symptoms

Personality symptoms

Social symptoms

Refuser

Develops cognitive blocks that prevent adoption of adult role- schemas

Engages in childlike behavior

Shows extensive dependency upon others and no meaningful engagement with the community of adults

Drifter

Possesses greater psychological

Is apathetic toward

Has no meaningful

resources than the Refuser (i.e., intelligence, charisma)

application of psychological resources

engagement with or commitment to adult communities

Searcher

Has a sense of dissatisfaction due to high personal and social expectations

Shows disdain for imperfections within the community

Interacts to some degree with role- models, but ultimately

 

these relationships are

abandoned

Guardian

Possesses clear personal values and attitudes, but also a deep fear of change

Sense of personal identity is almost exhausted by sense of

Has an extremely rigid sense of social identity and strong

 

social identity

identification with adult

 

communities

Resolver

Consciously desires self-growth

Accepts personal skills and competencies and

Is responsive to communities that

uses them actively

provide opportunity for

self-growth

Identity formation  also known as individuation, is the development of the distinct personality of

Identity formation

also known as individuation, is the

development of the distinct personality of an

individual regarded as a persisting entity

(known as personal continuity) in a particular stage of life in which individual characteristics

are possessed and by which a person is

recognized or known.

This process defines individuals to others and

 Pieces of the person's actual identity include a sense of continuity, a sense of

Pieces of the person's actual identity include a sense of continuity, a sense of uniqueness from others, and a sense ofaffiliation.

his may be through individuation whereby

the undifferentiated individual tends to

become unique, or undergoes stages through which differentiated facets of a person's life tend toward becoming a more indivisible

whole.

Theories on identity formation  Erikson  throughout each person's lifetime, they experience different crises

Theories on identity formation

Erikson

throughout each person's lifetime, they experience different crises or conflicts. Each of the conflicts arises at a certain point in life and must be successfully resolved for progression to the next of the eight stages

"Identity versus Role Confusion" stage consists of adolescents trying to figure out who they are in

order to form a basic identity that they will build on throughout their life, especially concerning social

and occupational identities

 Marcia The four identity statuses in James Marcia's theory are: [ 5 ] 1.

Marcia

The four identity statuses in James Marcia's theory are: [5] 1. Identity Diffusion (also known as Role Confusion): This is the opposite of identity

achievement. The individual has not yet resolved

their identity crisis, failing to commit to any goals or values and establish future life direction. In adolescents, this stage is characterized by

disorganized thinking, procrastination, and

avoidance of issues and action.

[4]

2. Identity Foreclosure : This occurs when teenagers accept traditional values and cultural norms, rather

2. Identity Foreclosure: This occurs when teenagers accept traditional values and cultural norms, rather than determining their own values. In other words, the person conforms to an

identity without exploration as to what really suits him or her

best. For instance, teenagers might follow the values and roles of their parents or cultural norms. They might also foreclose on a negative identity, the direct opposite of their parent's values or cultural norms. [4] 2. Identity Moratorium: This postpones identity achievement

by providing temporary shelter. This status provides opportunities for exploration, either in breadth or in depth. Examples of moratoria common in American society include college or the military. [4]

2. Identity Achievement : This status is attained when the person has solved the identity

2. Identity Achievement: This status is attained

when the person has solved the identity issues

by making commitments to goals, beliefs and values after extensive exploration of different areas.

Self-concept  Self-concept or self-identity is the sum of a being's knowledge and understanding of

Self-concept

Self-concept or self-identity is the sum of a

being's knowledge and understanding of

their self. The self-concept is different from self-consciousness, which is an awareness of one's self.

Components of the self-concept include

physical, psychological, and social attributes, which can be influenced by the individual's

attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas.

 These components and attributes can not be condensed to the general concepts of self-

These components and attributes can not be

image and self-esteem [citation needed] as different types of identity coming together in one person.

 Cultural identity  Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or

Cultural identity

Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a

group or culture, or of an individual as far as they

are influenced by their belonging to a group or culture. Cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not synonymous

There are modern questions of culture that are transferred into questions of identity. Historical

culture also influences individual identity, and as

with modern cultural identity, individuals may pick

and choose aspects of cultural identity, while rejecting or disowning other associated ideas.

 Ethnic and national identity  An ethnic identity is the identification with a certain

Ethnic and national identity

An ethnic identity is the identification with a

certain ethnicity, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry. Recognition by others as a distinct ethnic

group is often a contributing factor to

developing this bond of identification. Ethnic groups are also often united by common

cultural, behavioral, linguistic, ritualistic, or

religious traits.

 National identity is an ethical and philosophical concept whereby all humans are divided into

National identity is an ethical and

philosophical concept whereby all humans

are divided into groups called nations.

Members of a "nation" share a common identity, and usually a common origin, in the

sense of ancestry, parentage or descent.

Religious identity  A religious identity is the set of beliefs and practices generally held

Religious identity

A religious identity is the set of beliefs and practices generally held by an individual,

involving adherence to codified beliefs and

rituals and study of ancestral or cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as faith and mystic experience.

The term "religious identity" refers to the

personal practices related to communal faith and to rituals and communication stemming from such conviction. This identity formation begins with association in the parents' religious

contacts, and individuation requires that the

person chooses to the sameor differentreligious identity than that of his/her parents

Gender identity  In sociology, gender identity describes the gender with which a person identifies

Gender identity

In sociology, gender identity describes the

gender with which a person identifies (i.e.,

whether one perceives oneself to be a man, a woman, outside of the gender binary, etc.), but can also be used to refer to the gender

that other people attribute to the individual

on the basis of what they know from gender

role indications (social behavior, clothing, hair

style, etc.).

Social support  Another way of defining identity formation is “the problem‐solving behavior aimed at

Social support

Another way of defining identity formation is

“the problem‐solving behavior aimed at

eliciting information about oneself or

environment in order to make a decision about an important life choice” (Bosma &

Kunnen, 2001, p. 52).

Social support can be defined as supportive relationships with others

Interpersonal identity development  Interpersonal identity development is composed of three elements: 

Interpersonal identity development

Interpersonal identity development is

composed of three elements:

Interpersonal identity development is composed of three elements:

Categorisation: Labeling others (and

ourselves) into categories.

Identification: Associating others with certain groups.

Comparison: Comparing groups.