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LEARNING TAXONOMIES: DEFINITIONS AND KEY WORDS

Cognitive Taxonomy
Levels Definition Key Words
Remember Recall data or information. Define, describe, identify, label, list,
match, name, outline, recall, recognize,
reproduce, select, state
Understand Construct meaning from Interpret, exemplify, classify, summarize,
instructional messages. infer, comparing, explain
Apply Carry out or use a procedure in a Execute, implement, demonstrate, show
given situation.
Analyze Break material into constituent Differentiate, organize, attribute
parts and determine how parts
relate to one another and to an
overall structure of purpose.
Evaluate Make judgments based on Check, critique, appraise
criteria and standards.
Create Put elements together to form a generate, plan, produce
coherent or functional whole;
reorganizing elements into a new
pattern or structure.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and
assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York : Longman.

Definitions and key words from


http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/coursedev/models/id/taxonomy/#table

Psychomotor Taxonomy
Levels Definition Key Words
Imitation Copy action of another; observe Copy, follow, replicate, repeat, adhere
and replicate.
Manipulation Reproduce activity from Recreate, build, perform, execute,
instruction or memory. implement
Precision Execute skill reliably, Demonstrate, complete, show, perfect,
independent of help. calibrate, control
Articulation Adapt and integrate expertise to Construct, solve, combine, coordinate,
satisfy a non-standard objective. integrate, adapt, develop, formulate,
modify, master
Naturalization Automated, unconscious Design, specify, manage, invent, project-
mastery of activity and related manage
skills at strategic level.
Dave, R. H. (1975). Developing and Writing Behavioural Objectives. (R J Armstrong, ed.)
Educational Innovators Press.

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Definitions and key words from
http://www.businessballs.com/bloomstaxonomyoflearningdomains.htm#bloom's%20affective%2
0domain
Affective Taxonomy
Levels Definition Key Words
Receives Awareness, willingness to hear, Asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives,
phenomena selected attention. holds, identifies, locates, names, points
to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses
Responds to Active participation on the part Answers, assists, aids, complies,
phenomena of the learners. Attends and conforms, discusses, greets, helps,
reacts to a particular labels, performs, practices, presents,
phenomenon. Learning reads, recites, reports, selects, tells,
outcomes may emphasize writes
compliance in responding,
willingness to respond, or
satisfaction in responding.
Values The worth or value a person Completes, demonstrates, differentiates,
attaches to a particular object, explains, follows, forms, initiates, joins,
phenomenon, or behavior. This justifies, proposes, reads, reports,
ranges from simple acceptance selects, shares, studies, works
to the more complex state of
commitment. Valuing is based
on the internalization of a set of
specified values while clues to
these values are expressed in the
learner’s overt behavior and are
often identifiable.
Organizes Organizes values into priorities Adheres, alters, arranges, combines,
by contrasting different values, compares, completes, defends, explains,
resolving conflicts between formulates, generalizes, identifies,
them, and creating an unique integrates, modifies, orders, organizes,
value system. The emphasis is prepares, relates, synthesizes
on comparing, relating, and
synthesizing values.
Internalizes Has a value system that controls Acts, discriminates, displays, influences,
values their behavior. The behavior is listens, modifies, performs, practices,
(Characterizes) pervasive, consistent, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises,
predictable, and most serves, solves, verifies
importantly, characteristic of the
learner. Instructional objectives
are concerned with the student's
general patterns of adjustment
(personal, social, emotional).
Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of educational objectives, the
Classification of educational goals. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay
Co., Inc.
Definitions and key words from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html
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