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LANGUAGE ATTITUDE TOWARDS FOOD: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC

STUDY BETWEEN EDUCATED AND UNEDUCATEDSOCIETY IN

LUBUKLINGGAU

A RESEARCH PROPOSAL BY

ERO MADONSYAH

Student’s Registration Number 2114015

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION DEPATMENT

INSTITUTE TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

TEACHER ASSOCIATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

(STKIP-PGRI) LUBUKLINGGAU

2018
LANGUAGE ATTITUDE TOWARDS FOOD: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC
STUDY BETWEEN EDUCATED AND UNEDUCATED SOCIETY IN
LUBUKLINGGAU

BY
ERO MADONSYAH

Approved by:

Lubuklinggau, April 2018

Advisor I, Advisor II

Sastika Seli, S. Pd., M.A. Ayu Oktaviani

Head of Language and Arts Head of English Education


Education Department Study Program

Dra. Tri Astuti, M. Pd. Hamdan, M. Pd.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

In doing the daily activities, humans will not be separated from

consumption activities. Consumption is an activity to spend on income for a wide

range of goods and services to meet all needs of human beings, whether for

physical or spiritual needs such as eating, drinking, education, healthy, and others.

Eating is one of basic human needs. In meet those needs, someone chooses the

appropriate food with his taste. The factors that influence attitude someone in the

food selection is the community environment, family environment and

encouragement environment.Consumption is understood as equaling conversion

of a food and its nutrients into a human body

Food is more than a nutrient. We experience food through all five senses,

smell, touch, hearing, taste, and sight (Szatrowski, 2014, P. 5). They need food to

provides nutrients, whoever they are, from where its origin, in good health,

illness, old and young. Therefore, food is a basic need that must be

fulfilled.Kittler, Sucher, and Nelms (2012) coined the term food habits (also

known as food culture or food ways) to describe the manner in which humans use

food, including everything from how it is chosen, acquired, and distributed to who

prepares, serves, and eats it. In general, the preferred food is that meets taste or

taste, i.e. in terms of appearance, colour, smell, taste, temperature, and texture.

Food is important for humans in dealing with other humans. In the family, the

warmth of the relationships between members occurs at meal times together.


The subject of food has been widely studied within the fields of

anthropology, sociology and also cultural studies. Food studies is an emerging

interdisciplinary field of study that examines the complex relationships among

food, culture, and society from numerous disciplines in the humanities, social

sciences, and sciences (Almerico, 2014).It is also important for the formation of

identity and culture, and intricately involved in the way we use language.

Identity is both a complex and a fascinating phenomenon. At a basic level,

identity isaboutwhoweare,andwhoandwhatweidentifywith. However, identity is

also about who we want to be, and how we wish to be seen by others (Douglas,

2009, P. 11). Identity is also the whole or totality that indicated the characteristic

or special circumstances of a person or the identity of the biological,

psychological, and sociological factors that underlie the behaviour of the

individual. Culture is included in identity. Culture is defined as the beliefs, values,

and attitudes practiced and accepted by members of a group or community.

Culture is not inherited; it is learned (Almerico, 2014). Culture can also be said to

be a way of life that is developed and shared by a group of people and passed

down from generation to generation. Identity and culture relate to one another. It

is cultural identity. Cultural identity is a breakdown of the characteristics of a

culture possessed by a group of people who are known to their limits when

compared to the characteristics or cultural traits of others. Language is part of

identity and culture.

We learn language and the tastes, textures, smells, visual features, and

soundswhich we associate with food early in and throughout our lives

(Szatrowski, 2014, P. 3). Language and food are important as part of our
identities. Language and food coincide daily and on repeated occasions; no other

social or cultural practice occurs so frequently or has such a potential to be

overlooked due to its habitual nature. It is important to note that the contributors

do not treat food or language as an object, but rather as part of a social activity

through which people construct their lifeworlds by displaying stances, identities,

shared values, beliefs, and education.

Education gives us knowledge of the world around us and changes it into

something better.Education is important and crucial to someone lives but it is also

clear that no everyone can receive the level of education they have right to. This

leads to divide people into two groups, educated and uneducated people. Both of

these types of people have their advantages and disadvantages which can be

evaluated in terms of economic power, social status and mentality.

An educated person is a person who has experienced a process of earning

that produces good mental ability and functions effectively in his personal life and

intellectual life. An educated person has general thinking skills involved in

building knowledge and knowledge of critiquing. An educated person has the

ability to communicated effectively with simple language and easy to understand

and the ability to learn independently to think, digest, criticize, and build a

knowledge or information.When someone thinks of or mentions food, the first

thing that usually comes to mind is: what is the taste of the food?. To find out the

questionof the food, someone order it.

On the other hand, uneducated people who have not complete their

minimal educational qualifications do not have much chance of having a good,

well-paid job unless they are very lucky. For this reason they have to work in
simple jobs or perform very hard labour work in construction or fields increasing

the risk of illness and relative poor healthy. Unlike educated people who earn

more over lifetime which means a higher quality of life, uneducated people do not

have enough income to make ends meet for their families pushing them deeper

into poverty. Uneducated people do not choose to be in that condition of poverty

but due to not achieving any level of education which is a basic human right they

have not had the same chances in life.

Educated people are open minded and uneducated people are closed

minded. When a person has gained high quality of education they most certainly

have an advantage or greater knowledge about the world and other people.

Uneducated people tend to follow the same paths and practices of their parents

and what they experienced in their life and going forward the same mentality is

passed onto their children who do not realise the importance of education through

no fault of their own. People living in different education will have different

language attitude, especially in their kinds of food, because education is very

identic toward food.

Education is a major instrument of development and modernization

(Bolagun, 2008). In fact, the view that education is the key that unlocks the door

of development and modernization is held perhaps, more fervently in

contemporary times. In Lubuklinggau, like other parts of the city, strongly

believes in the axiom of education per excellence. That is, Lubuklinggau city

share the vision of education as a pivot for social change and integrated

development.Lubuklinggau is one of the municipalities in the province of South

Sumatraand becomes a transit or meeting cities of various social, economic and


cultural interests (lubuklinggau.go.id). Lubuklinggau has variety of language,

manner, regions, customs, food and others.

Nowdays, Lubuklinggau already has place to eat like, café, restaurant and

traditional food houses that sells various types of food that vary. There are many

kinds of a place to eat from low to the high class in lubuklinggau. Ussualy, the

high class of place to eat, they use foreign languages, like as Englishor combine

Indonesian language and others language. On the other hand, the low class of a

place to eat, they usually use a unique name for the food for example, seblak

astagfirullah, bakso jawirand others. Educated and uneducated society have its

own distinct and diverse attitude toward the entry of foreign culture and language.

Regional language is a language related to ethnic background, tribe,

culture, which is so rich in Indonesia. Regional languages reflect the identity of

this nation. Referring to the attitude of language in billingual or multilingual

society in Lubuklinggau. Col is the rigonal language of Lubuklinggau. Moreover,

Indonesian language and foreign language more often used in society.

Based on the description above, the writer will conduct the research in

society about the phenomenon of the language, especially language attitude

towards food in lubuklinggau.“Language Attitude towards Food: a Sociolinguistic

Study between Educated and Uneducated Society in Lubuklinggau”.

B. Formulation of the Problem

Based on the background above, the writer formulated the problem by

making the research question below:

1. How is the language attitude ofeducatedsociety towards food in

Lubuklinggau?
2. How is the language attitude of uneducated society towards food in

Lubuklinggau?

3. How is difference language attitude towards food between educatedand

uneducated of Lubuklinggau society?

C. Objectives of the Study

Related of the problem, the objectives of the stuy follows:

1. To describe the language attitude of educated societytowards food in

Lubuklinggau.

2. To find out the language attitude of uneducated society towars food in

Lubuklinggau.

3. To describe the difference language attitude towards food between educated

and uneducated of Lubuklinggau society.

D. Scope of the Study

The writer focus on analyze the language attitude of educated and

uneducated society towards food in Lubuklinggau.

E. Significances of the Study

1. For the students

The study may give the students understanding about the language attitude

of educated and uneducated society towards food in Lubuklinggau.

2. For the lecturer

Theresult of this study will be useful to provide a new reference and

additional knowledge about language attitude which can be used by the

lecturers in teaching language attitude in sociolinguistics class.


3. For the researcher

The study is a very significant and useful, it will give some valuable

experiences and it can be used for the preparation of the writer as a candidate

of teacher.

4. The other researchers

This study provides reference and contribution for other researchers who

are interest in doing further research in this area.

F. Operational Definition

For more understand of this study, it is provided several defenition key

term.

a. Language Attitude

Language attitude are the feelings people have about their own

language variety or the language varieties of others.

b. Food

Food is basic human need that is needed at all times. It requires a

good and proper management to be beneficial to the human body. Food

provides nutrients that human need, whoever they are, from where its

origin, in good health, illness, old and young. Therefore, food is a basic

need that must be fullfiled.

c. Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics. Sociolinguistics studies


the relationship between language and society. They are interested in
explaining the functions and the varieties of language, the contracts
between different languages, attitudes of people use and user, changes of
language.
d. Educated
Becoming an educated person goes beyond the acquisition of a

technical skill. It requires an understanding of one’s place in the world,

cultural as well as natural, in pursuit of a productive and meaningful life.

e. Uneducated

Uneducated person is one, who has lack of knowledge, technical

training, can read but unwilling to receive information from a literary

source.

f. Lubuklinggau

Lubuklinggau is a city in South Sumatra. Lubuklinggau has variety

of language, manner, regions, customs, food and others. In this case,

Lubuklinggau is the place of the researcher to retrieve the data.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Language and Food

Food is an important thing that shapes the culture of a nation. With

food, communication with others communities can be woven easily.

Especially with the rampant presentation of the culinary presentation of

the culinary world as a means of promoting the nation’s culture both in


print and electronic media, food is increasingly becoming a very important

in social life (Bestor, 2011).

Food is more than a nutrient. We experience food through all five

senses, smell, touch, hearing, taste, and sight (Szatrowski, 2014, P. 5). It is

also important for the formation of identity and culture, and intricately

involved in the way we use language. Brillat-Savarin’s (1926, p. 13) stated

that tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are, suggests the

intimate connection between food and identity. Similarly, the French

sociologist, Bourdieu (1984) demonstrated that people show their

affiliation and disaffiliation with communities through their food

preferences.

Language and food are important as part of our identities.

Language and food coincide daily and on repeated occasions; no other

social or cultural practice occurs so frequently or has such a potential to be

overlooked due to its habitual nature. It is important to note that the

contributors do not treat food or language as an object, but rather as part of

a social activity through which people construct their lifeworlds by

displaying stances, identities, shared values, beliefs, and education.

B. Language Attitude

Fasold 1987 (pp. 147-148): "The study of attitudes in general

begins with a decision between two competing theories about the nature of

attitudes. Most language-attitude work is based on a mentalist view of

attitude as a state of readiness; an intervening variable between a stimulus


affecting a person and that person's response (Agheyisi and Fishman 1970:

138, Cooper and Fishman 1974: 7). A person's attitude, in this view,

prepares her to react to a given stimulus in one way rather than in another.

A typical mentalist definition of attitude is given by Williams (1974: 21):

'Attitude is considered as an internal state aroused by stimulation of some

type and which may mediate the organism's subsequent response.' This

view poses problems for experimental method, because if an attitude is an

internal state of readiness, rather than an observable response, we must

depend on the person's reports of what their attitudes are, or infer attitudes

indirectly from behaviour pattern.

The other view of attitudes is the behaviourist view. On this

theory, attitudes are to be found simply in the responses people make to

social situations. This viewpoint makes research easier to undertake, since

it requires no self-reports or indirect inferences. Attitudes of this sort,

however, would not be quite as interesting as they would be if they were

defined mentalistically, because they cannot be used to predict other

behaviour. Mentalists usually consider attitudes to have subparts, such as

cognitive (knowledge), affective (feeling), and conative (action). Language

attitudes are distinguished from other attitudes by the fact that they are

precisely about language. Some language-attitude studies are strictly

limited to attitudes towards language itself.

The attitude shown by the speakers is very diverse. A language

attitude can be positive or negative toward the language that is controlled

and used. Negative attitude are attitudes that endanger the existence of the
language itself. If the speakers not proud of their language, this will be a

threat to the extinction of the language. Conversely, if the attitude shown is

a positive attitude, a language will get more appreciation for its users. The

attitude of appreciating language is seen from the pride of the speakers in

using the language regardless of prestige.

C. Educated and Uneducated

Education is important and crucial to someone lives but it is also

clear that no everyone can receive the level of education they have right to.

This leads to divide people into two groups, educated and uneducated

people. Campbell (2009) to believe Mulcahy’s (2009; p.

379) stark conclusions about the educated person: the ideal that liberal

education brings about in the understanding of the educated person and the

clarity attached to its educational purpose is gone.

Mohanan (2005) describes four essential ingredients that

characterize an educated person: knowledge, the ability to think: the

ability to learn, and the ability to use language. Mohanan believes that

these four ingredients are the core to the educated person because an

educated person must have knowledge, can think, can learn and is able to

use language to transfer the knowledge or learning that has achieved.

Mohanan also includes elusive qualities to this make up such as the

awareness of the uncertainty and fallibility of knowledge, openness of

mind, willingness and ability to doubt and question, personal involvement

in knowledge, intellectual curiosity and the joy of learning.


Kolcaba (1998) believes that there are three overlapping senses of

the term ‘educated person’. In the first sense, an ‘educated person must

complete program of studies regardless of the discipline. It is important to

note that is implies that the learning is not what qualifies the person as

educated. It is the completion of learning that qualifies the person to be

educated. The second sense is that it implies a person’s characteristic:

“The diversity of educational instittutions indicated that being educated

could involve possessing one of a number of differing collections of

knowledge, beliefs, personality attributes, and skills” (p.1).

Educated people are open minded and uneducated people are

closed minded. When a person has gained high quality of education they

most certainly have an advantage or greater knowledge about the world

and other people. Uneducated people tend to follow the same paths and

practices of their parents and what they experienced in their life and going

forward the same mentality is passed onto their children who do not realise

the importance of education through no fault of their own. People living in

different education will have different language attitude, especially in their

kinds of food, because education is very identic toward food. The first

thing that comes up for discussion is level income. There is doubt that

educated people are presented with a lot more opportunities than

uneducated people. Their certificates of achievements are what count most

of the time and as they have more opportunities to have a good job, they

have a better income and consume better food which leads to a longer

life. It has not, however, been much addressed in communication studies.


D. Lubuklinggau

Lubuklinggau is one of the municipalities in the province of South

Sumatra which is adjacent to the province of Bengkulu and is a fration the

district of Musi Rawas. Lubuklinggau is one of the most western district-

level towns in the province of South Sumatra. Lubuklinggau is located

between 102◦ 40’ 00” - 103◦ 0’00” East Longitude (B) and 3◦ 4’10” - 3◦

22’ 30” Latitude South (LS). Based on Law no. 7 of 2001 C is 401, 50

km2 or 40, 150 ha and is at an altitude of 129 meters above sea level. The

region consist eight sub-district (lubuklinggaukota.go.id). the population in

2014 reached 216,270 people (lubuklinggaukota.bps.go.id)

Lubuklinggau as a city with a main route as a road passing traffic

from west to east as well as opposite consists of people with diverse

ethnic, cultural and linguistic. The original language of Lubuklinggau is

Collanguage (Shak, 2016). While the use of Col language itself has

weakened with the occurrence of cultural acculturation as well as the

influence of outside culture that comes from the media such as internet and

television (hariansilampari.co.id). But the government’s wise efforts to

maintain Col language is to include the Col language lessons in local

content subjects in school (Palembang.tribunnews.com).


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Design

In this research, the researcher uses qualitative design with a

sociolinguistic point of view in which data will be collected by performing

some linguistic procedure that will be carried out is follows:

1. Read and review the theoretical studies related to the research

to be undertaken.

2. Select the Lubuklinggau society by Educational level.

3. Collecting the data using Observation method and recording

technique.

4. Analysis and interpretation of data

5. Summing up the findings.

B. Sources of the Data

The study of population is educated and uneducated society in

Lubuklinggau. The informants will be selected through Milroy and Milroy

(1987) model of ‘social network’, grouped into 6 groups based on socio-

demographic backgrounds in the form of gender, age, ethnic, educational,

occupational and residential representatives ( Milroy and Gordon, 2003;

Tagliamonte, 2006; Rice, 2010). The number of informants themselves

can be determined based on the research interests themselves

(Djajasudarma, 2010: 21). For this research the researcher focus on

educated and uneducated society in Lubuklinggau.

C. Technique for Collecting the Data


Technique for collecting the data, the researcher will use involved

conversation observation technique. Accompanied by observation sheet and

recording technique in speech events (Mahsun, 2012: 242-246) with ethnographic

techniques. Further ethnographic interviews will be conducted after several

occasions of obsessation and recording. In contrast to the sociolinguistic

interview, ethnographic interview is done after the researcher has closeness with

the informant. This is of course more profitable because researchers will be more

familiar with the informant's social world more (Levon, 2013: 76).

In this study the researcher use observation method. Observation method

is a method used to obtain the data by performing a denial of the use of language.

The method has advanced technique that is tapping technique, involved

conversation observation technique, uninvolved conversation observation

technique and note technique (Mahsun, 2012: 92-93)

a. Tapping Technique

Tapping technique is called the basic technique in observation

method. In practice, the simulation is manifested by tapping. The

researcher with all his ingenuity, shrewdness, and expertise to get the data

must by intercepting the conversation in the sense of intercepting the use

of the language of a person or several people. tapping activities are often

referred to as tapping techniques (Mahsun, 2012: 92).

b. Involved Conversation Observation Technique.

This tapping activity is done by participating while listening or

participating in talks or listening to the conversation. So the researcher is

directly involve in the conversation. The researcher pay attention to the


use of language, and also participate in the conversation that occurs. The

researcher can participate actively or receptively (Mahsun, 2012: 93).

c. Uninvolved conversation observation Technique

In this technique the researcher only act as observers of language

use by informants. The researcher not directly involved in the events of

conversation whose language is being investigated, so the researcher only

listening the dialogue that takes place between the informants (Mahsun,

2012: 93).

d. Note Technique

This technique is an advanced technique that is done when

applying observation method and advance technique (involved

conversation observation technique and uninvolved conversation

observation technique) if not note technique, the researcher can do

recording technique while doing Observation method and advance

techniques. Recording technique is possible doing if the language being

studied is the language spoken by native speakers(Mahsun, 2012:93).

D. Technique for Analysing the Data

After the data have been collected, the writer will analyze them. In

analyzing the data, there are some steps or procedures that will be used by

the writer, they are as follows:

1. Identification

After collecting the data, the writer will find the language attitude

toward food, the researcher will identification the educated and uneducated

society in Lubuklinggau..
2. Classification

The researcher will make some groups based on educated and

uneducated society in Lubuklinggau.

3. Reduction

The researcher reduces the data unnecessary in this study like do

not show the language attitude toward food by Educated and uneducated

society in Lubuklinggau.

4. Description

The researcher will describe the data that consist of educated and

uneducated society in Lubuklinggau..

5. Conclusion

The last step the researcher will be summarize the

differenceslanguage attitude towards food between educated and uneducated

of Lubuklinggau society.