0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

0 (de) vizualizări5 paginiMIMO Radar

Aug 11, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

MIMO Radar

© All Rights Reserved

0 (de) vizualizări

MIMO Radar

© All Rights Reserved

- Naval 1
- LTE in Bullets - PDCCH MForum
- Downlink Throughput Troubleshooting
- EE Course Discription NMSU
- Exact symbol error rate cooperative
- Eit in Ground Forces
- MIMO channel sounding
- IEEE Final Year Projects 2011-2012 ::Communication:: Elysium Technologies Pvt Ltd
- 40120140501003
- ANALYSIS OF COOPERATION AND SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE IN COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATION
- Enrique
- 14-Leading Edge--LTE-Advanced：The leading technology in the new MBB era
- AM_802_11n_p11
- MIMO Spatial Multiplexing Technique
- T MarkRichardsPresentation
- Product Matrix
- Rf Lte Basic
- antenna switching.pdf
- Design and Deployment of Wireless Networks
- RADAR_pratical_file1.pdf

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

Waveform Design with Quantized Phases

Chenglin Ren, Zhaohui Ma, Fan Liu, Student Member, IEEE, Weichao Pi, and Jianming Zhou

Abstract—In this letter, we focus on designing constant- comparable performance with the SQR method while notably

modulus waveform with discrete phases for the multi-input reducing the computational complexity. However, the works

arXiv:1806.05621v1 [eess.SP] 14 Jun 2018

multi-output (MIMO) radar, where the signal-to-interference- aforementioned only address the continuous phase case. Given

plus-noise ratio (SINR) is maximized in the presence of both the

signal-dependent clutter and the noise. Given the NP-hardness the extensive use of digital phase shifters in many radar

of the formulated problem, we propose to relax the original systems, we consider in this letter the MIMO radar waveform

optimization as a sequence of continuous quadratic programming design for the case of quantized phases. Pioneered by [18], the

(QP) subproblems by use of the convex hull of the discrete feasible cases of both continuous and discrete phases are considered.

region, which yields approximated solutions with much lower Based on the method of semidefinite program (SDP) relaxation

computational costs. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of the

proposed waveform design approach by numerical simulations. and randomization, the approximated solutions to the quadratic

optimization problem subject to the CMC and the SC are

Index Terms—waveform design, discrete phases, MIMO radar, presented. In [19], the optimization problem under the PAPR

quadratic programming, convex hull

constraint and energy constraint is resolved through the same

techniques.

I. I NTRODUCTION In this letter, we optimize the SINR of the radar under both

CMC and SC, where the phases of the designed signals are

A CCORDING to the configuration of the antennas, the

MIMO radar is studied in two types: distributed MIMO

radar [1], [2] and colocated MIMO radar [3], [4]. Compared

drawn from a discrete alphabet. By introducing the convex hull

of the finite feasible points, a novel continuous approximation

with traditional phased array radar, MIMO radar offers extra method (CAM) is proposed to relax the original problem

degrees of freedom by allowing individual waveforms to be as a sequence of convex QP subproblems, which can be

transmitted at each antenna, and therefore achieves enhanced solved via standard numerical tools. By doing so, the solution

capabilities [5]–[7]. In addition, a well designed waveform of the original discrete problem can be then obtained by a

can significantly improve the SINR [8], [9] and probability of simple quantization procedure. Numerical results show that

detection [10]. the performance of the proposed approach can approximate

The problem of waveform design for MIMO radar has that of the continuous waveform design.

gained considerable attention in recent years [11]–[17]. In

practical scenarios, waveforms with constant modulus or low II. S YSTEM M ODEL

peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) properties are needed to

avoid signal distortions, as the non-linear power amplifiers We consider a colocated narrow band MIMO radar system

are typically operated at the saturation region. Meanwhile, the equipped with NT transmit antennas and NR receive antennas,

similarity constraint (SC) is also enforced, which employs a where each antenna emits or receives N samples. The receive

reference waveform as the benchmark and allows the opti- waveform is given as [14]

mized waveform to share some of the ambiguity properties of M

X

the reference waveform. Relying on the semidefinite relaxation r = α0 A(θ0 )s + αm A(θm )s + n (1)

(SDR) and rank-one decomposition techniques, the authors m=1

of [14] introduce the sequential optimization procedures to

maximize the SINR accounting for the constant modulus where r = [rT1 , . . . , rTN ]T ∈ CNR N ×1 with rn ∈ CNR ×1 ,

constraint (CMC) and the SC for the case of continuous n = 1, . . . , N being the n-th snapshot across the NR receive

signal phase. In [16], a novel successive QCQP refinement antennas, s = [sT1 , . . . , sTN ]T ∈ CNT N ×1 stands for the

(SQR) algorithm is developed for the same optimization transmit waveform with sn ∈ CNT ×1 being the n-th snapshot

problem in [14], which involves solving a sequence of con- across the NT transmit antennas, n ∈ CNR N ×1 ∼ CN (0, σn2 I)

vex quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) denotes circular white Gaussian noise, α0 and αm represent

subproblems. Furthermore, by customizing the projection pro- the complex amplitudes of the target and the m-th interference

cedure for the convex QCQP subproblems, the Accelerated source, θ0 and θm represent the angles of the target and the

Gradient Projection (AGP) is proposed in [17], which shares a m-th interference source, respectively, and A(θ) stands for the

steering matrix of a Uniform Linear Array (ULA) with half-

C. Ren, Z. Ma, F. Liu, W. Pi and J. Zhou are with the School of Information wavelength separation between the antennas, which is given

and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China

(e-mail: rencl3@bit.edu.cn; mzh 19890822@bit.edu.cn; liufan92@bit.edu.cn;

as

peao kelvin@163.com; zhoujm@bit.edu.cn) A(θ) = IN ⊗ [ar (θ)at (θ)T ] (2)

2

Kronecker product, at and ar stand for the transmit and the

receive steering vectors, respectively.

Aiming for maximizing the output SINR of the radar, we

jointly design the transmit waveform and the receive filter.

Without loss of generality, we assume that a linear Finite

Impulse Response (FIR) filter f ∈ CNR N ×1 is employed to

process the receive echo wave. The output of the filter r is

given as

M

X

r = f H r = α0 f H A(θ0 )s + αm f H A(θm )s + f H n (3)

m=1

H

where (·) denotes the Hermitian transpose. As a conse-

quence, the output SINR can be expressed as

2

σ f H A(θ0 )s Fig. 1. The constellation points with Ω = 16 for k-th dimension.

SINR = (4)

f H T̂(s)f + f H f

2

where σ = E[|α0 | ]/σn2 with E[·] denoting the statistical Y(s) = AH (θ0 )[T̂(s) + I]−1 A(θ0 ). (10)

expectation, and According to [20], we can obtain a suboptimal SINR by

M

X assuming Y = Y(s) with a fixed s and optimizing s with the

T̂(s) = Im A(θm )ssH AH (θm ) (5) new Y iteratively, resulting in a sequence of subproblems as

m=1 follows

2

max sH Ys

where Im = E[|αm | ]/σn2 . s

p

s.t. |s(k)| = 1/ NT N (11)

III. P ROBLEM F ORMULATION arg s(k) ∈ [ωk , ωk + δ].

Based on the system model analyzed above, the waveform We consider the subproblem as (11) for each iteration in the

design with continuous phase is firstly considered, where the sequel. In addition, let q ∈ CNT N ×1 be the quantized transmit

CMC and the SC aforementioned have been imposed. Thus, waveform, and q(k) be the k-th entry of q. As a consequence,

the maximization of the SINR in (4) can be formulated as the maximization of the SINR in (11) for the continuous phase

2 case can be quantized as

σ f H A(θ0 )s

max max qH Yq

f ,s f H T̂(s)f + f H f q

p (6) (12)

s.t. |s(k)| = 1/ NT N s.t. q∈Q

ks − s0 k∞ ≤ ε where Q is the discrete phase alphabet which is discussed

where s(k) stands for the k-th entry of s, k = 1, . . . , NT N , detailedly in the next section.

k·k∞ denotes the infinity norm, s0 represents the reference The optimization problem of (12) is non-convex and NP-

waveform, and ε (0 ≤ ε ≤ 2) is a preset parameter to control hard in general, whose optimal solution cannot be found in

the similarity degree between s and s0 . In addition, by taking polynomial time. To tackle this problem, we consider the

into account the CMC, the SC can be rewritten as convex hull of the feasible points for each dimension, and

relax (12) to a continuous QP subproblem. In the next section,

arg s(k) ∈ [ωk , ωk + δ] (7) we introduce a novel algorithm—Continuous Approximation

Method (CAM) to approximate to the nearest feasible vector

where ωk and δ are respectively given as

qopt for the optimization problem of (12).

ωk = arg s0 (k) − arccos(1 − ε2 /2)

(8) IV. P ROPOSED A LGORITHM

δ = 2 arccos(1 − ε2 /2)

To describe Q in (12), we suppose an extreme situation of

where s0 (k) is the k-th entry of s0 . Noting that there is no

(9) with δ = 2π, i.e., the similarity parameter ε = 2, where

constraints on f as analyzed in [14], the maximization problem

the SC vanishes and only the CMC is in effect. As shown

of (6) can be equivalent to

in Fig. 1, the feasible region of s(k) is a full circle with a

max sH Y(s)s constant radius on the complex plane C. In the discrete phase

s

p

(9) case, we construct a constellation with Ω points on the circle,

s.t. |s(k)| = 1/ NT N i.e., q1 , . . . , qρ , . . . , qΩ , as an example with Ω = 16 shown in

arg s(k) ∈ [ωk , ωk + δ] Fig. 1, where the radian between any two adjacent points is

where Y(s) is a positive-semidefinite matrix, which is given given as

2π

as τ= . (13)

Ω

3

uous feasible region for each dimension. Thus, each sample

of the continuous transmit waveform can be quantized to the

finite feasible points which can be given as

p

qρ = exp(jρτ )/ NT N (14)

where ρ = 1, . . . , Ω. For notational convenience, let

n p o

ΓΩ = qρ = exp(jρτ )/ NT N ρ = 1, . . . , Ω (15)

represent the discrete phase alphabet for each dimension. As

shown in Fig. 2 (a), by connecting all the feasible points,

a regular polygon is formulated in the tint area, which is

the convex hull of ΓΩ . Further, let ΛΩ be the discrete phase

alphabet for all dimensions, which is given as (a)

Λ Ω = ΓΩ ⊙ · · · ⊙ ΓΩ ⊙ · · · ⊙ ΓΩ (16) 90 0.2

| {z } 120 60

the number of ΓΩ is NT N 0.15

q(k) ∈ ΓΩ . 0.05

180 0

2π, the CMC and the SC are both involved. We introduce

a positive even integer parameter η to indicate the similarity

between q and q0 , where q0 represents the quantized reference 210 330

240 300

γk = arg q0 (k) − ητ /2 270

(17)

ϕ = ητ

where q0 (k) is the k-th entry of q0 . For each dimension, η (b)

stands for the number of feasible points around q0 (k), which Fig. 2. (a) The convex hull of ΓΩ with Ω = 16 and the convex hull of

is obviously less than Ω. According to the second equation in Γη (k) with η = 6 for k-th dimension; (b) A simulation example of the k-th

(8), the actual similarity tolerance ε between q and q0 can be entry of the optimal solution sopt for the CAM approach.

expressed as p

ε = 2[1 − cos(ϕ/2)]. (18)

where ∆ is the Cartesian product of the convex hull for all

For instance, Fig. 2 (a) shows the feasible points similar to dimensions, which can be expressed as

q0 (k) in the case of η = 6, which can be enumerated as a

finite set ∆ = Θ(1) ⊙ · · · ⊙ Θ(k) ⊙ · · · ⊙ Θ(NT N ). (23)

Γη (k) = {p1 (k), . . . pη/2+1 (k), . . . , pη+1 (k)} (19)

Obviously, the optimization problem of (22) is convex, which

where the angle of p1 (k) is γk , pη/2+1 (k) is q0 (k), and can be solved via numerical solvers, e.g., the CVX toolbox.

pη+1 (k) is the mirror constellation point of p1 (k) with respect As shown in Fig. 2 (a), sopt (k) is the k-th entry of the optimal

to q0 (k). The convex hull of Γη (k) is shown as a darker solution sopt of (22). In Fig. 2 (b), we take a simulation

polygon marked by Θ(k). Noting that Γη (k) ⊆ ΓΩ , any given example of sopt (k) for the CAM approach with Ω = 16 and

pµ (k), µ = 1, . . . , η + 1, can be expressed as η = 6. The red stars indicate the feasible points. The blue

p circle is sopt (k), which obviously locates in the convex hull.

pµ (k) = exp{j[γk + (µ − 1)τ ]}/ NT N . (20) We provide the analytical formulas of the convex hull Θ(k)

Furthermore, let for each dimension in the sequel. For notational convenience,

we omit the dimension number k. As shown in Fig. 2 (a), the

Λη = Γη (1) ⊙ · · · ⊙ Γη (k) ⊙ · · · ⊙ Γη (NT N ) (21) convex hull has η + 1 edges which are highlighted in red, i.e.,

represent the feasible vector of q for all dimensions. It is L1 : p1 p2 , . . . , Lµ : pµ pµ+1 , . . . , Lη : pη pη+1 , and Lη+1 :

obvious that Λη ⊆ ΛΩ , and especially, when η = Ω, pη+1 p1 . Let us define the middle point of pµ pµ+1 as

Λη = ΛΩ . pµ + pµ+1

We focus on the feasible points of (12) for each dimension, mµ = , µ = 1, . . . , η. (24)

2

where we relax the finite feasible points set Γη (k) to the

convex hull itself, resulting in the following QP problem According to the basic plane analytic geometry, given any s ∈

C, the line Lµ can be expressed as

max sH Ys

s (22)

s.t. s∈∆ Line Lµ : fµ (s) = Re(m∗µ (s − mµ )) = 0. (25)

4

20 0 20

19 -10 19

18 18

-20

17 17

-30

16 16

SINR [dB]

SINR [dB]

SINR [dB]

-40

15 15

-50

14 14

-60

13 13

CAM, =16, =6

-70 AGP, =16, =6

12 12

CAM, =32, =12

-80 AGP, =32, =12

11 11

CAM CAM CAM, =48, =18

AGP AGP AGP, =48, =18

10 -90 10

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Iteration index Angle [Degrees] Number of samples

Fig. 3. Performance comparison between the CAM in discrete phase case and the AGP in continuous phase case: (a) SINR in each iteration; (b) Beampattern;

(c) SINR with increasing number of samples.

In addition, for the (η + 1)-th edge, the middle point mη+1 is where k = 1, ..., NT , n = 1, ..., N . For the discrete phase case,

pη+1 + p1 the reference waveform q0 is obtained by quantizing s0 . The

, mη+1 = (26) numbers of the transmit and the receive antennas are NT = 4,

2

NR = 8, respectively. In addition, we consider a scenario

and the corresponding line Lη+1 is given as with three fixed signal-dependent clutters and additive white

Gaussian disturbance with variance σn = 0dB. The target is

Line Lη+1 : fη+1 (s) = Re(m∗η+1 (s − mη+1 )) = 0. (27) 2

located at an angle θ0 = 15◦ with a reflecting power of |α0 | =

As a consequence, the k-th convex hull for each dimension 10dB and three fixed interference sources located at θ1 =

can be separately formulated in two cases. For the first one, −50◦ , θ2 = −10◦ and θ3 = 40◦ reflecting a power of |α1 |2 =

2 2

when 0 ≤ ϕ < π, namely 0 ≤ η < Ω/2 , Θ(k) is given by |α2 | = |α3 | = 30dB.

As shown in Fig. 3 (a), we firstly compare the SINR in

fµ (s) ≤ 0, µ = 1, . . . , η each iteration between the CAM and the AGP with N = 8,

(28)

fη+1 (s) ≥ 0. Ω = 16 and η = 6. According to (13), (17) and (18), we have

For the case of π ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π, namely Ω/2 ≤ η ≤ Ω, Θ(k) is ϕ = 3π/4 and ε ≈ 1.1. The SINR resulting from the CAM

given by is slightly inferior to the AGP for the continuous phase case.

fµ (s) ≤ 0, µ = 1, . . . , η Fig. 3 (b) shows the beampattern of the optimal waveform

(29) for both methods, using the same parameters as in Fig. 3 (a).

fη+1 (s) ≤ 0.

The simulation reveals that the CAM achieves a comparable

Finally, by comparing the Euclidean distance between beampattern performance with that of the continuous phase

sopt (k) and the feasible points in Γη (k), the feasible point with case.

the minimal distance is checked for each dimension. Thus, we In Fig. 3 (c), we compare the SINR for both methods with

obtain the optimal feasible vector qopt . increasing number of samples N . In order to normalizing the

Remark: The complexity of the CAM mainly comes from actual similarity tolerance ε, we change Ω and η with a fixed

computation of solving the QP problem. By using the interior- ratio 8/3, i.e., Ω = 16 and η = 6, Ω = 32 and η = 12,

point

√ algorithm, the total number of iterations needed is Ω = 48 and η = 18, leading to the same ε as Fig. 3 (a).

O( NT N log(1/ε)), and each iteration can be executed in The AGP results in a consistent SINR with different Ω and

O(NT3 N 3 ) arithmetic operations [21]. Meanwhile, considering η. Meanwhile, the SINR of the CAM exhibits an acceptable

the finite discrete alphabet, the optimization problem of (12) fluctuation, which is only 1dB lower than its AGP counterpart

can be also solved by the exhaustive search method, while the substantially.

worst case complexity of such method is exponential.

VI. C ONCLUSION

V. N UMERICAL R ESULTS

In this letter, we propose a novel approach for MIMO

In this section, we provide numerical results to evaluate

radar waveform design with constant modulus and discrete

the performance in terms of the SINR and the beampattern

phases. By constructing the polygon convex hull of the feasible

between the CAM in discrete phase case and the AGP [17]

constellation points, we develop a CAM algorithm to relax

in continuous phase case, and use chirp waveform as our

the discrete optimization problem as sequential convex QP

benchmark. For the continuous phase case, the reference

subproblems. The optimal solution is then obtained by quan-

waveform s0 ∈ CNT N ×1 can be obtained by stacking the

tizing the solution of QP to its nearest neighbor. Compared

columns of S0 , which we choose as the following orthogonal

with the exhaustive search, the computational complexity has

chirp waveform matrix without loss of generality

been significantly reduced. Numerical results reveal that the

2 proposed approach only yields slight performance-loss with

exp[j2πk(n − 1)/N ] exp[jπ(n − 1) /N ]

S0 (k, n) = √ (30) respect to that of the continuous phase case.

NT N

5

R EFERENCES [12] Y. C. Wang, X. Wang, H. Liu, and Z. Q. Luo, “On the design of constant

modulus probing signals for MIMO radar,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.,

[1] E. Fishler, A. Haimovich, R. S. Blum, L. J. Cimini, D. Chizhik, and vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 4432–4438, Aug 2012.

R. A. Valenzuela, “Spatial diversity in radars-models and detection

performance,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 823–838, [13] A. Aubry, A. D. Maio, B. Jiang, and S. Zhang, “Ambiguity function

March 2006. shaping for cognitive radar via complex quartic optimization,” IEEE

[2] A. M. Haimovich, R. S. Blum, and L. J. Cimini, “MIMO radar with Trans. Signal Process., vol. 61, no. 22, pp. 5603–5619, Nov 2013.

widely separated antennas,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 25, no. 1, [14] G. Cui, H. Li, and M. Rangaswamy, “MIMO radar waveform design

pp. 116–129, 2008. with constant modulus and similarity constraints,” IEEE Trans. Signal

[3] K. W. Forsythe, D. W. Bliss, and G. S. Fawcett, “Multiple-input Process., vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 343–353, Jan 2014.

multiple-output (MIMO) radar: performance issues,” in Proc. 38th [15] A. Aubry, A. D. Maio, Y. Huang, M. Piezzo, and A. Farina, “A new

Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput., Nov 2004, pp. 310–315 Vol.1. radar waveform design algorithm with improved feasibility for spectral

[4] J. Li and P. Stoica, “MIMO radar with colocated antennas,” IEEE Signal coexistence,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 51, no. 2, pp.

Process. Mag., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 106–114, Sept 2007. 1029–1038, April 2015.

[5] N. H. Lehmann, E. Fishler, A. M. Haimovich, R. S. Blum, D. Chizhik,

[16] O. Aldayel, V. Monga, and M. Rangaswamy, “Successive QCQP re-

L. J. Cimini, and R. A. Valenzuela, “Evaluation of transmit diversity in

finement for MIMO radar waveform design under practical constraints,”

MIMO-radar direction finding,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 55,

IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 64, no. 14, pp. 3760–3774, July 2016.

no. 5, pp. 2215–2225, May 2007.

[6] C. Y. Chen and P. P. Vaidyanathan, “MIMO radar space-time adaptive [17] C. Ren, F. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Zhou, W. Luo, and S. Yang, “MIMO

processing using prolate spheroidal wave functions,” IEEE Trans. Signal radar waveform design with practical constraints: A low-complexity

Process., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 623–635, Feb 2008. approach,” arXiv:1805.03787, May 2018.

[7] L. Xu, J. Li, and P. Stoica, “Target detection and parameter estimation [18] A. De Maio, S. D. Nicola, Y. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Design

for MIMO radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 44, of phase codes for radar performance optimization with a similarity

no. 3, pp. 927–939, July 2008. constraint,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 610–621,

[8] L. K. Patton, S. W. Frost, and B. D. Rigling, “Efficient design of radar Feb 2009.

waveforms for optimised detection in coloured noise,” IET Radar, Sonar, [19] A. De Maio, Y. Huang, M. Piezzo, S. Zhang, and A. Farina, “Design of

Navig., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 21–29, January 2012. optimized radar codes with a peak to average power ratio constraint,”

[9] P. Setlur and M. Rangaswamy, “Waveform design for radar STAP in IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2683–2697, June 2011.

signal dependent interference,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 64,

no. 1, pp. 19–34, Jan 2016. [20] B. Friedlander, “Waveform design for MIMO radars,” IEEE Trans.

[10] M. R. Bell, “Information theory and radar waveform design,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1227–1238, July 2007.

Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1578–1597, Sep 1993. [21] R. D. C. Monteiro and I. Adler, “Interior path following primal-dual

[11] A. D. Maio, S. D. Nicola, Y. Huang, D. P. Palomar, S. Zhang, and algorithms. part ii: Convex quadratic programming,” Mathematical

A. Farina, “Code design for radar STAP via optimization theory,” IEEE Programming, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 43–66, May 1989. [Online].

Trans. Signal Process., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 679–694, Feb 2010. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01587076

- Naval 1Încărcat deNick Numlk
- LTE in Bullets - PDCCH MForumÎncărcat deRahul Gupta
- Downlink Throughput TroubleshootingÎncărcat deRajeev Sharma
- EE Course Discription NMSUÎncărcat dechinkaroo1019
- Exact symbol error rate cooperativeÎncărcat deMarziyeh Taheri Barzi
- Eit in Ground ForcesÎncărcat deGaketz
- MIMO channel soundingÎncărcat deSaurabh Bhandiwad
- IEEE Final Year Projects 2011-2012 ::Communication:: Elysium Technologies Pvt LtdÎncărcat desunda_pass
- 40120140501003Încărcat deIAEME Publication
- ANALYSIS OF COOPERATION AND SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE IN COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATIONÎncărcat deTJPRC Publications
- EnriqueÎncărcat deAli Aziz
- 14-Leading Edge--LTE-Advanced：The leading technology in the new MBB eraÎncărcat deYamill Rb
- AM_802_11n_p11Încărcat deRajendra Thuvarakan
- MIMO Spatial Multiplexing TechniqueÎncărcat deBala Vishnu
- T MarkRichardsPresentationÎncărcat dejcasafranca
- Product MatrixÎncărcat deCésarAugustoVega
- Rf Lte BasicÎncărcat deسام النعمان
- antenna switching.pdfÎncărcat dePavin Ka
- Design and Deployment of Wireless NetworksÎncărcat deajquddus1991
- RADAR_pratical_file1.pdfÎncărcat deakanksha
- Aau Redefines Site Architecture_20150525Încărcat deDoanh Kat
- OEA000040 LTE System Overview ISSUE 1.01 BoliviaÎncărcat deAnonymous wGxj2BRm
- le2015Încărcat dehendra
- Outage probability of MIMO AF relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channelsÎncărcat dehendra lam
- EE602 Radar Notes-1Încărcat deYash Nimje
- MitchÎncărcat dejesonmae quiban
- IM-Puls 67-HART.PDFÎncărcat deUjjal Kumar Bhattacharyay
- RadarLosses(7)2011Încărcat deRohit Sharma
- Introduction to RadarÎncărcat deFahmid Mahmud
- Survey CdmaÎncărcat deG Rajender

- Active Radar Electronic Countermeasures - Chrzanowski [9780890062906] [1990]Încărcat depasargad135106
- ECSS-Q-ST-20-08CÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Computationally efficient DOA estimation algorithm for MIMO radar with imperfect waveforms.pdfÎncărcat depasargad135106
- A Peak Hold Energy Readout Circuit for Use With Pyroelectric Laser Energy MonitorsÎncărcat depasargad135106
- A Load Balancing Surveillance Algorithm For Multifunctional Radar Resource Management.pdfÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Avionics FundamentalsÎncărcat deSyed Iqmal
- Real-time Beacon Identification Using Linear and Kernel (Non-linear) Support Vector Machine, Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL), And Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) 3D DataÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Quantum RadarÎncărcat depasargad135106
- ECSS-Q-ST-20-08CÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Analysis and Validation of an Improved Method for Measuring HF Surface Wave Radar Antenna PatternÎncărcat depasargad135106
- A Robust Estimation Method of Ship Target Attitude Angle Based on Radar TrackÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Robust MIMO Radar Target Localization Based on Lagrange Programming Neural NetworkÎncărcat depasargad135106
- 550-W Ka-band Pulsed Helix TWT for Radar ApplicationsÎncărcat depasargad135106
- TMTT.2017.2769049_f5Încărcat depasargad135106
- TMTT.2017.2769079_ad101ff216c79329bada5d9376dc5c53Încărcat depasargad135106
- Design of an Elliptical Planar Monopole Antenna for Using in Radar-Based and Ultra-Wideband Microwave Imaging System.pdfÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Nonmetallic Crystals With High Thermal ConductivityÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Effect of Circuit Parameters and Environment on Shock Waves Generated by Underwater Electrical Wire ExplosionÎncărcat depasargad135106
- IJITCS-V3-N3-8Încărcat depasargad135106
- Janes 2016 LinkÎncărcat depasargad135106
- TMTT.1955.1124975_490d3e00e571e928a37f5478d72449d3Încărcat depasargad135106
- Chuttur M.Y. (2009). Overview of the Technology Acceptance Model Origins, Developments and Future Directions , Indiana University, USA . Sprouts Working Papers on Information Systems, 9(37).Încărcat debewescrib
- NN-P-530Încărcat depasargad135106
- Microwave TubesÎncărcat deAllanki Sanyasi Rao
- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of radio-induced lesions in normal tissues a literature reviewÎncărcat depasargad135106
- Automatic Estimation of Multiple Target Positions and Velocities Using Passive TDOA Measurements of TransientsÎncărcat depasargad135106

- Introduction of SetÎncărcat deFarhana Rahman
- Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden RatioÎncărcat de123chess
- P _ C.pdfÎncărcat desow
- Finite Elements MethodsÎncărcat deJhonny Alvarez
- unit outlineÎncărcat deapi-237071201
- Benefits of TechnologyÎncărcat deMugilah Sagadevan
- Proof RiemannÎncărcat deNikos Mantzakouras
- CUNY Math_Use of Mathematica Software_Ruslan FlekÎncărcat dee.Republic
- ADA NotesÎncărcat deKavita Kumari
- Vectors Tensors CompleteÎncărcat deSukrit Ghorai
- lesson plan-valdez-8th-math week 15 5Încărcat deapi-431340065
- BeamerÎncărcat deapi-3737708
- PGDE_statistics_v1Încărcat deArthur Lee
- YJC Prelim 2011 QP ModifiedÎncărcat deMartin Huang
- BS Physics SyllabusÎncărcat deAnonymous oxms9Dz
- Inverse Laplace TransformsÎncărcat dejeff_hammonds351
- Class 11 Mathematics Mathematics FullÎncărcat deVikas Singh
- 15mat41 QbÎncărcat deVEERKUMAR
- heep210.pdfÎncărcat deAjiteshPadda
- dpd and dmdÎncărcat deZheejae Lao-aten
- Error Ellipse 2ndÎncărcat denik_razali
- contestÎncărcat descapegoat001
- material on the basics of random variable.pdfÎncărcat deDauood Saleem
- Ybus SingularÎncărcat deTanish Goyal
- Square of OppositionÎncărcat deRegz Acupanda
- HSC Papers, Sorted by Topic (1984-1997), Part 2 of 4Încărcat deJeff Thomas
- 4 - 17 - Lecture 28 Trigonometric IntegralsÎncărcat deRahulsinghoooo
- EViews_workshopÎncărcat deSeigneur Rayden
- on quaternary quadratic Diophantine equations.pdfÎncărcat dehumejias
- Francesca Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi and R.L. Ricca- On vortex knots and unknotsÎncărcat deVortices3443

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.