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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

Disaster preparedness refers to the readiness of country organizations to fruitfully

respond to disastrous situations while reducing the negative consequences for the health and

safety of individuals. Disasters would lead not only to the loss of life and destruction of public

infrastructures, but also would result in consequent health care delivery concerns (Tichy, 2009).

However, disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management.

Preparedness is simply preparing for an emergency before it occurs (Glow, 2013).

Natural disaster is an event that is caused by the natural forces of the earth and results in

great damage and possibly loss of life. Each year, the earth experiences natural disasters. When

natural disasters occur in heavily populated areas, a lot of people usually lose their lives. A

recent example is the Italy earthquake of 2016 where over 200 people lost their lives. But that's

nothing compared to the deadliest of all earthquakes that happened in 1556 in China where

approximate 830,000 people lost their lives.

In the United States, Hurricane Andrew struck Dade Country, Florida, in the early

morning hours of August 24, 1992. The storm’s core pounded the Florida peninsula for nearly

four hours with winds of about 145 up to 200 miles per hour (mph). Hurricane Andrew was the

only major hurricane to form in the 1992 season and was the “first major hurricane South Florida

had seen in decades”. This catastrophic event may have been a factor in the lack of adequate

preparation by residents of South Florida for this major storm. Most people, including local and

state officials, were not prepared for a storm of this magnitude. In fact, according to pre-storm

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advisories by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, Florida, Andrew was “barely a

tropical storm” that was expected to blow apart.” Expectations in fact were relatively low until

just before Andrew came ashore and an NHC Advisory issued on Sunday, August 23, referred to

Andrew as a Category 4 hurricane. In addition, Andrew brought a 14-foot storm surge, heavy

rain, and spinoff tornados. Forty-three people died as a result of the storm, which destroyed

126,000 homes, left 180,000 people homeless, destroyed 80% of the area’s farms and caused

approximately $30 billion in damage. The recovery efforts of the local, state, and federal

governments following the storm prolonged the suffering of Andrew's victims. Local officials,

the community, and the family themselves were not prepared for the devastation that lay before

them when the sun came up following the landfall of Hurricane Andrew (Hughes, 2012).

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was one of the deadliest natural disasters in history.

The 9.1 magnitude earthquake was an undersea megathrust with an epicenter in Sumatra,

Indonesia along the Sunda Trench. The tsunamis that emaciated from the earthquake caused the

death of over 230,000 on several landmasses that boarder the Indian Ocean covering eleven

countries. It is a well-known fact that most of the earthquakes in the world (80%) occurred in the

ring of fire. However, the area is also some of the poorest in the world thus resulting in little or

no planning or adequate response for a disaster in this scale. In addition, there were no disaster

warning systems or public education programs to the populace on what the signs of a tsunami are

in these areas (Vulnerability Assessment, Mitigation, and Preparedness for the 2004 Indian

Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami).

Based on the World Risk Index 2012, the Philippines is the third among 173 countries

most vulnerable to disaster risk and natural hazards. The Philippines we experience an average of

20 tropical cyclones each year and other climatic and extreme weather aberrations such as the El

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Niño phenomenon. The Philippines is no stranger to natural disasters, as it is surrounded by

bodies of water, and is located along the Pacific Ocean’s “Ring of Fire.” and has been classified

among the top ten hazardous countries in the world on account of the numerous natural geo-

metrological hazards to which it is constantly exposed from typhoons to tsunamis to volcanic

eruptions to earthquakes – name it, the Philippines has experienced it.

(source:http://www.gov.ph/aquino-administration/disaster-preparedness)

People from Dumaguete and Negros Oriental heaved a sigh of relief after Typhoon Pablo

came and went with apparently minimal damage. The typhoon was estimated at 100 kilometers

west of Dumaguete at 8 p.m. that placed the typhoon behind Mt. Talinis and sheltered

Dumaguete from further damage from the strong wind and rain that lasted for about two hours.

The winds and rain toppled several trees in Dumaguete City alone, rendering some roads

impassable. Dumaguete's Rizal Boulevard was also flooded after the sea level rose. The rising

sea, coupled with some floodwaters, caused the evacuation of more than 250 pupils from Toledo

City, who was billeted at the Amador Dagudag Elementary School for the duration of the Central

Visayas Athletic Association meet. Authorities are still keeping an eye over the Banica and Okoy

Rivers, these two rivers were responsible for most of the damage by Tropical Storm Sendong,

which happened 5 year ago (December 2011). Last January 16-18, 2017 Dumaguete City was

affected with a natural disaster with non- stop raining and caused floods in some parts of the

Visayas and Mindanao areas, leading to suspensions in both public and private schools. The

impacts are felt not only by human suffering and property damage but also from loss of

livelihood, economic deterioration, and environmental destruction. (source:

http://archives.visayandailystar.com/2012/December/05/negoriental.htm)

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Disaster preparedness should be promoted and supported in remote rural communities.

Working at the community level can reduced the negative impact of disasters, such as injuries

and loss of life, property damage and social disruption; however, the best way to manage the

negative impact remains unresolved. Community participation may be needed, together with the

establishment of networks to strengthen community capacity in the affected areas (Ismail,

Suwannapong, Howteerakul, Tipayamongkholgul, Apinuntavech, 2016).

These issues and concerns certainly call for systematic investigation such issues which

documented the effects of Typhoon Pablo on people’s livelihood, land resources, water sources,

infrastructures and community facilities in some areas in Dumaguete City. This study however

focused on the preparedness of the family members on how to deal with the upcoming disasters

and to contribute another study regarding family preparedness in Natural Disaster because the

identified gaps showed that the people who are less aware of such phenomenon would encounter

more damaged. Another gap showed lack of study about natural disaster especially in the local

countries that are more prone to catastrophes like the city of Dumaguete. Most of the

contributions do not have the specific aim of creating a comprehensive approach to disaster

preparedness. Few “disaster preparedness specific” metrics existed, but there is a small set of

indicators, indices, and similar measures that can be used to compare, and in some cases

measure, the dimensions of disaster preparedness (Simpson, 2006). Lastly, there are studies on

disaster preparedness that have been predominantly conducted in U.S that there are very few

studies on other countries, especially developing countries (Mishra & Suar, 2007, Mishra, 2010,

Ferdinand, 2012).

As reported by Perez, A. (2017, October 20) ABS-CBN news that local government units

have declared a state of calamity in Dumaguete City and Valencia town in Negros Oriental

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following floods triggered by Typhoon Paolo. Due to heavy flooding there were 14 barangays

affected, no casualty or fatality was reported but the city was seeking funding from the national

government for the construction of at least two bridges to replace the Batinguel-Bagacay

Spillway and it was estimated to cost almost P1 billion. The City Social Welfare and

Development Office (CSWDO) also reported that 301 families or 1, 328 individuals of Poblacion

2, Poblacion 8, Bagacay, Balugo, Bantayan, Batinguel, Bunao, Cadawinonan, Camanjac,

Candau-ay, Cantil-e, Junob, Tabuc-tubig and Taclobo were affected. Twelve houses were totally

destroyed while 21 were partially damaged and some 33 homes were also totally or partially

damaged by flood water that breached the Banica and Ocoy river banks and on the other hand,

the City Agriculture Office recorded the devastation of livelihood of at least 32 farmers in

Barangays Bajumpandan, Banilad, Camanjac, Cantil-e, and Junob.Damage to crop and livestock

amounted to P 678, 118.86. And those homes that were totally or partially damaged granted

financial assistance by the city government. To feed the evacuees, the CSWDO activated the

community kitchens and relief goods were being distributed to them.

City Engineer's Office both admitted that the damage caused by Typhoon Paolo was

much greater than what was sustained during Tropical Storm Sendong in 2011, which also

unleashed flash floods and many boulder dikes and spillways were destroyed due to the large

trees that were uprooted in the uplands, wreaking havoc to the city as logs and boulders smashed

the infrastructure made of concrete and steel which eventually collapsed, allowing flood waters

to inundate the homes and communities along the river banks that hit several villages across

Negros Oriental, causing deaths and injuries.

Local officials made the declaration to enable the release of quick response funds to

readily provide aid to affected residents. In Dumaguete City, around a thousand individuals from

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different barangays have sought shelter in evacuation centers. The Negros Oriental Electric

Company has begun addressing reported power outages. Clearing operations on damaged

spillways are also underway. Dumaguete City Mayor said residents are yet to be advised to

return to their homes amid intermittent rains. According to the Department of the Interior and

Local Government (DILG) in Dumaguete City, residents living near riverbanks already

evacuated. In Barangay Taclobo, the Banica River overflowed around 7:15 am, leading to the

collapse of the bridge connecting Barangay Bagacay and Colon Street Extension. (Rappler.com)

In the recent report byBallaran, J. (2018, January 2) from Inquirer.net that tropical

depression “Agaton” has reached the province of Negros Oriental as it moves west to Palawan.

In its 11 a.m. severe weather bulletin, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and

Astronomical Services Administration (Pagasa) said that Agaton was seen as of 10 a.m. at 170

kilometers west of Dumaguete City in Negros Oriental moving at a speed of 28 kilometers per

hour (kph).Agaton maintained its strength with 55 kph maximum sustained winds and 90 kph

gustiness despite making landfall five times since early tuesday morning. In the Philippines

particularly, and specifically in Dumaguete City, the researchers have not come across studies

assessing the disaster preparations of families hence, this research study.

Rationale of the Study

Natural Disasters causes major impact both to the people, their families and the

environment. This study was conducted to improve the family’s awareness and enhance their

skills to reduce the impact, lessen the damages and decrease the mortality rate for the possible

occurrences of calamities. In addition, this study could improve the family’s quality of life, and

would increase their awareness about the importance of Disaster Preparedness. This should also

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contribute to the government regarding family disaster preparedness in order for them to

implement programs or activities that could help the families prepare in case disaster strikes.

Lastly, this study identified those barangay’s that needed further information and training about

family disaster preparedness plan.

Statement of the Problem

Family disaster preparedness was a state of being ready in times of catastrophe to

minimize loss of life, injury, and damage to property. By being prepared in disasters, nurses

could help alleviate some of the devastation by reducing the effects or mitigating the impact on

vulnerable populations, as well as responding and coping effectively with its consequences. The

primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of disaster preparedness among the

families in Dumaguete City. The socio-demographic profile as well as the degree of damage that

could have a relationship on family disaster preparedness was also examined. Furthermore, this

study intended to answer the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?

2. What is the status of disaster preparedness among families in Dumaguete City?

3. Is there a significant relationship between level of education and status of family disaster

preparedness?

4. Is there a significant relationship between family income and status of family disaster

preparedness?

5. Is there a significant relationship between degree of damage and status of family disaster

preparedness?

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Hypothesis

1. The families in Dumaguete City are prepared when natural disaster strikes.

2. There is no significant relationship between level of education and status of family

disaster preparedness.

3. There is no significant relationship between level of income and status of family disaster

preparedness.

4. There is no significant relationship between degree of damage and status of family

disaster preparedness.

Significance of the study

The result of this quantitative research study may provide nursing practice, nursing

education, nursing research and future researchers in assessing family’s status of preparedness in

natural disasters.

Families. The result of this study may greatly help families in Dumaguete City in a way

that they may acquire knowledge and develop understanding about the importance of being

prepared when natural disaster occurs. They may now assess their self and protect their families

and had an idea on how to manage their family for possible emergency situations. In addition, it

may improve their status of disaster preparedness because it may influence their natural disaster

response.

Communities. The result of this study aimed in documenting the local perception

followed by adaptive measures which may be helpful in determining the priority problem that

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need to be addressed by the local government and improve livelihood by mitigating adverse

impacts of such natural phenomenon.

Local Government Unit. This data may be used by our local government unit to enhance

disaster preparedness programs. Create better avenues in promotion of disaster preparedness

when natural calamities occur to save lives, minimize property damages and become a stronger

community. Advertise hotline numbers in every barangay and make ensure that they are

functional and readily accessible in our community.

Non-Governmental Organization. This data may be used as a tool to encourage our non-

government organization to work closely with our local government unit. To create a disaster

and exits plans that everyone may be aware of such as routes, shelters, primary and perhaps a

secondary evacuation centers in case of an emergency. The security of every individual that are

working in our community are at the utmost importance and that they are made aware for the

city’s disaster plan. Have disaster drills and programs yearly that may keep everyone trained and

ready for such an event that may occur at any given time without warning. Thus, minimizing

casualties and property damages in times of natural calamities.

Nursing Profession and Practice. This study may be a significant endeavor in promoting

awareness on the dangers and risks of natural disaster in a way that they can attain, maintain or

recover optimal health and quality of life of those individuals who were affected by such

catastrophes. Moreover, an understanding of disaster preparedness may help predict a desired

outcome of the plan and motivates them to help others when they know the response event and

may collaborate with other professional disciplines, governmental and non-governmental

agencies to develop the family’s status of disaster preparedness.

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Nursing Education. The information presented in this study may assist the educators in

assessing and evaluating the current status of the families in Dumaguete City with regards to

their disaster preparedness. In this manner, it enables the nursing educators to make meaningful

reviews with the current status, and if possible may make some revisions or amendments and to

establish proper behavior and appropriate action including the instructional strategies and

activities so that it may improve and enhance the status of disaster preparedness among the

families in Dumaguete City.

Nursing Research. The results of this study may contribute significant data/information

and evaluate the status of disaster preparedness of the families residing in Dumaguete City. This

may also be used by nursing researchers as a tool that integrates appropriate management to the

individuals in a community. And this may contribute further studies on disaster preparedness in

the Philippines and other countries. Future researchers may explore more and expand the ideas

presented that may be used as reference data in conducting new researches. Lastly, it may also

serve as cross- reference that may give a background or an overview.

Scope and Limitations

This study was focused on the assessment of the family’s status of preparedness in

Natural Disasters particularly in each barangays to identify their awareness in such phenomena.

The respondents were from 24 barangays in Dumaguete City such as Bagacay, Bajumpandan,

Balugo, Banilad, Bantayan, Barangay 1 (Tinago), Barangay 2 (Upper Lukewright), Barangay 7

(Mangga), Barangay 8 (Cervantes Extension), Batinguel, Buñao, Calindagan, Camanjac,

Candau-ay, Cantil-e, Daro, Junob, Mangnao-Canal, Motong, Piapi, Pulantubig, Tabuc-tubig,

Taclobo, and Talay.

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This study was limited to 24 out of 30 barangays. The 6 barangays that were not included

in the study are as follows: Barangay 3 (Business District), Barangay 4 (Rizal Boulevard),

Barangay 5 (Silliman Area), Barangay 6 (Cambagroy) because they were commercial buildings,

Barangay Lo-oc and Barangay Cadawinonanwas also excluded for the reason of safety of the

researchers.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined to provide clarity on the findings of the study:

Socio-Economic Profile - refers to the level of education and family income per month.

This was to evaluate if the said factors has affected their status of preparedness in

disaster.

Degree of Damage – refers to the damage to infrastructures, belongings and properties and

damage to life.

Disaster Preparedness–refers to the status of preparedness among families in cases of natural

calamities such as flooding, earthquake, and typhoon strike. This is measured in terms of

home emergency disaster plan, home emergency supply kit, training first aid, needs in

order to evacuate (transportation, communication), primary and secondary contact

person.

Status- refers to whether the barangay is prepared, moderately prepared, and not prepared in

terms of home emergency disaster plan, home emergency supply kit, training in first aid,

communication gadget, list of hotlines, evacuation plan, needs in order to evacuate

(transportation, communication) and contact persons.

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Families – refers to those family units who are residents of Dumaguete City that were affected or

not affected by natural disasters.

Theoretical Framework

The principles and concepts that have helped shape the framework of this study are

mainly drawn from the Adaptation Model theory proposed by Sister Calista Roy. According to

Roy, individuals mobilize all possible ways to adapt to a stressful situations and an individual’s

ability to adapt to situations varies depending on the nature of the stimuli confronting the person.

This theory describes the person as a holistic adaptive system in constant interaction with the

internal and external environment and the main task of the human system is to maintain integrity

in the face of environmental stimuli (Philips, 2010 as cited in Masters, 2012). Adaptation refers

to “the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling persons as individuals or in groups,

use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration. Adaptation

then leads to optimal health and well-being, to quality of life, and to death with dignity (Roy &

Andrews, 1999 as cited in Masters, 2012). Roy further restated the assumptions that formed the

basis of the model and redefined adaptation as “the process and outcome whereby thinking and

feeling persons, as individuals or in groups, use conscious awareness and choice to create human

and environmental integration. Additionally, Sister Calista Roy also drew on the richness found

in a diversity of cultures and the philosophic premise and states that “Nursing sees persons as co-

extensive with their physical and social environment” (Roy et al. 2006).

This theory assumes that “humans are bio-psychosocial adaptive systems who cope with

environmental change through the process of adaptation.” She viewed the person as a holistic

adaptive system that “functions as a whole and is more than the mere sum of its part. The person

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functions in a holistic manner with each aspect related to and affected by the others.” She further

emphasized that, “Coping means the person continually raises his adaptation level.” The main

goal of her theory is “to maintain and enhance adaptation and to change ineffective behavior to

adaptive behavior.”

In the Roy adaptation model, there are three classes of stimuli form the environment: the

focal stimulus, contextual stimuli, and residual stimuli. Focal stimuli exert a direct and

immediate effect on the individual and become the focus of attention for the person. Contextual

stimuli present in the situation that contribute to the effect of the focal stimulus. These contextual

stimuli are all the environmental factors that are present in the human adaptive system from

within or outside but which are not the center of attention or energy. Even though the contextual

stimuli are not the center of attention, these factors do influence how people deal with the focal

stimulus. Residual stimuli are the environmental factors within or outside human systems, the

effects of which are unclear in the situation.

There are four major concepts of Sister Calista Roy’s Adaptation Model: the first focuses

on the Humans adaptive systems as both individuals and groups. That means the human system

in a holistic perspective as holism stems from the underlying philosophic assumptions of the

model. Holism is the aspect of united meaningfulness of human behavior. Secondly, the

environment where she defined as stimuli from within the human adaptive systems and stimuli

from around systems represent the elements of environment as well as “all conditions,

circumstances and influences that surround and affect the development and behavior of humans

as adaptive systems, with particular consideration of person and earth resources. It is understood

as the world within and around humans as adaptive systems (Roy, 2009 as cited in Masters,

2012). It is the changing environment that stimulates the person to make adaptive responses

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(Andrews et al. 1991 as cited in Masters, 2012). Thirdly, the Health as “state and a process of

being and becoming integrated and whole human being.”Lastly, the goal of nursing “as a

promotion of adaptive response in relation to the four adaptive modes which is physiological-

physical, self-concept group identity, role function and interdependence. Adaptation therefore is

measured by these concepts.

The Conceptual Model

In Calista Roy’s theory of adaptation model, Roy emphasized that the human system has

the inputs of stimuli and adaptation level, outputs as behavioral responses that serve as feedback,

and control processes known as coping mechanism. The families in Dumaguete City were not

strangers to natural disasters. Several natural disasters that were considered to be the focal

stimuli have struck the city such as flooding, earthquake, and typhoon. The socio-demographic

variables such as level of education, family income and degree of damage were considered as the

contextual stimuli in this study. In this study, the level of income might have a relationship or

can influence family’s status of preparedness because it will test them if they have enough

income or less income that could be used during a catastrophic event. Those families who have

enough income may have obtained necessary equipment for disaster and would surely rebuild

those that were being destroyed compared to the families who have less income. The level of

education also played an important role in the family’s status of preparedness in disasters

because if they lack information, they would suffer more than those who have adequate

education for they do not have appropriate knowledge and skills to implement when disaster

occurs. The degree of damage is also vital in such a way that the family could plan for the

possible upcoming natural disaster and they will easily be prepared and more equip than before.

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The residual stimuli are the respondent’s age, gender and marital status. These factors affect the

families with uncertain effect and were not measured in this study.

By the adaptation model of Sister Calista Roy, the researchers view people as a whole to

meet the needs of the human systems. The people affected by natural disasters have the tendency

to adapt or cope to the environmental stimuli and stressors. If they have positive coping

mechanism during calamities, they can compensate and prepare in it. But there were also factors

that greatly affect the adaptation of the people in preparing themselves in such catastrophes. One

factor is the ineffective response of the individuals facing such phenomena. She stated that if the

people respond ineffectively this could threaten the systems survival, growth, reproduction,

mastery or transformations. The people must adapt to constantly changing stimuli of the

environment to positively respond. There are three levels defined by Calista Roy that affects the

adaptation level of the individuals. And these are integrated, compensatory, and compromised

life processes.

Calista Roy’s theoretical framework indicated that the assumptions of the families on

Natural Disasters could greatly affect their coping behavior. When they assume its negative

effect, they were now ready to overcome it or accept the fact that they will suffer in order to

minimize the psychological effect of that natural disaster. Moreover, they could respond

appropriately and adapt the effects of the catastrophe. In line with this, the families were

conscious and aware in dealing with the environment and can interact appropriately to what was

happening in the environment in relation to that, the families could positively cope with natural

disasters it enlightens them to reach their self-control within a balance behavior to manage such

action and to continue develop their focus in such calamities. The response or output behavior of

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the individual would depend on the action or reaction of such circumstances that can be

observable and non-observable act to gather some information.

A person’s status of preparedness is a necessity in promoting self-awareness, self-

efficiency, safety and good health. It also distinguishes in dealing or responding to any possible

calamities in the future. With this the family’s preparedness would be evaluated and measured.

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Families in Dumaguete City

Criteria of Disaster Prepared Family


Level of Income
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - a)
- - -Home
- - - - Emergency Disaster Plan
b) Disaster supply kit at home (including
water, food, medical and sanitary
supplies, candle, match/lighter,
flashlight, radio with batteries, personal
documents, and clothes)
Level of Education
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -c)- - Has - - - -training
- in first aid
- Wound care and bandaging
- Proper ways of splinting
- Basic life support (CPR)
d) Communication Gadget
e) List of hotlines in case of catastrophic
Degree of Damage event
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -f)- - Evacuation
-- -to- Infrastructure
-Damage --- Plan
g) Disaster Plan
- Damage to Life
h) Transportation
i) Contact Person in case of emergency

Status of Disaster Preparedness

Socio-economic Profile and Status of Disaster Preparedness among Families

Fig. 1. Conceptualj)Model
Communication Gadget/ Equipment

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Related Literature and Studies

Disaster Preparedness. Disaster preparedness was the knowledge of available resources

and how to response at the time of disaster. One of the most effective instruments for a country

to prepare for a disaster was to conduct education and programs for public awareness at the local

community level. Public awareness about disaster preparedness was a process of educating and

aiding the people through sharing of knowledge and information about the different types

of disasters and their possible risks as widely as expected so that people can appropriately

response when a disaster happens (Kangabam, Panda & M. Kangabam, 2010).

Sutton and Tierney (2006) defined that preparedness interconnects with both of these two

areas, serving as a progressive connector between the pre-impact and post-impact phases of a

disaster event. Disaster Preparedness was typically understood as consisting of measures that

enable different units of analysis individuals, households, organizations, communities, and

societies to respond effectively and recover more quickly when disasters attack.

The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) recorded in 2013,

330 natural triggered disasters. China, United States, Indonesia, Philippines and India were the

top 5 countries that are most frequently hit by natural disasters, 51% of victims were from

storms, 33% from floods, 8% from droughts and 7% from earthquakes (Guha-Sapir, Hoyois&

Below, 2013).

In terms of Disaster preparedness there several countries that have encountered natural

disasters and one of it is Europe. It was a big problem to a nation to come across a calamity;

Europe has experienced an increasing number of disasters due to natural hazards. In Europe the

disaster risk reduction and management had shifted from a response-oriented approach towards

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an Integrated Risk Management (IRM) that includes prevention, preparedness, response and

recovery. Over the years, EU has developed major tools through which all its policy objectives in

the field of civil protection may be achieved. The Community Action Program, which supported

projects in the field of prevention, preparedness and response to disasters caused by natural

hazards, was adopted in 1999 and completed in 2006 (Radovic et al.2012 as cited in Menne&

Murray. 2013).

In European Region floods were the most common natural disaster, which has

experienced in recent years some of the largest flooding events in its history. Flooding occurred

in 50 of the 53 countries in the WHO European Region during the past decade, with the most

severe floods in Romania, the Russian Federation, Turkey and the United Kingdom. During the

past 30 years, flooding killed more than 200 000 people and affected more than 2.8 billion others

worldwide. In the past 10 years, the European Region it has been reported that 1000 persons

have been killed by floods and more than 3.4 million affected (42). A review of European data

for the years 2000–2011 showed that the number of deaths from flooding was highest in central

Europe and the former Soviet Republics (Menne et al. 2013).

The associated morbidity of floods was usually due to injuries, infections, chemical

hazards and mental health effects. The longer-term health effects associated with flood were less

easily identified. They include effects due to displacement, destruction of homes, delayed

recovery and water shortages. The most important measure to minimize health impacts from

floods was implementation of a wide, multi-sectoral all-hazards approach to emergency

preparedness, translated into a local plan that includes public health and primary care.

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The government in Europe had prepared a disaster plan. Primary prevention included

emergency plans and other methods to reduce the effects of floods, like land use management;

tree planting; control of water sources and flow, including drainage systems; flood defenses and

barriers; design and architectural strategies; and flood insurance. Secondary prevention included

identification of vulnerable or high-risk populations before floods occur, early warning systems,

evacuation plans including communication and information strategies, and planned refuge areas.

Tertiary measures include moving belongings to safe areas, ensuring the provision of clean

drinking-water, surveillance and monitoring of health impacts, treating ill people to reduce the

health impacts of flooding, and recovery and rehabilitation of flooded houses (Menne et al.

2013).

United States had also experienced different types of catastrophes such as hurricanes,

earthquakes and flooding in different areas of the nation in the study of (White, 2007) it was

mention that in response to the widespread devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina, many

people have called for strengthening the federal government’s involvement in responding to

catastrophic emergencies.

However, despite the billions of taxpayer dollars spent every year on emergency

preparedness and disaster cleanup, there was still shortage in United States overall disaster plan.

(Friel et al. 2005 as cited in White, 2007) stated that “no one has started a complete federal effort

to assess [the] gaps or to encourage experts in the many disciplines of science and engineering

associated with natural hazards to work together to try to minimize the damage that disasters can

inflict”.

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Greer (2012) stated that California was the origin of much of the national earthquake

policy. On January 17, 1994; Richter scale magnitude 6.7 earthquakes struck Northridge,

California, at 4:30 a.m. PDT. This earthquake was triggered by the San Andreas Fault line and

did most of its damage to Los Angeles and other areas along the San Fernando Valley (Sylves,

2008 as cited in Greer, 2012). The earthquake was responsible for 60 deaths, 7,000 injuries, and

roughly $40 billion in damage (Southern California Earthquake Center, 2007 as cited in Greer,

2012). “Under NEHRP, the USGS is responsible for monitoring for earthquakes in the United

States, and it has set up the Advanced National Seismic System, which is composed of more than

7,000 seismometers. When these sensors detect an earthquake, they automatically send detailed

information about its size and location to government officials, scientists, and emergency

responders” (USGS, 2011 as cited in Greer, 2012).

Mexico also experienced natural disaster such as flooding somewhere in Tabasco which

is situated in the South Eastern part on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec with a 184 km long coastline

along the Gulf of Mexico in the North. In particular, extreme floods in 2007 were the most

severe in about 50 years. Flooding has affected about 70 percent of the state. More than one

million people were adversely affected (60 percent of the total population of the state of

Tabasco) (Santos- Reyes et al., 2010 as cited in Atreya, Czajkowski, Botzen, Gabriela

Bustamante, Campbell, Collier, Ianni, Kunreuther, Michel-Kerjan, & Montgomery, 2016) with

158,000 requiring temporary shelter. The flood caused USD2.55 billion in total damages ($350

million insured) to personal and private property, agricultural crops and infrastructure (Aparicio

et al. 2009 as cited in Atreya et al. 2016) and cut off thousands of people in rural areas from

essential services.

21
The residents had become adapted to impacts from seasonal rains and floods, such as

living with half to one meter height of water for one to two months per year, but not to the new

longer-lasting floods. Seasonal floods have now increased to one meter or higher, lasting five to

six months of the year (IFRC, 2010). Most significantly, this severe flooding impacts

livelihoods, harvest opportunities, schooling, and other aspects of every-day life. It was,

therefore, important to design integrated flood risk management policies to help people in

Tabasco better prepare for these more 10 frequent severe flood impacts, for which an improved

understanding of past flood preparedness decisions can provide useful insights.

The U.S. was exposed to a varied range of natural hazards, such as hurricanes, floods,

earthquakes, forest fires and tsunamis as well as the continuing threat of terrorism and other

technological and biological threats. The purpose of disaster preparedness in people of the

communities was that they could develop a greater understanding of their strengths and

weaknesses with respect to preparedness, and determine more effective allocation of resources to

improve preparedness. (Christopolis et al. 2001 as cited in White, 2007) emphasized the

importance of including “efficiency, effectiveness, and impact of disaster response” as a

dominant goal of disaster preparedness.

A different study was also conducted in Japan they was also evolved in 1961 following

significant losses from Typhoon Ise-wan (Vera) just 2 years earlier. The fundamental piece of

legislation related to disaster management in Japan is the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of

1961. This act provided guidelines for developing Japan’s national and local disaster

management offices and plans. The act addressed four basic disaster management functions:

disaster management planning, disaster preparedness, disaster emergency response, and financial

measures for preparedness and recovery expenses (Tanaka, 2008 as cited in Greer, 2012).

22
The earthquake named Hyogoken-Nambu had surprised emergency managers in Japan;

they had primarily been preparing for an earthquake off the coast of Tokyo. As was evident in

the history of earthquakes in Japan, though, a large part of Japan is threatened by imminent

major earthquakes (Lahidji, 2005 as cited in Greer, 2012). Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake was the

1998 Comprehensive National Development Act. The goal of this act was “making Japan a safe

and comfortable place to live,” and part of this initiative has been to make Japan more resilient to

large-scale earthquakes by increasing the resilience of the transportation system, improving

communications systems, establishing an earthquake watch network, keeping provisions

available for those hurt in an earthquake, funding research on earthquakes and their mitigation,

and setting building standards for lifeline utilities (Britton, 2007 as cited in Greer, 2012).

In part of Middle East countries Iran was also affected by a natural disaster in the study

of (Ardalan & Sohrabezadi, 2016) stated that Iran has been placed among countries suffering

from the highest number of casualties at the time of an earthquake. For example, the 1990

Rudbar-Manjil earthquake claimed 35000 fatalities and the Bam quake of 2013 killed roughly

41000 inhabitants – standing as the most deadly natural disasters in Iranian history. Disaster

Preparedness is defined as the activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective

response to the destructive impacts of disasters. Earthquake preparedness is considered a

significant way to reduce the risk of quakes. Sirinivas & Nakagawa (2008) as cited in Ardalan &

Sohrabezadi (2016) natural disasters can affect not only the residents, but also it might have

environmental impacts that could lead to other crisis in the future. Now, the importance is on the

uniqueness of environmental concerns.

Thailand, which belongs to Asian country, was also affected by Tropical Storm Nock-ten

in 2012, the flood spread in the provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along

23
the Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins. In October floodwaters entered the Chao Phraya and

inundated parts of the capital city of Bangkok. Flooding persisted in some areas until mid-

January 2012, and resulted in a total of 815 deaths (with 3 missing) and 13.6 million people

affected (Jongsuksomsakul, 2013).

At present, Thailand had established The National Water and Flood Management Policy

they provide sharing and allocate information from various website to Single website, they are

using communication tools, they spread out information through mass media with public relation

tools such as press release and press conference and they will inform by broadcast media and

community media (Jongsuksomsakul, 2013)

In Philippines several studies had been conducted. Mindanao experienced the worst

catastrophic events and had affected different regions. Like typhoon Pablo who smashed

Mindanao with gusts of up to 210 kilometers an hour. It made landfall thrice in the Philippines:

first in Baganga, Davao Oriental on December 4, 2012 at around 4:45 a.m. and then at the

southern part of Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental at 5:30 p.m. of the same day, losing

practically none of its strength and in the following day, at 8:00 a.m., it made landfall again in

Roxas town in Palawan. The total number of people affected by typhoon Pablo (international

name: Bopha) on December 4, 2012, got the highest number with a total of 6.2 million

(Comission on Audit, 2014).

Negros Oriental was also affected by many typhoons in past year. At least 22 persons

were killed when floods swept through Dumaguete City and three other towns in Negros

Oriental, according to the reports received by the Philippine National Police in Negros Oriental

and in Central Visayas. 13 were killed in Sibulan, five in Dumaguete and three in Valencia and

24
one in San Jose. Five were also reported missing in Valencia. The floods were caused by the

overflowing of the Ocoy River in Sibulan, due to heavy rains spawned by Tropical Storm

Sendong (Napallacan, 2011).

PAG-ASA was mandated to provide protection against natural calamities and utilize

scientific knowledge as an effective instrument to assure safety, well – being and economic

security of all the people, and the promotion of national progress (Jongsuksomsakul, 2013).

As a result in the literatures mentioned above the government should implement different

disaster preparedness programs to enrich the ability of each individual in preparing upcoming

natural disasters and decrease losing life during disaster.

Level of Education and Family Preparedness. A natural disaster occurred when a hazard

hits vulnerable populations causing damage, fatalities and disorders. Any hazards like floods,

earthquakes or cyclones – represented the activating event with greater vulnerability (inadequate

access to resources, the sick and the elderly, lack of awareness, etc.), lead to disaster, causing

great loss of life and property (Ivanov & Cvetković. 2013). Furthermore, the disasters have

adverse events with negative effects that could not be overcome without help or support

resources from others, including state and national governments, or even other states (Bimal,

2012 as cited in Ivanov & Cvetković. 2013). One important approach to build disaster resilient

societies was to promote education by some international agencies (UNISDR, 2007, Selby &

Kagawa, 2012 as cited in Muttarak & Pothisiri. 2013). The US government had put resources

and efforts to improve the emergency preparedness of individuals for both natural and man-made

disasters (Eisenman et al. 2006 as cited in Muttarak et al. 2013).

25
Education was a fundamental human right because it provided appropriate skills and

values for all citizens to improve their quality of life. Disaster awareness in educational

institutions had the following advantages: it provided contemporary and relevant information

about local environments, it prepared people for participation in both pre and post disaster

activities of the affected/vulnerable community, it contributed past experience with recent

developments in technology to combat disaster, it helped develop effective domain abilities for

collective work as successful disaster management efforts involved effective teamwork and spirit

and it promoted informed decision-making in the event of a disaster (Gajbhiye, 2011).

Moreover, education played an important role in reducing the negative impacts of

extreme climate events in both direct and indirect ways. Directly formal education was

considered as a primary way where individuals acquire knowledge, skills, and competencies that

could influence their adaptive capacity. Lutz & Skirbekk, (2013) as cited in Muttarak & Lutz,

(2014) concluded that there was enough evidence to assume direct functional causality. First,

there was evidence that the learning experiences associated with formal education have a lasting

impact on the synoptic brain structure (Kandel, 2007 as cited in Muttarak et al. 2014) and

enhanced individual’s cognitive skills (Neisser et al. 1996, Nisbett, 2009, Reynolds et al. 2010 as

cited in Muttarak et al. 2014).

Being prepared in natural disasters was necessary for individuals to positively cope with

disastrous calamities through their plans and strategies particularly through their implemented

actions (Viloria, Mamon, Escuadra, Anaya, & Landong, 2012). Glow et al. (2013) as cited in

Alrazeeni, (2015) also added that disaster preparedness was one of the major steps in emergency

management. Besides, a well-prepared community, consequently, required shared responsibility

26
by local government and households in the community (Basolo, Steinberg, Burby, Levine, Cruz

& Huang, 2009).

Basolo et al. and Murphy et al. 2009 as cited in Muttarak et al. (2013) stated that the

higher perceived risk and exposure to information, the greater preparedness is found. Because

risk perception was strongly associated with disaster preparedness so that individuals who

perceived risks are motivated to initiate appropriate actions (Sattler et al. 2000, Miceli et al. 2008

as cited in Muttarak et al. 2013). In addition, using a community - oriented approach could

improve and influence people to respond in emergencies caused by disasters. This were possible

through increased knowledge, improved attitudes, improved performance, enhanced access, and

enhanced control through participation in various phases of disaster management cycle

(Jahangiri, 2009 as cited in Hosseini, Heydari & Hayati, 2013). Menard et al. (2011) as cited in

Muttarak et al. 2013) also added that highly educated individuals have better economic resources

and also explained that education might influence cognitive elements and shaped how

individuals perceive and assess risks. Because the preparation phase was of major importance in

order to prevent loss of lives when disaster occurs (Jahangiri et al. 2010 as cited in Hosseini et al.

2013).

Correspondingly, Ivanov and Cvetković, (2013) shown that children who were familiar

with the phenomenon and know how to react in such situations were capable of promptly and

properly respond in order to protect themselves and others alerting to potential dangers. One

example of the power of knowledge and education was the story about the 10- year-old girl from

Britain, Tilly Smith, who warned the tourists to flee before the tsunami reached the shore (Rajib,

Koichi, & Yukiko, 2011 as cited in Ivanov et al. 2013). Through this way she has saved more

than 100 tourists during the 2004th (UN/ISDR, 2013 as cited in Ivanov et al. 2013). She

27
recognized the signs of an approaching tsunami, after a lesson in geography had been introduced

to this phenomenon in her school, just a week before she visited Thailand (Rajib et al. 2011 as

cited in Ivanov et al. 2013). Ivanov et al. (2013) emphasized that to be able to reduce risks of

natural disasters; the schools were unavoidable entities having an increasingly important role.

They play a crucial role in providing basic information on natural disasters in the local

community. Although the education of young people for life, health and the environment had its

roots in family and preschool education, the school was incomparable of achieving that goal. The

school’s purpose was to develop the knowledge, the awareness and the habits in prevention of

danger.

In the study of Rachmalia (2011) as cited in Muttarak et al. (2013) due to the absence of

warning systems, lack of knowledge, and lack of preparedness among the populations, many

people were largely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004. Additionally,

there were more several recent catastrophic events such as the typhoon Haiyan that hit the

Philippines in 2013, the 2005 hurricane Katrina, or the 2010 Haiti earthquake, were also

examples that could have been prevented and reduced the impact of natural hazards before they

occur (Muttarak et al. 2014). Anticipating, educating and informing were the keys to reduce the

deadly effect of such natural disasters. Unfortunately, such activities had not been given priority

(UNESCO Director-General Matsuura, 2005).

Disaster education should be promoted and supported to reduce the negative impact of

disasters, such as injuries and loss of life, property damage and social disruption (Ismail et al.

2016). Hooke and Rogers (2005) as cited in Alrazeeni, (2015) pointed out that having well

integrated systems of preparedness is important in reducing the impact of disasters upon affected

individuals and communities. Highly educated individuals are better aware of the earthquake risk

28
(Ainuddin et al. 2013 as cited in Mutarak et al. 2014) and are more likely to manage disaster

preparedness (Paul & Bhuiyan, 2010 as cited in Muttrak et al. 2014). High risked awareness

associated with education could also contribute to vulnerability reduction behaviors. In addition,

highly educated individuals were usually had better communication linkages and access to useful

information (Cotton & Gupta, 2004, Wen et al. 2011, Neuenschwander et al. 2012 as cited in

Muttarak et al. 2014). The level of education was also highly correlated with access to weather

forecasts and warnings as well as the types of technologies used to access weather information

(Rodriguez et al. 2007 as cited Muttarak et al. 2014).

In Haiti and Dominican Republic, Cuba, with higher average level of education among its

population, had better effective risk management plan and risk-communication system as well as

disaster preparedness (Pichler & Striessnig, 2013 as cited in Muttarak et al. 2014). In their

comparative study of Haiti, Dominican Republic and Cuba also reported lower disaster-related

mortality in Cuba, the country with the most educated population. At the individual-level, the

longitudinal study of households located in Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia reported that

men who completed senior secondary school were more likely to survive the 2004 Indian Ocean

tsunami as compared to those with primary education (Frankenberg et al. 2013 as cited in

Muttarak et al. 2014). It was explained that education might be a proxy for height and strength,

another dimension of human capital, which could be relevant in such emergency situation like

running away from tsunami waves. This significantly emphasized that formal education could

really enhance coping strategies in the aftermath of a natural disaster. It was that highly educated

individuals or households might have greater flexibility and skills to take up a new job or have

better socioeconomic resources to buffer the income loss from climatic shocks (Muttarak et al.

2014).

29
Highly educated individuals in societies have greater social, economic, and institutional

capabilities necessary for successful adaptation to climatic change (KC & Lutz, 2014 as cited in

Muttarak et al. 2014). As a result, it was reasonable to assume that when facing calamities,

educated individuals, households and societies were more empowered and hence more adaptive

to their respond to, preparation for, and recovery from disasters. These findings provided strong

evidence that schooling could reduce vulnerability regarding life losses, injury, morbidity and

damage (Muttarak et al. 2014). In the case study of households in Brazil and El Salvador

reported that residents of high risked areas had on the average lower levels of education than

those households who lived in low risk areas (Wamsler et al. 2012 as cited in Muttarak et al.

2014). This might be because individuals who have higher level of education had better ability to

perceive and understand existing risks and were able to act on perceived threats. Likewise, in the

study of tsunami-risk areas in southern Thailand showed that individuals and households with

higher education had greater disaster preparedness plan e.g., stockpiling emergency supplies and

having family evacuation plan (Muttarak et al. 2013 as cited in Muttarak et al. 2014). In addition

with this, it seemed that better educated individuals or households were faster in getting back to a

normal life in terms of recovery because people with higher education have better social and

economic resources (Muttarak et al. 2014).

Moreover, natural disasters could affect not only the residents but as well as the

environment which could lead to other crisis in the future (Sirinivas & Nakagawa, 2008 as cited

in Hosseini et al. 2013). Now, the emphasis was on the centrality of environmental concerns.

Proper management of natural resources was required for crisis prevention and to reduce the

aftermath of calamities. The primary step was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices

to provide a current status and analyze the training demands of the residents (Jahangiri et al.2010

30
as cited in Hosseini et al. 2013). Langen & James (2005) as cited in Alrazeeni et al. (2015) also

indicated that people of various disciplines, particularly in healthcare and service organization

should have adequate knowledge and skills in disaster preparedness education to share the

important information to the other people for them to be prepared in such calamities.

Level of Income and Family Preparedness. Understanding the effect of normal

calamities on income and neediness at the family unit level is essential for catastrophe inclined

and poverty-stricken nations, experimental deals with the subject have been constrained up until

now (Israel & Briones, 2013). The past researchers found that individuals with high salary are

more prepared than low-income earners. It could be clarified by the way that individuals with

higher salary are required to have more access to qualified properties and live in more disaster

resistant areas, while it is reverse for individuals with lower income. It is likewise brought up

that poorer individuals are less likely to mitigate impacts of dangers since they do not have a

feeling of individual control over potential results (Baker, 2011,King, 2000 & Vaughan, 2005 as

cited in Najafi, Ardalan, Akbarisari, Noorbala & Jabbari, 2015).

In the study of De Goyet, Marti and Osorio, (2006) Poverty economic defenselessness

may assume a much more prominent part than age and gender. What has been noted regarding

the greater vulnerability of poor countries also holds true at the community and family levels.

Disasters overwhelmingly influence poor people. Poverty expands powerlessness because of

the unequal opportunity for health and safe environments, poor training and hazard

mindfulness, and limited coping capacity.

Moreover a recent study of Household Based Preparedness in a Chinese Urban City

stated that catastrophe readiness learning, earlier disaster encounters and certain socio-

31
demographic attributes, for example, gender, age, education and family income can possibly

influence emergency readiness and related practices (Kohn, Eaton, Feroz, Bainbridge,

Hoolachan & Barnett, 2012 as cited in Chan, Lee & Wang, 2016). In line with this study

poverty or have limited financial reserves, may add to the difficulties during catastrophe. The

study affirmed that low income and similar measures of socioeconomic status are related with

lower disaster preparedness scores (Al-rousan, Rubenstein & Wallace, 2014). In addition

Muttarak et al. (2013) cited that income and training are positively connected with

catastrophic readiness enhancing a person’s financial level could directly or indirectly

increase preparedness activities. In this sense, an individual's preparedness is equally decided

through such things as the measure of accessible material and intellectual asset (Reininger,

Rahbar, Lee, Chen, Alam, Pope & Adams, 2013).

A previous study defined vulnerability as "the characteristics of a person or group and

their situation that influence their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the

impact of a natural hazard" in this context particularly the lack of key resources such as health,

education or income increases level of vulnerability (Phillips, Metz & Nieves, 2005).

Furthermore, money values are more advantageous to decide utilizing market valuations. In

addition, relying only on economic loss could mislead the estimation of the impacts of the

catastrophe (Noy, 2009, Cavallo & Noy, 2010 as cited in Muttarak et al. 2014). While wealthier

family units and nations by and large endure more prominent money related misfortunes, they

are probably going to recover more rapidly than their poorer counterparts (Eriksen et al. 2007 &

UNDP, 2007 as cited in Muttarak et al. (2014). In connection there is also a study that found out

that Americans that are least prepared were: income less (Kapucu, 2008).

32
Furthermore research suggests that readiness for a catastrophic event is related with an

extensive variety of socio-demographic qualities of the family unit, which may play a different

role depending on the social and environmental context investigated. Among these

characteristics, significant though often low correlations have been reported for age, marital

status, and presence of children living at home, income, education, home ownership, and length

of residence at the same location (Mulilis, Duval, & Bovalino, 2000; Russell et al. 1995; Turner

et al. 1986 as cited in Miceli, Sotgui & Settanni, 2008).

Additionally, a literature cited lower income citizens to a greater extent rely on the

competent authorities; they need assistance with evacuation or going to the shelter compared to

families with higher income. People with higher incomes to a greater extent believe that taking

measures of preparedness, planning and acquisition of supplies will help them in natural

disasters; furthermore, they are more confident in their abilities to cope with consequences of

natural disaster citizens with lower incomes to a greater extent, do nothing to raise an effective

disaster preparedness. The literature cited that in the study of Baker found that there is a

significant statistical relationship between household income and the status of disaster

preparedness (Baker, 2011 as cited in Cvetković, 2016).

Moreover low-income groups generally face more obstacles during phases of response, recovery

and reconstruction (Masozera et al. 2007). Besides the impact of natural disaster events is not

distributed evenly among countries. The extent of losses relies considerably on the level of

development, policies, institutional arrangements and economic conditions such as income

(Cavallo & Noy, 2010).

33
Degree of Damage and Family Preparedness. Disasters often left today’s families faced

difficult times due to loss of parental employment, relocation, divorced, death of a family

member and other catastrophic events that created stress for all members of the family. The

disaster may not cause deaths but injury or disability and stress and trauma to the affected

persons. The loss of human lives affected other aspects of the lives of the survivors that are

necessary for dignified living such as ability of the families to earn and the loss of care and

protection provided and this loss due to the natural disaster is most overwhelming and brings

focused attention to the region (Assessing Damage after Disasters, 2007). The vast majority of

those who lost or were forced from their homes returned to where they lived before the disaster

in relatively short order, even if their homes had been completely destroyed (Sherwood, Bradley,

Rossi, Guiam & Mellicker, 2015).

Naude (2010); IFRC (2010) and O’Brien et al. (2006) as cited in Ambiente and

Sociedade (2013) emphasized that disasters is caused by geophysical factors (e.g. earthquakes,

tsunamis, volcanic eruptions) comprise a strong threat to developing countries. Furthermore,

Schumacher & Strobl (2008) as cited in Kellenberg & Mobarak (2011) also noted that certain

coastal areas suffered from tropical cyclones and wind speed is typically seen as causing damage

as a function of its cubed magnitude while Donner (2007) analyzed the effects of tornadoes in

the US and found that the effect are not random, because some factors such as environmental,

organization, demographic, and technological, have an incidence on the impact of such event.

Logan (2006) looked at the extent of damages showed that the poor can also have

suffered higher degrees of damage. Monetary improvement and natural catastrophe chance aren't

unbiased: often the poorest humans are the worst suffered from environmental shocked. While

wealthier international locations revealed in more absolute financial losses, poorer nations

34
suffered more relative economic losses (as a percent of gross country wide product) and extra

human losses: nearly 90% of disaster-associated deaths and 98% of persons tormented by

failures among 1991-2005 occurred in growing countries, with more than 25% of those deaths

going on inside the least evolved international locations (World bank, 2010).

Island developing states suffered the greatest magnitude of natural disaster harm, both in

terms of economic losses (percentage of gross country wide product) and human losses

(percentage of population affected) (November, 2009). Low-income households have a tendency

to lease as opposed to personal their houses. In addition, the sort and satisfactory of housing

affected the ability for damage. Low-income residents occupied cell houses and poorly

constructed or maintained stick-built homes, which are without problems destroyed or broken

within the occasion of a natural catastrophe (Pastor, 2006).

The relationship between urbanization of huge agglomerations and flooding had been

receiving more interest these days within the context of forecasted modifications within the

frequency and intensity of extreme events because of climate change (Nobre et al. & Linnekamp

et al. & Gu et al. 2011 as cited in Haddad & Teixeira, 2013). The effects of floods in urban

regions were relevant, starting from effects on human health (Huntingford et al. 2007) to effects

on housing prices (Harrison et al. 2001), city transportation infrastructure (Suarez et al. 2005),

and other adverse effects consisting of time misplaced in paintings and training, damages to

property and psychological stress (Linnekamp et al. 2011). Furthermore economic costs also are

essential, thru potential outcomes inside the coverage quarter and public reimbursement schemes

(Botzen & Bergh, 2008).

Okuyama et al. (2007) stated that the economic losses of the main economic and financial

center of the country were directly related to the shutdown of production in the affected sites.

35
While the direct losses are assessed through the disruption of economic activities, indirect losses

calculated by considering associated interruptions in the value chains. Such estimation of indirect

losses demands an economic model capable of capturing the flow of goods between economic

agents, which poses another challenge, given the uniqueness of each disaster.

Chatterjee, (2015) identified the need to bring science and technology into the policy and

planning mainstream in order to achieve more effective risk reduction. The “Tokyo Statement’’

outcome documented specifies that governments need to empower national platforms so that

they can practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction for sustainable development (Science

Council of Japan et al. 2015). Three major, commonly accepted factors determined disaster

damage. First and foremost, the size of economic loss depends on the magnitude of the natural

hazard event triggering the disaster. All other things equal, a stronger earthquake, for example,

caused more damage than a more moderate one and below a certain threshold a quake can hardly

be felt, let alone cause much damage. Second, the economic toll is higher the wealthier the area

hit by the natural hazard (Pielke et al. 2008; Neumayer & Barthel, 2011; Bouwer, 2011 as cited

in Visser, Peterson & Ligtvoet, 2014).

According to the Annual Disaster Statistical Review (2013) that natural disasters once

again had a devastating impact on human society. Worldwide, 330 reported natural disasters

caused the death of more than 21,610 people, made 96.5 million victims and caused a record

amount of US$ 118.6 billion of damages. A total of 108 countries were hit by these disasters.

The five countries that were most often hit were China, the United States, Indonesia, the

Philippines, and India accounted for 34.2% of total disaster occurrence in 2013. Year after year,

these countries appeared prominently in the list of countries experiencing the highest number of

disaster events.

36
With reported damages from natural disasters costing US$ 118.6 billion, the year 2013

was below the 2003-2012 annual average of 157 US$ billion. Six countries in the top 10 list for

total reported damages are classified as higher and upper-middle income economies. Four

countries, China, Germany, the United States of America, and the Philippines accounted for

83.1% of all reported damages. China (US$ 35.4 billion) accounted for 29.9% of worldwide

disaster costs. In this country, the total reported costs for floods was US$ 16.6 billion, storms

US$ 10.8 billion and for earthquakes US$ 8 billion, with one earthquake, two floods and two

storms accounting for 71% of total damages. In Germany, the reported damages were attributed

to one flood (US$ 12.9 billion) and one storm (US$ 4.8 billion). In the USA, 83% of reported

damages (US$ 17.6 billion) were due to storms of which half were caused by tornadoes. In the

Philippines, cyclone Haiyan (US$ 10 billion) accounted for 80% of total reported damages.

When comparing economic damages from natural disasters to the countries’ Gross

Domestic Product (GDP) 12, the figure is somewhat different, with seven low-income or lower-

middle income economies appeared in the top 10 list. The highest levels of damaged relative to

GDP occurred in four South-East Asian countries (Philippines, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam)

with damages from storms dominating in the Philippines and Vietnam and from floods in

Cambodia and Laos and most of the time a small number of major disasters explain the damages

which were attributed to floods and storms.

Disaster damages in Asia in 2013 (US$ 58.5 billion) were below their annual average for

years 2003 to 2012 (2013 US$ 71.3 billion) but this overall figure hides different phenomena. No

damages were reported for climatological disasters. Those from geophysical disasters were 77 %

lower than their annual 2003-2012 average, accounting only for 15% of all reported damages

against 56% for the decade’s average. Conversely, costs from hydrological disasters were 41%

37
higher than their decade’s average and, above all, damages from meteorological disasters were

145% higher than their 2003-2012 average. Their respective share to the total costs was of 44%

for hydrological disasters (versus 26% for the 2003-2012 period) and 40% for meteorological

ones (versus 13% for the decade).

In November 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan – known locally as Yolanda – devastated the

central Philippines. The strongest storm ever recorded at landfall, and the deadliest in the history

of the Philippines, Typhoon Haiyan resulted in over 7,000 deaths and left more than 4 million

people displaced. An estimated 1.1 million homes were damaged or destroyed, with Leyte and

Samar in the Eastern Visayas region among the worst affected areas. One and a half years later,

the reconstruction process was well under way. While the process is expected to take 20 years,

responding to USD 36 billion in damages, important gains have already been made. Hundreds of

thousands of families have returned to and are working to rebuild their homes and re-establish

their livelihoods. None of the tent cities set up in the crisis stage remains open, and nearly half of

the residents of “bunkhouses” constructed to provide provisional accommodation have returned

to their communities or received support to move elsewhere. Plans had been laid to relocate

families from areas that remain highly vulnerable to future disasters, and were gradually being

implemented. Yet significant hurdles must be overcome to ensure that those who were uprooted

are able to access truly durable solutions to their displacement – a particularly pronounced

challenge in a country on the “front lines” of climate change (Sherwood et al. 2015).

According to the government’s Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and

Information Center (DROMIC), some 4 million people were displaced from their homes, 1

including 1.7 million children. Among the most important socio-economic impacts, was the

traumatization of people as they were not prepared and warned of the coming flood causing total

38
destruction of their homes and land. Other than the directly affected and killed, 10 there were

suicides and deaths in the evacuation camps. Psychosocial support was needed in the camps.

Apart from the loss of lives and number of injured of the flood, there has been considerable cases

of leptospirosis, also known as Weil’s syndrome, further devastated the situation of the people

affected (Rasquinho, Hyun, Tae, Chan, Hun, Sung, Dalena, Fernando, Espinueva, Paar, Nievares

& Pajarillo , 2012)

Private individuals were under-invest in disaster mitigation policies because some of the

economic damage in the form of indirect losses will be felt not by individuals directly affected,

but by others in the wider sub-national region or even the entire country. Large-scale disasters

caused significant collateral damage and macroeconomic distortions that impact the wider

population (Lall & Deichmann, 2010; Hallegatte & Przysluski, 2011 as cited in Neumayer,

Plumper, & Barthel, 2012).

Analysis of disaster damage was hampered by the fact that none of the publicly available

disaster datasets provided comprehensive economic loss estimates. This paper’s analysis benefits

from the authors having been granted access to a unique dataset compiled by Munich Re (2011),

the biggest re-insurance company in the world. Loayza et al. (2009) argued that natural disasters

affect economic growth but not always negatively and the effects are different across disasters

and economic sectors; although moderate disasters have a positive growth effect in some sectors,

severe disasters do not; and growth in developing countries was more sensitive to natural

disasters with more of their economic sectors being significantly affected.

Preparedness for disasters is critical for households, businesses, and communities, but

many remain unprepared. As recent disasters served to highlight the need for individual

39
responsibility, local coordination, and continuity plans to ensure the ability to respond to and

recover from major events, the federal government has prioritized national preparedness as a

goal without developing a system to achieve and maintain it. Furthermore, public entities had

been charged with assessing their state of readiness and identifying strengths and areas of

weakness as a requirement for receiving federal funding and Homeland Security grants. In

response, some communities had chosen to utilize voluntary accreditation programs such as the

Emergency Management Accreditation Program in order to assess their ability to respond to

disaster while others have relied on internal resources (Fritz Institute Assessing Disaster

Preparedness Conference, 2006).

40
Research Methodology

Research Design

This is a quantitative study that utilized the descriptive-correlational approach wherein

the status of disaster preparedness among families in Dumaguete City was assessed. The socio-

economic factors that might have a relationship with the status of disaster preparedness of

families were also measured.

Research Respondents

The respondents of this study consisted of any responsible member of the family 18 years

old and above who have experienced and have not experienced natural disasters and lives in

Dumaguete City at the time of the study. The cluster sampling technique was used to determine

the sample size. In each barangay, every purok was represented. One sample was taken from

each purok. In a bowl, 4 rolled pieces of paper was prepared with the direction North, South,

East, and West written on each paper. The researcher then stays on one area in the purok and

picked one rolled paper. The direction that has been drawn was used as the basis in choosing the

household. However, if any responsible family member were not available at the time of study,

the researchers would pick another direction. Convenience sampling technique was utilized to

select the respondents. A total of 210 respondents participated in the study.

Research Environment

The study was conducted in 24 barangays of Dumaguete City namely Bagacay,

Bajumpandan, Balugo, Banilad, Bantayan, Barangay 1 (Tinago), Barangay 2 (Upper

Lukewright), Barangay 7 (Mangga), Barangay 8 (Cervantes Extension), Batinguel, Buñao,

41
Calindagan, Camanjac, Candau-ay, Cantil-e, Daro, Junob, Mangnao-Canal, Motong, Piapi,

Pulantubig, Tabuc-tubig, Taclobo, Talay. In these barangays some were affected by natural

disasters and others were not. Barangay Cadawinonan and Barangay Looc were not included due

to safety reasons and Barangay 3 (Business District), Barangay 4 (Rizal Boulevard), Barangay 5

(Silliman Area), Barangay 6 (Cambagroy) was also not included because these are commercial

areas.

Research Instrument

The instrument that was used in the data collection was a self-made questionnaire

developed by the researchers. The questionnaire has two parts: the first part was the demographic

profile that included age, gender, marital status, educational attainment and family income. The

second part contained information pertaining the status of disaster preparedness of families. The

questionnaire consisted of close-ended questions. An internal consistency reliability test was

performed and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.7.

To ensure that data collected was valid and reliable, a pilot study at Boloc-boloc, Sibulan,

Negros Oriental was conducted ensuring that questionnaire instrument were tested. The pilot

study phase had 40 families as respondents. An internal consistency reliability test was employed

with a Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.7.

Data-Gathering Procedure

An approval to proceed with the study was obtained from the panelists. In addition,

permission to conduct the study was obtained from the City Mayor and Barangay Captains of the

24 barangays in Dumaguete City. The possible respondents were approached by the researchers

42
and mechanics of the study was thoroughly explained. The respondents were given ample time to

think and decide whether to participate in the study or not. After explaining the conduct of

research, most respondents immediately expressed their intention to participate in the research

study.

An interview schedule was then employed. The respondents were interviewed within 15-

20 minutes. Respondents were informed of their anonymity and their right to participate and

withdraw from the study anytime if they don’t feel comfortable answering the questions.

The questionnaire was immediately examined after the interview for completeness of the

answers and such was considered valid for analysis. A code was assigned to each questionnaire

for further anonymity.

Statistical Treatment

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics was utilized in this study. Frequency and

percentages was employed for the profile and socio-economic data of the respondents.

Descriptive Statistics was used to analyze problems number 1 and 2. Spearman-Rho was used to

analyze problems number 3, 4, and 5 because the variables that were correlated are nominal in

nature. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) V. 17 was used to analyze these data. A

significance level of 0.05 was used to accept or reject the null hypothesis.

43
CHAPTER II

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Profile of Respondents

66 and older 18-21 y.o


8% 5%

21-39 y.o
40%
40-65 y.o
55%

Figure 2. Age of Respondents

Age. Age plays an important role in the study for it determines the level of maturity of

the respondents. Through age, we can identify the span of the respondent’s knowledge regarding

certain phenomenon. In addition, age as described by Lindell, Perry, and Eisenman et al. (2000)

as cited in Najafi, Ardalan, Akbarisari, Noorbala and Jabbari (2015) is related to how people

respond to risk-related messages. The figure above shows that fifty five percent of the

respondents were 40-65 years old. In Erik Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development, this

age group belongs to the stage of Generativity vs. Stagnation. This stage implies that adults who

were in their 40’s and 50’s tend to find meaning in their work and should also be able to

contribute something meaningful to the society like sharing their knowledge and spreading

awareness about such phenomena. And if they fail to achieve this, they feel an unproductive

44
member of society. People belonging to this age group are more likely prepared during

disastrous events because they can manipulate themselves and their family members easily when

disaster strikes. These people are mature and quick enough to make decisions during calamities

compared to the older and younger groups. Moreover, the study of Sattler et al. (2000), Mishra

and Suar (2005) stated that preparedness increases with age however, the very old are less likely

to engage in preparation in calamities (Heller et al. 2005) due to some kind of functional

limitation and chronic conditions that could be a hindrance in a disaster (Feather 2014).

Meanwhile, 40% of the respondents were 21-39 years old, and belongs to the stage of

Intimacy vs. Isolation. In this stage, individuals were more likely to interact with the people they

are connected with and share their learning’s only to their close ones. The next age category is

the 66 and older (8%) that belongs to the stage of Ego integrity vs. Despair. In this stage,

reflection on one's life is the primary focus, either moving into feeling satisfied and happy with

one's life or feeling a deep sense of regret. Lastly, 5% of the respondents are ages 18-21 years old

and falls into the stage of Identity vs. Role Confusion. In this stage, adolescents are known to be

more focused on themselves than with other people. But despite of this label on adolescents, a

study by Unicefstories (2014) stated that adolescents and youth were involved in the different

stages of emergency preparedness, planning, and response. One of the key aspects of the training

was to develop the adolescents’ capacity to be active in preparing for and responding to an

emergency.

45
Male
37%
Female
63%

Figure 3. Sex of Respondents

Sex. The results showed that the 63% of the respondents were females and only 37%

were males. It is clearly shown in the graph that females has the higher proportion compared to

males because it is common for females to stay at home to take care of the member/s of the

family, do household chores, and see to it that the household needs of the members are available,

while men spends most of their time at work. In terms of preparedness during natural disasters,

Forthergill (1996) stated that there is evidence that women and men differ in the types of

preparedness activities they take. Women are more likely to prepare their families for disaster

than men, because they are more represented in formal emergency planning and organizations. In

addition, according to CDC (2015) females have a strong influence in mobilizing response to a

warning. Females are also more likely to be effective risk communicators through being active

participants in the community for disaster preparedness.

46
Separated Widowed
2% 9%
Single
27%

Married
62%

Figure 4.Marital Status of Respondents

Marital Status. Majority of the respondents were married (62%), twenty seven percent

are single, and nine and two percent are widowed and separated respectively. Family processes

likely to affect disaster preparedness are associated with being a mother or father rather than just

a marriage partner or single person. Parenthood is more likely to invoke intense family role

obligations and responsibilities especially with children present. The level of disaster

preparedness is higher in married people than those who are not parents (Panić, 2013).

According to (Cvetković, 2016) citizens who are married are prepared in terms of disasters such

as having food supplies for 4 days, holding a first aid kit in an easily accessible place, and

discussing with family members about the plans.

47
Graduate Elementary
level level 14%
26%
High School
College
31%
level 29%

Figure 5. Educational Attainment of Respondents

Educational Attainment. One of the most relevant characteristic that affects the person’s

behavior during catastrophic event is education. It is an important indicator that determines the

competence of an individual to respond to particular phenomena. Furthermore, it was stated that

education about natural disasters provides not just information, but it also contributes a thorough

understanding of the issues, as well as attitudes and skills that will enable individuals to

adequately respond during crisis (Panić, Kovačević-Majkić, Miljanović, and Miletić, 2013).

Figure 5 above showed that majority of the respondents are in the high school level (31%),

followed by the college level (29%), followed by the graduate level with 26% and the last group

of respondents belong to the elementary level (14%). Education is one factor that may shape the

degree to which individuals accurately perceive and assess risks. People with high school

educational level have slight information regarding natural disasters in their education, but if

applied, would reduce the risks and consequences (Panić et al., 2013). Moreover, Ivanov et al.

(2013) emphasized that schools have a very important role in reducing risks of natural disasters.

They play a crucial role in providing basic information on natural disasters in the local

community. Although the education of young people for life, health and the environment has its

roots in family and preschool education, the school is incomparable of achieving that goal. The

48
school’s purpose is to develop the knowledge, the awareness and the habits in prevention of

danger.

Additionally, education is a fundamental human right because it provides appropriate

skills and values for all citizens to improve their quality of life. Disaster awareness in educational

institutions has the following advantages: it provides contemporary and relevant information

about local environments, it prepares for participation in both pre and post disaster activities of

the affected/vulnerable community, it contributes past experience with recent developments in

technology to combat disaster, it helps to develop effective domain abilities for collective work

as successful disaster management efforts involve effective teamwork and spirit and it promotes

informed decision-making in the event of a disaster (Gajbhiye et al. 2011). Additionally,

Menard, Slater and Flaitz (2011) discussed that the higher the levels of educational attainment,

the greater the preparedness.

49
20,000 1,000
above 15,001- 20,000 Below
12% 10% 9%
10,001- 15,000
19% 1,001- 5,000
5,001- 10,000
24%
26%

Figure 6. Monthly Family Income of Respondents

Family Income. Household income measures the combination of income of the family

members. It also refers not only to the income and profits received but also to receipts from any

personal trade, investments, disbursements and other revenue. The result showed that majority of

the respondents family income is Php 5,001-10,000 (26%), followed by families earning Php

1,001-5,000 per month (24%), and have an average income of Php 10,001-15,000 per month

(19%). This indicates that majority of the respondents have moderate level of income. Logan et

al. (2006) stressed that the poor are the ones who will suffer higher degrees of damage because

they tend to live on marginal land and their houses are more weakly constructed. They are also

less likely to own their home which means that it is less likely they are eligible for assistance to

rebuild.

Digian, (2005) stated that income could be one of the most important factors that share a

relationship with disaster preparedness. Many studies found that high income population seems

to be more prepared and less vulnerable before, during and even after natural disasters than low

income population (Baker, 2011; Rowel et al., 2011; King, 2000). Similar study by Kim and

Kang (2010) also expressed the importance of income in a more complicated way; disaster

50
resources could be one of the key elements in disaster preparedness which itself is highly

depended on income level while Muttarak et al. and Pothisiri et al. (2013) mentioned that income

and training are positively connected with catastrophic readiness. Enhancing a person’s financial

level could directly or indirectly increase preparedness activities.

51
52
Table 1 represents the summary of findings of family disaster preparedness of each

barangay and is categorized according to the following measures: home emergency disaster plan,

home emergency kit, family member trained in first aid, communication gadget, list of hotlines,

evacuation plan, need in order to evacuate and contact person.

Disaster Preparedness is typically understood as consisting of measures that enable

different units of analysis, individuals, households, organizations, communities, and societies to

respond effectively and recover more quickly when disasters attack (Sutton, 2006). Additionally,

Alexander (2015) stated that emergency planning is defined as the process of preparing

systematically for future contingencies, including major incidents and disaster. Majority of the

respondents (53%) of the families answered “no” with regards to having a home emergency

disaster plan particularly from barangay Balugo (5 out of 6), Calindagan (21 out of 27), Candau-

ay (6 out of 10), Daro (5 out of 9), Piapi (3out of 5), Pulantubig (4 out of 6), Tabuctubig (5 out of

9), and Talay (8 out of 9) while only 47% answered “yes”. With this data, it indicates that out of

24 barangays, 8 barangays were not prepared in terms of home emergency disaster plan. The

consequences of having no emergency disaster plan in a family during a catastrophe increases

anxiety, being disorganized on what to do, and role confusion in terms of responsibilities as a

family member. In addition, it is generally a necessity for every family to have home emergency

plan for it helps reduce panic and chaos that would otherwise be present at the time of such

catastrophe as well as it helps the family to identify the role of each member during disasters.

(Source: http://www.readyreservefoods.com/disaster-preparedness-and-its-benefits/).

53
Table 2. Reasons for no home emergency disaster plan
Reasons for no home emergency disaster
plan Frequency
No knowledge regarding disaster plan 44
No information from LGU 35
No budget 32
*Multiple answers allowed N= 111

The respondents were asked for their reasons for not having a home emergency disaster

plan. Majority of the respondents (44) answered they have no knowledge regarding home

emergency disaster plan. This was followed by no information from LGU (35) and lastly the

respondents answered no budget with a frequency of 32. According to Courier (2010) having a

plan and being prepared in case a catastrophic event strike is an important facet to family safety.

One of the reasons why is it important because it can save time, secondly property and most of

all lives.

In the second category which is home emergency supply kit (Table 1), 51% of the

population answered “no” specifically from barangay Banilad (7 out of 11), Bantayan (5 out of

9), Batinguel (4 out of 7), Calindagan (15 out of 27), Camanjac (4 out of 6), Daro (6 out of 9),

Junob (10 out of 15), Motong (4 out of 5), Poblacion 8 (4 out of 5), Piapi (5 out of 5), Pulan-

tubig (4 out of 6) and Talay (7 out of 9). This implies that 12 out of the 24 barangays were not

prepared in terms of having a home emergency supply kit. Only 49% of the respondents

answered “yes”. During the aftermath, when families are displaced in the evacuation centers,

having a supply kit is essential as this would help the family to survive after a disaster. This is

because it would be very difficult for them to go back to their houses and get the necessary

supplies needed as roads may not be passable or the roads and walkways may still be flooded.

Similarly, in an article entitled “Emergency Kit” (2018), it was stated there that having an

emergency supply kit is an important step to prepare and protect households for unforeseen

54
events like natural disasters. An emergency supply kit is essential for short-term survival

providing vital items for the family. It is a good idea to always keep a kit in a handy place known

to everyone in the household. (Source:

https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/safetyinformation/pages/emergencykits.aspx).

Table 3. Reasons for no disaster supply kit


Reasons for no disaster supply kit Frequency
No budget 38
No plan within the family 33
No idea on materials needed in the emergency kit 21
Depends/seeks help from others 14
*Multiple answers allowed N= 106

The respondents were asked for the reasons for not having a disaster supply kit. Majority

of the respondents answered no budget (38), followed by no plan within the family (33), no idea

on materials needed in the emergency kit (21) and lastly, depends/seeks help from others (14).

After disaster, stores may be closed for several weeks, and roads may be unsafe to drive out of

the area. That is why families are suggested to have a necessary supply of emergency food, a 3-

day supply of drinking water per person, medical and sanitary supplies, emergency lights, radios,

batteries, clothes and personal documents in supply kit. (Source:

https://www.quakekare.com/emergency-preparedness/home-preparedness-supplies)

The third category in status of disaster preparedness is having a trained family member in

first aid. Results showed that 49% of the respondents answered “yes” and 51% answered “no”.

Most of the respondents who answered “no” were from barangay Bajumpandan (4 out of 6),

Banilad (7 out of 11), Bantayan (7 out of 9), Calindagan (14 out of 27), Junob (8 out of 15),

Poblacion 1 (2 out of 3), Poblacion 7 (5 out of 5), Piapi (5 out of 5), Taclobo (6 out of 9), Talay

(7 out of 9). It indicates that 10 out of 24 barangays have no family member that is trained in

administering first aid. An article entitled “Why is First Aid Important” stated that a family

55
member that is trained in First Aid is invaluable both for the family and as an individual and also

for the community. It enables to assist persons who become injured in the event of an accident or

emergency situation until help arrives. Moreover, Nelson (2018) added that training is an

important part of a family disaster plan because it gives family members confidence and

experience.

Table 4. Reasons for having no family member trained in first aid

Reasons for having no family member trained


in first aid Frequency
No knowledge about first aid 33
Depends/seeks help from other 32
Not interested 21
No plan within the family 19
*Multiple answers allowed N= 105
The following are the reasons stated by the respondents who answered “No”: not

interested (21), no plan within the family (19), no knowledge about first aid (33), depends/seeks

help from others (32). First aider in a family is important for they are able to assist persons or

their own family member who are injured in the event of an accident or emergency situation like

natural disasters (source: https://www.firstaidae.com.au/about-first-aid-ae/why-is-first-aid-

important/). Motivation and support groups as well as knowledge on the importance of first aid

during disasters are necessary either within the family or within the community as this will

inspire family members to submit themselves for training.

The fourth category is having communication gadget in the home. Majority of the

families in each barangay answered “yes” (96%) while only 4% answered “no”. This implies that

nowadays, most of the families have an idea that cellphones or any communication gadget is

necessary as a means of communication. Consequently, it would be easier to the families to

convey information to each member of the family and to other important contact persons as well.

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Communication during and immediately after a disaster situation is a significant component of

response and recovery, because it connects the affected people, families, and communities with

first responders, support systems, and other family members. Reliable and obtainable

communication and information systems are also one of the keys to a community’s resilience.

(Source: http://nidm.gov.in/easindia2014/err/pdf/themes_issue/technology/disaster_comm.pdf)

Table 5. List of hotline numbers


Police NO SUM Holy One SU Barangay Provincial PDRR CDRR
Station PH C Child Res Resc Rescue Rescue MC MC
cue ue Center Center
List of
Hotlines
in case of 151 70 66 50 45 27 78 33 25 24
catastrop
hic event
N = 210 *multiple answers allowed

Next category involved was the availability of emergency hotline numbers. The result

showed that 76% of the families answered “yes” while 24% answered “no”. It was clearly shown

that most of the families in Dumaguete City were moderately prepared in terms of accessibility

of emergency hotline numbers. As seen in Table 5 above, most of the respondents (151 out of

210) have a contact number of their respective police stations. This was followed by hotline

numbers of the barangay rescue center (78 out of 210), NOPH (70 out of 210), SUMC (66 out of

210), Holy Child (50 out of 210), One rescue (45 out of 210), SU rescue (27 out of 210),

PDRRMC (25 out of 210), and CDRRMC (24 out of 210). This indicates that families should

also be aware of other alternative emergency hotline numbers in case one of their listed hotline

numbers is unavailable at the time of catastrophe.

57
Table 6. Information on Evacuation Plan

Chapel Barangay School City None


Hall Gymnasium
Primary evacuation site
8 47 25 4 126
Secondary evacuation site
9 18 27 11 145
N=210

For the 6th category as seen in Table 1, that is information regarding evacuation plan in

case of catastrophic event, 44% of the respondents answered “yes” while 56% have answered

“no”. The barangays involved were specifically from barangay Bajumpandan (5 out of 6),

Balugo (5 out of 6), Banilad (7 out of 11), Bantayan (5 out of 9), Batinguel (4 out of 7),

Calindagan (15 out of 27), Cantil-e (6 out of 10), Daro (6 out of 9), Motong (3 out of 5),

Poblacion 1 (2 out of 3), Poblacion 7 (3 out of 5), Piapi (4 out of 5), Pulan-tubig, (4 out of 6),

Taclobo (5 out of 9), and Talay (8 out of 9). This implies that majority of the respondents have

no evacuation plan. Regarding the families’ primary evacuation sites, the common location that

they planned to go to in case disaster strikes was the barangay hall (47 out of 210), followed by

school (25 out of 210), chapel (8 out of 210), city gymnasium (4 out of 210). Since most of the

respondents identified their primary evacuation site, the barangay hall should contain the ideal

resources such as water, food, and sanitary supplies. The area should also possess other

necessary equipment that is needed when the residents evacuate.

In secondary evacuation, the school got the highest frequency (27 out of 210), followed

by barangay (18 out of 210), city gymnasium (11 out of 210), and chapel (9 out of 210). Since

the school was identified as the secondary evacuation site by most of the respondents, the school

also needs to be equipped with the important supplies that are necessary for the family’s needs.

A wide variety of crisis may contribute to an evacuation. In some instances, individuals may

58
have a day or two to prepare, while other situations might call for an immediate evacuation.

Planning before a catastrophe occurs where and when to evacuate is vital to ensure that each

individual can evacuate quickly and safely no matter what the circumstances are. (Source:

https://www.ready.gov/evacuating-yourself-and-your-family) Furthermore, every member of the

family will have a role during an emergency situation, so it is important to share ideas and

responsibilities to each family member and work as a team when creating plans. (Source:

http://www.scemd.org/planandprepare/preparedness/famdiasterplan). Correspondingly, Gates

(2015) stated that having one person in charge in creating the evacuation plan/site is significant.

Next category as seen in Table 1 is in terms transportation. Regarding transportation,

83% of the families of the barangay answered “yes” whereas 17% said “no”. This denotes that

families were aware that transportation is essential during and after disaster in order to evacuate.

According to Radymski (2016), transportation plays a key and invaluable role, and is a vital

element for emergency management that would help families evacuate.

Table 7. Record of Contact Persons


Barangay Police Family Relative Friend Municipality None
Officials Station Members Rescuer
Primary
Contact
Person in case 63 9 103 9 2 19 5
of emergency

Secondary
Contact
Person 40 17 55 46 13 26 10

N=210
In the last category in Table 1 namely person to contact, the majority of the respondents

answered “yes” with a percentage of 93 while 7% answered “no”. It was evident that the families

were prepared in terms of having a person to contact during a disaster.

59
In Table 7, the results showed that most of the respondents would contact their family

member as their primary contact person (103 out of 210), next is barangay officials (63 out of

210), municipality rescuers (19 out of 210), police station (9 out of 210), relative (9 out of 210),

friend (2 out of 210) and 5 out of 210 respondents have no primary contact person. This means

that most of the families prefer to contact their family members first. For the secondary contact

person, family member still got the highest (55 out of 210), next is relative (46 out of 210),

followed by barangay officials (40 out of 210), then municipality rescuer (26 out of 210), police

station (17 out of 210), friend (13 out of 210), and only 10 of the respondents answered none.

Table 8. Status of Disaster Preparedness based on Disaster Categories


Categories of disaster Total number of YES Verbal description
preparedness answer

Communication Gadget 202 Prepared

Contact Person 197 Prepared

Transportation 175 Moderately Prepared

List of Hotlines 161 Moderately Prepared

Home emergency supply kit 103 Not Prepared

Training First Aid 103 Not Prepared

Home emergency disaster plan 99 Not Prepared

Evacuation Plan 93 Not Prepared

N=210

Legend:

Prepared- 210-180 respondents who answered yes

Moderately Prepared- 150-179 respondents who answered yes

Not Prepared- 120 and below respondents who answered yes

60
As seen in Table 8 above, out of 210 respondents, the families were not prepared in terms

of home emergency disaster plan, disaster supply kit, member trained in first aid and evacuation

plan. Out of the 24 barangays, 20 were involved and these barangays are as follows:

Bajumpandan. Balugo, Banilad, Bantayan, BatinguelCalindagan, Camanjac, Candau-, Cantil-e,

Daro, Junob, Motong, Piapi, Poblacion 1, Poblacion 7, Poblacion 8, Pulantubig, Tabuctubig,

Taclobo, Talay. In this case, it is really important to educate the residents in each barangay

regarding the importance of having home emergency disaster plan, there is also a need to advise

the families to prepare a disaster supply kit and the necessary contents that should be in the kit,

the importance of conducting a seminar and realistic simulation about training each family

member on basic first aid, and lastly organize a meeting about the proper planning where it is

safe to evacuate for such phenomenon.

For moderately prepared, only two categories were involved and these were the list of

hotlines and transportation. This suggests that the families were not that well informed about the

availability of emergency hotline numbers. Same as transportation, families were slightly aware

that having transportation vehicle is essential for calamities and may be used for evacuating.

Moreover, with regards to communication gadget and person to contact in case of

emergency, the respondents were prepared. These may mean that families were fully

knowledgeable that communication is very important during disasters because they know that it

is relevant in a way that it helps them contact their family member/s in case they are far from

them and they may also contact rescuers to seek help and guidance.

61
Level of Education and Status of Family Disaster Preparedness

Table 9. Level of Education and Status of Family Disaster Preparedness


Variables Correlated Spearman Verbal P value Verbal Description
Value Description

Education and Disaster -.124 Negative .074 Not Significant


Plan Correlation
Education and Disaster .021 Negative .379 Not Significant
Supply Kit Correlation
Education and family .242 Low/Slight .000 Significant
member trained in First Correlation
Aid
Education and .072 Negative .151 Not Significant
Communication Gadget Correlation
used during disaster

Education and List of .206 Negative .001 Significant


Hotline numbers in case Correlation
of catastrophic event

Education and -.003 Negative .485 Not Significant


Evacuation Plan Correlation
Education and .271 Low/Slight .000 Significant
Transportation Correlation
Education and Contact .271 Low/Slight .040 Significant
person during natural Correlation
disasters

Education for disaster preparedness can provide life-saving and life-sustaining

information and skills that protect people during and after emergencies. The key to reducing life,

personal injuries, and damage from natural disaster is widespread public awareness and

education.

In this study a significant relationship was observed between the level of education of the

respondents and status of family disaster preparedness in terms of trained member on first aid

62
(pvalue=0.000), list of hotlines numbers (pvalue=0.001), transportation during disasters

(pvalue=.000) and contact person during disasters (pvalue=0.040). This indicates that education

help individuals to be more prepared when disaster strikes. According to Lutz & Skirbekk (2013)

as cited in Muttarak & Lutz (2014) education plays an important role in reducing the negative

impacts of extreme climate events in both direct and indirect ways. Directly formal education

was considered as a primary way where individuals acquire knowledge, skills, and competencies

that could influence their adaptive capacity. Moreover, Menard et al. (2011) as cited in Muttarak

et al. (2013) also added that highly educated individuals have better economic resources and also

explained that education might influence cognitive elements and shaped how an individual

perceive and assess risks.

However, the results of this study also showed no significant relationship between the

level of education and status of disaster preparedness in terms of: disaster plan (pvalue=0.074),

disaster supply kit (pvalue=0.379), communication gadget during disaster (pvalue=0.151),

evacuation plan (pvalue=0.485). This means that the respondents, whether having high or low

level of education does not have an association on their views on the importance of disaster and

evacuation plan, having a supply kit and communication gadget.

The data shows that education has vital roles during disaster preparedness. The

significance of education to first aid was educated people were taught to have knowledge and

skills to performed first aid they can help and save more lives when a disaster strikes. Educated

individuals were aware what to prepare and what to do when disaster attacks so they will save

hotline and contact numbers of persons that they can communicate when disaster happens.

Additionally, having a means of transportation is very useful to move out from dangerous place

and transfer to safer location which is the evacuation site. So education is important to improve

63
the status of family disaster preparedness. Furthermore, education can enhance the acquisition of

knowledge, values and priorities as well as capacity to plan for the future and to allocate

resources efficiently (Cutler & Lleras-Muney, 2010; Kenkel, 1991).

Family Income and Status of Family Disaster Preparedness

Table 10. Family Income and Status of Family Disaster Preparedness


Variables Spearman Verbal P Verbal Description
Correlated Value Description value
Family Income and -.100 Negative .147 Not Significant
Disaster Plan correlation
Family Income and -.028 Negative .685 Not significant
Disaster Supply Kit correlation
Family Income and .192 Negative .003 Significant
Trained member in correlation
First Aid
Family Income and .163 Negative .009 Not Significant
Communication correlation
Gadget used during
Disaster
Family Income and .062 Negative .371 Not Significant
List of Hotline correlation
Number in case of
catastrophic event
Family Income and .166 Negative .008 Not Significant
Transportation correlation
Family Income and -.052 Negative .449 Not Significant
Evacuation Plan correlation
Family Income and -.020 Negative .768 Not significant
Contact Person correlation
during Natural
Disasters

The family income for disaster preparedness can make a difference in preparation for

safety, well-being and needed materials during an evacuation during a natural disaster. Lack of

returns will somehow affect the management on how to deal the situation and cannot finance the

needed materials. The consequence of being vulnerable at the moment of a catastrophe can mean

64
life or death. Moreover, income could be one of the most important factors that share a

relationshis with disaster preparedness (Digian, 2005).

Results of this study showed a significant correlation between families monthly income

and status of disaster preparedness in terms of family member trained in first aid (pvalue=0.000).

This implies that the income of the respondents greatly affects their preparedness during

calamities. A recent study stated that catastrophe readiness learning, earlier disaster encounters

and certain socio-demographic attributes such family income can possibly influence emergency

readiness and related practices (Kohn, Eaton, Feroz, Bainbridge, Hoolachan & Barnett, 2012 as

cited in Chan, Lee & Wang, 2016). In addition, Muttarak & Pothisiri, (2012) cited that income

and training are positively connected with catastrophic readiness enhancing a person’s financial

level that could directly or indirectly increase preparedness activities. In this sense, an

individual's preparedness is equally decided through such things as the measure of accessible

material and intellectual asset (Reininger, Rahbar, Lee, Chen, Alam, Pope & Adams, 2013).

The data shows that family income has a vital role in disaster preparedness. The

significance of family income to first aid has many circumstances in life that even the best

money management plans with their obligations that they need to meet in such a calamity. The

past researchers found that individuals with high salary are more prepared than low-income

earners. It could be clarified by the way that individuals with higher salary are required to have

more access to qualified properties and live in more disaster resistant areas, while it is reverse for

individuals with lower income.(Baker, 2011, King, 2000 & Vaughan, 2005 as cited in Najafi,

Ardalan, Akbarisari, Noorbala & Jabbari, 2015). In first aid, they can adopt the knowledge that

they have gain in school, seminars, or to the immediate help extended to the affected victims of

any disaster.

65
However, results showed no significant relationship between income and family disaster

preparedness in terms of: home emergency disaster plan (pvalue=0.147), disaster supply kit

(pvalue=0.685), communication gadget (pvalue=0.009), list of hotlines (pvalue=0.371),

transportation (pvalue=0.008), evacuation plan (pvalue=0.449) and contact person

(pvalue=0.768). This means that regardless of the respondent’s family income, this variable does

not have any relationship on the status of disaster preparedness in terms of the above-mentioned

categories. The reason for this could be that there was not much variation among the respondents

in terms of income. Most of them belong to the Php 5,000-10,000 and 1,000 -5,000 bracket.

66
Damage to Infrastructure, Belongings and Properties and Status of Disaster Preparedness

Table 11. Damage to Infrastructure, Belongings and Properties and Status of Disaster
Preparedness

Variables Correlated Spearman Verbal P Verbal


Value Description value Description
Degree of Damage and Disaster .183 Negative .004
Plan correlation Significant
Degree of Damage and .075 Negative .276
Disaster Supply Kit Correlation Not Significant
Degree of Damage and Trained .042 Negative .548
member in First Aid Correlation
Not Significant
Degree of Damage and .107 Negative .123
Communication Gadget used correlation Not Significant
during Disaster
Degree of Damage and List of -.118 Negative .044
Hotline Number in case of correlation Significant
catastrophic event
Degree of Damage and .218 Low/Slight .001
Evacuation Plan Correlation Significant
Degree of Damage and .077 Negative .268
Transportation Correlation Not Significant
Degree of Damage and Contact .139 Negative .022
Person during Natural Disasters correlation Significant

The damage in infrastructure, belongings and properties or any other possession often

leaves a negative imprint and creates stress for all members of the family (Assessing Damage

after Disasters, 2007).

In this study, the correlation between the degree of damage in infrastructure, belongings

and properties and status of family disaster preparedness were statistically significant in terms of

disaster plan (p value=0. 004), list of hotline numbers (p value= 0.044), evacuation plan (p

value= 0.001) and contact person during natural disaster (p value = 0.022. This means that some

families living in Dumaguete City has disaster plans which they may perhaps able to ensure that

67
their fundamental functions and essential services continue operating in case of a disaster and at

the earliest time possible which involves having strategies, process and procedures that are

related to being ready to recover and ensure business continuity in regards to industrial

infrastructure that a family runs on, in the disastrous event of a calamity.

It was discussed in the study of Menne et al., (2013) that the government in Europe had

prepared a disaster strategy that consisted primary prevention emergency plans and other

methods to reduce the effects of floods, like land use management; tree planting; control of water

sources and flow, including drainage systems; flood defenses and barriers; design and

architectural strategies; and flood insurance. Secondary prevention included identification of

vulnerable or high-risk populations before floods occur, early warning systems, evacuation plans

including communication and information strategies, and planned refuge areas. Tertiary

measures included moving belongings to safe areas, ensuring the provision of clean drinking-

water, surveillance and monitoring of health impacts, treating ill people to reduce the health

impacts of flooding, and recovery and rehabilitation of flooded houses so it is therefore

inevitable to plan and be prepared in the case of any natural disaster also helps save to time for a

quick action in case of an emergency and these helps reduce panic and chaos which would

otherwise be present when the disaster happens and that more lives and assets can be saved from

the act, thus save money too as well as having safety measures and tools put in place for these

disaster prone areas should be first priority. Since most of these disasters can happen in the

homes and living territories, people also need to be refined on safety measures to embrace them

and in this way less damage and deaths will be recorded even though it is hard to avoid or

foresee these unfortunate events.

68
The results of this study also showed that degree of damage to infrastructure, belongings

and properties are not significantly correlated with status of disaster preparedness in terms of

degree of damage in disaster supply kit (p value=0.276), trained member in first aid (p

value=0.548), communication gadget used during disaster (p value=0.123) and transportation (p

value=0.268). This means that the families in Dumaguete City do not have complete disaster

supply kit which indicates that when a disaster strikes they cannot help those injured even how

prepared but do not have complete disaster supply kit cannot do such first aid as well as trained

member in first aid because if any member of the family who may be injured or become ill and

the need to protect them with adequate first aid procedures is highly needed. While

communication gadget used during disaster must be in proper designation and must have

batteries or any means of chargeable devices that will prolong the accessibility of a certain

gadget and it should be in proper place and transportation, when evacuating the need to have

transportation is very much needed because during a calamity any unexpected event will occur

and it is best to evacuate as soon as possible.

69
Table 12. Degree of Damage to Infrastructure, Belongings and Properties
Damage Category Frequency
Mild
(No damage to housing only damage to 41
properties and belongings (furniture’s, kitchen
utensils, appliances and clothes) and
properties)
Moderate 47
(Minor damage to housing (cracks on walls)
roofs that needs minor repair; damage to
belongings (furniture’s, kitchen utensils,
appliances and clothes) and properties)
Severe 11
(Unlivable housing; damage to properties and
belongings (furniture’s, kitchen utensils,
appliances and clothes) and properties)
None 111
N = 210

The respondents was assessed with the used of the self- made questionnaire developed by

the researchers and they were asked if they have experience being in a situation when there is

flooding, typhoon and earthquake thru an interview session. Based on the result, there were 172

respondents who answered that earthquake was the common natural disaster they had

encountered among those common natural disaster which then followed by typhoon with 171

respondents who answered and about 144 respondents who answered that they experienced

flooding especially those respondents who live nearby the river and dike areas.

The respondents were also evaluated in terms of the severity of the damage they had

experienced whether the damage is mild which indicates no damage to housing only damage to

properties and belongings (furniture’s, kitchen utensils, appliances and clothes) and properties.

While moderate damage which indicates minor damage to housing (cracks on walls) roofs that

needs minor repair; damage to belongings (furniture’s, kitchen utensils, appliances and clothes)

and properties and severe damage which denotes to unlivable housing; damage to properties and

70
belongings (furniture’s, kitchen utensils, appliances and clothes) and properties. The data above

shows that 111 respondents labeled their answers with none which indicates no damage followed

by moderate which accounted 47 respondents and 41 respondents who answered mild and 11

respondents reported that they had experienced severe damage. Overall, it was deliberated that

111 respondents do not have a fully documented disaster recovery plan, while 99 respondents

admitted that they have disaster plan.

Next variable correlated was the degree of damage and list of hotline number in case of

catastrophic event with (pvalue= 0.044) which accounts 49 of all the respondents answered no

while on the other hand, there were 161 respondents who answered yes that means that most of

the families anytime can have an access with different local institutions titled to serve the people

when any natural disaster occurs which provides 24/7 medical or other select emergency

coordination and assistance services and with that it gives the public a more streamlined and

simpler service as well as enabling new possibilities for the emergency services to do their job

better with closer cooperation and coordination than before. In addition, in the study of Hooke et

al. and Rogers et al. (2005) as cited in Alrazeeni et al. (2015) pointed out that having well

integrated systems of preparedness is important in reducing the impact of disasters upon affected

individuals in the community and it was stated in the Philippine’s constitution under republic act

10639 (2014) that in order to protect its citizenry in the events of natural or man- made disasters

and calamities it shall likewise exhaust all people means to notify and informs its constituents of

the impending disasters to prevent injuries, destruction and loss of lives and properties.

Evacuation plan refers to urgent immediate escape of people away from an area that

contains an impending threat, an ongoing threat or a hazard to lives or property. Data showed

that the degree of damage and evacuation plan resulted significant finding with (p value= 0.001)

71
which denotes and that the respondents has a plan evacuating when natural disaster strikes. On

the other hand, having an evacuation plan it is easier to identify ahead of time where to go and

during this time many children will be taught basic life skills and with that children also given an

opportunity to learn. And throughout the planning, discovery of unrecognized hazardous

conditions that would aggravate an emergency situation that may bring deficiencies, such as the

lack of resources or items that can be fixed before an emergency occurs and may take an action

to eliminate them. So therefore, the lack of evacuation plan could lead to severe losses such as

multiple casualties and possible financial collapse of families in the community.

Lastly, was the contact person which means any contact person that can be immediately

contacted during a natural disaster. The degree of damage and contact person during natural

disasters resulted significant finding with (pvalue= 0.022) which indicates that some of the

families residing in Dumaguete City have contact persons, specifically their relatives as the first

contact person and that anytime they can evacuate and transfer to a safer place as soon as

possible. A total of 191 respondents answered yes which indicates that they have contact person

with their relatives and only 19 respondents answered no which means they don’t have contact

person when a disastrous event arise. Hence, most of the families preferably contact first their

relatives to be able to evacuate.

72
Table 13. Degree of Damage to Life and Status of Disaster Preparedness

Variables Correlated Spearman Verbal P value Verbal Description


Value Description
Degree of Damage and .023 Negative .368 Not Significant
Disaster Plan Correlation

Degree of Damage and .062 Negative .185 Not Significant


Correlation
Disaster Supply Kit

Degree of Damage and .111 Perfect .055 Significant


Trained member in Correlation
First Aid

Degree of Damage and .037 Negative .298 Not Significant


Communication Correlation
Gadget used during
Disaster

Degree of Damage and .018 Negative .398 Not Significant


List of Hotline Correlation
Number in case of
catastrophic event

Degree of Damage and .088 Negative .103 Not Significant


Evacuation Plan Correlation

Degree of Damage and .063 Negative .180 Not Significant


Transportation Correlation

Degree of Damage and .048 Negative .245 Not Significant


Contact Person during Correlation
Natural Disasters

The damage to life for disaster preparedness can make an enormous impact in our

community and one of the biggest and worst effects to human life because unfortunately

escaping a to any natural disaster is nearly impossible. Hundreds and thousands of people are

killed yearly when a disastrous event occurs. In terms of degree of damage to life a total of 192

respondents labeled their answers in the questionnaire to no damage while 182 of the

73
respondents categorized mild damage to life (minor injuries that consisted cuts, laceration,

abrasions, bruises and sprain). This is one way to measure how well our community worked

together in preventing mortality rate during a catastrophe from rising. The reactions of our

residents during these dreadful events will dictate how we are able to preserve life as the event

unfolds.

In this study, it showed that there was only one correlated variable which was degree of

damage and trained member in first aid with (pvalue= .055) which indicates that the respondents

had first aid training who either, is living within the household or they themselves have gone

through the program conducted by different local institutions within the community and this

exhibits their ability in the acquired knowledge and preserving life. With trained member in first

aid it enable to assist persons who become injured in the event of an accident or emergency

situation until help arrives and knowledge in first aid also benefits the individuals themselves

that can be applied in the home, the workplace or in public locations.

Table 14. Degree of Damage to Life


Damage Category Frequency
Mild
(Minor injuries that consisted cuts, laceration, 18
abrasions, bruises and sprain)
Moderate
(Major injuries that consisted broken bones, 0
limbs and fractures)
Severe
(Death, permanent disabilities and missing) 0
None 192
N = 210

The respondents were assessed in terms of degree of damage to life wherein it determine

if they have any family members or relatives that experienced having minor injuries and who

74
have died due to a disastrous event and whether it was mild which indicates minor injuries that

consisted cuts, laceration, abrasions, bruises and sprain or moderate which indicates a major

injuries that consisted broken bones, limbs and fractures and severe damage to life which

indicates death, permanent disabilities and missing. And the date above showed that 192

respondents answered none which means that majority of the respondents do not have any family

member and relatives who have experienced major loss of life and injuries while 18 respondents

answered that they have any family members and relatives who experienced having minor

injuries which consisted cuts, laceration, abrasions, bruises and sprain and theses respondents

came from those barangays who are prone to flooding which are living nearby the rivers and dike

areas. While in the result, there were no respondents who reported they have any family

members and relatives who have experienced moderate damage to life and severe damage to life.

Furthermore, it was evaluated in the study of Gajbhiye et al.(2011), that disaster

awareness in educational institutions had the following advantages: it provided contemporary

and relevant information about local environments, it prepared people for participation in both

pre and post disaster activities of the affected/vulnerable community, it contributed past

experience with recent developments in technology to combat disaster, it helped develop

effective domain abilities for collective work as successful disaster management efforts involved

effective teamwork and spirit and it promoted informed decision-making in the event of a

disaster which then widen the knowledge of the people in the community. Therefore, if members

of the family are train in first aid they become more safety aware, helping bring down the

number of accidents which save lives, particularly where there are grave injuries and it is critical

that immediate action is taken.

75
CHAPTER III

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

Out of 210 respondents who participated in the study their demographic profiles are as

follows: 55% of the respondents are 40-65 years old, majority were females which has 63%,

there educational attainment was High School level which has 31% and lastly, most of the

respondents income ranges five- ten thousand per month with 26%.

The researchers found out that the status of disaster preparedness of families in

Dumaguete City are not prepared in terms of home emergency disaster plan, disaster supply kit,

family member trained in first aid, and family evacuation plan. The families are moderately

prepared in terms of list of hotline numbers and transportation, and prepared in terms of

communication gadget, need of communication during disaster and person to contact in case of

emergency. During analysis the researchers used Spearman Rho as the statistical tool and

(P<0.05) which indicates that there is significant relationship in family member trained in first

aid, list of hotline numbers in case of catastrophic event and transportation between the level of

education. In level of family income only trained member in First Aid has significant

relationship that indicates that in terms of income the respondents don’t prepare budget for the

materials needed for disaster preparedness because they prefer to use it for daily consumption

instead of natural disasters. In degree of damage to the status of family disaster preparedness it

shows significant relationship to disaster plan, list of hotline number in case of catastrophic

event, evacuation plan and contact person during disaster.

76
It was interpreted that the level of education and degree of damage of the respondents has

significant relationship to their status of family disaster preparedness while the level of income

has only one significant to the study.

Conclusion

In the light of findings in this research study, it showed that the families in Dumaguete

City were not prepared in terms of home emergency disaster plan, disaster supply kit, member

trained in first aid and evacuation plan. Preparedness is necessary when a disaster occurs given

its unpredictable nature. Several barangays need more attention and preparation such as

Bajumpandan. Balugo, Banilad, Bantayan, BatinguelCalindagan, Camanjac, Candau-, Cantil-e,

Daro, Junob, Motong, Piapi, Poblacion 1, Poblacion 7, Poblacion 8, Pulantubig, Tabuctubig,

Taclobo, Talay.

The respondents are moderately prepared in terms of list of hotline numbers and

transportation, and prepared in terms of communication gadget and person to contact in case of

emergency. The level of education and degree of damage of the respondents has significant

relationship to their status of family disaster preparedness while the level of income has only one

significant to the study.

Moreover, the significant relationship in family member trained in first aid, list of hotline

numbers in case of catastrophic event and transportation between the level of education. In level

of family income only trained member in First Aid has significant relationship that indicates that

in terms of income. Furthermore, in degree of damage to infrastructure and damage to life and

the status of family disaster preparedness it shows significant relationship to disaster plan, list of

hotline number in case of catastrophic event, evacuation plan and contact person during disaster.

77
Recommendation

Disaster preparedness needed to be stressed in the community by the different barangay

officials, members of the health sector, private and government agencies as well as the

educational sector to work as one in order to enhance to strength of the families in case disaster

strikes. Disaster preparedness programs like disaster trainings, health care, recovery measures

and livelihood training rooted with risk reduction training can prevent disaster events and would

lead to saving lives as well as reducing the degree of damage that the families may experience

during a disaster.

To the respective Barangay’s in Dumaguete City, the researchers would recommend to

get involved in educating their residents in risk reduction management in regards to an event of

natural phenomenon. Acquire proper training and certification to held trainings and seminars to

their barangays. Networking is a vital communication tool between Barangay’s and the local

government unit to have seminars scheduled at least every six months to ensure that their

residents acquire knowledge, skills, readiness and preparedness before, during and after a natural

disaster. This enables the community have a broader understanding of where to go whenever

there is a disaster, what to place in their bags in a time of disaster, who to call in case they

needed help.

To the local government unit, the researchers would recommend that the proposed

measures be undertaken to improve disaster risk management in our community and involve all

the respective Barangay’s in Dumaguete City. Proper training for the members of the barangay

that would conduct the training to the residents within their barangay. Educate like conducting

seminars with training in disaster risk management with the proper staff or members in the

community to relay to our residents in relation to readiness and preparedness that provides

78
information with the contents of materials in their bags that is needed in case of a disaster, proper

protocol to follow, actual and realistic simulation as well as evacuation sites that is set for the

residents in the affected area. Provide proper list of information that is needed to call specifically

according to the needed assistance during a natural phenomenon.

The researchers recommend a six months to a yearly program that would really have our

residents be accustomed to being prepared. This program includes the mentioned above and first

aid programs. This enables our residents to respond towards others and be a productive citizen,

since they are armed with enough knowledge and skills. With this trainings this will boost their

confidence and reduce anxiety and fear. To train barangay members with realistic simulation of

natural disaster for the members to grasp the reality of the dangers that could be encountered or

foreseen during an actual event.

For future researchers, this study may be used as a reference or a tool for further study

about natural disasters among the residents in Dumaguete City. To evaluate each Barangay’s

with their disaster preparedness plans to determine that gap of this study. The use of advanced

technology could be an avenue to initiate proper networking between Barangay’s and local

government units in order to improve proper communication, programs and dissemination of

information related to disaster risk management throughout Dumaguete City.

79
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Appendix A: Letter to the City Mayor

ENGR. LEONIDES P. CARO


OIC City Planning Officer
Dumaguete City

Dear Sir,

We, the 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students of Negros Oriental State
University, will be conducting a research study entitled “Socio-Economic profile and
Disaster Preparedness among Families in Dumaguete City” as part of our requirements
of our Nursing Research subject.

In this connection, we would like to request from your office the name of Barangay
Captains in Dumaguete City as well as the list of purok of each Barangay. Rest assured
that the information generated from this request will be treated with utmost
confidentiality and will only be used for research purposes.

We are looking forward to your positive response and support regarding this matter. Your
assistance would be of much help in fulfilling our endeavour.

Thank you and God bless.

Respectfully yours,

RHYZEL LAJATO
Group Leader

Noted by:

DR. CHRISTINE DELA PEÑA DR. DALISAY M. DUMALAG


Research Adviser Dean, CNPAHS

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Appendix B: Letter to the Barangay Captain

March 21, 2017

MR. X
Barangay Captain
Dumaguete City

Dear Sir,

We, the 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students of Negros Oriental State
University, will be conducting a research study entitled “Socio-Economic Profile and
Disaster Preparedness among Families in Dumaguete City” as part of our requirements
of our Nursing Research subject.

In this connection, we would like to request from your office the list of families in your
Barangay. We would also like to ask permission for the family’s participation in the said
study. Rest assured that the information generated from this request will be treated with
utmost confidentiality and will only be used for research purposes.

We are looking forward to your positive response and support regarding this matter. Your
assistance would be of much help in fulfilling our endeavour.

Thank you and God bless.

Respectfully yours,

RHYZEL LAJATO
Group Leader

Noted by:

DR. CHRISTINE DELA PEÑA DR. DALISAY M. DUMALAG


Research Adviser Dean, CNPAHS

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Appendix C: Consent Form

March 21, 2017

Dear Respondent,

We, the BSN III of Negros Oriental State University (NORSU) will be conducting a research
study entitled “The Socio- Economic Profile and Status of Disaster Preparedness among Families
in Dumaguete City”.

In this connection, we would like to invite you to be one of our respondents. Rest assured that all
responses generated from this study will be treated with outmost confidentiality and for research
purposes only. Participation in this research study is voluntary and you can withdraw anytime. If
you wish to participate, please sign the consent form and answer the questionnaire.

Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

RHYZEL R. LAJATO
Group Leader

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Appendix D: Questionnaire for Respondents

FAMILY NATURAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS SURVEY

PART I: PROFILE:

Age: _________________

Sex:
Male Female

Marital Status:
Single Married Separated Widowed

Educational Attainment:

Elementary School level High School level


College level Graduate Level

Family Income:

1, 000 and below 10,001 – 15,000

1,001 – 5,000 15,001 – 20,000

5,001 – 10,000 20,001 and above

PART II: FAMILY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

1. Have you or your family experienced any natural disaster in the past?
Yes No
(If your answer is no please proceed to question no. 3)

2. What kind of natural disaster have you experienced? (You can check all events that
apply?
Flooding Typhoon
Earthquake

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3. Degree of damage

a. Damage in Infrastructures, Belongings and Properties


Mild
 No damage to housing only damage to properties and belongings (furniture’s,
kitchen utensils, appliances and clothes) and properties.
Moderate
 Minor damage to housing (cracks on walls) roofs that needs minor repair;
damage to belongings (furniture’s, kitchen utensils, appliances and clothes)
and properties.
Severe


Unlivable housing; damage to properties and belongings (furniture’s, kitchen
utensils, appliances and clothes) and properties.
b. Damage to life
Mild
 Minor injuries (cuts, laceration, abrasions, bruises, sprain)
Moderate

 Major injuries (Broken bones, limbs, fractures)


Severe
 Death, Permanent Disabilities, Missing

4. Do you/ your family have a home emergency disaster plan?


Yes No If yes, when did you
develop it?

10 years ago 4 years ago Less than a year

8 years ago 2 years ago

6 years ago 1 year ago

If no, why?

No budget No knowledge from LGU

No knowledge regarding disaster plan

5. Do you/your family have a disaster supply kit at home?


Yes No

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If no, why?

No budget

No plan within the family

No idea on materials needed for the emergency kit

Depends/ seeks help from others

(If no proceed to number 8)


6. What is/are the material/s that is/are available in your kit? (Check all that apply)
Water Radio with batteries
Food supplies Batteries
Medical supplies Personal documents
Match/ Lighter Candle
Clothes Flashlight

Sanitary supplies

7. Is there any responsible family member trained in administering first aid?


Yes No

If yes, what type of trainings?


Wound care and Bandaging Proper ways of Splinting
Basic Life Support Disaster Preparedness and Evacuation

If no, why?

Not interested No knowledge about first aid

No plan within the family Depends/ seeks help from others

8. Do you have communication gadget to use during disasters?


Yes No
If yes, what are these?

Cell phones Telephone Hand Held Radio


System/ Based Radio
Others (Please specify):

If no, why?

No phone Phone missing


No budget to buy
9. Do you have list of hotlines in case of catastrophic event?

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Yes No
If yes, what hotlines?
Police Station Dumaguete
NOPH (Negros Oriental Provincial Hospital)
SUMC (Silliman University Medical Center)
Holy Child Hospital
One Rescue
SU Rescue
Barangay Rescue Center
Provincial Rescue Center
PDRRMC (Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council)
City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council
Others, Please Specify
If no, why

No information

No Hotlines

Not Interested

10. Has your family discussed where to evacuate if you cannot get back to your home
when disaster strikes?
Yes No
(If your answer is no, proceed to no. 15)

11. Where is the primary evacuation site of your family?


None Chapel City Gymnasium (Macias)

School Barangay Hall

12. Where is the secondary evacuation site of your family?


None Chapel City Gymnasium (Macias)
School Barangay Hall

13. What would you need in order to evacuate during a disaster?


Transportation
Yes No

14. Who is your primary contact person in case of emergency?


None Barangay Officials

Family member Police station

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Relative Municipality rescuer

Friend

15. Who is your secondary contact person in case of emergency?

None Barangay Officials

Family member Police station

Relative Municipality rescuer

Friend

97
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