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# Energy Transport

## CDB 3033 TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) LABORATORY

## COMSOL TUTORIAL 2: HEAT TRANSFER

Consider a cylindrical heating rod which is sheathed by a concentric tube of thickness 0.05 m.
The entire assembly is immersed in a fluid and the system is at steady-state, as shown below.
We wish to determine the temperature distribution within the sheath. The temperature of the
heater is constant at 400K. The temperature at R1 is the same as the temperature of the heater,
400K. The fluid temperature is constant at 300K surrounding sheath at R2. Length of R2 = 2R1

## >> Open the COMSOL software (classkit)

MODEL WIZARD
1) In the Space Dimension, select the 3D coordinate system given for the geometry. Click the
next button

2) In the Add Physics, choose Heat Transfer> Heat Transfer in Solids(ht). Click the plus button
to add. Then, click next button
3) In the Select Study Type, we click on stationary study, then click the finish button
GEOMETRY
Build Cylinder 1
1) In Model Builder, right click on geometry tab and choose the cylinder
2) Let us specify the dimension of the Cylinder 1, then click on build selected
Build Cylinder 2
3) Repeat step 1 and 2, then specify the dimension of the Cylinder 2 as the following figure
below
Boolean Operation : Difference
4) Under Model Builder> Untitle.mph> Model> Geometry 1 tab, right click on Geometry 1 and
select Boolean Operations> Difference
5) Under Settings> Difference> Objects to add, select the Cylinder 1 and click plus button to
6) Under Settings> Difference> Objects to subtract, click activate selection button

7) Then, select the Cylinder 2, click plus button to add the object and click build selected
button
The completed geometry is according to the following figure

MATERIAL
1) In Model Builder, right click and choose Open Material Browser

2) In Material Browser> Materials, select Copper, right click on it and select Add Material to
Model
3) Select Body 1 (whole body) for geometry scope. Make sure density, heat capacity and
thermal conductivity have been filled automatically

PHYSICS
1) Under Model Builder> Untitle.mph> Model> Heat Transfer tab, right click on Heat Transfer
tab and select Temperature to assign the Temperature 1
Temperature 1 Boundaries : 400o K
2) Select boundary 4, 5, 7, and 8. After selection, we specify temperature as following figure

## Temperature 2 Boundaries : 300o K

3) Repeat step 1 to assign the Temperature 2. Select boundary 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 10. Then, define
temperature as in following figure
MESH
1) Find Mesh 1> size then click. We specify the element size as figure below

2) 2) Right click on Mesh 1 tab and click Free Triangular. Then, we click build selected button
Therefore, the mesh of the model is defined by the following figure

## COMPUTE AND DATA PLOT

1) Under Model Builder> Untitle.mph> Study 1 tab, right click on it and select compute. Thus,
the contour of the model is defined by the following figure
Surface Temperature Contour in 3D Isometric View

## Slice Contour of Temperature

Arrow Vector
1) Under Model Builder> Untitle.mph> Results tab, right click on 3D Plot Group 2 and select
Arrow Volume
2) Under Settings> Expression click right click on 3D Plot Group 2. Then, find and click replace
expression button, select Heat Transfer> Total heat flux
3) Under Settings> Coloring and Style, we fill the scale factor and the color as below. Then, click

plot button

## Therefore, the arrow of heat direction is define by following figure

Slice Contour of Temperature with Arrow Vectors

## Line Graph : Radial Temperature Distribution in z-direction

1) To make vertical line in z-direction in the middle of model (x=0.15m), right click on the
Results>Data Sets tab and choose Cut Line 3D. Then, specify the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
coordinate as below
2) To make a line plot, right click on Results and choose 1D Plot Group. Then, right click on
Results>1D Plot Group 3 and choose Line Graph
3) Find the Data set and choose Cut Line 3D 1
4) Change X-Axis to Z-Coordinate
Thus, line graph of Z-Coordinate vs Temperature is given by following figure
Line Graph : Horizontal Temperature Distribution in x-direction
1) To make horizontal line in the middle of model (y=0.075m), repeat the steps for Line graph
for Vertical line. Right click on the Results>Data Sets tab and choose Cut Line 3D. Then, specify
the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis coordinate as below
2) To make a line plot, right click on Results and choose 1D Plot Group. Then, right click on
Results>1D Plot Group 3 and choose Line Graph
3) Find the Data set and choose Cut Line 3D 2
4) Change X-Axis to X-Coordinate
Thus, line graph of X-Coordinate vs Temperature is given by following figure

LAB 2 ASSIGNMENT
1) Plot the radial temperature distribution in z-direction. Follow the step in page 15. The x-
coordinate for individual group is given in the table below.

1 0.02 11 0.22

2 0.04 12 0.24

3 0.06 13 0.26

4 0.08 14 0.28

5 0.10 15 0.30

6 0.12 16 0.05

7 0.14 17 0.09

8 0.16 18 0.13

9 0.18 19 0.17
10 0.20 20 0.25

## 2) Label the appropriate the radial location(m) and the temperature(K)

3) Click on Image Snapshot and save the plot of radial temperature distribution in z-direction on
to the desktop. Export to Microsoft Word Document.
4) By using Image Snapshot, export the following images to the same word document.
a. Surface Temperature Contour in 3D Isometric View
b. Slice Contour of Temperature with Arrow Vectors