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Unit Plan – Cooperative Challenges and Indigenous Games

Topic Cooperative, Indigenous Games (Yulunga Games)
Student Outcomes Do - Physical:
Students will:
• Demonstrate use of secondary general skills in throwing different types of
• Develop and refine skills in accuracy, force and direction in order to throw
the object into a targeted area.
• Experiment with different elements of throwing (height, technique, speed,
stance, position, preferred/non preferred hand) in order to change their
throwing to demonstrate a higher level of accuracy to getting the objects in
the targets.
• Communicate effectively and appropriately to help the activities run
smoothly in terms of scoring and cooperation
• Build their vocabulary in learning some simple cues from the local Indigenous
language as well as the names of the games in the local language.

Think - Cognitive (knowledge and understanding)
Students will:
• Demonstrate the use of critical thinking in PE by reflecting on what is working
and what isn’t, in order to come up with strategies or analyse and discuss
what they can change in order to hit the target, increase performance and
overall success. (teacher can measure this by listening to the conversations
being had by students, and can give constructive, positive feedback)
• Discuss ways to modify the activities or games to promote fairness and
include all participants
• Display game sense in context of the activity by adhering to the rules of the
Indigenous games
• Explain why, how and where the Indigenous games were played and any
similarities to the games they know.

Act - Behavioural
Students will:
• Support their teammates by using positive language and support in tactics
and skills in order to help them achieve success.
• Exhibit a high level of personal safety as well as care for the safety of others
around them by using spatial awareness, looking around and communicating
before they throw something.
• Follow instructions, participate to the best of their ability and do their best to
stay on task by asking for clarification if they are not sure and listening while
the teachers are speaking
• All play a role in the activity by sharing responsibilities with their teammates
or partner and communicating so that no one is standing there not

Feel - Affective (attitudes and values)
Students will:
• Display a positive attitude towards the activities and develop resilience by
persisting with challenges
• Develop cultural awareness by critically reflecting on the activities they are
participating in and discussing why these are significant to certain cultures as
well as discuss other cultures that may have played games similar to these.
• Build confidence in their ability to throw a ball in the target by not hesitating
before throwing and by thinking about where exactly they want it to go

EDUC 4209 Years 6-9 Professional Pathways 1 Raelee Minuzzo & Jordyn Algar
before they throw it.
• Respect and understand differences of others in relation to ability and skill
level and value their team members by supporting one another and working
as a team.

ACARA Strand: Movement and physical activity
Sub strand: Moving our body
Content Descriptor: Practice specialized movement skills and apply them in a variety of
movement sequences and situations (ACPMP061)
• Applying kicking, striking and throwing skills to propel an object and keep it in motion

Sub strand: Understanding movement
Content Descriptor: Participate in physical activities from their own and others’ cultures, and
examine how involvement creates community connections and intercultural understanding
• Participating in different cultural games or physical activities that children in other
countries play

Sub strand: Learning through movement
Content descriptor: Participate positively in groups and teams by encouraging others and
negotiating roles and responsibilities (ACPMP067)
• Understanding the contribution of different roles and responsibilities in physical
activities that promote enjoyment, safety and positive outcomes for participants
• Demonstrating negotiation skills when dealing with conflicts or disagreements

Sub strand: Learning through movement
Content descriptor: Apply critical and creative thinking processes in order to generate and
assess solutions to movement challenges (ACPMP068)
• Devising strategies and formulating plans to assist in successfully performing new
movement skills
• Recognising that there may be a number of solutions to movement challenges and
justifying which solution is most appropriate or effective

Sub strand: Learning through movement
Content descriptor: Demonstrate ethical behaviour and fair play that aligns with rules when
participating in a range of physical activities (ACPMP069)
• Proposing changes to the rules and/or conditions to create a more inclusive game or
to allow for a fairer contest
• Correctly interpreting and applying rules in physical activities

Student diversity
• All activities have been planned to allow for modifications based on the different abilities
and needs of students
• Target games can be altered to increase challenge and engage or provide some ease and
promote success for students who are finding the activities level of difficulty not suitable
for them
• All students will have opportunity for their voice to be heard in our lessons and activities
can be negotiated based on uncovered interests and needs
• Teachers will be enthusiastic and excited to motivate students who are not interested
• If students do not want to participate then they go to the principals office
• There were a few different cultural backgrounds present, however from the first lesson
this didn’t seem to be a need to modify activities for them however it was important to
be culturally sensitive.
• Consideration of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, allowing students with different
strengths to shine in different activities.

EDUC 4209 Years 6-9 Professional Pathways 1 Raelee Minuzzo & Jordyn Algar

General capabilities
• Critical and creative thinking – problem solving and devising strategies
• Personal and social capability – contributing to overall success of the group by playing
their part in completing challenges and tasks
• Literacy – using local Aboriginal Language in the Indigenous Games and using verbal
communication to communicate and work cooperatively with peers
• Numeracy – using elements of space, time, force, speed, distance and accuracy to hit
targets or throw different objects
• Numeracy – Measuring the distance of how far they threw the ball + adding up scores

Cross curricular perspectives
• Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures – Yulunga Games

Health and PE Curriculum Focus Areas covered:
• Games and Sports
• Relationships and sexuality
• Fundamental Movement skills
• Challenge and adventure activities

Achievement Standard:
By the end of Year 6, students investigate developmental changes and transitions. They
explain the influence of people and places on identities. They recognise the influence of
emotions on behaviours and discuss factors that influence how people interact. They describe
their own and others’ contributions to health, physical activity, safety and wellbeing. They
describe the key features of health-related fitness and the significance of physical activity
participation to health and wellbeing. They examine how physical activity, celebrating
diversity and connecting to the environment support community wellbeing and cultural
Students demonstrate fair play and skills to work collaboratively. They access and interpret
health information and apply decision-making and problem-solving skills to enhance their
own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They perform specialised movement skills and
sequences and propose and combine movement concepts and strategies to achieve
movement outcomes and solve movement challenges. They apply the elements of movement
when composing and performing movement sequences

Activity/Topic Analysis This year 7 Health and Physical Education Unit was developed using activities from
Scope of topic The Yulunga Traditional Indigenous Games resource which were adapted to teach a
Student prior learning year 7 group in a mainstream schooling context. In the language of the Kamilaroi
(Gamori) people of north-western New South Wales, Yulunga means ‘playing,’ and
through this unique sporting resource, traditional Indigenous culture can be
experienced and enjoyed by all Australians. It was developed to provide all
Australians with a better understanding and appreciation of Indigenous culture and
the games outlined in this resource are considered primarily as a contribution
towards the implementation of Indigenous Australian perspectives across the
education curriculum.

The activities and games selected from the resource have a focus on developing and
refining the students’ technical abilities and skills in throwing through target and
throwing games over the 4 weeks of lab school. Students will have the opportunity to
apply their knowledge from prior learning in Physical Education to apply game sense
to the tactics and rules in the activities. The chosen activities allow students to
develop their team working skills and group dynamics with an adequate balance of
working cooperatively and competitively.

Research has been undertaken on Lake Windermere Primary School prior to planning
and heading out to the first lab school session, where it was found that “respect, fun,
teamwork and learning” was part of the schools mission statement and motto. The

EDUC 4209 Years 6-9 Professional Pathways 1 Raelee Minuzzo & Jordyn Algar
lessons that have been planned for this short lab school experience reflect these four
principles and pre-service teachers, Raelee & Jordyn endeavour to display this in our
enthusiasm for teaching in physical education as well as in our planning and
activities. Notice in each of the lesson plans at the beginning of the lesson there is
always at least one group cooperative challenge for the students to engage in. This
was due to the nature of lab school and how short our experience was to be with the
students, thus we wanted to accelerate the relationship building, getting to know
them and observing the group dynamics.

The planning in this unit was progressively worked on over the course of the
semester and during lab school in a way, which focused on planning with the end in
mind. The final lesson of the unit involves a tabloid event of activities, which were
chosen and modified in a way that could best allow students to demonstrate their
skills learned throughout the unit. 4 activities have been chosen for the event, and
students will be in small groups and each start on one activity in the circuit. Students
have peer assessment cards to record how well they do in each of the events.
The idea is for students to be explicitly taught how to play these games in the first
few weeks and really focus on refining the developing their skills in throwing in
regards to accuracy in hitting the target, as well as have ample opportunities to work
with a range of their classmates and enjoy throwing and catching in target games as
well as small sector games. By the end of the unit, students should feel confident in
their competence to throw and should be able to self-regulate to set up and pack up
the activities, play them, and honestly and accurately record their scores with their
partners, and share their findings at the end.
Specific skills, knowledge, What MUST you teach this particular group of students?
understandings to be • Accurate and correct throwing and catching techniques
developed through the • Background knowledge and movements involved in the indigenous games
topic • How to work as a team in each of the games
• The correct rules of the games
• The importance of respecting others
• They must appreciate the abilities of others
• How to work cooperatively with other students
• How to set up and pack up the activities each week
• Establish and maintain expectations of the students
• How to play fairly
• How to throw with good technique using preferred and non-preferred hand
• Persistence

What SHOULD you teach this particular group of students?
• Negotiation between students for different roles in the game
• Developing spatial awareness
• Build resilience when they don’t succeed straight away
• How this game would have been played traditionally
• Verbal and non verbal communication
• Correct vocabulary from the local indigenous language
• How to score correctly and tally on the peer evaluation card
• How to measure distance consistently with other groups
• Promote honesty and integrity in scoring

What COULD you teach this particular group of students?
• How to critically analyse and self evaluate what they could be changing in
order to hit the target more accurately more frequently
• Variations of the games that increase difficulty and promote a higher level of
• Have an accuracy score of 80% or higher
EDUC 4209 Years 6-9 Professional Pathways 1 Raelee Minuzzo & Jordyn Algar
• Reflecting on how the game could be modified to promote inclusivity and
• How they could potentially teach these games to their peers/others
Implications for teaching • Teacher must be prepared with all equipment
• Adequate unit/lesson planning should be undertaken prior
• Teacher should be on time and dressed appropriately for Physical Education
• Teachers should aim to plan so that they can be involved in the game and
build relationships with students
Assessment • Checklist of name and who is there each week and a brief comment for each
week (see observation sheet week 1)
• Assessment Rubric for each lesson (see Assessment Rubric)
Resources • Yulunga resource
Links to other teaching Mathematics
areas/Key Learning areas • Measuring the distance of how far they threw the ball
• Adding up scores

Developing vocabulary from Indigenous Language. We chose our key cues to be in
Pitjantjatjara/ Yankunytjatjara, which is the local language used in the APY Lands in
the north west part of South Australia
• Wirru – wow! Excellent! Amazing
• Wiya – no
• Uwa – yes
• Walla Walla – hurry up
• Kullila – listen
• Backala – sit down
• Lanma – boring
• Palya – how’s it going
Unit Evaluation Through discussion with students, observations of students, reflections of teaching
and discussion between us we deem our unit to be a success. Throughout the
entirety of the lab school experience we found the students to be engaged,
motivated and enjoying their time with us. This was especially made evident when a
student was eager to know what we would be doing the follow week to then be
upset when told that it was our final week and we wouldn’t be coming back.
Lab school was difficult and frustrating to start with as the first day was cancelled due
to weather and the coordinator deeming the kids behaviour to be too out of control
and not ideal for us to come in. This made it extremely hard for us to plan what we
were going to do next or how were going to make observations because we didn’t
even get the chance to meet the students. From that we went into the next week
with the same plan we had prepared for the week earlier only to find on arrival that
again the weather had made things difficult and we would be stuck inside the
classroom. We had to think on our feet even though we had a wet weather plan
ready it just wasn’t going to be possible to use all of it with the students at the time
as their behaviour was not going to allow us to sit and do the activities planned.
However, we took it on the chin and improvised by joining forces with Katie & Stasha
to present some collaborative and team building games that could be played in a
small space with the students. The human knot proved to be a success with the
students and it allowed us to see some group dynamics and personalities we would
have been looking for if we were to do the activities outside that we had planned.
The next two weeks where we were able to put into play the two lessons we had
planned were both successful and went how we had planned. Majority of the
students were engaged the entirety of the lesson and we eager to participate. We
didn’t really have any behaviour issues to deal with except for a small incident where
the competitive nature of a child took over and caused an issue with another child
but that was easily resolved with separating the two of them and having them on
EDUC 4209 Years 6-9 Professional Pathways 1 Raelee Minuzzo & Jordyn Algar
separate teams. Throughout the two weeks, we were able to make good
observations and assessments about the behaviours of the children and the roles
that were becoming evident within the group dynamics.

EDUC 4209 Years 6-9 Professional Pathways 1 Raelee Minuzzo & Jordyn Algar