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972 World-Systems Perspective

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The WSP’s singular focus on the national scale urban processes. Global city studies need to adopt
therefore can’t address fragmentations of national a historical lens as seen in the WSP and situate
economic spaces and issues such as peripheraliza- contemporary urban processes in their historical
tion at the core (e.g., pockets of poverty and exclu- contexts.
sion in global cities in core countries). These Second, global urban studies have mostly
issues can be better addressed from a multiscalar focused either on the large cities at the top of the
perspective by paying attention to both suprana- global urban hierarchy, such as New York, London,
tional and subnational processes, and in this and Tokyo, or those up-and-coming global cities
respect, urban studies have offered a far more flex- from emerging economies, such as Shanghai and
ible approach to studying internal variations and Mumbai. Much has been learned about the socio-
fragmentations. spatial inequality, poverty, and exclusion in these
In addition to the critiques reviewed above, a global and rapidly globalizing cities. By contrast,
yet more powerful attack on the WSP came from there is not enough research focus on second-tier
the rise of globalization studies in the 1990s. cities, small cities, declining cities, or other mar-
Social sciences and humanities have accepted ginal cities. In this regard, global urban studies can
globalization—both as an analytical perspective learn from the WSP in its systematic effort in
and as a discourse—and have adopted a global studying third-world development and marginal-
and relational perspective to study social change, ization on the periphery.
which used to be the hallmark feature that distin- Third, the role of the state is not sufficiently
guished the WSP from other perspectives. The addressed in global urban studies, and further
WSP has thus lost its distinctiveness as an inde- work needs to be done to specify the articulation
pendent paradigm with the wide acceptance and between world systems and the world city net-
promotion of the concept of globalization. With work. The mode of integration of world cities into
its historical approach, the WSP still distin- the global economy is largely dependent on and
guishes itself from the largely ahistorical global- influenced by national-level policies and develop-
ization studies, which overemphasize the newness ment. Although urban studies are more flexible
of the current world economic configurations. because of their adoption of a multiscalar perspec-
However, without a clearly defined set of research tive, urban scholars have yet to articulate the inter-
areas and theoretical frameworks, the WSP is action between the national scale and other
increasingly enmeshed with other fields in the subnational and supranational scales. These key
age of globalization. formulations of world-systems studies, such as the
emphasis on historical continuity, periphery, and
the state, can correct certain problems facing
The World-Systems Perspective
global urban studies and reconfirm the assumption
and Urban Studies
underlying research on urban political economy,
World-systems studies and urban studies share a that is, uneven urban development is a worldwide
relational perspective on studying uneven capitalist multiscalar capitalist process that has evolved over
development, but the two fields have developed in long periods of historical time.
a parallel fashion with little communication.
Xuefei Ren
Whereas urban scholars focus on the city, most
world-systems scholars choose the national as the See also Capitalist City; Global City; Globalization;
primary scale at which to study social change. The Uneven Development; World City
rise of global urban studies in the 1990s was partly
launched against this state-centrist claim.
In spite of the key difference in the scale of Further Readings
analyses, there are a number of ways in which the Arrighi, Giovanni. 2007. Adam Smith in Beijing:
WSP can be reintroduced to global urban studies. Lineages of the Twenty-first Century. London: Verso.
First, with a few exceptions, most global urban Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 1989. Global Formation:
studies emphasize historical discontinuity over Structures of the World-economy. Cambridge, MA:
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continuity and claim the newness of contemporary Blackwell.

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World Trade Center (9/11) 973
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Chase-Dunn, Christopher and Thomas D. Hall. 1997. implementation had failed. The critics charged
Rise and Demise: Comparing World Systems. Boulder, that the Aldrich plan had severely overestimated
CO: Westview. demand for such a use, claiming that the majority
Shannon, Thomas. 1989. An Introduction to the of the country’s largest exporting businesses would
World-system Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview. need to rent space in order to secure the financial
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World-system health of the project. Rockefeller’s vision was more
I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the concrete, offering what he felt was a sense of
European World-economy in the Sixteenth Century. renewal for an area he saw as lagging behind in the
New York: Academic Press.
broader regional economy. More important,
———. 1980. The Modern World-system II:
Rockefeller convinced the Port Authority of New
Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European
York and New Jersey, a bi-state agency, to under-
World Economy, 1600–1750. New York: Academic
take its development.
Press.
———. 1989. The Modern World-system III: The Second
The Port Authority presence added considerable
Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-economy.
dimension to the World Trade Center project.
New York: Academic Press. Specifically, it provided financial security. In addi-
———. 2004. World-systems Analysis: An Introduction. tion, the Port Authority had condemnation powers
Durham, NC: Duke University Press. enabling it to clear land for construction. Yet, its
actions also proved highly controversial. The port
transferred the location from the east side of lower
Manhattan (what is now known as the South
World Trade Center (9/11) Street Seaport) to a small but important local busi-
ness community on the west side. The west side
The twin towers at the World Trade Center (WTC) location was selected to court favor with the state
in New York City were a landmark on the city of New Jersey. The site provided the connections
skyline for more than three decades. Their destruc- for the ailing Hudson & Manhattan (H & M)
tion on September 11, 2001, by terrorists was a railway, which was a burden on the New Jersey
defining moment for the future of lower Manhattan, state government. Austin Tobin, the authority’s
the city’s second-largest office district, where they executive director, saw the location as his oppor-
were located. In response to the tragedy, the state tunity to offer New Jersey a way out of its finan-
government undertook a massive urban redevel- cial difficulties. The Port Authority would buy the
opment project on the site. H & M in exchange for its support for the world
The World Trade Center was initiated in the trade center project. Subsequently, the Port
early 1960s by David Rockefeller, the grandson of Authority refurbished the line, and it is now the
John D. Rockefeller, Sr., founder of Standard Oil. In PATH commuter rail service.
1955, Rockefeller had acquired significant proper- As for the site, it was a thriving commercial
ties in lower Manhattan for his employer, the neighborhood. The local business owners mounted
Chase Manhattan Bank. These properties became a campaign to fight the project, taking their case
the bank’s new world headquarters. To solidify the all the way to the Supreme Court of the State of
surrounding commercial real estate market, he New York. They eventually lost. Beyond the land
needed additional investment nearby. Pulling use disputes, controversy arose over the architect
together the area’s business elite from finance and Minoru Yamasaki’s now-famous design to build a
industry, Rockefeller established the Downtown- set of towers destined to be the world’s tallest at
Lower Manhattan Association and charged them 110 stories (1,368 feet). Despite the public outcry
with creating a larger vision for change, something over destruction of the neighborhood and per-
he called the World Trade Center. ceived architectural arrogance in the name of
The concept of a world center of trade was not world commerce, the twin towers were built and
new, having been the dream of William Aldrich became an icon on the New York City skyline.
(David Rockefeller’s father-in-law) since the late The World Trade Center had been struck by
1930s. Aldrich envisioned the center as promoting terrorists once before—in 1993. Then, a car bomb
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world peace through trade, but early attempts at was detonated in the basement parking garage

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974 Wren, Sir Christopher
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between the twin towers, killing six and injuring


more than 1,000 people. That attack was linked Wren, Sir Christopher
to an Islamic extremist terrorist organization.
While the structures survived this initial assault, Although his 1666 plan for London after the
eight years later, on September 11, 2001, the tow- Great Fire is famous, Sir Christopher Wren’s
ers came under attack again. This time, terrorists (1632–1723) place in history is first as a scientist,
flew a commercial jet plane into each tower, caus- and then, most prominently, as an architect. In
ing the collapse of both buildings, killing nearly both capacities, however, Wren did contribute
3,000 people, and injuring many more. The significantly to the shaping of the early modern
physical devastation left a gaping hole in the city.
16-acre site. Born into a conservative English family of high
The two towers that were the World Trade churchmen in 1632, Wren was famous as a child
Center represented almost 30 percent of the total for his “marvelous gifts” in mathematics and
office space in lower Manhattan and the fifth- mechanics. He pursued these subjects, as well as
largest indoor retail mall in the United States. astronomy and experimental philosophy, at Oxford
Together, the buildings housed more than 50,000 University as an undergraduate at Wadham College
jobs. In 2007, nearly six years after the destruc- and then as fellow at All Soul’s. At 25, he became
tion, decisions were still being made over what to professor of astronomy at Gresham College in
build on the site and where. One signature build- London. Three years later, with the Restoration of
ing, the Freedom Tower, was approved and will the Stuart monarchy in 1660, he was part of a
dominate the skyline at 1,776 feet to the top of its small group that founded the Royal Society for
antenna. Three additional towers are planned for Natural and Experimental Philosophy. By the age
the site, together offering nearly 10 million square of 30, now back in Oxford as Savilian professor of
feet in Class A commercial office space and astronomy, Wren had made significant achieve-
600,000 square feet in retail space, replacing all of ments in science. At this moment however he
the office and retail space that was lost. Additional began to involve himself in architecture, giving
planned construction includes a memorial to those advice on repairs, designing buildings, and mak-
who died, a hotel and conference center, a major ing his 1666 plan for London. Wren’s new career
transit facility, and a cultural and performing arts was secured when he was made surveyor general
facility. The intent is to use the redevelopment to in 1669. For the next 40 years, as the king’s archi-
maintain lower Manhattan as an office market and tect, but also through private commissions, he
transportation hub for the city. designed palaces, hospitals, collegiate buildings,
and churches.
Sarah Coffin During the 1660s, while making his transition
See also Global City; New York City, New York; World
to architecture, Wren joined a group of friends at
City the Royal Society to address problems in London
that had been recognized since Elizabethan times—
congestion, decay, filth, and uncontrolled growth,
Further Readings as well as the threats of fire, disease, and civil dis-
Darton, E. 1999. Divided We Stand: A Biography of
order. Wren may have been a member of the royal
New York City’s World Trade Center. New York: commission appointed on May 14, 1662, “for
Basic Books. reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incum-
Gillespie, A. K. 1999. Twin Towers: The Life of New brances, and regulating the hackney coaches in the
York City’s World Trade Center. New Brunswick, NJ: City of London,” which included his close friend
Rutgers University Press. John Evelyn, diarist, virtuoso, and founding mem-
Glanz, J. and E. Lipton. 2003. City in the Sky: The Rise ber of the society. Evelyn had already written
and Fall of the World Trade Center. New York: Times about the deplorable effects of pollution from
Books. burning coal, proposing remedies modeled after Paris,
Goldberger, P. 2004. Up from Zero. New York: Random Rome, and other cities he visited during 10 years of
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House travel on the continent.

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Wren, Sir Christopher 975
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The Crown’s interest in reforming London 1667, Hooke began his more than five-year long
was driven by fears of catastrophes that did survey of the city. Over the next few decades, Wren
come to pass—widespread plague and fire in built the new custom house, the new St. Paul’s, and
1665 and 1666, respectively. Equally important, about 50 churches, many in collaboration with
however, was its desire to create a new symbol Hooke, as was the case for the monument to the
for the restored Stuart monarchy. Paralleling the Great Fire. Thus, although London was returned
Rome of Augustus, London would be “from more or less to its original layout, Wren ultimately,
Brick made Stone and Marble” by the restored more than any other contemporary, helped estab-
king. After the fire, the Royal Society declared lish new, more modern standards for the urban
its support of Charles II’s proposals to build “a environment.
New City,” employing better materials and
Lydia M. Soo
designs.
Wren and Evelyn were among the three society See also Christopher Wren, Plan of London; City
members who produced new plans for London Planning; London, United Kingdom
immediately after the fire, plans that addressed
these ongoing concerns. The other was Wren’s
friend Robert Hooke, the society’s curator of Further Readings
experiments and professor of geometry at Gresham Bennett, J. A. 1982. The Mathematical Science of
College. Together, Wren and Hooke played the Christopher Wren. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
largest role in guiding the rebuilding of the city. University Press.
Both served on the royal commission, created a Downes, Kerry. 1982. The Architecture of Wren. New
few weeks after the fire, that formulated the regu- York: Universe Books.
lations, which appeared in the Rebuilding Act, for Soo, Lydia. 1998. Wren’s “Tracts” on Architecture and
wider streets, brick and stone construction, and Other Writings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
safer house designs. On its passage in late March University Press.
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Z
theory, led scholars to rethink the boundaries
Zoöpolis between culture and nature, humans and ani-
mals, and the urban and the natural and to ques-
Zoöpolis refers to a city in which relations tion the sidelining of the “animal question” in
between humans, other animals, and nature are academic projects. Thus began the profusion of
characterized by coexistence. Development of the research and theory on the relationship between
zoöpolis model represents a major move forward humans and nonhuman animals, in both contem-
in the opening of urban theory and research to porary and historical contexts.
considerations of animal lives, meanings, and The zoöpolis model engages with the animal
agency in the city, in response to problematically question from an explicitly urban perspective. Its
anthropocentric urban theories and practices. origins lie in critiques of capitalist urbanization
This entry introduces the zoöpolis model and the and contemporary urban theory, which impugned
related transspecies urban theoretical framework the former for proceeding with little regard for
and also discusses some of the perspectives on nonhuman life and the latter for tending toward
animals and cities that research along these lines anthropocentric accounts of urbanization. Jennifer
lends. Wolch has pointed to the lexicon of mainstream
urban theory, which describes the transformation
of “empty” or “wasted” land into “improved”
Zoöpolis: Origins, Model, and Theory
land (in fact, land no longer able to sustain the
The broad context of the development of the diversity of life that once inhabited it) and also to
zoöpolis concept is characterized by considerable the absence of nonhuman animals from feminist,
changes in recent thought about the relationships Marxist, and neoclassical urban theories. She
among humans, other animals, and the environ- alleges that disastrous effects have followed from
ment, both on the global stage and in the acad- these practices and conceptualizations of urbaniza-
emy. Growing awareness of animal suffering in tion, including threats to species and entire ecosys-
factory farms and research laboratories, species tems from the advancing urban edge and from the
endangerment due to land development and expanding agro-industrial system that feeds urban
extractive economic activities, and the environ- populations, as well as the horrific treatment of
mental impacts of toxic waste and pollutants factory-farmed animals. Displaced wild animals
began to generate substantial alarm several decades and unwanted strays eke out urban existences in
ago about particular modes of animal treatment the “subaltern animal town” that emerges where it
and environmental management, galvanizing can within cities built to accommodate humans.
highly visible activist movements and legal battles. Wolch has also criticized urban environmental-
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These concerns, along with developments in social ism for focusing on urban environmental problems

977

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978 Zoöpolis
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as they impact humans. To the degree that envi- urban society and space. In particular, Jennifer
ronmental thought has engaged with animals, it Wolch, Kathleen West, and Thomas Gaines state
has objectified them as resources or parts of a sys- that a transspecies urban theory, based in social
tem, or in the case of approaches that emphasize theory, would enable scholars to address questions
ecological holism, it has backgrounded them by about how and why urban residents react to the
minimizing differences between human and non- presence of wild animals and what this means for
human animals and animate and inanimate nature. animals; how urbanization impacts wild animals;
Such perspectives leave little room for understand- how urbanization practices, human attitudes and
ing nonhuman animals as subjective beings, as behaviors, and animal needs intersect to create
entities that construct and experience their urban wildlife ecologies; and how planning,
worlds. policy-making, and political struggles have arisen
The recovery of animal subjectivity is central to to protect wild animals. The proposed conceptual
zoöpolis, for it suggests that humans are obligated framework indicates a relationship between
to move toward urban praxis that accounts for human–wildlife interactions and the process of
animals as experiential beings. This may be facili- urbanization, each of which affects urban wildlife
tated by (re)seating animals and humans in inter- ecology; ecological changes stimulate transspecies
subjective relationships, wherein realizations of urban practices (often corrective measures), which
difference and similarities, and even kinship, can be in turn impact human–wildlife interactions and the
made, which would in turn foster ethical relations urbanization process. This theory, as Alice Hovorka
based on respect and caring. This web of beings has pointed out, holds human–animal relation-
recalls humans’ historical ontological dependency ships as fundamental to understanding urban
on animals—the fundamentality of animals to the form, function, and dynamics.
development of the human species—and the inter-
species ethic of caring and friendship that this may
Perspectives on Animals and Cities
have created. Wolch notes that for much of human
history, people had simultaneous relationships of Research on animals and cities has covered many
dominance over animals and respect for them, topics and time periods, exploring themes signifi-
valuing both animal differences from and similari- cant to urban development, urban culture and
ties with humans; not coincidentally, most wild society, and urban ecology. Cumulatively, this
animal habitats were also sustained. The place work evinces animals to be an integral part of the
where such relations can be reconstituted is in a urban. Although not all of this work is informed
reanimated, renaturalized city called zoöpolis. by the concept of zoöpolis or objectives of trans-
The zoöpolis model poses harmonious human– species urban theory, this framework provides a
animal–nature relations as the key to greener and useful organizational structure for research on ani-
more just urban futures. By bringing animals (wild mals in urban landscapes.
and productive) and nature into the urban sphere, Social constructions of animals and role of ani-
humans could gain a situated understanding of mals in shaping human and cultural identities have
animal life, which would engender an ethic, prac- been dominant concerns in human–animal interac-
tice, and politics of caring for animals and nature. tion work. Historical scholarship has examined
These new relationships may come to alter both how wild animals—particularly exotic animals—
personal beliefs about the human–animal/human– became symbols of status and wealth in urban
nature divide and deeply embedded political– societies of the sixteenth century and onward, as
economic structures, social relations, and institutions, well as representations of rulers’ power over
which currently alienate humans from animals and national and international affairs. Given as diplo-
the natural world and perpetuate violence and matic gifts along with vases and diamonds, and
destruction unto nonhuman entities. kept in private menageries and at court, rare and
Integral to zoöpolis is the development of a curious exotic animals amused as they reminded
transspecies urban theory that would expand viewers of the collector’s prestige and their nation’s
understandings of human–animal relations to place in world affairs. Exotic animals also became
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inform an agenda for bringing animals back into popular as household pets and objects of naturalistic

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Zoöpolis 979
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inquiry and were increasingly available in urban the persecution of predators decimated wildlife in
centers and port cities. Exotic animals brought Europe—urban animal encounters became charac-
from trading and military expeditions in the classi- terized by domestic animals. Centuries later, with
cal period had stimulated similar curiosity, filling movements to exclude productive animals from
menageries and the gladiatorial ring after the rise Western cities, urban functions and environments
of urbanization in antiquity rendered encounters again changed. The nineteenth-century urban land-
with wild animals a novelty. scape was sterilized of animal bodies and beastly
In the nineteenth century, the urban public in encounters, as livestock and animal product indus-
Europe and New World societies such as Australia tries were displaced to the countryside.
began to encounter wild and exotic animals in Contemporary urban industrial–agricultural sec-
zoological gardens. The modern urban zoo, evolved tors and the move toward keeping productive
from rationalist Enlightenment era ideals of scien- animals in urban households throughout the world
tific understandings of nature, facilitated the study represent another animal-based reconstitution of
of animals and expanded access beyond a purely urban spaces and economies. Land rezoning, the
scientific audience. The institution has been sub- appearance of structures for animal keeping, and
jected to critical inquiry over the ideas about and changes in the numbers of workers or households
relations with animals that it has communicated to sustained by the production of animal bodies and
its legions of urban visitors. The representation of products comprise some of the palpable changes to
zoo animals is implicated in informing incomplete urban form and life. Urban conservation practices
or inaccurate understandings about animal behav- intended to rectify the effects of capitalist urban-
iors, biological needs, and emotional lives, and ization on wildlife species and ecosystem processes—
scholars have read the act of displaying animals as such as maintaining wildlife corridors and restoring
communicating human difference from and power native vegetation—represent other urban land-
over the displayed animals and their wild counter- scape changes that demonstrate the role of human–
parts as well. animal relations in changing urban form and
In increasingly multicultural, multiethnic urban function.
regions, human relations with both wild and The rethinking of human–animal–environment
domestic animals are defined by diverse and some- relations within the academy has stimulated the
times controversial cultural animal attitudes and development of new methodological approaches
practices. Recent studies of immigrant and minor- to the study of urban wildlife ecology. A conserva-
ity ethnic groups have concluded that culture and tion biology paradigm has characterized most
immigrant experiences inform attitudes about ani- urban wildlife research since the recognition of
mals; that ideas about appropriate uses of particu- human-dominated landscapes as important sites
lar animals as food, in sport, in ritual, and as pets for conservation. Recently, the development of
differ across culture groups; and that particular novel and nonpositivist methodologies to improve
animals act as ties to countries and cultures of ori- understandings of urban wildlife ecologies has
gin for some immigrant groups. Some ethnic been the goal of some research on both common
groups experience racialization through their ani- urban animals and species of conservation con-
mal practices, as controversial practices are used to cern. Perspectives on the co-constitution of avian
“other” and denigrate that group. foraging ecology by avian and human actants
Urbanization practices have effected sweeping reveal how bird–bird and human–bird interactions
changes in animal geographies, and conversely, create urban opportunities for single birds and
movements to exclude or incorporate certain entire species, suggesting that human–animal rela-
groups of animals into cities sometimes precipitate tional geographies are an important component of
significant changes in urban form and society. The wildlife ecologies in urban landscapes. Other
encircling of classical and medieval cities with research includes experimental forays into differ-
walls offered protection from invading armies, but ent ways of sensing and knowing urban wildlife, to
it also assuaged the fear of wild animals and wilder- inform a politics for urban wilds that is more true
ness that dominated medieval mentalities. As towns to wild inhabitants than current conservation
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(re)fortified—and as land cultivation, hunting, and practices and laws, which do not contemplate the

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980 Zoöpolis
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ephemeral nature of some species, nor behavioral natural processes and systems into which cities
and ecological differences within species. have been imposed.
In some cases, urban planning and policy are
also undergoing a shift toward reconsiderations of Mona Seymour
urban animals and environmental well-being.
Scholarship on animals, ecology, and urban design See also Parks; Sustainable Development; Urban Life
has evaluated communities that appear to be mak-
ing animal-oriented efforts, examining policy and
Further Readings
place in light of zoöpolitan and sustainability prin-
ciples and toward the end of reflecting on means Campbell, Michael O’Neal. 2007. “An Animal
and obstacles to moving towns and cities toward Geography of Avian Ecology in Glasgow.” Applied
more harmonious and equitable human–animal– Geography 27:78–88.
nature relations. Studies of the transspecies urban Hinchliffe, Steve, Matthew B. Kearnes, Monica Degen,
practices of conservation communities, or commu- and Sarah Whatmore. 2005. “Urban Wild Things: A
nities founded on objectives of environmental, Cosmopolitical Experiment.” Environment and
social, and economic sustainability, suggest that Planning D: Society and Space 23:643–58.
stated commitments to animals are enacted through Hough, Michael. 2004. Cities and Natural Process: A
a privileging of wild or companion animals, with- Basis for Sustainability. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
out challenging normative relationships with pro- Hovorka, Alice. 2008. “Transspecies Urban Theory:
ductive animals. Ecological goals are sometimes Chickens in an African City.” Cultural Geographies
15:95–117.
compromised by market directives, advertised to
Kalof, Linda. 2007. Looking at Animals in Human
create a green-community image but not ade-
History. London: Reaktion.
quately implemented or abandoned in favor of
Philo, Chris and Chris Wilbert. 2000. Animal Spaces,
incorporating the type of landscaped nature the
Beastly Places: New Geographies of Human-Animal
target demographic is projected to prefer. Relations. Oxford, UK: Cambridge.
Burgeoning interest in urban human–animal Whatmore, Sarah and Steve Hinchliffe. 2003. “Living
relations indicate that research and professional Cities: Making Space for Urban Nature.” Soundings:
communities increasingly view animals as an inte- Journal of Politics and Culture 22:137–50.
gral part of urban societies past and present. Some Wolch, Jennifer. 2007. “Green Urban Worlds.” Annals of
of the body of work on animals and urban envi- the Association of American Geographers 97:373–84.
ronments also suggests a growing interest in socio- Wolch, Jennifer and Jody Emel, eds. 1998. Animal
ecological urban planning, informed by the Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the
conviction that harmonious relations among Nature-Culture Borderlands. London: Verso.
humans, nonhuman animals, and nature are key to Wolch, Jennifer R., Kathleen West, and Thomas E. Gaines.
the well-being, health, and survival of the inhabit- 1995. “Transspecies Urban Theory.” Environment and
ants of urban regions and to the sustainability of Planning D: Society and Space 13:735–60.
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Index

Entry titles and their page numbers are in bold. Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations, figures, or
tables.

Aalto, Alvar, 2:562 Africa


Aas, Amr Ibn Al-, 1:97–98 ancient cities, 1:26
Abandoibarra, 1:76 bungalows, 1:91–93
Abbott, Berenice, 2:593 African Americans
Abbott, Edith, 1:129 bohemia, 1:80
Abel, Alfred, 1:503 Chicago, 1:124–125
Abercrombie, Peter, Greater London Plan, dance music, 1:222
1:288, 2:651 Du Bois, 1:237–239
Abjection, 2:961 environmental justice, 1:244–245, 2:961
Aborigines, 1:280 ghettoes, 1:311–312
Abramovitz, Max, 2:562 hip hop, 1:355–357
Abstract space, 2:746 Los Angeles, 1:466–467, 470
Accra, Ghana, 1:350 National Urban League, 2:890
Ackerman, Frederick, 1:534 northern migration, 1:124, 2:854, 913–914
Acropolis, 1:1–2, 45, 45–46, 48, 50 racialized space, 2:630–631
Actividades Contemporanea (journal), 2:692 riots, 2:854, 878
Activism, 2:740 suburbanization, 2:783
Adaptation theory, 2:916–917 urban archaeology, 2:846–847
Addams, Jane, 1:124, 129, 176, 2:841 urban crisis, 2:854–855, 878
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1:168 urban policy, 2:908
Adler, Dankmar, 1:124 After-sprawl, 2:768
Adler, Felix, 2:673 Agamben, Giorgio, 2:576, 695, 696
Adorno, Theodor, 1:68 Agarwal, S., 2:662, 664
Adult entertainment. See Red-light district; Age, and spaces of difference, 2:757
Sex industry Agee, James, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men
Advertising, 2:921 (with Walker Evans), 2:593
Advocacy planning, 1:2–6 Agency and structure, 2:941–942
critique of, 1:3–5 Agenda 21, 1:350, 2:790, 794
global, 1:6 Agglomeration economies, 2:840
origins, 1:2 Agnew, John, Place and Politics, 2:874
paradigm of, 1:2–3 Agora, 1:7–10
rational comprehensive planning vs., 1:2, 3, 4, 2:604–605 Athens, 1:8, 8–10, 46
in United States, 1:5–6 building types, 1:8
Aerodromes, 1:11 civic buildings, 1:9
Aesthetic tradition of photography, 2:590, 593 commercial activities, 1:10
Affordable housing, 1:6–7, 376–377, 534. See also Fair functions, 1:7–8, 2:596
housing; Housing policy religious buildings and monuments, 1:9–10
approaches to, 2:737–738 Agriculture
rent control, 2:658 ancient cities, 1:27
tenement reforms, 2:802–803 world-systems perspective, 2:971
Affordances, 1:250–251 Agrippa, 1:10
copyright law.

Afghanistan, 1:42, 43, 234 Ahkam al-bunyan, 1:402

981

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Ahwahnee Principles, 2:550, 573 American Political Science Association, 2:931


Airports, 1:10–13 American Psychological Association (APA), 2:916, 918
design, 1:11–12 American School of Classical Studies, 1:8
origins, 1:11 American Sociological Association, 1:128, 2:931, 970
significance, 1:10–11 American Sociological Review (journal), 1:128
as systems, 1:13 Americans with Disabilities Act (United States), 2:812
transit-oriented development, 2:822–824 American Urban History Group, 2:881
Ajasa, Kitoyi, 1:428 Amin, Ash, 2:652, 893, 894
Akademgorodok Science City, Russia, 2:797 “The Ordinary City” (with Stephen Graham), 2:876
Akerman, Chantal, 1:151 Amin, Samir, 2:970
Alan Vorhees and Associates, 1:103 Amodu Tijani judgment, 1:429
Albert, Prince, 1:538 Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1:20–24, 21
Alberti, Leon Battista, 1:390, 2:657 béguinage, 1:66
Albertopolis, London, 1:538 capital city, 1:106
Albrechts, Louis, 2:652 city planning, 2:692
Alcohol sales, and nightlife, 2:564–565 drugs, 1:23
Aldrich, William, 2:973 economy, 1:21–22
Alexander, Christopher, 2:549 exopolis, 1:262
A Pattern Language, 1:250 history of, 1:21
Alexander III, Pope, 2:682 immigration, 1:22, 318
Alexander the Great, 1:494 multicultural city, 1:527
Alexandria, 1:160 progressive policies, 1:22–24
Algeria, 1:53 prostitution, 1:23
Algiers, Algeria, 1:168, 446 regional planning, 2:650
Alhambra, Spain, 2:657 squatter movements, 1:23, 2:769
Ali, Muhammad (Egyptian ruler), 1:98 tourism, 1:21, 23
Alienation, 2:752–753 Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan
Alihan, Missa, 1:128–129 Environment, 2:933
Alinsky, Saul, 1:13–15, 180 Amsterdam Treaty, 2:732
Reveille for Radicals, 1:14 Amusement parks. See Themed environments
Rules for Radicals, 1:14 Anchors (shopping), 2:713
Allegheny, Pennsylvania, 1:29 Ancient cities, 1:24–28. See also Acropolis;
Allegory of Good Government, 1:15–18 Agora; Athens, Greece
Allen, John, Geography Matters! (with Doreen Andes, 1:25
Massey), 2:874 archaeological approaches, 1:26–28
Alliance for Regional Stewardship, 2:648 China, 1:25
Alligator (film), 2:696 conceptual approaches, 1:26
All-inclusive resorts, 2:663 Egypt, 1:25
Almshouses, 1:18–19 Indus Valley, 1:25
Alonso, William, 1:19–20, 401, 2:651, 660, 929 Mesoamerica, 1:26, 28
Location and Land Use, 1:20 Mesopotamia, 1:24–25, 28
The Politics of Numbers (with Paul Starr), 1:20 Southeast Asia, 1:26
Alphand, Jean-Charles Adolphe, 2:584 sub-Saharan Africa, 1:26
Alpha Ville, São Paulo, 1:228 Ancoats, Manchester, 2:945
AlSayyad, Nezer, 1:140 Anderson, Elijah, 1:129
Altar of the Twelve Gods, Athens, 1:10 Anderson, Kay, 1:131
Althusser, Louis, 1:115, 2:753 Vancouver’s Chinatown, 1:134
Amara West, Egypt, 1:166 Anderson, Margaret, 1:80
Amarna, Egypt, 1:25, 27 Anderson, Perry, 1:206
Ambolley, Gyedu-Blay, 1:357 Anderson, Pierce, 1:484
American Anthropology Association, 2:931 Andes, 1:25
American Association of Geography Andrade, Mario de, 1:82
Geography in America, 2:875 Andrade, Oswald de, 1:82
Geography in America at the Dawn of the Andreu, Paul, 1:12
21st Century, 2:875 Andrews, John, 2:694
American Historical Association, 2:931 Angkor, 1:26
American Indians. See Native Americans Anglo-Chinese urban vernacular architecture, 2:708
American Journal of Sociology, 1:127, 128, 311, 2:772 Angotti, Tom, 1:5
copyright law.

American Planning Association, 1:5, 334 Anheuser Busch, 2:808

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Animals, 2:977–980 Aristotle, 1:46, 2:914


Annapolis, Maryland, 1:196 Politics, 1:390
Annexation, 1:28–30 Arkun, Mohammed, “Islam, Urbanism, and Human
Anomie, 1:172, 173 Existence Today,” 1:402
Anthology Film Archives, New York City, 1:151 Armenia, 1:42
Anthropology. See Urban anthropology Arnold, Matthew, 1:396
Anti-Corn Law League, 1:482 Arnold of Brescia, 2:676
Antiurbanism, 2:773, 781, 796, 837, 917 Arnstein, Sherry, 1:144
Anti-utopias, 1:391, 2:947 Arrighi, Giovanni, 2:970
Antwerp, Belgium railroad station, 2:633 Art. See Graffiti; Public art; Street art
Anyang, China, 1:25 Artangel Trust, 2:617
Apartheid, 1:30–32 Art Deco buildings, Miami, 1:352
Apollinaire, Guillaume, 2:581 Artists. See also Creative class
Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), 1:337 bohemia, 1:79–81
Appalachian Trail, 1:534 gentrification, 1:308
Appleyard, Donald, 1:478 loft living, 1:457–459
The View from the Road (with Lynch and Myer), 1:476 neighborhood revitalization, 2:545
Aquino, Corazon, 1:484 Santa Fe, 2:679–681
Aragon, Louis, 1:33, 69 Asian cities, 1:41–44
Arbus, Diane, 2:594 contemporary, 1:41–44
Arcade, 1:33–35, 69 economy, 1:42–43
Archaeology in Annapolis, 2:846 environment, 1:44
Architectural Forum (journal), 1:412 history of, 1:41
Architectural Record (journal), 1:84 planning and management, 1:44
Architectural Review (journal), 1:438 sacred vs. market, 1:41
Architecture, 1:36–40 society, 1:43–44
airports, 1:12 urbanization, 1:42
Bruges, 1:87 Asian Development Bank, 1:43
caravanserai, 1:114 Asian–Pacific Alliance for Healthy Cities, 1:350
Chicago, 1:124–125 Asians
cinema, 1:138 suburbanization, 2:783
clients, 1:36 Asphalt (film), 1:424
Damascus, 1:203–205 Assad, Bashar al-, 1:204
Delhi, 1:213–214 Assad, Hafez al-, 1:204
discotheques, 1:223 Asset assessments, 1:177
Florence, 1:276–278 Asset-Based Community Development Institute, 1:177
funereal, 2:542–543 Assimilation, 1:255–256
gendered space, 1:299 Association, forms of, 2:892–893. See also Gemeinschaft
heritage designation, 1:352 and Gesellschaft
housing, 1:375 Association for Improving the Care of the Poor, 2:558
iconicity, 1:38–40 Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now
ideal city, 1:390–391 (ACORN), 1:15, 180
Le Corbusier, 1:444–446 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 2:653
Moscow, 1:518 Astor, John Jacob, 2:560
New York World’s Fair, 2:561–562 Astrodome, Houston, 2:763
power, 1:37–38 Asylum seekers, 1:256
practice of, 1:36–37 AT&T, 2:561
Renaissance city, 2:655–657 Ataturk, Kemal, 1:301
Rome, 2:675–677 Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway
Santa Fe, 2:681 Company, 2:681
shophouses, 2:707–708 Atget, Eugene, 2:592
sociopolitical context, 1:36–40 Athens, Greece, 1:44–50, 493–494
spectacular, 1:10, 12, 75, 77–78 Acropolis, 1:1–2, 45, 45–46, 48, 50
Ardalan, Nader, 2:694 agora, 1:8, 8–10
Area median income (AMI), 1:7 capital city, 1:104–105
Area plans, 1:161 classical, 1:45–47, 2:887
Arendt, Hannah, 1:146, 2:625 contemporary, 1:49–50
Arensberg, Conrad M., Family and Community in Ireland cultural significance, 1:46, 50
copyright law.

(with S. T. Kimball), 1:184 dedications by foreign rulers, 1:10

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interwar, 1:48–49 Bakhtin, Mikhail, 1:221


neoclassical, 1:47–48 Baldwin, Ruth Standish, 2:890
The Athens Charter (1943), 1:446 Ball, John Clement, 2:902
Athens Charter of 1931 for the Restoration of Historic Ball, M., 1:382–383
Monuments, 1:195 Ballon, Hillary, 1:411
Atkinson, Rowland, 1:308–309, 2:667 Baltimore, Maryland
Atlanta, Georgia, 1:81, 187, 2:644 baseball stadium, 2:764
Atlantic Monthly (magazine), 2:672 convention center, 1:187
Atmosphere, 2:850 downtown revitalization, 1:234, 2:764
Attalos II, king of Pergamon, 1:10 housing, 1:375
Auditorium Building, Chicago, 1:124 neighborhood revitalization, 2:545
Auerbach, Friedrich, 2:937 shopping, 2:711
Augé, Marc, 1:63, 2:861 urban entertainment destinations, 2:871
Non-places, 2:568–569 Balzac, Honoré de, 2:579, 581
Augustine, Saint, The City of God, 1:405 Un Prince de la Bohème, 1:79
Augustus, emperor of Rome, 2:675 Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, 1:78
Aum Shinrikyo, 2:821 Bandelier, Adolph, 2:679
Austin, Laura, 2:701–702 Banerjee, Tridib, 1:476
Austin, Mary, 2:679 Banfield, Edward, 2:917
Australia Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest (with Martin
bungalows, 1:92 Meyerson), 2:604
gentrification, 1:306 Bangalore, India, 1:43
social housing, 2:736–737 Bangkok, Thailand, 1:42, 43, 132
tourism, 2:819 Bangladesh, 1:42, 43
Australian Council for the New Urbanism, 2:552 Banham, Reyner, 1:438
Australian War Memorial, 1:103 Scenes in America Deserta, 1:439
Austria, 2:737 Banlieue, 1:52–54, 281, 345, 2:588, 629.
Authenticity, 2:807–808, 874 See also Favela; Slums
Automobiles Bantu Urban Areas Act of 1954 (South Africa), 1:31
commuting, 1:417 Barak, Ehud, 1:229
environmental impact, 1:247–248 Barbaza, Y., 2:663
impact of, 2:825–827 Barcelona, Spain, 1:55–59
Los Angeles, 1:95, 122, 465 city planning, 1:55, 2:692–693
Moses’s planning, 1:521–523 cultural heritage, 1:196, 354
New York World’s Fair (1939), 1:523, 561–562 Franco opposition, 1:56–57
São Paulo, 2:685 General Metropolitan Plan (GMP), 1:57
Savannah, 2:691 heritage designation, 1:352
suburbanization, 1:92, 322, 441, 2:587, 781 industrialization and expansion, 1:55
urban economics, 2:867 informational city, 1:393
urban planning, 1:232, 521–523, 2:587, 589, 602 Olympic Games, 1:57–59
Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao, 1:486 Porciolismo, 1:55–56
Autozone Park, Memphis, 2:764 post-Franco years, 1:57
Avedon, Richard, 2:594 public art, 2:617
Aydalot, Philippe, 2:799 urban renewal, 1:57–59, 57–59
Azerbaijan, 1:42 Barker, Roger, 1:250, 251
Aztec empire, 1:167, 513–514 Barnard, John, 2:592
Barnes, Djuna, 1:80
Backdoor debt, 2:619 Barrio, 1:59–61, 228, 2:588. See also Favela
Back offices, 2:798 Barta, Peter, 2:900, 902
Back of the Yards Neighborhood Council, 1:14 Barthes, Roland, 2:919
Back-to-the-city movement, 1:51, 378–379. See also Basel Missionary Society, 1:93
Downtown revitalization; Gentrification; Loft living Basque Country, 1:75–78
Back to the Future (film), 2:730 Bastides, 1:490, 2:596
Bacon, Edmund, 1:412, 2:694 Bateau Lavoir, Paris, 2:580
Bacon, Lloyd, 42nd Street, 1:149 Bathrooms. See Toilets
Badaud, 1:273 Battle of Stalingrad, 2:695
Badham, John, Saturday Night Fever, 1:222 Batutah, Ibu, 1:114
Bad Radkersburg, Austria, 1:226 Baudelaire, Charles, 1:70, 79, 140, 148, 2:579, 697, 919, 957
copyright law.

Bailey, Peter, 2:565 “The Painter of Modern Life,” 1:273

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Baudrillard, Jean, 1:94, 140, 262, 440, Berkeley, California, 2:611


2:721–722, 752, 807 Berlin, Germany, 1:70–73
Bauhaus, 1:352, 2:947 Benjamin on, 1:69
Bauman, Zygmunt, 1:175, 526, 2:750 capital city, 1:107
Baumer, Terry, 1:191 cinematic urbanism, 1:141
Baumert, Karin, 1:227 city users, 1:164
Bavarian planning, 1:47 dance music, 1:222
Bayt arabis, 1:204–205 divided, 1:70–71, 226–227
Bazaar, 1:61–65, 62. See also Shopping; Shopping center economy and employment, 1:72
arcades, 1:33 ethnic enclave, 1:257
caravanserai, 1:113 heritage sites, 1:353–354
concept of, 1:62 housing and land redevelopment, 1:71–72
economic system of, 1:62–63 memory in, 1:159
metaphorical uses of, 1:64–65 multicultural city, 1:527–528
Orientalism and, 1:61–62, 64 nightlife, 2:564
scholarship on, 1:62–63 regional planning, 2:651
social aspects, 1:63–64 reunification, 1:71–73
Bean v. Southwestern Waste Management, sociospatial patterns, 1:72–73
Inc. (1979), 2:961 squatter movements, 2:769
Beardsworth, Alan, 2:808 Berlin Academy, 1:397
Beatae, 1:66 Berlin wall, 1:71, 72, 164, 226–227
Beat movement, 1:80 Berman, Marshall, All That Is Solid Melts
Beauvoir, Simone de, 1:45, 397, 2:581 into Air, 1:415
Beaverstock, Jon, 2:968 Bernick, Michael, Transit Villages in the 21st Century
Beckmann, Martin J., 1:474 (with Robert Cervero), 2:550
Beech, Dave, 2:618 Bernini, Gianlorenzo, 2:674, 676
Béguinage, 1:65–68, 66, 2:570 Berry, Brian J. L., 1:73–75, 265, 306, 2:873, 936
Behavior, theories of, 2:916, 916–917 Bethnal Green study, 1:183–184
Behavioral geography, 2:873 Beuys, Joseph, 2:618
Behavioral urbanization, 2:881, 901. See also Urban culture Beyle, Henri (pseudonym: Stendhal), 2:581
Behavior mapping, 1:251 Bhadralok, 1:421
Behavior setting theory, 1:251 Bhutan, 1:42
Behrens, Peter, 1:444 Bid-rent curves, 1:20
Beijing, China, 1:27, 41–43, 104–105, 120 Bilbao, Spain, 1:75–78
Bel Geddes, Norman, 2:562 Abandoibarra, 1:76
Belgium, 1:65–68 economy, 1:78
Belgrade, 1:113 globalization, 1:75–78
Bell, Colin, Community Studies (with Howard Newby), Guggenheim Museum, 1:38, 75–78, 77, 538, 2:860
1:182 historical development, 1:75–76
Bellamy, Edward Bilbao Ría 2000, 1:76
Equality, 1:286 Binga, Jesse, 1:124
Looking Backward, 1:286, 2:946 Biographical stranger, 2:772–774
Bellocq, E. J., 2:592 Biotic level, 2:862–863
Benedictines, 1:275 Birdsall, S., The Megalopolitan Region
Benjamin, Walter, 1:33, 68–70, 79, 149–150, 423, 503, (with J. Florin), 1:498
2:696, 718, 728, 899, 919, 957, 961 Bird’s-eye views, 2:591
Arcades Project, 1:69–70, 158 Birdwhistell, Ray, 2:773
Berlin Childhood Around 1900, 1:69 Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2:584, 821
Berlin Chronicle, 1:69 Bisexual space, 1:292
One-Way Street, 1:68–69 Bisticci, Vespasiano da, Life of Duke Federico da
“The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Montefeltro, 2:654
Reproducibility,” 1:70, 140 Bizzoche, 1:66
Bennett, Tony, 1:536, 538 Black August Collective, 1:357
Bentham, Jeremy, 2:787 Black Death, 1:276, 2:654
Benton, Gregor, The Chinese in Europe (with Frank Pieke), Black social thought, 1:252
1:134 Blaize, R. B., 1:428
Beresford, M. W., New Towns of the Middle Ages, 1:490 Blakely, Edward J., Fortress America (with Mary Gail
Berghman, Jos, 2:732, 733 Snyder), 1:290
copyright law.

Berke, Philip R., 2:793 Blasé attitude, 2:719, 773, 842, 857, 885, 891, 915

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Blist’s Hill Victorian Town, Shropshire, Brasília, Brazil, 1:81–83


United Kingdom, 1:361 heritage designation, 1:352
Bloch, Ernst, 1:423, 2:718, 946 history of, 1:81–82
Blockbusting, 1:267 ideal city, 1:391
Blocks, city, 2:551 modernism, 1:81–83, 108
Blumer, Herbert, 2:626 public housing, 1:53
Boca Raton, Florida, 1:334 urban planning, 1:82–83
Boccaccio, Giovanni, Decamerone, 2:654 Braudel, Fernand, 1:493–495, 495, 2:654, 951
Body language, 2:773–774 Braun, Georg, 1:157
Body spacing, 2:773–774 Bravo, Manuel Alvarez, 2:593
Bohemian, 1:79–81, 399, 2:639. See also Creative class Brazil, 2:685–686
Bohemian Index, 1:189 favelas, 1:268–272
Bolivia, 1:234 globalization, 1:317
Bombay, India. See Mumbai (Bombay), India migration to Lagos, 1:427
Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Napoleon Bonaparte street children, 2:778
Bondi, Liz, 1:307, 2:892 suburbanization, 2:783
Bonta, Juan Pablo, The Interpretation of Brecht, Bertolt, 1:68
Architecture, 1:38 Brendan Byrne Arena, Meadowlands, New Jersey, 2:763
Boomburbs, 2:587 Breton, André, 1:33, 69, 2:581
Booth, Charles, 2:841 Bretthauer, Bastian, 2:566
Life and Labour of the People of London, 1:237 Brezhnev, Leonid, 1:519
Borges, Jorge Luis, 2:722 Britain. See also United Kingdom
Borofsky, Jonathan, 2:614–615 colonialism, 1:91–92, 99–100, 168–169, 369–370, 420,
Bosco, Dom, 1:82 427–428, 2:662, 723–724, 788, 847
Bosses, political, 2:607 community studies, 1:183–184
Boston, Massachusetts intellectuals, 1:396–397
annexation, 1:28, 29 parks, 2:582–584
city clubs, 1:156 revanchism, 2:667
city planning, 1:247 surveillance, 2:789
convention centers, 1:186–187 sustainable development, 2:792
creative city, 1:189 urban morphology, 2:895, 897
downtown revitalization, 1:232–234, 2:711 urban planning, 1:345–346
Emerald Necklace, 2:584 waste regime, 2:962
neighborhood revitalization, 2:545 British Museum, London, 1:536–538, 537
tenements, 2:801–802 Broadacre City, 1:83–86, 85
tourism, 2:820 applications, 1:86
Boudeville, Jacques, 1:336 design features, 1:84
Boulder, Colorado, 1:334 philosophical foundations, 1:84
Bouleuterions, 1:8, 9 related designs, 1:84–85
Bourdieu, Pierre, 1:251, 2:749, 808 shortcomings, 1:85
Bourke-White, Margaret, 2:593 sustainable development, 2:791
Bouts, Dirk, 1:87 Brodie, Bernard, 2:573
Bove, Osip, 1:518 “Broken windows” crime control thesis, 1:326–327, 364,
Boyer, Christine, 2:808 2:909, 925–926, 965
The City of Collective Memory, 1:160 Bronx River Parkway, 1:522
Brace, Charles Loring, 2:558 Brooker, Peter, 2:900, 902
Bradford, Yorkshire, United Kingdom, 1:354 Modernity and Metropolis, 2:902
Bradley, Tom, 1:467 Brooklyn, New York, 1:30
Bramante, Donato, 1:277, 2:674, 676 Brown, Capability, 2:582
Branding Brown, Michael, 2:703
cities, 1:38, 58, 351–354, 2:680–682 Brownfields, 2:550, 588, 715
neighborhoods, 2:930 Browning, Clyde, “Population and Urbanized Area Growth
theming and, 2:806–807 in Megalopolis, 1950–1970,” 1:500
urban entertainment destinations, 2:870 Brucken, Carolyn, 1:374
urban semiotics, 2:920–921 Bruegmann, Robert, 2:783–784
Branford, Victor, 1:293 Bruges, Belgium, 1:67, 86–88, 88, 353, 2:570
Brants, Chrisje, 1:23 Brundtland Commission on the Environment and
Braque, Georges, 2:580 Development (1987), 2:790
copyright law.

Brashears, Matthew, 1:199 Brunei Darussalam, 1:42

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Brunel, Isambard Kingdom, 2:592 Bus Riders Union (BRU), 1:467


Brunelleschi, Filippo, 1:17, 2:654–657 Butler, Judith, 1:300, 526
Duomo Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence,
1:277, 2:655, 656 České Velenice, Czech Republic, 1:226
Hospital of the Innocents, 1:277, 2:656 Caesar, Julius, 1:275, 279, 2:675
Bruni, Leonardo, 1:277 Cafés, 2:581
Brunschvig, R., “Urbanisme medieval et droit Cahan, Abraham, Yekl, 1:311
musulman,” 1:403 Cairo, Egypt, 1:97–101
Brunt, P., 2:664 cultural-spatial contexts, 1:100–101
Brussels, Belgium, 1:256, 318, 345 ethnic enclave, 1:256
Brussels, Capital of Europe, 1:38 European conquest, 1:98–99
Brutalism, 1:93, 446, 2:694 globalization, 1:101
Bryman, Alan, 2:808 historical development, 1:97–98
Buarque de Hollanda, Sergio, 1:82 modernization, 1:98–99
Bubolz, M. M., 1:376 postcolonial, 1:99–100
Budapest, Hungary, 1:345 urban planning, 1:98
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1:88–91 Calatrava, Santiago, 1:49
contemporary, 1:90–91 Calcutta, India. See Kolkata (Calcutta), India
cultural heritage, 1:196 Caldeira, Teresa, 1:290–291
European character of, 1:89 Calder, Alexander
gated communities, 1:228 Fountain of Mercury, 2:693
sociospatial patterns, 1:90 La Grande Vitesse, 2:614
urban policy, 1:89–91 Caldwell, Mark, 2:566
Building codes, 1:377, 2:802 Calendars, 1:256–257
Building heights, 1:232, 2:802, 804 California Department of Public Works (Caltrans), 1:466
Building ordinances, Islamic, 1:402 Callicrates, 1:46
Built environment, and urban health, 2:877 Calthorpe, Peter, 2:549–551
Bulger, James, 2:789 Calthorpe Associates, 2:549
Bullard, Robert, Dumping in Dixie, 1:245 Calvino, Italo, The Invisible Cities, 1:160
Bungalow, 1:91–93 Cambio, Arnolfo di, 1:276–278, 2:656
Bunge, William, 1:73 Cambodia, 1:42
Bunker Hill, Los Angeles, 1:467–468, 2:589, 590 Cambridge Controversy in Capital, 2:659–660
Bunkers, 1:93–94 Cambridge Science Park, United Kingdom, 2:797
Buñuel, Luis, 1:503, 2:775 Campaign for Sensible Growth (Chicago), 2:648
Burckhardt, Titus, 1:403 Campanella, Tommaso, The City of the Sun, 1:390
Burgess, Ernest, 1:124, 126–129, 128, 198, 385, 2:630, Campi, 2:952, 955
638, 700, 863, 872, 885, 895, 924, 929 Camps, 2:576–577
Introduction to the Science of Sociology (with Robert Camus, Albert, 2:581
Park), 2:773 Canada, 1:226, 2:792
Burial, 2:541–543 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1:414
Burke, P., 2:952 Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 1:509
Burlington, Vermont, 2:611 Canaletto, The Reception of the French Ambassador in
Burlington Arcade, London, 1:33–34 Venice, 2:951
Burnett, Charles, 1:151 Canary Wharf, London, 1:463
Burnham, Daniel, 1:107, 124, 153–155, 232, Canberra, Australia, 1:102–104, 155, 249, 288
304, 484, 2:928 Cancun, Mexico, 2:820
Burroughs, William S., 1:80 Capital city, 1:104–109
Burrows, Edmund G., Gotham (with Mike Wallace), 2:557 Alexander the Great and, 1:494
Bursa, 1:114 Amsterdam, 1:106
Burton, Scott, 2:617 Berlin, 1:70–73, 107
Busch Entertainment, 2:808 Brasília, 1:81–83, 108
Buses, 1:94–96 Canberra, 1:102–104
Los Angeles, 1:467 Chandigarh, 1:108
research, 1:95–96 changing role, 1:108
social inequalities, 1:95 London, 1:108
urban infrastructure, 1:94–95 modern, 1:107–108
Bush, George W., 1:178, 205, 364 Moscow, 1:107
Businesspersons, 1:164–165 Paris, 1:106
copyright law.

Bus rapid transport systems (BRTSs), 1:95 premodern, 1:105–107

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primate city, 2:609 Technopoles of the World (with Peter Hall), 2:799–800
Rome, 1:108, 2:677 The Urban Question, 1:115–116, 329
Saint Petersburg, 1:106, 108 Castiglione, Baldassare, The Courtier, 2:654
totalitarianism, 1:107 Castro district, San Francisco, 1:292, 308, 2:603
Venice, 1:106 Catastrophe, 1:119–122
Washington, D.C., 1:107, 108 disasters vs., 1:119–120
Capitalism. See also Capitalist city displacement, 1:224–225
Althusserian theory, 1:115 resilient cities, 1:121–122
architecture, 1:36–37, 39 risk to cities, 1:120–121
bazaars, 1:62–63 sources of, 1:119
Benjamin on, 1:69 speed and occurrence of, 1:119
characteristics, 1:487 Cather, Willa, Death Comes for the Archbishop, 2:679
disability, 1:220 Caulfield, Jon, 1:308
effects, 2:885 Cavafy, Constantine, 1:160
gentrification, 1:306–307 Cavalo, Italo, 1:41
Gesellschaft, 1:297 Cavendish, Lord, 1:33–34
Harvey on, 1:343 Cayton, Horace, Black Metropolis (with St. Clair Drake),
Lefebvre on, 1:447–451 1:311, 2:630
primary circuit, 2:834 CCTV. See Closed circuit television (CCTV)
production of space, 2:743–747 CEDDU (El Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Urbanos
secondary circuit, 1:488, 2:555, 744–745, 834 y Ambientales), El Colegio de México, 2:933–934
tertiary circuit, 2:834 Celebration, Florida, 1:415, 2:551
uneven development, 2:745, 833–836 Cemeteries, 2:541–543
urban archaeology, 2:845 Census metropolitan areas (CMAs), 1:505
urban geography, 2:874 Centennial Exposition (Philadelphia, 1876), 1:155
urban sociology, 2:925 Center for Metropolitan Studies, Technical University,
world-systems perspective, 2:969–972 Berlin, 2:933
Capitalist city, 1:109–112 Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 1:19, 20
Castells on, 1:115–116 Center for World Indigenous Studies, 1:281
globalization, 1:111–112 Centerless city, 2:796
Harvey on, 1:342–343 Centralist mode of regional governance, 2:648
Marxist view, 1:487–489 Central Manchester Development Corporation, 1:483
theories, 1:110–111 Central of Georgia Railway, 2:690
Capitalization, 2:809–810 Central Park, New York City, 2:558, 584, 585
Capital punishment, 2:542 Central place theory, 1:456, 2:873, 929, 936
Caracas, Venezuela, 1:252 Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Finland, 2:934
Caracol, 1:26 El Centro de Estudios Demográfico, Urbanos y Ambientales
Caravaggio, 2:676 (CEDDU), El Colegio de México, 2:933–934
Caravanserai, 1:112–114, 113 Centro Interdisciplinario de Desarrollo Urbano, Pontificia
Carbone, Nicholas, 2:611 Universidad Católica, 2:934
Carcassonne, France, 1:360 Century (magazine), 2:672
Carmelites, 1:276 Cerdà Plan, 1:55
Carnegie, Andrew, 1:294 Cervantes Convention Center, St. Louis, 1:187
Caro, Robert, The Power Broker, 1:415 Cervero, Robert, Transit Villages in the 21st Century (with
Carpenter, John, Escape from New York, 1:141 Michael Bernick), 2:550
Carracci, Ludovico, 2:695 Chabrol, Claude, Les bonnes femmes, 1:150
Carr Lynch Associates, 1:478 Chadwick, Edwin, 2:557, 583
Cars. See Automobiles Chagall, Marc, 2:614
Carson, Rachel, Silent Spring, 2:879 Chain stores/businesses, 1:232, 373–374, 520,
Carter, Jimmy, 2:621 2:602, 710–712
Carter, Majora, 2:964 Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 1:421
Casablanca, Morocco, 1:168 Chalfant, Henry, Subway Art (with Martha Cooper), 1:326
Casino cities, 2:806 Champlain, Samuel de, 1:352
Cassidy, Neal, 1:81 Chandigarh, India, 1:107–108, 446, 2:693
Castells, Manuel, 1:110–111, 114–118, 281, 292, 314, Chandler, Harry, 1:465
320, 340, 2:553, 561, 587, 651, 738–739, 750, 753, Chang, Jeff, 1:356
759–761, 769, 925 Channeling, 2:567
The Castells Reader on Cities and Social Theory, 1:118 Chaplin, Charlie, Modern Times, 1:141, 150
copyright law.

The City and the Grassroots, 1:116 Charles II, king of England, 2:975

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Charleston, South Carolina, 1:196 influence of, 1:124, 128–129, 285


Charney, Michael, 1:134 influences on, 2:721
Charter of the New Urbanism, 2:550 methods and topics, 1:127–128, 238
Chartism, 1:482 neighborhood social homogeneity, 1:265
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, 2:970 origins and founders, 1:126–127, 2:842
Chatham Crescent, Savannah, 2:691 placemaking, 2:601
Chatham Dockyard, England, 1:352 sex industry, 2:700
Chatterjee, Partha, 1:422 spatial conceptions, 2:748
Chatterton, Paul, 2:565, 566 suburbanization, 2:782
Chattopadhyay, Swati, 1:92 technological change, 1:198
Chávez, César, 1:15 themed environments, 2:807
Checker, Chubby, 1:222 urban ecology, 2:862–865
Chenal, Pierre, Architecture Today, 1:150 urban geography, 2:872–873
Chernick, Howard, 2:556 urban ontology, 2:940
Chicago, Illinois, 1:122–126 Wirth’s role, 2:885
Alinsky and, 1:13–14 Chicago Schools of Architecture, 1:124
annexation, 1:28 Chicago Urban League, 2:890
architecture, 1:124–125 Chiffoniers (ragpickers), 2:961–962
bohemia, 1:81 Childe, V. Gordon, 1:26, 130–131, 2:887
capitalist city, 1:109–110 Man Makes Himself, 1:130
city clubs, 1:156 Children
city planning, 1:153, 154, 247, 2:928 child labor, 2:592
contemporary, 1:126 street children, 2:776–779
convention centers, 1:186–188 Children’s Aid Society, 2:558
dance music, 1:222 China
divided city, 1:228 ancient cities, 1:25
downtown revitalization, 1:232, 234 economy, 1:42, 44
ghettoes, 1:311 globalization, 1:317
historical development, 1:122–124 historic cities, 1:359
housing, 1:124–125 Hong Kong, 1:369–371
immigration, 1:123–124, 126 intellectual life, 1:397–398
labor issues, 1:123–124 suburbanization, 2:783
Near North neighborhood, 2:869 urbanization, 1:42
parks, 2:584 Chinatown (Polanski), 1:133, 150, 465, 2:601
public housing, 1:53 Chinatowns, 1:131–134, 132
racial issues, 1:124–125 changing nature of, 1:133–134
racialization, 2:630–631 geographical imaginaries, 1:131–132
regional governance, 2:648 immigration, 1:131–133
regional planning, 2:650 location, 1:132–133
schools, 1:124 New York City, 2:603
tourism, 2:820 perceptions of, 1:133
World War II and after, 1:124–125 racialization, 2:629–631
Chicago Board of Trade, 1:123 research, 1:134
Chicago Community Trust, 2:648 San Francisco, 2:631
Chicago Metropolis 2000, 2:648 spaces of difference, 2:758
Chicago School of Economics, 1:124 Chirac, Jacques, 2:731
Chicago School of Urban Sociology, 1:126–130. Chongqing, China, 1:42
See also Fordism; Urban ecology (Chicago School) Chow, Rey, 1:131
capitalist city, 1:109–110 Christaller, Walter, 1:456, 2:651, 873, 929, 936
community, 1:173, 182–183 Christianity, 2:887
concentric zone model, 1:124, 127–129, 128, Christiansen, Flemming, Chinatown, Europe, 1:134
385, 469, 2:586–587, 630, 700, 780, 863–864, Christopher Wren, plan of London, 1:135–137, 2:974–975
872, 895, 924 C.H.U.D. (film), 2:696
criticisms and limitations, 1:118, 126, 128–129, CIAM. See Congrès International d’Architecture
173, 385 Moderne (CIAM)
environmental psychology, 1:250 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 1:279
exopolis, 1:262 Cincinnati, Ohio, 1:288
ghettoes, 1:311 Los Cinco Pintores, 2:679
copyright law.

human ecology, 1:384–386 Cinema boutiques, 1:139

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Cinema (movie house), 1:137–139. See also City and film future of, 1:151–152
audience composition, 1:137–138, 149 globalization, 1:141–142
boutiques, 1:139 Kracauer on, 1:424
mall cinemas, 1:138–139, 151 late modernity, 1:150–151
movie palaces, 1:138 Metropolis, 1:502–503
multiplexes, 1:139, 151 silent film, 1:148–149
neighborhood movie houses, 1:138 studios, 1:149
nickelodeons, 1:137–138, 149 City and regional planning, 2:903
Cinematic urbanism, 1:139–143. See also City and film City Beautiful movement, 1:152–156
Cinergy Field, Cincinnati, 2:763 built legacy, 1:153–155
Cisneros, Henry, 2:550 Canberra, 1:102
Cities. See also specific cities; Ancient cities; Chicago World’s Fair, 1:124, 153
Metropolitan; Urban cultural legacy, 1:155–156
back-to-the-city movement, 1:51 downtowns, 1:232
branding, 1:38, 58, 351–354, 2:680–682 goals, 1:153
catastrophe risks, 1:120–121 historical conditions, 1:152–153
citizenship, 1:145–146 influence of, 2:549, 584, 681, 691
communities and, 1:173–174 influences on, 1:286
crisis, 2:854–855 Jacobs on, 1:414
defining, 1:242, 2:880 Manila, 1:154–155, 484
development of, 2:866, 928–929, 937 suburbanization, 2:691
distrust of. See Antiurbanism Washington, D.C., 1:107
external structure, 2:873 City club, 1:156–157
fragmentation, 1:29, 30, 227, 291, 2:586–590, 761 City design, 1:476–478. See also City planning;
functions, 2:935–936 Urban design
globalization, 1:317–319 City Housing Corporation, 1:534
image of, 1:475 City limits thesis, 2:644
internal structure, 2:872–873 City Lore, Inc., 1:160
Jacobs on, 1:412–416 City (magazine), 1:312
largest European, 1:106, 108, 2:888 City map, 1:157, 2:727
megacities, 1:42 City novel. See Urban novel
Mumford and, 1:532–535 City of memory, 1:46, 70, 158–160
origins, 2:887–888, 935 City of the Sun, 2:946
resilient, 1:121–122 City planning, 1:161–162. See also Planning theory;
Simmel on, 2:718 Urban design; Urban planning; Zoning
sociogeographic transformations, 2:900–901 Barcelona, 1:57–59, 2:692–693
spaces of flows, 2:760–761 Berlin, 1:227
technological impact, 2:784 Chicago World’s Fair, 1:124
use patterns, 1:163–164 City Beautiful movement, 1:152–156
world cities, 1:43 early town planning, 2:812
Cities Programme, London School of Economics, 2:933 gender equity planning, 1:302–304, 2:569–572
Citizen participation, 1:143–144. general plans, 1:304–305
See also Community organizing Haussmann, 1:344–346
catastrophe planning, 1:121 Jacobs on, 1:412–416
progressive city, 2:611–612 Le Corbusier, 1:445
Citizenship, 1:144–147 London, 1:135, 136, 137
Athens, 1:46 Lynch’s influence, 1:475
community, 1:174 medieval town design, 1:489–493
multicultural cities, 1:528 Moscow, 1:518–520
Cittadella, Italy, 1:361 non-sexist city, 1:302–304, 2:569–572
City, defined, 1:26 parks, 2:585
City & Community (journal), 1:312, 2:932 placemaking, 2:602–603
City and film, 1:148–152. See also Cinema (movie house); Savannah, 2:688–692
Cinematic urbanism; Photography and the city Sert, 2:692–694
adult films, 2:640 squares, 2:596–599
art/avant-garde films, 1:151 City-regions, 1:508–509, 511, 2:546–547, 839–840.
Benjamin on, 1:70 See also Regionalism
early modernity, 1:149–150 CityStars Mall, Cairo, 1:100–101
copyright law.

film exhibition, 1:151 City University of New York Graduate Center, 1:250

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City users, 1:163–165 Colonial city, 1:165–169


City walls, 1:494, 2:787, 979 characteristics, 1:165–166
City without limits, 2:768 Delhi, 1:211–212
Civic Amenities Act of 1967 (Britain), 1:352 form and function, 1:168–169
Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, 1:186 gendered space, 1:300–301
Civic League (United States), 1:350 history of, 1:166–167
Civic modernism, 1:294–295 Kolkata, 1:420
Civic museums, 1:536–537 Lagos, 1:427
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (United States), 1:245 Mumbai, 1:530
Civil rights movement, 1:180, 244–245, 266, 435, postcolonial, 1:169
2:665, 782, 908 Singapore, 2:723–724
Civil society, 2:625, 770 theoretical frameworks, 1:167–168
Civitates Orbis Terrarum (Cities of the World), 1:157 Colonialism. See also Colonial city; Postcolonialism
Clair, René, The Crazy Ray, 1:148 Asia, 1:41
Clapham, David, 1:381, 382 bungalows, 1:91–93
Clark, Gordon, 1:73 characteristics, 1:165–166
Clarke, Shirley, The Cool World, 1:150 cultural heritage, 1:196
Clark University, 1:127 Kolkata, 1:420
Class. See also Middle class; Working class Lagos, 1:427–428
communities organized by, 1:192 shophouses, 2:708
gentrification, 1:307 South Africa, 1:31
London, 1:461–462 surveillance, 2:788
Los Angeles, 1:470 urban archaeology, 2:845, 847
nickelodeons, 1:137–138 Colonial Williamsburg, 1:361, 2:681, 722
regime types, 2:645 Colonias, 1:59–60
shopping, 2:709–710 Colter, Mary, 2:681
spaces of difference, 2:757 Columbia, Maryland, 1:288
suburbanization, 1:442, 2:780–782 Columbia University, 1:154, 2:930
urban entertainment destinations, 2:870 Columbus, Christopher, 1:495
Classical political economy, 2:659 Comerica Park, Detroit, 2:765
Classical social theory, 2:748 Comité Interdisciplinario de Investigación y Enseñanza del
Claudel, Paul, 2:581 Planeamiento y del Desarrollo Urbano, 2:934
Clavel, Pierre, 2:610–611 Commerce. See also Shopping; Shopping center
Clement VII, Pope, 1:277 arcades, 1:33–35
Cleveland, Ohio, 1:153, 154, 156, 186–187, 2:611 bazaars, 1:61–65
Cleveland State University, 2:932 caravanserai, 1:112–114
Climate change, 1:121, 2:853 central place theory, 2:936
Clinard, Marshall, 2:917 Chicago, 1:122–123
Clinton, William (Bill), 1:245, 364, 2:621 development of cities, 2:866
Cloaca Maxima, Rome, 2:674, 695 drugs, 1:234–236
Closed circuit television (CCTV), 2:786, 789 ethnic entrepreneurship, 1:259
CNU. See Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU) money, 2:719–720
Coalition for Creative Non-Violence (CCNV), 1:363 Venice, 2:952
Coalition for the Homeless, 1:363 Commercial Club (Chicago), 2:648
Coalitions, 2:644 Commission for Racial Justice, 2:961
Cocks, Cynthia, 1:372 Commission of the European Communities, 2:746
Coed Darcy, Neath, South Wales, 2:945 Commission on Recovery, Rebuilding, and Renewal, 2:550
Coffeehouses, 1:408–409 Committee on Improving the Industrial Conditions of
Coffee shops, 2:805 Negroes in New York, 2:890
Cognitive mapping, 1:251, 475 Committee on Urban Conditions among Negroes, 2:890
Cohen, M. N., 1:348 Committee to Save the West Village, 1:413
Cohen, R. B., 2:967 Common interest development (CID), 1:170
Cohen, Stanley, 2:757 Commonwealth of Local Governments Forum, 2:670
Cola di Rienzi, 2:676 Communication, between strangers, 2:773–774
Cold war, 1:227, 281, 2:573 Communications technology. See Information and
Coliseum, New York City, 1:186, 524 communication technologies (ICT); Technology
Collective consciousness, 2:922 Communicative action/rationality, 2:597–598
Collective rationality, 1:163 Communicative planning, 2:605–606
copyright law.

Colombia, 1:234 Communism, 1:421

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Communitarianism, 1:174 Conroy, Maria Manta, 2:793


Community, 1:171–175 Conseco Fieldhouse, Indianapolis, 2:764
city and, 1:173–174 Consensus Organizing Institute, 1:15
classical formulations, 1:171–173 Conservation land trusts, 1:434–435
concept of, 1:171 Conservation Master Plan (Singapore), 2:725
Gemeinschaft, 1:296–298 Conservative housing policy, 1:380–381
human ecology, 1:384–386 Consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), 1:505
ICT and, 1:198–201 Consolidation, 1:28
landscape architecture, 1:432 Constant. See Nieuwenhuys, Constant
revival of, 1:174–175 Constantinople, 1:494. See also Istanbul, Turkey
street people, 2:779 Constructivism, 2:946
threats to, 1:171–172, 181 Contagious Diseases Acts of the 1860s (Britain), 2:701
Community associations, 1:365 Context-Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban
Community centers (shopping), 2:713 Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities, 2:550
Community development, 1:176–178 Conurbation, 1:295, 2:839, 882
economic development vs., 1:176 Convention centers, 1:186–188
intermediaries, 1:177 Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural
international history, 1:176 and Natural Heritage, 1:195
process, 1:177 Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2:776, 777
trends, 1:177–178 Conzen, M. R. G., 1:490, 2:895, 897
United States, 1:176–177 Cook, Thomas, 2:819
Community Development Block Grants, 1:267, 2:621 Co-op City, New York City, 1:53
Community development corporations (CDCs), Cooper, Martha, Subway Art (with Henry Chalfant), 1:326
1:176–178, 2:622 Cooperation, regime theory and, 2:644
Community Development Society, 1:176 Cooperative housing (co-ops), 1:186, 384, 2:736, 737
Community garden, 1:178–179, 179 Cooperative Movement, 1:482
Community informatics, 1:178 Cooperman, Bernard Dov, 1:310
Community land trusts, 1:434–435 Cooper Square plan, 1:5
Community organizers, 1:14–15 Coors Field, Denver, 2:764
Community organizing, 1:13–15, 178, 179–180. See also Copán, 1:26
Citizen participation Copenhagen, Denmark, 1:393, 416–418, 2:769
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (United States), 1:15, Coppola, Francis, The Conversation, 1:150
267, 369, 2:643 Corbett, Judy, 2:550
Community residential facilities. See Halfway house Corbett, Michael, 2:550
Community studies, 1:181–185 Cordon sanitaire, 1:168
American tradition, 1:182–183 Core regions, 2:970–971
criticisms and limitations, 1:182, 184 Cornell, Ontario, 2:550
decline of, 1:172, 182, 183 Cosgrove, Denis, 2:953
Du Bois and, 1:238 Cosmic city, 1:390
future of, 1:184–185 Cosmopolitanism
origins and development, 1:181–182 Athens, 1:47, 49
working-class communities, 1:183–184 Castells, 1:115
Commuters, 1:163–164 cities, 1:504
Commuting. See Journey to work heritage sites, 1:352
Competition, of individuals and social groups, Lagos, 1:428
2:863–864, 929 Mediterranean cities, 1:493, 495
Comprehensive community development, 1:178 Mumbai, 1:530–531
Comprehensive plan. See General plan other global cities, 2:575, 577–578
Comte, Auguste, 1:294, 385 Shanghai, 1:42, 2:704–705
Conant, James Bryant, The American High School urban as, 2:838
Today, 2:573 Costa, Lucio, 1:82, 108, 391
Concentric zone model, 1:124, 127–129, 128, 385, 469, Council for Canadian Urbanism (CCanU), 2:552
2:586–587, 630, 700, 780, 863–864, 872, 895, 924 Council for European Urbanism (CEU), 2:552
Conditions, covenants, and restrictions (CCRs), 1:170 Council housing, 2:736–737
Condominium, 1:185–186 Council of Europe, 1:359
Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Council of Good Government Clubs, 2:673
1:48, 445–446, 2:550, 692–693, 947 Council of University Institutes for Urban Affairs,
Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU), 2:549–552, 792 2:932–933
copyright law.

Connaught Place, Delhi, 1:211–212 Councils of Governments (COGs), 2:547

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Counterpublic spheres, 1:328 Cultural stranger, 2:771–772


Crang, Mike, 1:50, 2:959 Culture. See Urban culture
Crawford, Margaret, Everyday Urbanism (with John Culture of poverty, 2:733, 748, 843
Kaliski), 2:552 Cumulative causation, 1:336
Creative Cities, 2:681 Curitiba, Brazil, 1:95, 350, 2:879
Creative class, 1:188–189. See also Artists; Intellectuals Curl, James, A Celebration of Death, 2:542
Berlin, 1:72 Cushing, Frank, 2:679
bohemia, 1:81 Cyburbia, 1:198–201. See also Technoburbs
informational cities, 1:393–394 Cynicism, 2:719
Santa Fe, 2:681
urban planning, 2:870 Dacey, Michael, 1:73
Creative Class Index, 1:189, 508 Dada, 2:726, 920
Credit, 1:267 Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mande, 2:591
Cressey, Paul G., The Taxi-Dance Hall, 1:127–128 Dahl, Robert, 1:454, 510, 2:644, 911
Cresswell, Tim, 2:758, 959 Who Governs? 2:932
Crime, 1:190–193. See also Violence Daley, Richard J., 1:14, 125
“broken windows” theory, 1:326–327, 364, 2:909, Daley, Richard M., 1:126
925–926, 965 Dallas, Texas, 1:189
consequences, 1:192–193 Damascus, Syria, 1:27, 203–205
defining, 1:190 Damiano, Gerard, Deep Throat, 1:151
drug economy, 1:234–236 Dance music, 1:221–223
fear of, 1:191–192, 290–291, 2:588, 958 Darley, John, 2:917
nighttime, 2:564–568 Darlinghurst, Sydney, 1:308
research, 1:190–191 Darwin, Charles, 1:385, 2:922
surveillance, 2:788 Darwin, Erasmus, 1:396
urban economics, 2:867 Dassin, Jules, The Naked City, 1:150
women, 2:965–966 David, Gerard, 1:87
Crime fiction, 2:901 Davidoff, Paul, 1:2–3, 5, 2:604–605
Crinson, Mark, Urban Memory, 1:159 Davie, Maurice, 1:128
Crisp, Nicholas, 2:847 Davis, Mike, 1:205–207, 282, 471, 489, 2:788
Critical Art Ensemble, 2:618 Buda’s Wagon, 1:207
Critical geography, 2:929 City of Quartz, 1:205–206
Critical regionalism, 1:39–40 Ecology of Fear, 1:205–207
Critical social theory, 1:252 In Praise of Barbarians, 1:206
Critical theory, 1:422 Late Victorian Holocausts, 1:207
Crocker, Frankie, 2:837 Magical Urbanism, 1:206
Cromer, Lord, 1:98 The Monster at Our Door, 1:207
Crosland, Alan, The Jazz Singer, 1:149 Planet of Slums, 1:207
Crown Fountain, Chicago, 2:616 Prisoners of the American Dream, 1:206
Cruising, 2:698, 699 Davis, Robert, 2:549
Crystal Palace exhibition (London, 1851), 2:819 Davis, Susan, 2:808
Cuba, 1:357, 427 Dawodu, W. A., 1:428
Cubism, 2:580, 593 De Angelis, Pierre, 1:155
Cullen, Gordon, 2:549 Dear, Michael, 1:471, 2:875
Cultural anthropology, 1:181 Death, 2:541–543
Cultural capital, 1:308 Death camps, 2:542
Cultural heritage, 1:193–198. See also Heritage City; De Beers diamond company, 1:169
Historic city; World Heritage List Debord, Guy, 2:668–669, 670, 727, 751–753, 958
concept of, 1:351 The Society of the Spectacle, 1:142, 2:668, 751–752
development, 1:195–196 Debré law (France), 1:53
Florence, 1:278 Decentralization. See also Edge city; Exopolis;
placemaking, 2:602 Fragmentation, of cities
politics, 1:196 Canberra, 1:103
protection, 1:194–195 downtowns, 1:232
stakeholder participation, 1:196–197 information and communication technologies, 2:796
tourism, 1:196 Latin America, 1:89
value, 1:194 local government, 1:452–453
Cultural level, 2:863 metropolitan regions, 1:511
copyright law.

Cultural planning, 2:606 Mexico City, 1:514–515

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multicentered metropolitan region, 1:322 Department of. . . . See U.S. Department of . . .
regional governance, 2:647 Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs
suburbanization, 2:779–780 (Britain), 2:792
technoburbs, 2:795–796 Department stores, 2:710–711
Wright on, 1:84 Dependency theory, 2:969. See also Path dependency
de Certeau, Michel, 1:96, 1:208–210, 326, 2:844, 858, 958 Derby Philosophical Society, 1:397
The Practice of Everyday Life, 2:568 Dérive (drift), 2:920, 958
Decision making. See also Will Deroulede, Paul, 2:666
Downs on, 1:230–231 Derrida, Jacques, 1:45, 2:577
governance, 1:324 DeSapio, Carmine, 1:413
metropolitan governance, 1:507–508 De Seta, Cesare, 1:160
urban planning, 2:904–905 Design-based Planning for Communities, 1:438
urban use, 1:163 Design-bid-build, 2:830–831
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Detectives, 2:919
Peoples (2007), 1:281 Detroit, Michigan, 1:433, 2:584
Deconstruction of society-space duality, 2:750–751 Deutches Stadion, Berlin, 2:762
Deegan, Mary Jo, 1:127, 129 Deutsche, Rosalyn, 2:617
Deforestation, 1:27 Developer, 1:214–217, 2:637. See also Land development;
Degas, Edgar, 2:580 Real estate
De Haan, Arjan, 2:733 characteristics, 1:215
Deindustrialization, 1:210–211, 433 geographic focus, 1:215
De Lacroix, Auguste, 1:273 history, 1:214–215
Del Castillo, Adelaida R., 1:262 market analysis and planning, 1:216
Deleuze, Gilles, 1:64, 96, 2:721, 784, 788 market/sector specialization, 1:215–216
Delft, Netherlands, 1:393 trends, 1:216–217
Delhi, India, 1:211–214, 213 zoning, 1:261
architecture, 1:213–214 Development. See Developer; Land development; Uneven
buses, 1:95 development; Urban development
colonialism, 1:168, 211–212, 2:657 Developmental regimes, 2:645
divisions in, 1:212–213 Development Training Institute, 1:177
Garden City model, 1:288 De Vere, Edward, 1:310
before independence, 1:211–212 Dewey, John, 1:127, 250, 478
after independence, 1:212 Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1:42, 2:889
megacity, 1:42 Dial (magazine), 1:533
urban planning, 1:211–213 Dialogic art, 2:617, 618
world city, 1:43 Diani, M., 2:769
Deliberative democracy, 2:597–598 Diasporas, 1:255–257
Della Francesca, Piero, 1:390, 495, 2:654 Dickens, Charles, 1:217–218, 2:899, 901
Ideal City, 1:389 Our Mutual Friend, 2:960, 961
Delors, Jacques, 2:732 Difference, 1:448, 526, 2:756–759
Deltametropolis, 2:652 DiGaetano, Alan, 2:608
Demil, Benoît, 1:64 Diggs Town public housing, Norfolk, 2:549
Democracy Dikeç, Mustafa, 2:670
Athens, 1:46 Dillon’s Rule, 1:452
Central Park, 2:558 Din, Salah al-, 1:98, 204
divided cities, 1:227 Diokno, Maria Serena, 1:484
governance, 1:325 Direct Action & Research Training Network, 1:15, 180
local government, 1:453–454 Disability and the city, 1:218–220, 2:812–813
squares, 2:597–598 Disability Discrimination Act of 1995 (United Kingdom),
walking, 2:958 1:219, 2:812
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, 1:42 Disability Discrimination Act of 2005
Demographics, study of, 1:181, 346 (United Kingdom), 2:812
Demographic urbanization, 2:881 Disasters, 1:119–120. See also Catastrophe
Dene Declaration, 1:280 Discotheque, 1:221–223
Den Gamle By, Aarhus, Denmark, 1:361 Discount centers, 2:713
Denmark, 2:962 Discrimination
Dennis, Norman, Coal Is Our Life, 1:184 gender equity planning, 1:302–304
Density gradient, 2:767 housing, 1:266–267, 2:854–855
copyright law.

Denver, Colorado, 1:60, 61, 156 redlining, 2:642–643

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Disease, 2:802, 877. See also Hygiene; Plague Drugs, 1:23, 192–193
Disinvestment, 1:223–224 Duany, Andres, 2:550–552
Disney, 2:806. See also Walt Disney Company The Lexicon of the New Urbanism, 2:549
Disneyfication, 1:134, 439, 2:552 Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, 2:549, 550
Disney Institute, 2:806 Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 1:393, 2:871
Disneyland, 1:155, 274, 2:722, 807–808 Dublin, Ireland, 1:393
Disney World, 2:807–808 Du Bois, W. E. B., 1:237–239, 2:841, 890
Displacement, 1:224–225, 308–309, 345, 2:545 The Black North, 1:311
Dissident public art, 2:618 The Philadelphia Negro, 1:237–238
Divided cities, 1:225–230. See also Segregation; Dubuffet, Jean, 2:614
Social exclusion Duchamp, Marcel, 1:80
Berlin, 1:226–227 Duhl, L., 1:349
Delhi, 1:212–213 Dumbbell tenements, 2:672, 804
external causes, 1:226–227 Duncan, Nancy, 1:300
internal causes, 1:227–229 Duneier, Mitch, 1:129
Jerusalem, 1:229 Durkheim, Émile, 1:171–172, 190, 385, 2:668,
Middle East, 1:496 841, 842, 856, 922–923, 929
New York City, 2:561 Durrell, Lawrence, 1:160
spaces of flows, 2:761 Durst development firm, 1:215
surveillance, 2:788–789 Dutch East India Company, 1:167
Dizzy Rascal, 1:357 Duyvendak, J. W., 2:667
Döblin, Alfred, 2:899, 902 Dwell-time, 2:921
Documentary tradition of photography, 2:590, 592, 593 Dystopias, 1:391
Documentary writing, 2:901 Dziewonski, Kazimierz, 1:474
Dogtown and Z-Boys (documentary), 2:730
Doherty, J. H., 1:428 Earth Day, 2:879
Dohrewend, Barbara, 2:917 East End, London, 2:758
Dohrewend, Bruce, 2:917 Eastern European model of housing policy, 1:381
Dolgoruki, Yuri, 1:517 East India Company, 2:723
Domiciliary space, 2:588–589. See also Housing East Los Angeles, California, 1:60, 228, 2:964
Dominicans, 1:276 Eastman, Max, 1:80
Donald, Bernard, 2:900, 902 Eastman Kodak, 2:561, 591
Dondi, 1:326 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, 2:764
Donnison, D., 1:381 Eco, Umberto, 2:807, 919
Doré, Gustave, “The Bull’s-eye,” 2:564 École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1:153
Dorn, N., 1:235 Ecological complex, 1:384
Dos Passos, John, 2:899, 902 Ecology. See Factorial ecology; Human ecology;
Douglas, Ann, 2:900 Urban ecology
Douglas, Mary, 2:961 Economic development, 1:176
Douglass, William, 1:437 Economic geography, 2:651
Dovey, Kim, 1:37 Economy. See also Capitalism; Commerce; Labor
Downing, Andrew Jackson, 2:558 and employment; Political economy; Shopping;
Downs, Anthony, 1:230–231 Urban economics
Downs, James, 1:231 Amsterdam, 1:21–22
Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association, 2:973 Asian cities, 1:42–43
Downtown malls, 2:714, 716 bazaars, 1:62–63
Downtown revitalization, 1:231–234, 2:711, 870. Berlin, 1:72
See also Back-to-the-city movement; Gentrification; Bilbao, 1:78
Loft living; Neighborhood revitalization creative class, 1:188–189
Downtown shopping areas, 2:711–712 Downs on, 1:230–231
Drake, St. Clair, Black Metropolis (with Horace Cayton), drugs, 1:234–236
1:311, 2:630 ethnic entrepreneurship, 1:257–260
Dreiser, Theodore, 2:775, 899, 902 globalization, 1:317
Dress codes, 1:529 growth poles, 1:336–337
Drew, Jane, 1:446 landscapes of power, 1:432–434
Dreyfuss, Henry, 2:562 local government, 1:453
Drift (dérive), 2:920, 958 location theory, 1:455–456
Driver, F., 1:538 London, 1:460–462
copyright law.

Drug economy, 1:234–236 Los Angeles, 1:466

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Lösch on, 1:472–474 Enckendorf, Marie-Luise (pseudonym of Gertrude Simmel),


Mexico City, 1:515–516 2:718
nightlife, 2:564–565 End-of-ideology theories, 1:381
patchwork urban, 2:587–588 e-Neighbors, 1:200
primate cities, 2:609–610 Energy balances, 2:850
public realm, 2:625–626 Energy Probe, 1:414
regime theory, 2:644 Engels, Friedrich, 1:164, 397, 482, 486–487, 2:659, 748,
regionalism, 2:547 782, 841, 856, 874
Shanghai, 2:706–707 The Communist Manifesto (with Karl Marx), 2:833–834
sustainable development, 2:791 The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1:109,
technopoles, 2:799–800 487, 2:592, 780, 884
Tokyo, 2:814–815 English Partnerships, 2:945
tourism, 2:820 Enlightenment, 1:396–397
urban design, 2:860–861 Enterprise Foundation, 1:7
urban economics, 1:282–283, 2:865–868 Enterprise zones, 2:621
urban politics, 2:911–912 Entrepreneurialism
women, 2:964 architecture, 1:37–40
Ecotourism, 2:819, 820 Athens, 1:49–50
Edge Cities Network, 1:241 Barcelona, 1:58
Edge city, 1:241–244, 2:796. See also Exopolis ethnic, 1:257–260
defining, 1:241, 242 Manchester, 1:482–483
economy, 2:587 Environment. See also Nature; Sustainable development
Garreau on, 1:241–242, 2:594 ancient cities, 1:27
popular culture, 1:241 Asian cities, 1:44
scholarship on, 1:242–244 awareness movement, 2:879
Edge City Collective, 1:241 city planning, 1:162
Edge City Review (journal), 1:241 globalization, 2:879
Edge City View (website), 1:241 lawns, 1:442–444
Edirne, 1:114 Mexico City, 1:514
Edison, Thomas, 2:593 restorative character of, 1:253–254
Edwards, Jay, 1:92, 2:955 suburbanization, 2:783
Eger, Hungary, 1:360 urban climate, 2:848–853
Egypt, 1:25, 166 urban design, 2:862
Eiffel Tower, Paris, 2:722 urban health, 2:877–878
Eisenschitz, Aram, 2:735 urban planning, 2:905–906
Elagabalus, emperor of Rome, 2:695 zoöpolis, 2:977–980
Eleko, Eshugbayi, 1:428 Environmental Design Research Association, 1:250
Elgin, Lord, 1:48 Environmental equity, 1:244
Eliot, George, 2:899 Environmental justice, 1:244–246
Elites community organizing, 1:180
placemaking, 2:600–601 historical roots, 1:244–245
power elite theory of politics, 2:644 litigation strategy, 1:245
Elkin, Stephen, 2:643 Los Angeles, 1:467
Ellin, Nan, Postmodern Urbanism, 1:438–439 reconceptualizations, 1:246
Ellington, Duke, “Take the A Train,” 2:785 urban health, 2:877
Elm Hill, Norwich, United Kingdom, 1:361 waste, 2:960–961
El Paso, Texas, 1:60, 61 Environmental meaning and perception, 1:251–252
Elsheshtawy, Yasser, 1:43 Environmental planning, 2:903
Emerald Necklace, Boston, 2:584 Environmental policy, 1:247–249
Eminent domain, 1:225 future of, 1:249
Empiricism growth machine, 1:331
Berry and, 1:74 Hong Kong, 1:371
Castells and, 1:116 international, 1:248–249
Du Bois and, 1:238 responses to, 1:248
Harvey and, 1:341 sustainable development, 1:248–249
urban studies, 1:110 urban policy, 1:247–249
Employment. See Labor and employment Environmental Protection Agency. See U.S. Environmental
Empowerment zones, 2:621 Protection Agency
copyright law.

Enchanted stadiums, 2:762 Environmental psychology, 1:250–254

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Environmental racism, 1:244 Healthy Cities movement, 1:348–349


Environmental stressors, 1:252 historic cities, 1:359
Environment and Behavior (journal), 1:250, 254, 2:917 largest cities, 1:106, 108, 2:888
Epicenters, 2:860 public–private partnerships, 2:622
Epistemology, 2:940 regional governance, 2:653
Equity planning movement, 1:5 social exclusion, 2:731–732
Erechtheion, Athens, 1:1, 2 suburbanization, 2:783, 837
Erie, Steven, 2:608 sustainable development, 2:792
Esping-Anderson, G., 1:380, 382 urban planning, 1:20
Esplanade-Theatres on the Bay, Singapore, 2:725 urban politics, 2:912
L’Esprit Nouveau (journal), 1:445 urban studies discipline, 2:933–934
Essen, Germany, 1:354 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), 1:76
Ethnic enclave, 1:255–257 Evans, Gary, 1:252
banlieue, 1:52–54 Evans, Walker, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men
Chicago, 1:123 (with James Agee), 2:593
Chinatowns, 1:131–134 Evelyn, John, 1:135, 137, 2:974–975
community, 1:174 Everyday life
formation, 1:255 money, 2:719–720
ghettoes, 1:309–312 placemaking, 2:601–602
interpretations, 1:255–256 production of space, 2:746–747
Los Angeles, 1:60 social movements, 2:739
Manila, 1:485–486 urban policy, 2:908
racialization, 2:629–630 urban space, 2:929–930
spaces of difference, 2:757–758 Everydayness, 1:447–448
types, 1:256–257 Evolution
Ethnic entrepreneurship, 1:257–260 Geddes and, 1:294–295
concept of, 1:257 urban systems and, 2:938
contributions of, 1:258 Exclusion. See also Social exclusion
highly-skilled, 1:260 housing, 1:267
history of, 1:258 territorialization, 2:567
markets, 1:259 Exclusionary zoning, 1:260–261
opportunities, 1:259–260 Execution sites, 2:542
resources, 1:258–259 Exeter Change, London, 1:33, 34
significance, 1:258 Exopolis, 1:261–262, 511, 2:722, 755, 796.
Ethnicity. See also Race See also Edge city
Amsterdam, 1:22 Expressionism, 2:946
Chinatowns, 1:131–134 Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1:176
drugs, 1:236 Exurbanization, 1:86
Kolkata, 1:421 Exurbia, 2:796
London, 1:461
Los Angeles, 1:470 Face engagements, 2:773
redlining, 2:642–643 Factorial ecology, 1: 265, 2:873
shopping, 2:709 Factory outlets, 2:714
spaces of difference, 2:757–758 Fainstein, Susan, 1:23, 439
zoning, 1:261 Fair housing, 1:266–267. See also Affordable housing
Ethnography, 2:772, 840, 841, 844 Fair Housing Act (FHA) of 1968 (United States), 1:261,
Euler, Leonard, 1:397 266, 2:665, 854
Eurocities, 2:933 Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA) of 1988
European Spatial Development Perspective (Commission of (United States), 1:266
the European Communities), 2:746 Les Faisceau, 1:446
European Urban Knowledge Network, 2:933 Faith-based community organizations, 1:15, 178
European Urban Research Association, 2:933 Faludi, Andreas, 2:604
Europe/European Union Family and Kinship in East London, 1:183
architecture and space, 1:38 Faneuil Hall, Boston, 2:711
cultural capitals, 1:88 Fanselow, Frank S., 1:63
deindustrialization, 1:211 Fantasy cities, 2:565
divided cities, 1:226 Farabi, Abu Nasr al-, The Virtuous City, 1:401–402, 405
gendered space, 2:571–572 Faris, Ellsworth, 1:127
copyright law.

growth management, 1:334–335 Farmer, Paul, 1:162

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Farmers Market, Los Angeles, 2:714 Filtering model, of housing market, 2:868
Farm Security Administration, 2:593 Finland, 2:934
Farrar, Tarikhu, 1:92 Firey, Walter, “Sentiment and Symbolism as Ecological
Fashion, 2:720 Variables,” 1:385
Faubourg, 1:52 First Amendment, U.S. Constitution, 2:702
Fava, Silvia, “Suburbanization as a Way of Life,” 2:885 First National People of Color Leadership Summit
Favela, 1:268–272 (Washington, D.C., 1991), 1:245
cultural relevance, 1:269 Fiscal federalism, 1:453
defining, 1:268 Fischer, Charles, “Toward a Subculture of
emergence, 1:268 Urbanism,” 2:886
global occurrence, 1:268 Fischer, Claude, 2:893, 923–924
hip hop, 1:357 The Urban Experience, 2:917
housing proposals, 1:270–271 Fishman, Robert, 2:594, 796, 894
new generations of, 1:271–272 Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 1:80
patchwork urbanism, 2:588 Five-and-dime stores, 2:710
perceptions of, 1:269–270 Flanagan, William, Urban Sociology, 1:243
policies toward, 1:270 Flanders, 1:65–67, 86–87
regularization, 1:271 Flâneur, 1:70, 272–274, 2:579–580, 592, 697–698, 919,
spatial and social features, 1:269 957–958. See also Pedestrians
structural poverty, 1:270 Le Flâneur au Salon ou M. Bonhomme, 1:273
urbanization, 1:271 Flaubert, Gustave, 1:45, 2:579, 581
Feagin, Joe, 2:554 Flemish Primitives, 1:87–88
Federació Associacons de Veïns i Veïnes de Barcelona Florence, Italy, 1:274–278, 276
(FAVB), 1:57 ancient city, 1:275
Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2:763 architecture, 1:276–278, 2:656
Federal Emergency Relief Agency (FERA), 1:362 citizenship, 1:146
Federal government. See Government role city planning, 1:275, 278
Federal Home Loan Bank Act of 1932 cultural heritage, 1:354
(United States), 1:368 early medieval, 1:275
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 1:368, 2:642 late medieval, 1:275–277
Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), 1:368 Medici, 1:277
Federation of Tenants Association (Mumbai), 2:770 nineteenth century, 1:278
FedEx Forum, Memphis, 2:765 Renaissance city, 2:653–657
Fellig, Arthur (pseudonym: Weegee), Naked City, 2:594 seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 1:277–278
Feminism. See also Women and the city Siena vs., 1:15
deconstruction of social space, 2:750–751 tourism, 2:820
gendered space, 1:298–302, 304 twentieth century, 1:278
gentrification, 1:307 Florida, 1:334
Greenwich Village, 1:80 Florida, Richard, 1:81, 188–189, 415, 436, 508, 2:640,
participatory methods, 1:252 699, 809, 870
revanchism, 2:666 Florin, J., The Megalopolitan Region
spaces of difference, 2:756–757 (with S. Birdsall), 1:498
suburbanization, 2:783 Fluxists, 1:458
time, 2:811 Flyvbjerg, Bent, Rationality and Power, 2:606
urban geography, 2:874–875 Focus on the Global South, 2:670
urban life, 2:892 Folk-urban continuum, 2:842–843. See also Rural vs. urban
women and the city, 1:292, 2:569, 571, 699 Foner, Nancy, 2:556
Fenway Park, Boston, 2:762, 764 Fontayne, Charles, 2:592
Ferguson, Priscilla, 2:900 Food courts, 2:713
Fernand Braudel Center, Binghamton University, 2:970 Forbes Field, Pittsburgh, 2:762, 764
Ferrell, Jeff, 1:329 Forbidden City, China, 1:228–229
Fes, 1:404 Ford, Henry, 2:825
Festival marketplaces, 2:714, 870 Forderer, Christof, 2:900
Fez, Morocco, 1:168 Ford Foundation, 2:930, 934
FHA. See Fair Housing Act (FHA) of 1968 (United States) Fordism, 1:75–76, 149, 281, 2:586, 685–686, 740, 743,
Fiero Milan, 1:188 785. See also Industrialization; Post-Fordism
Filarete, 1:390 Ford Motor Company, 2:561
Film, Kracauer on, 1:424. See also City and film Foreign gated communities, 1:192
copyright law.

Film noir, 1:150, 2:594 Forester, John, 2:606

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Form-based codes, 2:549 Fringe belts, 2:895–896


Form-Based Codes Institute, 2:551 Frisbie, Parker, 1:386
Forst, Germany, 1:226 Fröbel, Folker, 2:835
Forster, E. M., 1:64, 160 Froelich, Gustav, 1:503
Forster, John, 1:217 Fry, Maxwell, 1:446
Forsyth, Ann, 1:303 Fujisawa, Yuki, Metro Survive, 1:262
Fortune (magazine), 1:413 Fujita, Masahisa, 1:282–283
42nd Street (Bacon), 1:149 The Spatial Economy (with Krugman and
Forum, 1:8, 279–280, 2:596, 675 Venables), 1:283
Forum, Inglewood, Los Angeles, 2:763 Full cost accounting, 2:792
Forum Romanum, 1:279 Functional urban regions, 2:839
Foster, Norman, 1:12 Furui, Yoshikichi, 2:902
Foucault, Michel, 1:64, 354–355, 2:566, 606, 695, 696, Futura 2000, 1:326
722, 755, 787, 788, 844, 875 Futurama, New York World’s Fair, 2:562
Fourteenth Amendment, U.S. Constitution, 1:266 Futurism, 2:946
Fourth world, 1:280–282
Fourth World Journal (journal), 1:281 Gaines, Thomas, 2:978
Fox, Richard G., 1:62–63 Gal, Susan, 1:300
Fragmentation, of cities, 1:29, 30, 227, 291, Galapagos Islands, 2:820
2:586–590, 761 Galleries du Bois, Paris, 1:33
France Galleries du Palais Royale, Paris, 1:35
colonialism, 1:168 Gallery at Market East, Philadelphia, 1:234
Garden City model, 1:288 Gama, Vasco da, 2:955
homeowners associations, 1:365 Gamaliel Foundation, 1:15, 180, 2:648
intellectuals, 1:397 Gandy, Matthew, 2:894
medieval town design, 1:490 Gane, Mike, 1:94
Metropolitan, 1:506 Gans, Herbert, 1:285–286, 2:923
regional economics approach, 2:651 The Levittowners, 1:285
social exclusion, 2:731–733 Middle American Individualism, 1:285
Franciscans, 1:276 “Urbanism and Suburbanism as Ways of Life,”
Franco, Francisco, 1:55–57, 114 2:885–886
Francophonie, 2:581 The Urban Villagers, 1:285, 2:843, 892, 932, 943–944
Frank, Andre Gunder, 1:168, 2:970 The War against the Poor, 1:286
Frankfurt, Germany, 1:226 Garay, Juan de, 1:88
Frankfurter Zeitung (newspaper), 1:422–423 Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, 1:287–288
Frankfurt School, 1:68, 422, 2:605, 722 Garden City, 1:286–288, 287
Franklin, Benjamin, 1:396 Broadacre City compared to, 1:85
Fraser, Nancy, 1:227–228, 529 Cairo, 1:99
Frazier, E. Franklin, The Negro Family in Chicago, 1:127 Canberra, 1:102
Frederick II (the Great), king of Prussia, 1:397 community land trusts, 1:435
Fred Harvey Company, 2:681 Hall on, 1:340
Free Congress Foundation, 2:552 history of, 1:286–288
Freedlander, Julius, 2:717 influence of, 1:286, 288, 518, 533–534, 2:549, 585, 891
Freee, 2:618 Paris, 1:53
Free-rider problem, 2:625, 810 regional planning, 2:650–651
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1:427, 428 sustainable development, 2:791
Freire, Paulo, 1:252 urban health, 2:878
Fremont, California, 1:257 utopias, 2:946
French, Marilyn, 2:570 Garden City Association, 1:286–287
French New Wave cinema, 1:150 Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 2:676
French Revolution, 1:35, 52, 87, 452, 2:580 Garnier, Charles, 1:345
French School of Spatial Economics, 1:336 Garreau, Joel, 1:241–243, 2:594
Frenkel, Stephen, 2:807 Edge City, 1:241
Freud, Sigmund, 1:45, 158, 397, 2:571 Gaskell, Elizabeth, Mary Barton, 1:482
Die Freudlose Gasse (film), 1:424 Gated community, 1:289–292, 290
Frick, Dieter, 1:227 Brazil, 2:686
Friedman, David, 1:490, 491 crime and, 1:192
Friedmann, John, 1:20, 313, 336, 2:605, 651, 687 defining, 1:289
copyright law.

“The World City Hypothesis,” 2:967 divided city, 1:226, 228

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global rise of, 1:289–291 historical development, 1:304–305


implications, 1:291–292 legal requirements, 1:305
Manila, 1:485 phases, 1:305
patchwork urbanism, 2:588 rational-comprehensive theory, 2:604–605
production of space, 2:746 transportation planning, 2:828–829
surveillance, 2:789 Genesis Park, 2:805
types, 1:192 Gent, Joos van, 2:654
Gates Foundation, 2:771 Gentrification, 1:305–309. See also Back-to-the-city
Gaudi, Antonio, 1:352 movement; Downtown revitalization; Loft living;
Gay index, 2:699 Neighborhood revitalization
Gay space, 1:292–293, 2:758 Berlin, 1:72
dance music, 1:222 causes, 1:306–308
flâneurs, 2:698 community and, 1:173
gentrification, 1:307–308 concept of, 1:305–306
red-light districts, 2:641 disinvestment, 1:224
Geddes, Patrick, 1:288, 293–295, 532–535, 2:571, 585, displacement, 1:308–309
650, 653, 791, 839 London, 1:462
Cities in Evolution, 1:294–295, 2:966 patchwork urbanism, 2:588
City Development, 1:294 shopping, 2:712
“Civics: As Applied Sociology,” 1:294 studies of, 1:306
The Evolution of Sex (with John Arthur Thomson), 1:294 Geography. See also Urban geography
Evolution (with John Arthur Thomson), 1:533 behavioral, 2:873
Geertz, Clifford, 1:63, 64 critical, 2:929
Gehry, Frank, 1:38, 75–78, 2:860 economic, 2:651
G8, 2:670 Harvey and, 1:341–342
Gelfand, Alan, 2:729 humanistic, 2:873–874
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, 1:171–172, 296–298, time, 2:810–811
2:841, 857, 884, 891–892, 915 uneven development, 2:834–835
Gender. See also Women and the city urban economics, 2:865–868
citizenship, 1:145 GeoJournal, 2:669
city clubs, 1:156 George V, king of England, 1:211
flâneur, 2:957–958 Georgia (country), 1:42
gentrification, 1:307–308 Georgia (state), 1:334
street children, 2:776–777 German Society for Sociology, 2:718
Gendered space, 1:298–302. See also Gay space; Sex and Germany
the city; Women and the city colonialism, 1:93
béguinages, 1:65–68 growth management, 1:335
binarism, 1:300, 301 intellectuals, 1:397
gender equity planning, 1:302–304 sports stadiums, 2:762
hotels, 1:374 urban morphology, 2:895
lawns, 1:442 Germ theory of disease, 2:877
non-sexist city, 2:569–572 Getis, Arthur, 1:73
non-Western, 1:300–302, 496 Getty Foundation, 1:195
public vs. private space, 1:299–300 Ghana, 1:356
religion, 1:301 Ghetto, 1:309–312. See also Banlieue; Barrio;
spaces of difference, 2:756–757 Ethnic enclave; Favela
toilets, 2:812–813 characteristics, 1:228
Venice, 2:953–954 fourth world, 1:281
violence, 1:300 racialization, 2:629
Gender equity planning, 1:302–304. See also Non-sexist city United States, 1:311–312, 2:588
Gender, Place, and Culture (journal), 1:301 Venice, 1:310–311, 2:629, 787, 954
Generalife, Spain, 2:657 Ghiberti, Lorenzo, “Gates of Paradise,” 2:656
General Metropolitan Plan (GMP) [Barcelona], 1:57 Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco, 1:233
General Motors, 1:465, 2:561, 562 Ghirardo, Diane, 1:36
General plan, 1:304–305 Gibbs, Lois, 1:180
advocacy planning vs., 1:2, 3, 4, 2:604–605 Gibrat, Robert, 2:937
City Beautiful movement, 1:152–156 Gibson, James, 1:250–251
city planning, 1:161–162 Giddens, Anthony, 1:165, 320, 321, 2:874, 926
copyright law.

defined, 1:304–305 Gide, André, 2:581

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Giersch, Herbert, 1:474 nation-states, 1:315


Gilbert, D., 1:538 other global cities, 2:575–578
Gilbert, E. W., 2:662 path dependence, 1:315–316
Gilder, Richard Watson, 2:559 politics, 1:316–317
Gilles, Zsuzsa, 2:962 pros and cons, 1:317
Gilliam, Terry, Brazil, 1:141, 391 real estate, 2:744–745
Gilloch, Graeme, 1:274 Sassen on, 2:687–688
Ginsberg, Allen, 1:80, 81 Singapore, 2:725–726
Giotto, 1:277 social exclusion, 2:734–735
Girouard, Mark, 2:837 spaces of flows, 2:759–761
Giuliani, Rudolph, 1:364, 2:559, 666 spatial perspective, 2:942
Gladstone, David, 1:372 standardization, 1:317
Glaeser, Edward, 1:415 suburbanization, 2:783
Glasgow, Scotland, 1:210, 295, 2:584, 667 technology, 2:688
Glass, David, 2:916 technopoles, 2:799–800
Glass, Ruth, 1:305, 306, 462 tourism, 1:318
Glasson, John, 2:650 urban policy, 2:910
Gleaming the Cube (film), 2:730 urban politics, 2:914
Glezos, Manolis, 1:48 urban sociology, 2:926
Global asylopolis, 1:256 world-systems perspective, 2:969–972
Global chronopolis, 1:256–257 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network
Global city, 1:313–316, 318. See also World city (GaWC), 2:968
concept of, 1:313, 463–464 Global panethnopolis, 1:256
epicenters, 2:860 Global South
landscapes of power, 1:434 buses, 1:95
nation-states, 1:314–315 globalization effects, 1:172–173
networks, 1:314 governance, 1:325
New York City, 2:560–561 other global cities, 2:575–577
other global cities, 2:575–578 revanchism, 2:667
path dependence, 1:315–316 squatter movements, 2:769–770
Sassen’s theory, 2:687–688 Global technopolis, 1:257
scale, 1:313–314 Global urban studies, 2:972
Global Creolopolises, 1:257 Global visibility, 1:331
Global ethnopolis, 1:256 Global warming. See Climate change
Global information system (GIS), 2:898 Globurbia, 2:783
Globalization, 1:316–319. See also Global city; Globurbs, 2:783
Other global cities; World city Glocalization, 1:318, 2:860, 941
airports, 1:10, 12 Glover, William J., 1:92
Bilbao, 1:75–78 Gmuend, Austria, 1:226
Cairo, 1:101 Godard, Jean-Luc
capitalist city, 1:111–112 Alphaville, 1:141, 150, 391
cities, impact on, 1:317–319 Two or Three Things I Know about Her, 1:150
colonialism, 1:169 God Games, 2:717
community, 1:172, 175 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1:396, 2:682
crime, 1:192–193 Goetz, Wolff, 2:687
economics, 1:317 Goffman, Erving, 1:439, 2:772–773
environment, 2:879 Behavior in Public Places, 2:773
ethnic enclaves, 1:255, 256 Goldbeck, Maximilian von, Die Stadt von Morgen (with
film, 1:141–142 Erich Kotzer), 1:150
fourth world, 1:280–282 Goldman, Emma, 1:80
global cities, 1:313–316 Goldstein, Doris, 2:552
Global South, 1:172–173 Goldway, Ruth, 2:611
growth machine, 1:332 Goodbun, Jon, 1:438
hip hop, 1:356 Goodbye to the Edge City (Preston School
housing policy, 1:382, 383 of Industry), 1:241
immigration, 1:318 Goonewardena, Kanishka, 1:526–527
industrialization, 2:835 Görlitz, Germany, 1:226
intercity competition, 2:859–860, 910 Gormley, Antony, 2:617
copyright law.

landscapes of power, 1:433–434 Gornja, Radgona, 1:226

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Gorsem, E., 2:664 Greenfields, 1:242


Gotham, Kevin Fox, 2:554, 629 Green Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1:288
Gottdiener, Mark, 1:319–322, 2:554, 929 Green revolution, 1:176
The City and the Sign, 1:321 Greenstein, Jack, 2:655
Las Vegas, 1:439 Greenwich Village, New York City, 1:80, 413,
The New Urban Sociology, 1:321–322 2:559, 639, 641
Planned Sprawl, 1:320 Gregory the Great, Pope, 2:676
Postmodern Semiotics, 1:321 Greimas, Algirdas, 1:320
The Social Production of Urban Space, 1:320 Grenade-sur-Garonne, France, 1:491, 492
The Theming of America, 1:321, 439, 2:806 Grey, Zane, 2:681
Urban Semiotics (with Alexandros Lagopoulos), 2:919 Grier, E. E., 1:224
Gottmann, Jean, 1:505, 2:839 Grier, G., 1:224
Megalopolis, 1:498, 500 Griffin, Marion Mahony, 1:102
Megalopolis Revisited 25 Years Later, 1:500 Griffin, Walter Burley, 1:102–103, 155
Gough, Jamie, 2:735 Griffith, D. W.
Governance, 1:323–325. See also Urban policy The Birth of a Nation, 1:151
cross-national variation, 1:324–325 The Musketeers of Pig Alley, 1:149
elements, 1:324 Gris, Juan, 2:580
metropolitan, 1:506–509 Griscom, John H., 2:557
origins of term, 1:323–324 Gropius, Walter, 2:693, 891
regime theory, 1:324, 2:643–645 Group Areas Act of 1950 (South Africa), 1:31–32
regional, 2:548, 646–649, 794 Groupe de Recherche Européan sur les Milieux Innovateurs
sustainable development, 2:794 (GREMI), 2:799
transit-oriented development, 2:823–824 Groves, Casey, 1:191
waste, 2:962–963 Growth machine, 1:329–332
Government. See Local government applications, 1:330
Government role. See also City planning; Environmental concept of, 1:329–330
policy; Housing policy; Local government; Urban criticisms of concept, 1:331–332
planning; Urban policy cross-national applications, 1:330–331
homeownership, 1:368–369, 377 global forces, 1:332
Hong Kong, 1:370–371 smart growth, 1:334
housing, 1:376–377 urban policy, 2:908
land development, 1:429–430 Growth management, 1:333–335
public–private partnerships, 2:620–623 criticisms of, 1:335
regime theory, 2:643–644 defining, 1:333
Graffiti, 1:326–329, 327, 2:630, 758, 920 development of, 1:333–334
Graham, Stephen, 2:590 Europe, 1:334–335
“The Ordinary City” (with Ash Amin), 2:876 Growth poles, 1:336–337
Gramdan movement, 1:435 Gruen, Victor, 2:715
Grameen Bank, 1:43 Grune, Karl, The Street, 1:150
Gramsci, Antonio, 1:497 Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, 1:169, 2:846
Granovetter, Mark, 1:199, 285 The Guardian (newspaper), 2:837
Grassroots movements, 1:116, 176, 178–179, 2:761 Guatemala, 2:778
Gravier, Jean-François, Paris et le désert français, 1:54 Guattari, Felix, 2:784
Grayfields, 2:550, 715 Guben, Germany, 1:226
Grazian, David, Blue Chicago, 2:807 Guerilla Girls, 2:616
Great Depression, 1:103, 124, 155, 214–215, 232, 288, Guerrillas, in bureaucracy, 1:4
321, 362, 368, 375, 384, 412, 436, 523, 2:593, 642, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, 1:38, 75–78, 77, 538, 2:860
647, 711, 736 Gutman, Robert, Architectural Practice, 1:36–37
Greater London Authority, 1:463 Guys, Constantin, 1:273
Greater London Council, 1:452, 463
Greater London Regional Planning Committee, 2:651 Haag, Michael, Alexandria, 1:160
Great Migration, 1:124 Habermas, Jürgen, 1:227, 252, 529, 2:597, 605–606, 625
Great Zimbabwe, 1:26 Habitations à bon marché (HBM), 1:53
Greece, 1:145, 381 Habitus, 2:808
Greenbelt, Maryland, 1:288 The Haçienda, Manchester, United Kingdom, 1:222
Greendale, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1:288 Hack, Gary, Site Planning (with Kevin Lynch), 1:476
Greene, Richard, New Immigrants, Indigenous Poor, and Hacking, Ian, 2:696
copyright law.

Edge Cities, 1:243 Hadewijch, 1:67

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Hadrian, 1:47 Hawley, Amos, 1:346–348, 385–386, 2:924


Hägerstrand, Torsten, 1:474, 2:810–811, 937, 959 Human Ecology, 1:385
Haggis, Paul, Crash, 1:152 Hayden, Delores, 1:299
Hahn, James, 1:467 Hayes, Robert, 1:363
Hahn, Kenneth, 1:467 Haymarket Affair (Chicago, 1886), 1:123, 153
Haila, Anne, 2:661 Haynes, George Edmund, 2:890
Halfway house, 1:339–340 Haynes, Todd, Far from Heaven, 1:151
Hall, Edward T., 2:773 Hazard mitigation plans, 1:121–122
The Hidden Dimension, 1:250 Head Start, 2:855
Hall, Peter, 1:117, 313, 340–341, 349, 415, 481 Healey, Patsy, 2:606, 652
Cities in Civilization, 1:340 Health. See Hygiene; Urban health
Cities of Tomorrow, 2:650 Health of Towns movement, 1:349
Technopoles of the World (with Manuel Castells), Healthy Cities, 1:254, 348–350, 2:877
2:799–800 Healthy Communities, 1:350
The World Cities, 2:966–967 Heathrow, London, 1:12
Hamburg, Germany, 1:210, 359 Hedonic studies, 2:868
Hamilton, Bruce, 2:810 Hegemann, Dimitri, 1:222
Hamnett, Chris, 1:306, 307, 461 Hegemony, 2:970
Hampton, Keith, 1:199–201 Heinrichs, Jürgen, 2:835
Hands Across America, 1:364 Helm, Brigite, 1:503
Haneke, Michael, Caché, 1:152 Hemingway, Ernest, 1:80
Hannerz, Ulf, 2:857 Hemyng, Bracebridge, 1:34
Hannigan, John, 2:565, 806 Henderson, Charles R., 1:127
Hanoi, Vietnam, 1:44 Henry IV, king of France, 1:135
Harappa, 1:25 Hephaisteion, Athens, 1:10
Harassment, in housing, 1:267 Herc, DJ Kool, 1:356
Harborplace, Baltimore, 1:234, 2:711, 871 Herdt, Gilbert, Third Sex, Third Gender, 1:301
Harbor Town, Memphis, 2:550 Heritage City, 1:351–354, 359.
Harlem, New York City, 1:256 See also Cultural heritage; Historic city
Harloe, M., 1:382–383 Héritage Montreal of 1975, 1:352
Harper’s Weekly (magazine), 2:672 Herodotus, Histories, 2:887
Harris, Chauncy, “The Nature of Cities” (with Edward Hess, Alan, 1:438
Ullman), 2:872, 895, 924 Hessel, Franz, 1:69
Harrison, George, 2:805 Heteronormativity, 2:698–699, 758
Harrison, Olivia, 2:805 Heterotopia, 1:354–355
Harrison, Wallace, 2:562 Hetherington, Kevin, 2:758
Hart-Celler Act of 1965 (United States), 1:470 Hewett, Edgar, 2:679
Hartford, Connecticut, 2:611 Hewitt, Andy, 2:618
Hartley, Marsden, 2:679 Hexagon model of city development, 1:474, 2:873, 936
Hartman, Chester, 1:5 Hierarchy of needs, 1:376
Harvard–MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies, 2:930 Highland Park shopping mall, Dallas, 2:714
Harvey, David, 1:74, 111, 116, 142, 315, 320, 341–343, Highmore, Ben, 2:900, 902
469, 488, 2:553–555, 589, 598, 651, 660, 669, 670, Highway Act of 1956 (United States), 1:232
735, 744, 750, 757, 834, 947–948 Hiller, Ernest T., The Strike, 1:129
The Condition of Postmodernity, 1:343, 2:875 Hill stations, 2:662
Consciousness and the Urban Experience, 1:342 Hilton Corporation, 1:372
Explanation in Geography, 1:341–342 Hinchcliffe, Steven, 2:894
Limits to Capital, 1:342 Hine, Lewis, 2:592
Social Justice and the City, 1:329, 342, 2:874, 932 “Teaching the Young Ideal, 2:591
Spaces of Hope, 1:343 Hines Interests, 1:215
Haskell, Douglas, 1:412 Hip hop, 1:355–357
Hastie, William, 1:518 Hiplife, 1:356
Hatch, C. Richard, 1:5 Hippias, 1:46
Häußermann, Hartmut, 1:227 Hippodamus, 1:46, 166
Haussmann, Baron Georges-Eugène, 1:52, 54, 106, 137, Hiroshima, Japan, 1:357–358, 2:573
140, 153, 273, 294, 342, 344–346, 391, 2:580, 584, Hirschmann, Albert, 1:336
657, 696, 788, 802, 919, 928 Historical literacy, 2:845
Hawaii, 1:334 Historic cities, 1:358–362.
copyright law.

Hawk, Tony, 2:730 See also Cultural heritage; Heritage City

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Historic Ordinance of 1957 (Santa Fe), 2:681 back-to-the-city movement, 1:378–379


Historic preservation. See Preservation Berlin, 1:71–72
Historic Santa Fe Foundation, 2:681 Cairo, 1:99
Historic Savannah Foundation, 2:691 Chicago, 1:124–125
History. See Urban history city planning, 1:161–162
Hitler, Adolf, 1:107, 228, 503, 2:762 condominiums, 1:185–186
Hjelmslev, Louis, 1:320 continuum of, 1:376
Hobbes, Thomas, 1:296 discrimination, 1:266–267, 2:854–855
Hobbs, D., 1:236 exclusionary zoning, 1:260–261
Hobbs, Dick, 2:566 government role, 1:376–377
Hofmannstahl, Hugo von, 1:397 Istanbul, 1:409
Hogenberg, Franz, 1:157 life course needs, 1:376
Holford, William, 1:103 loft living, 1:458–459
Hollands, Robert, 2:565, 566 London, 1:462–463
Homelessness, 1:362–364, 376, 2:671, 673, 758, 777 Manila, 1:485
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) of 1975 Moscow, 1:518–519
(United States), 1:267, 2:643 Mumbai, 1:530–532
Homeowners associations, 1:170, 365 New York City, 2:558–559
Homeownership, 1:366–369 Paris, 1:53
benefits, 1:367–368 patchwork urbanism, 2:588–589
determinants, 1:367, 384 personal and social roles, 1:376
financing, 1:366–367, 2:642–643, 737 quality, 1:377
government role, 1:368–369, 377 reforms, 2:802–803
London, 1:462 rent control, 2:658
political participation, 1:368 residential satisfaction, 1:377, 379
private vs. public, 1:384 right to, 1:375
public housing, 2:737–738 Riis and, 2:672–673
rates, 1:366–367, 378, 383–384 São Paulo, 2:685
restrictive covenants, 2:665 Savannah, 2:690
tenure, 1:378, 383–384 Shanghai, 2:705–706
types, 1:366 Singapore, 2:724
Homeowners Loan Act of 1933 (United States), 1:368 size, 1:378
Home Owners Loan Corporation, 2:642 tenements, 2:801–805
Home rule movement, 2:646 tenure, 1:378, 383–384
Hone, Philip, 2:557 urban economics, 2:868
Hong Kong, China, 1:369–371 zoning, 1:162, 260–261, 377
divided cities, 1:226 Housing Act of 1937 (United States), 2:736
economy, 1:370 Housing Act of 1949 (United States), 1:232, 2:855, 878
environmental policy, 1:371 Housing Act of 1954 (United States), 2:855
government role, 1:370–371 Housing Act of 1959 (United States), 2:855
history of, 1:369–370 Housing Act of 1961 (United States), 2:855
One Country, Two Systems, 1:370 Housing and Town Planning Act of 1919 (Britain), 2:781
public housing, 2:736, 738 Housing associations, 2:737
urbanization, 1:42, 370 Housing policy, 1:379–383
world city, 1:43 categorizing, 1:380–381
Hong Kong International Airport, 1:12 conservative, 1:380–381
Hooke, Robert, 1:135, 2:975 convergence approaches, 1:381–383
Hoover, Edgar M., Jr., 1:473 definitions, 1:379
HOPE VI, 2:550, 965 divergence approaches, 1:382–383
Horton Plaza, San Diego, 2:711 exclusionary zoning, 1:260–261
Hotel, motel, 1:371–374 fair housing, 1:266–267
Hotelling’s Law, 2:640 liberal, 1:380–381
Housing, 1:375–379. See also Affordable housing; objectives, 1:380, 383
Public housing; Social housing social democratic, 1:380–381
age of stock, 1:377, 378 urban economics, 2:868
Amsterdam, 1:22–23 women, 2:964–965
architecture, 1:375 Housing subsidies, 1:7
Asian cities, 1:44 Housing tenure, 1:378, 383–384
copyright law.

Athens, 1:48 Houston, Texas, 1:28, 2:961

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Hovorka, Alice, 2:978 Hynes Auditorium, Boston, 1:186


Howard, Ebenezer, 1:53, 85, 99, 286–288, 340, 435, 518, Hypermarkets, 2:713
532–533, 2:585, 650, 891, 946–947
Garden Cities of Tomorrow, 1:286, 533, 535 IBA competitions, 2:549
Tomorrow, 1:286, 288 ICOMOS. See International Council on Monuments
Howells, William Dean, 2:559 and Sites
Howlett, Robert, 2:592 Iconicity in architecture, 1:38–40
Hoyt, Homer, 1:243, 2:872, 895, 924 ICT. See Information and communication technologies
Hsiao-Hsen, Café Lumière, 2:785 Ictinos, 1:46
Hsinchu Science Park, Taiwan, 2:797 Ideal central-place hierarchy, 1:473, 474
Hubs, global, 2:760 Ideal city, 1:389–392
Hudson & Manhattan (H & M) railway, 2:973 anti-utopias/dystopias, 1:391
Hughes, Howard, 1:436 architecture, 1:390–391
Hugo, Victor, 2:579 characteristics, 1:389–390
Les Miserables, 2:696 failures, 1:391
Hull House, Chicago, 1:124, 129, 176 Hippodamus, 1:166
Hull House Maps and Papers, 1:129, 237 urban planning, 1:390–391
Hulme, Manchester, 2:945 Utopian tradition, 1:390
Human, Renee, 1:96 White City, Chicago World’s Fair, 1:124, 153, 155
Human-animal-environment relations, Identity
2:977–980 cities and memory, 1:159
Humane Borders, 2:577 formation of, 2:626–627
Human ecology, 1:384–386. See also Urban ecology gender, 1:307–308
(Chicago School) gentrification, 1:307–308
Chicago School, 1:127–128, 173 place, 1:253
components, 1:386 sexual, 1:307–308, 2:758
environmental psychology, 1:250 shopping, 2:709–710
Hawley’s influence, 1:346–348 street children, 2:778–779
housing, 1:376 Ideology, 1:381–382
neo-orthodox, 1:346–348, 384–386 Igbo, Braimah, 1:428
new urban sociology vs., 2:554 Image production, 1:142–143
traditional approaches, 1:385 Image studies, 1:475
Humanistic geography, 2:873–874 Immigration
Human trafficking, 1:192 Amsterdam, 1:22
Hume, David, 1:396 Chicago, 1:123–124, 126
Hungary, 2:962–963 Chinatowns, 1:131–133
Hunt, Henry, 1:483 community, 1:174
Hunt, Richard Morris, 1:153 ethnic enclaves, 1:255–257
Hunter, Albert, 1:191 France, 2:581
Hunter, Floyd, 2:644, 911 globalization, 1:318
Hunter v. Pittsburgh (1907), 1:29 London, 1:318, 461, 2:758
Huntington, Henry, 1:465 Los Angeles, 1:470
Huntington, Samuel, 1:496 Moscow, 1:318, 519
Hurricane Katrina (2005), 1:119, 120, 224–225, multicultural cities, 1:525
2:550–551, 763 Paris, 1:53–54
Huston, John, The Asphalt Jungle, 1:150 political machines, 2:607–608
Hutchinson, Sikivu, 1:95 racialization, 2:629–630
Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World, 1:391 sociospatial effects, 2:861
Huxley, Thomas, 1:294 urban politics, 2:914
Huyssen, Andreas, 1:159 Imperialism, 2:970
Hygiene. See also Urban health Imperial Stables, Vienna, 1:354
cemeteries, 2:543 Improvisation, 1:423
Chinatowns, 1:133 Incrementalism, 2:604
gendered space, 2:570 Incumbent upgrading, 2:544
Haussmann’s Paris, 1:344–345 India
New York City, 2:557–558 economy, 1:42
sewers, 2:695–697 Geddes and, 1:294
tenements, 2:802, 804 globalization, 1:317
copyright law.

toilets, 2:811–813 resorts, 2:662

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suburbanization, 2:783 technopoles, 2:800


surveillance, 2:788 visual culture, 2:594–595
Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), 1:119, 225 Inhabitants, 1:163–164
Individualism, 1:84, 297–298, 2:941 Inka empire, 1:25, 27, 167
Indonesia, 1:42, 43 Innovation, urban system development and, 2:937–938
Industrial Areas Foundation, 1:15, 180 Innovative milieus, 1:481, 2:797–800
Industrialization. See also Fordism Institute for Applied Autonomy, 2:618
Asia, 1:42–43 Institute for Research on World-systems, University of
Barcelona, 1:55 California, Riverside, 2:970
Bilbao, 1:75–76 Institute for Urban History (Sweden), 2:881
deindustrialization, 1:210–211, 433 Institute of Community Studies (United Kingdom),
discotheques, 1:222 1:183, 2:782
Geddes on, 1:295 Institute of Development Studies, 1:177
gendered space, 1:299 Institutional approach to real estate, 2:636–637
globalization, 2:835 Institutional capacity, 2:652
heritage sites, 1:354 Institutional thickness, 2:652
location theory, 1:455–456 Institutions
Manchester, 1:481–482, 2:884 social exclusion, 2:732–734
regional governance, 2:647 social problems, 1:19
Shanghai, 2:704, 706–707 Instituto de Estudios Urbanos, Colombia, 2:934
Tönnies on, 1:297 Intellectuals, 1:395–399. See also Creative class
urban culture, 2:856 Castells, 1:114–115
urban development, 1:109–110 concept of, 1:395–396
urban health, 2:877 current status, 1:398
urban politics, 2:913 Enlightenment, 1:396–397
Industrial Revolution, 1:21, 130, 152, 163, 167, future of, 1:398–399
218, 299, 319, 481, 493, 495, 497, 2:661, Gans, 1:285
697, 801, 856, 887, 922 Mumford, 1:532
Industry clusters, 2:814–815 nineteenth- and twentieth-century, 1:397–398
Indus Valley, 1:25 politics, 1:397
i-Neighbors, 1:200–201 Interdisciplinary studies, 2:932
Inequalities Interests
buses, 1:95 advocacy planning, 1:3–4
cultural heritage, 1:197–198 mediation, 1:508
gender equity planning, 1:302–304 International Alliance of Inhabitants, 2:670
social vulnerability, 1:120–121 International Amphitheater, Chicago, 1:186
Tokyo, 2:816 International Association of Science Parks, 2:800
Influx control, 1:31–32 International Center for the Study of Preservation and
Informational city, 1:392–395 Restoration of Cultural Property, 1:195
Castells on, 1:115–118 International Conference on City Diplomacy (2008), 1:455
creative class, 1:393–394 International Congress of Architects and Technicians of
strategies for successful, 1:395 Historic Monuments, 1:195
technology parks, 1:394–395 International Council for Local Environmental
urban development, 1:393 Initiatives, 1:249
Information and communication technologies (ICT). International Council on Monuments and
See also Informational city; Technology Sites (ICOMOS), 1:195, 352
community and, 1:175 Internationale situationniste (journal), 2:753
community development, 1:178 International Garden City Association, 1:288
cyburbia, 1:198–201 International Healthy Cities Foundation, 1:350
decentralization, 2:796 International Housing and Town Planning
everyday impact, 2:861 Federation, 1:288
neighborhoods, 1:199–201 International Institute for Sustainable Development
red-light districts threatened by, (Canada), 2:792
2:641–642 International issues
shopping, 2:712 community development, 1:176
SimCity, 2:716–717 environmental policy, 1:248–249
social networks, 1:198–199 governance, 1:324–325
spaces of flows, 2:760–761 growth machine, 1:330–331
copyright law.

technoburbs, 2:795–798 Haussmann’s influence, 1:345

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Healthy Cities movement, 1:350 Jackson, Helen Hunt, Ramona, 2:601


megalopolis, 1:501–502 Jackson, Kenneth T., 1:411, 2:894
parks, 2:584 Crabgrass Frontier, 1:411
public–private partnerships, 2:622 Jackson Plan (Singapore), 2:724
urban psychology, 2:917–918 Jacksonville, Florida, 1:28
International Journal of Urban and Regional Jacob, Max, 2:580
Research, 2:933 Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York City,
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 1:317, 2:670, 739, 757 1:187, 188
International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, 2:727 Jacobs, Jane, 1:233, 412–416, 2:694, 710, 893, 928, 944
International Network for Urban Research and Cities and the Wealth of Nations, 1:413
Action (INURA), 2:933 The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 1:412–414,
International Regional Science Review (journal), 1:20 535, 2:904, 932, 958
International Standards Organization 14,001, 1:249 The Economy of Cities, 1:413
International style, 1:39, 155, 233, 2:562 The Question of Separatism, 1:414
Internet. See Information and communication Jacobs, Robert Hyde, 1:412
technologies (ICT) Jäger, Johannes, 2:661
Internment camps, 2:846 Jahn, Helmut, 1:12
Inukshuk sculpture, 2:614 Jakarta, Indonesia, 1:42, 43, 120
Invasion, of neighborhoods, 2:864 Jakle, J. A., The Motel in America, 1:373
Iofán, Boris, 1:107 James, William, 1:127, 250
Iran, 1:42, 43 Jameson, Fredric, 1:438
Iraq War (2003–present), 1:225 James the Apostle, 2:682–683
Irish Republican Army, 2:821 Janowitz, Morris, 1:129
Ironbridge, Shropshire, United Kingdom, 1:354 Japan
Irvine, California, 2:587 economy, 1:42, 44
Isard, Walter, 1:399–401, 474, 2:651 public–private partnerships, 2:622
General Theory, 1:400 red-light districts, 2:638–639
Location and Space-Economy, 1:400 technopoles, 2:800
Methods of Interregional and Regional Analysis, 1:400 urbanization, 1:42
Ishiguro, Kazuo, 2:902 Jappe, Anselm, 2:753
Ishihara, Shintaro, 2:817 Jaray, Tess, 2:617
Isin, Engin, 2:577 Jardins du Palais Royal, Paris, 1:33
Islam, 1:43, 2:887 The Jazz Singer (Crosland), 1:149
Islamic city, 1:43, 401–405 Jeanneret, Charles-Édouard. See Le Corbusier
Cairo, 1:97–101 Jeanneret, Pierre, 1:446
colonial cities, 1:166 Jefferson, Mark, 2:609–610
gendered space, 1:301, 496 Jefferson, Thomas, 1:50, 84, 2:837
hotels, 1:374 Jenney, William LeBaron, 1:124
Istanbul, 1:405–409 Jerde, Jon, 1:436
law and, 1:402–403 Jerusalem, 1:229, 256
Manila, 1:485–486 Jet aircraft, 1:11
segregation, 1:496 Jews
Ismail, Khedive, 1:98, 100 divided cities, 1:228
Israel, 1:229, 512 ghettoes, 1:309–311, 2:787, 954
Isserman, Andrew, 1:337 Istanbul, 1:409
Istanbul, Turkey, 1:405–409, 407 stranger archetype, 2:771
catastrophe, 1:120 suburbanization, 2:783
houses, 1:409 Venice, 2:954
megacity, 1:42 Johannesburg Summit (2002), 2:790
neighborhoods, 1:408 John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2:648
postcolonial, 1:43 John F. Kennedy Airport, New York, 1:12
public places, 1:408–409 John Hancock Center, Chicago, 1:125
railroad station, 2:632 Johns Hopkins University, 1:127
urban development, 1:406 Johnson, Charles S., 1:129
urban production/consumption, 1:406–408 Johnson, David, 2:651
Italy, 1:168 Johnson, Louise, 1:301
Ivan the Terrible, czar of Russia, 1:517 Johnson, Lyndon B., 2:854, 930
Izenour, Steven, Learning from Las Vegas (with Venturi and Johnston, Boris, 1:463
copyright law.

Scott Brown), 1:140, 437–438 Johnston, Ron, 2:873

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Jolson, Al, 1:149 Khaldun, Ibn, 1:402–403, 405


Jones, Matthew, 2:573 Muqaddimah, 1:403
Jordan, Mel, 2:618 Khan, Kublai, 1:41
Journalism, 2:901 Khan al-Umdan caravanserai, Acre, 1:114
Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1:254 Khmer empire, 1:26
Journal of Regional Science, 1:400–401 Khrushchev, Nikita, 1:391, 518, 2:668
Journal of the American Institute of Architects, 1:533 Khrushchevkas, 1:391, 518
Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1:2 Kiarostami, Abbas, A Taste of Cherry, 1:151
Journal of Urban Affairs, 2:933 Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, 1:186
Journal of Urban Analysis and Public Management, 2:932 Kiel Institute for World Economics, 1:473
Journal of Urban Economics, 2:932 Kimball, S. T., Family and Community in Ireland (with
Journal of Urban History, 2:932 Conrad M. Arensberg), 1:184
Journal of World-Systems Research, 2:970 King, Anthony, 1:91, 92, 167, 313
Journey to work, 1:416–418 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1:266, 2:854
Joyce, James, 2:899, 902 King, Rodney, 1:467
Ulysses, 1:447 Kingdome, Seattle, 2:763
Juarez, Benito, 1:516 King’s Daughters, 2:673
Jubayr, Ibn, 1:204 Kingston, Jamaica, 1:166
Judaism, 2:887 Kipfer, Stefan, 1:526–527
Judd, D., 1:439 Kirk, William, 1:412
Judd, Dennis, 2:808 Klaassen, Leo H., 1:474
Julius II, Pope, 2:676 Klein-Rogge, Rudolf, 1:503
Jünger, Ernst, 1:503 Kleisthenes, 1:9
Junior Network for International Urban Studies, 2:933 Klotz, Volker, 2:900
Justice. See Environmental justice; Gender equity planning Knight, Valentine, 1:135
Knowledge, in planning, 2:605
Kaiser, Georg, Gas, Metropolis, 1:503 Knowledge city. See Informational city
Kaiser Wilhelm Gedächtniskirke, Berlin, 1:359 Knox, Paul, 2:875
Kaliski, John, Everyday Urbanism (with Margaret Knuckles, Frankie, 1:222
Crawford), 2:552 Koch, Ed, 1:413
Kampung, 1:419 Kofman, Eleonore, 2:667
Kanak, Alvin, Inukshuk sculpture, 2:614 Kohn, Clyde, Readings in Urban Geography (with Harold
Kantor, Paul, 2:912 Mayer), 2:872
Karachi, Pakistan, 1:42 Kolkata (Calcutta), India, 1:41, 42, 166, 420–422
Karloff, Reed, 2:552 Komarom, Hungary, 1:226
Kasarda, John D., 1:386 Kong, Lily, 1:134
Kassovitz, Mathieu, Le Haine, 1:54 Koolhaas, Rem, Project on the City, 1:438
Katrina cottages, 2:551 Kostof, Spiro, 1:390
Katz, Peter, 2:550, 552 Kotun, Karimu, 1:428
The New Urbanism, 2:550 Kotzer, Erich, Die Stadt von Morgen (Goldbeck), 1:150
Katznelson, Ira, City Trenches, 1:454 Kowng, Peter, The New Chinatown, 1:134
Kayquba –d, ‘Ala–’ al-Dı-n, 1:114 Kracauer, Siegfried, 1:149–150, 422–424, 2:718
Kazakhstan, 1:42, 43 From Caligari to Hitler, 1:424, 503
Keating, Michael, 2:651 Jacques Offenbach and the Paris of His Time, 1:423–424
Kechiche, Abdellatif, L’Esquive, 1:54 Das Ornament der Masse, 1:423
Kelbaugh, Douglas, A Pedestrian Pocket Book, 2:549 Strassen in Berlin und Anderswo, 1:423
Kelley, Robin D. G., 1:356 Theory of Film, 1:150, 424
Kelling, George L., 1:327 Kreye, Otto, 2:835
Kelo v. City of New London (2005), 1:225 Krier, Léon, 1:278, 2:549
Kemeny, J., 1:382 Krugler, David, 2:573
Kendig, Hal, New Life for Old Suburbs, 1:306 Krugman, Paul, The Spatial Economy (with Fujita and
Kennedy, John F., 1:266, 2:855 Venables), 1:283
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1:478 Krumholz, Norman, 1:5, 2:611
Kerner, Otto, 2:854 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1:43, 132, 2:587
Kerner Commission Report, 2:854 Kubitschek, Juscelino, 1:82
Kerouac, Jack, On the Road, 1:80 Kubrin, Charis E., 2:554
Kesey, Ken, 1:81 Kucinich, Dennis, 2:611
Kester, Grant, 2:617 Kuhn, Thomas, 2:793
copyright law.

Keynes, John Maynard, 1:336 Kumar, Krishan, 1:390

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Kureishi, Hanif, 1:151, 2:902 Laska, Shirley Bradway, Back to the City (with Daphne
Kuressaare, Estonia, 1:350 Spain), 1:51
Kusner, Kenneth, The Making of a Negro Ghetto, 1:312 Lasker, Stephanie, 2:703
Küstrin, Germany, 1:226 Las Vegas, Nevada, 1:435–440, 437, 2:722, 808, 820, 821
Kyoto, Japan, 1:41 Las Vegas Convention Center, 1:187
Kyoto Protocol, 1:248 Latane, Bibb, 2:917
Kyrgyzstan, 1:42 Latin America
city planning, 2:693–694
Labor and employment social movements, 2:739
Berlin, 1:72 squares, 2:597
Chicago, 1:123–124 Latina/o culture
deindustrialization, 1:210–211 barrios, 1:59–61
ethnic entrepreneurship, 1:257–260 dance music, 1:222
hotels, 1:374 hip hop, 1:355–357
information age, 1:117 suburbanization, 2:783
journey to work, 1:416–418 Laufenberg, Germany, 1:229
Marxist analysis, 1:487 Laufenberg, Switzerland, 1:229
tourism, 2:821 Launhardt, Wilhelm, 1:472
working-class communities, 1:183–184 Laura Spellman Rockefeller Memorial Fund, 1:127
zoning, 1:261 Lavatories. See Toilets
Lacan, Jacques, 1:208, 2:696 Law
Lacasa, Luis, 2:693 annexation, 1:29–30
Ladd, Brian, 1:159 city planning, 1:162
La Defense, Paris, 1:53 general plans, 1:305
Lafitte, Pierre, 2:800 Islamic city, 1:402–403
La Fonda Hotel, Santa Fe, 2:681 skateboarding, 2:730–731
Lagopoulos, Alexandros, 1:320 squatter movements, 2:769–770
Urban Semiotics (with Mark Gottdiener), 2:919 tenements, 2:801–802
Lagos, Nigeria, 1:427–429, 2:889 Lawn, 1:440–444, 441
La Guardia, Fiorello, 1:522, 523 Law of the Indies of 1573 (Spain), 2:597, 680
Laguna West, Sacramento, 2:549 Lawrence, D. H., 2:680
La Havre, France, 1:352 Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities
Lai, David Chuenyan, Chinatowns, 1:134 (Chicago), 2:648
Lakewood Plan, 1:470 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, 1:249
Lalonde Report, 1:349 League of Nations, 1:445
Lamartine, Alphonse de, 2:579 Leavenworth, Washington, 2:807
Land development, 1:429–430, 2:822–824. Lebas, Elizabeth, 2:667
See also Developer; Real estate; Urban development Le Clezio, J. M. G., 2:581
Landmarks Preservation Commission, 1:459 Lecocq, Xavier, 1:64
Land rent theory, 2:659–661 Le Corbusier, 1:444–446
Landscape, sprawl and, 2:768 Après le Cubisme (with Amédée Ozenfant), 1:445
Landscape architecture, 1:154, 430–432, 2:543 Barcelona, 2:692
Landscapes of power, 1:432–434. See also Power; Bogotá, 2:693
Surveillance Brasília, 1:81–82, 108
Land tenure rights, 1:271 Buenos Aires, 1:89
Land trusts, 1:434–435 bunkers, 1:93
Land-use planning, 2:903. Chandigarh, 1:108, 446, 2:693
See also Regional planning Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, 1:446
Lang, Fritz Charter of Athens, 1:48
Dr. Mabuse, the Gambler, 1:150 The City of Tomorrow, 2:593
M, 1:150 Dom-Ino, 1:445
Metropolis, 1:141, 391, 502–503, 2:593 early years, 1:444–445
Lange, Dorothea, 2:593–594 Five Points of a New Architecture, 1:445
Language gendered space, 2:571
multicultural cities, 1:528–529 ideal city, 1:391
placemaking, 2:601–602 Jacobs on, 1:414
Laos, 1:42 medieval cities, 1:490
Larson, Sarfatti, 1:438 public housing, 1:53
copyright law.

Lashkar-e-Toiba, 1:532 The Radiant City, 1:53

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Sert and, 2:692–693 Light, Ivan, 1:258


Tsentrosoyuz building, 1:518 Lighting, 2:563–564, 567
Unité d’habitation, 1:446 Ligue des Patriotes, 2:666
Urbanisme, 1:445, 490 Lin, Jan, Reconstructing Chinatown, 1:134
urbanization, 2:891–892 Lincoln Center, New York City, 1:524
urban planning, 1:340, 2:904, 947 Lindblom, Charles, “The Science of Muddling
utopias, 2:947 Through,” 2:604
Vers une Architecture (Towards a New Architecture), Lindsay, John, 1:413, 2:855
1:53, 445 Lipietz, Alain, 2:660
Ville Contemporaine, 1:445 Lipton, Lawrence, 1:80
Ville Radieuse, 1:445 Lissitzky, El, 1:445
Ledrut, Raymond, 2:919 Literary studies, of the urban novel, 2:899–902
Lee, Leo Ou-fan, Shanghai Modern, 2:705 Literature. See Urban novel
Lee, Roger, 2:835 Littérature-Monde (manifesto), 2:581
Lee, Spike, 1:151 Little Caesar (Leroy), 1:149
LEED for Neighborhood Development rating system, 2:550 Little Saigon, Orange County, 2:603
Leeds, Anthony, 1:270, 2:843 Littlewood, Alan, 1:414
Lees, Loretta, 2:892 Littoral, 2:618
Lefebvre, Henri, 1:111, 319–320, 322, 355, 447–451, Livable communities movement, 1:334
488, 2:553, 555, 577, 598, 667–671, 726, 728, 739, Lived space, 2:746, 899
742–747, 749–750, 753–755, 892, 921, 933, 948, 959 Liverpool, United Kingdom, 1:352, 482, 539, 2:584
Le Droit à la ville, 2:667–668 Livingstone, Ken, 1:463
The Production of Space, 1:299, 2:566, 668–669, Llewellyn, Karl, On the Good, the True, and the Beautiful
742, 749, 899 in Law, 1:402
La revolution urbaine, 2:739 Llewellyn Park, New Jersey, 2:837
Left, political, 2:753–754 Lloyd, Harold, 1:149
Left Front (Kolkata), 1:421 Llurdes, J. C., 2:664
Legitimacy, 1:507 Loans, 1:267
Lehan, Richard, The City in Literature, 2:900 Local Agenda 21, 1:248
Leighton, B., 2:924 Local Community Research Committee, University of
L’Enfant, Pierre Charles, 1:107, 137, 154, 2:657 Chicago, 1:127
Lenoir, René, 2:731 Local government, 1:451–455. See also Regional
Le Nôtre, André, 1:135 governance; Urban policy
Leo X, Pope, 1:277 defined, 1:451
Leo XI, Pope, 1:277 economic aspects, 1:453
Leontief, W. W., 1:400 historical development, 1:451–452
Le Pen, Jean-Marie, 2:581 metropolitan governance, 1:506–509
Leroy, Mervyn, Little Caesar, 1:149 politics, 1:453–454
Lesbian space, 1:292, 307–308, 2:698, 758 public authorities, 2:619–620
Leslie, Miriam Florence, California: A Pleasure Trip, 2:631 public–private partnerships, 2:620–623
Letchworth, United Kingdom, 1:287 structures, 1:453
Letterist International, 2:727 study of, 1:454–455
Lever, William Hesketh, 1:287 Tiebout Hypothesis, 2:809–810
Levine, Les, 2:617 trends, 1:455
Levine, Mark, 2:871 types, 1:452
Levine, Robert V., 2:917 urban economics, 2:867–868
Lewin, Kurt, 1:250 Local growth machine, 1:330
Lewis, Oscar, 2:843 Local history, 2:882–883
Lewis v. Bankole (1912) [Nigeria], 1:429 Local Initiatives Support Corporation, 1:7, 177
Ley, David, 1:307, 2:875 Localist mode of regional governance, 2:648–649
Liberalism. See also Neoliberalism Locational analysis, 2:873
housing policy, 1:380–381 Locational rent approach, 2:651
urban planning, 2:906–907 Location decisions, 2:866–867
Liberia, 1:302 Location theory, 1:20, 455–456, 2:873
Lichtenstein, Roy, 2:617 Locus +, 2:618
Liège, Belgium, 1:350 Loewy, Raymond, 2:562
Life (magazine), 1:535, 2:593, 729 Loft living, 1:457–459
Lifestyle centers (shopping), 2:713 Logan, John, Urban Fortunes (with Harvey Molotch),
copyright law.

Lifestyle communities, 1:192 1:329, 330, 332

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Loma Prieta earthquake (1989), 1:119 politics, 1:466–467


London, United Kingdom, 1:460–464 race, 1:466–467, 470
arcades, 1:33–35 significance, 1:122, 129, 464, 472, 2:796, 875
archaeology, 1:27 surveillance, 2:788
capital city, 1:108 urban development, 1:465–466
Chinatown, 1:132 urban renaissance, 1:467–468
city planning, 1:135, 136, 137, 247, 2:651, 974–975 Los Angeles Coliseum, 2:762
class, 1:461–462 Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA/
density gradient, 2:767 Metro), 1:467
Dickens and, 1:217–218 Los Angeles School of Urban Studies, 1:468–472
East London, 1:463 Chicago School vs., 1:126, 129
economy, 1:460–462 criticisms of, 1:471
ethnicity, 1:461 Davis and, 1:206
Garden City model, 1:288 edge cities, 1:243–244
global city, 1:318, 460, 464 emergence of, 1:261, 2:875, 934
history of, 1:460 Los Angeles, 1:464, 468–472, 2:875
housing, 1:462–463 origins, 1:468–469
immigration, 1:318, 461, 2:758 urban geography, 2:876
multicultural city, 1:527 Los Angeles Times (newspaper), 2:601
nightlife, 2:563–565 Lösch, August, 1:472–474
preservation movement, 1:352 Die räumliche Ordnung der Wirtschaft, 1:472–474
prostitution, 1:34–35 Loudon, John Claudius, 1:247, 2:542–543, 583
red-light districts, 2:641 Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, 1:361
Regents Park, 2:583 Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis, 1904), 2:819
shopping, 2:710 Louisiana Recovery Authority, 2:550
suburbanization, 2:780 Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, 2:763
tenements, 2:801–802 Louis XIV, king of France, 1:277, 2:657
toll roads, 1:418 Louvre, Paris, 1:536–537
urban archaeology, 2:847 Love Canal Homeowners Association, 1:180
urban planning, 1:345 Löw, Martina, 2:749
London County Council, 2:736 Low, Seth, 1:290
London Missionary Society, 1:31 Lowe, S., 1:382
Long Island, New York, 1:522 Lowell, Massachusetts, 1:354, 539
Long Island State Park Commission, 1:522 Lower-class opportunity expansion regime, 2:645
Lonsway, Brian, 2:806 Low Income Housing Tax Credit, 1:7, 2:965
Loo, Chalsa, 2:917 Lowther Arcade, London, 1:33, 35
Looney Ricks Kiss, 2:550 Loy, Mina, 1:80
Loos, Adolf, 1:445 Lubove, Roy, 1:153, 155
Lords of Dogtown (film), 2:730 Lucas, Robert, 1:415
Lorenzetti, Ambrogio Lukács, Georg, 1:503, 2:718, 753
Allegory of Good Government, 1:15–18, 2:655 Lukas, Scott, 2:808
Bad Government and Its Effects, 1:16–18 Lumière, Auguste, 1:148, 2:593
Los Angeles, California, 1:464–468, 468 Lumière, Louis, 2:593
annexation, 1:29–30 Lummis, Charles F., 2:681
barrios, 1:60 Lunar Society of Birmingham, 1:396
bohemia, 1:81 Lund School, 2:810
buses, 1:95 Lutyens, Edwin, 1:211, 2:788
catastrophe risk, 1:120 Luxury resorts, 2:663
Davis on, 1:206 Luzhkov, Yuri M., 1:519
downtown revitalization, 1:233 Lynch, Kevin, 1:159, 233, 251, 390,
economic development, 1:466 474–479, 2:873
ethnicity, 1:470 The Image of the City, 1:250, 475, 478
exopolis, 1:261–262 Site Planning, 1:476
governance, 1:470–471 A Theory of Good City Form, 1:476–477
history of, 1:465 The View from the Road (with Appleyard
immigration, 1:470 and Myer), 1:476
multicultural city, 1:527–528 Lynd, Robert, Middletown (with Helen Lynd), 1:183
patchwork urbanism, 2:590 Lyons, Joseph, 2:564
copyright law.

placemaking, 2:600–601 Lyons, Michal, 1:307

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Maastricht Treaty, 1:58, 2:732 Maritime Merchant City, Liverpool, 1:352


Macau (Macao), 2:871 Mark Antony, 1:279
Macdonald, Nancy, 1:328 Market-driven mode of regional governance, 2:649
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 2:606, 656–657 Markets. See also Bazaar; Commerce; Shopping;
The Prince, 2:654 Shopping center
Machine city, 1:390 public realm, 2:625–626
Macionis, John, 1:243 regime theory, 2:643–644
MacKaye, Benton, 1:534 urban planning, 2:906–907
MacLeod, Gordon, 1:243, 2:667 Marotta, Vince, 1:526
Madinah, 1:401–405, 496 Marrakesh, Morocco, 1:168
Madres del Este de Los Angeles Santa Isabel (MELA), 2:964 Marshall, T. H., 1:147
Maghrib, 1:402 Martens, M., 1:382
Magnaghi, A., 2:944 Martini, Simone, Maestà, 1:16–17
Mahler, Gustav, 1:397 Martinotti, Guido, 1:160
Mailer, Norman, 1:80 Marvin, Simon, 2:590
Maine, 1:334 Marwaris, 1:421
Maine, Henry Sumner, 2:841, 923 Marx, Burle, 1:82
Maintenance regimes, 2:645 Marx, Karl, 1:46, 164, 397, 486–487, 494, 2:553, 636,
Makati Central Business District, 1:485 659, 749, 856, 874
Maki, Fumihiko, 2:694 Capital, 2:668, 833
Malaysia The Communist Manifesto (with Friedrich Engels),
economy, 1:42 2:833–834
globalization, 1:317 Marxism. See also Marxism and the City
kampungs, 1:419 Childe and, 1:130
religion, 1:43 communicative rationality, 2:598
urbanization, 1:42 Davis and, 1:205–206
Maldives, 1:42 gentrification, 1:306–307
Maliki law, 1:403–404, 496 Harvey and, 1:342–343
Mallarmé, Stéphane, 2:580 influence of, 1:182
Mall cinemas, 1:138–139, 151 Lefebvre and, 1:447
Malls, shopping, 2:711 social space, 2:749
Malraux, André, 2:581 spaces of difference, 2:757
Manchester, United Kingdom, 1:393, 481–483, 539, 2:584, spectacle, 2:752
780, 884 urban geography, 2:874
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 1:397 urban sociology, 2:925
Manet, Édouard, 1:79 Marxism and the city, 1:486–489
Manhattan Project, 2:573 capitalist city, 1:109–111
Manhatta (Sheeler and Strand), 1:149 Castells, 1:115–116
Manila, Philippines, 1:483–486, 505 concentration of capital, 1:488
city planning, 1:154–155 neighborhood revitalization, 2:546
contemporary, 1:484–485 secondary circuit, 1:488, 2:555
history of, 1:484 state role, 1:488–489
megacity, 1:42 Maryland, 1:334
Muslim enclaves, 1:485–486 Masaccio, 2:656
urbanization, 1:486 Mashpee Commons, Massachusetts, 2:550
world city, 1:43 Maslow, Abraham, 1:376
Mannheim, 1:105 Massachusetts Association of CDCs, 1:178
Mansfield, Ohio, 1:233 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2:932
Manuder, D. A. C., 1:95 Massey, Doreen, 1:299, 2:749, 751, 835, 920
Manuel, George, The Fourth World Geography Matters! (with John Allen), 2:874
(with Michael Poslum), 1:280 Massey, Douglas, 2:893
Maps. See City map Mass Transit Act of 1964 (United States), 1:234
Marble, Duane, 1:73 Master plan. See General plan
March, Otto, 2:762 Material environment of social groups, 2:747–748
Marcos, Ferdinand, 1:484 Matilda, Countess, 1:275
Marcuse, Herbert, 1:206 Maupassant, Guy de, 1:52
Marginality, theory of, 1:270 Maupertuis, Pierre Louis, 1:397
Marginalization, and territorialization, 2:567 Mawson, Thomas, 2:585
copyright law.

Marginal man, 2:772 Maxey, Chester, 1:506

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Maximilian I, emperor of Mexico, 1:513 urban agglomeration, 2:839


May 1968 uprisings, Paris, 1:115, 208, 449, 2:581, urban health, 2:879
667–669, 728, 739, 753, 933 Megamalls, 2:714
Maya civilization, 1:26 Megaprojects, transportation, 2:826–827, 830
Mayer, Albert, 1:446 Mehta, Suketu, 1:43
Mayer, Harold, Readings in Urban Geography (with Clyde Meier, Robert F., 1:191
Kohn), 2:872 Melbin, Murray, 2:566
Mayhew, H., London Labour and the London Melbourne, Australia, 1:309, 393
Poor, 2:961–962 Méliès, Georges, 1:149
Mazumdar, Radjani, 1:531 Melting pot, 1:256, 399, 526, 529
Mazzini, Giuseppe, 2:676 Melville, Herman, Redburn, 2:837
Mbara, T. C., 1:95 Memling, Hans, 1:87
McCabe, James D., 2:639, 641 Memorial Stadium, Austin, 2:762
McCann, Eugene, 2:669 Memory. See City of memory
McConatha, Jasmin, 1:174 Memphis, Tennessee, 1:28
McCormick, Cyrus, 1:123 Mendelssohn, Eric, 1:503
McCormick Place, Chicago, 1:186, 186–187, 188 Menem, Carlos, 1:90
McDonald, Kevin, 1:328 Mental maps, 2:873, 930
McDowell, Linda, 1:299, 2:756 Mercantilism, 2:913
McGee, Terry, 1:42 Merriam, Charles, 1:127
McKay, Henry, 1:191 Merton, Robert, 2:607–608
McKelvey, Blake, 1:504 Mesoamerica, 1:26, 28
McKenzie, Roderick, 1:127, 346–347, 385, 2:929 Mesopotamia, 1:24–25, 28
McKim, Charles F., 1:154 Messe Hanover, 1:188
McLuhan, Marshall, 1:414, 2:722 Messe Munich, 1:188
McMahon, Edward, 1:440 Methodological individualism, 2:941
McMillan Commission, 1:154 Metro. See Subway
McPherson, Miller, 1:199, 386 Metroon, Athens, 1:9
Mead, George Herbert, 1:127 Metropole, 1:166
Mead, William Rutherford, 1:154 Metropolis, 1:141, 391, 502–503, 2:593
Mecca, 1:112 Metropolis, defined, 2:882
Mechanical solidarity, 2:922–923 Metropolis (nongovernmental organization), 2:670
Mechtild of Magdeburg, 1:67 Metropolitan, 1:504–506. See also Cities; Urban
Media Metropolitan Alliance of Churches (Chicago), 2:648
skateboarding, 2:730 Metropolitan area (MA), 1:505, 2:839, 882
spectacle, 2:752 Metropolitan Board of Health, New York City, 2:558
urban documentation, 2:901 Metropolitan businesspersons, 1:164–165
urban entertainment destinations, 2:869–870 Metropolitan districts, 1:504
Medici, Alessandro de’, 1:277 Metropolitan France, 1:506
Medici, Cosimo I de, 1:277 Metropolitan governance, 1:506–509, 2:646–649, 651–652.
Medici, Lorenzo (Il Magnifico) de, 1:277 See also Local government; Urban policy
Medici family, 1:277 Metropolitan (magazine), 1:506
Medieval town design, 1:15–16, 489–493, 492 Metropolitan Magazine, 1:506
Mediterranean cities, 1:493–497. See also individual cities Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA),
Meem, John Gaw, 2:681 1:484, 505
Mega-Cities Project, 2:879 Metropolitan museums, 1:538
Megacity. See Megalopolis; Urban agglomeration Metropolitan Planning Council (Chicago), 2:648
Mega-events, 1:49, 58, 331 Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), 2:547
Megalopolis, 1:498–502, 2:888–889. See also Primate city Metropolitan region, 1:509–512. See also Urban
Asia, 1:42 agglomeration
defined, 1:505, 2:882 Metropolitan statistical are (MSA), 1:505
evolution of, 2:499, 500–501 Metrosexuals, 1:506
Gottmann’s work on, 2:498, 500 Mexico
international, 2:501–502 globalization, 1:317
largest cities, 2:888 tourism, 2:819
Manila, 1:486 Mexico City, Mexico, 1:512–516. See also Tenochtitlan
population, 2:499 archaeology, 1:27
sustainable development, 2:793–794 catastrophe risk, 1:120
copyright law.

United States, 2:498–501 earthquake (1985), 1:119, 513

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economy, 1:515–516 Mobilities research, 1:96, 2:958–959


environment, 1:514 Model Cities program, 2:855
gated communities, 1:228 Modernity, modernism, and modernization
geography, 1:513–514 airports, 1:12
history of, 1:513 Athens, 1:48
politics, 1:515 Baudelaire and, 1:70
population, 1:516 Brasília, 1:81–83
urban planning and administration, 1:514–515 Cairo, 1:98–99
Meyer, Hannes, 1:445 capital city, 1:107–108
Meyerson, Martin, Politics, Planning, and the Public cinematic urbanism, 1:140–141
Interest (with Edward Banfield), 2:604 colonial cities, 1:167
M.I.A., 1:357 Delhi, 1:213–214
Miami–Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 1:121 department stores, 2:710
Miasmatic theory of disease, 2:802 film, 1:149–151
Michelangelo Buonarrotti, 1:277, 2:674, 676 flâneur, 1:272–274
Michelozzo, 2:656 Geddes and, 1:294–295
Microenterprises, 1:43 international style, 1:39, 155
Midan Tahrir, Cairo, 1:100 Lefebvre on, 1:447–451
Middle class lighting, 2:563
gentrification, 1:307 money, 2:719–720
Kolkata, 1:421–422 Moscow, 1:518
London, 1:462 new urbanism, 2:552
suburbanization, 2:781–782 New York World’s Fair (1939), 2:561–562
Middle-class progressive regimes, 2:645 photography, 2:591–594
Middle Exchange, London, 1:33 Renaissance city, 2:654
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 1:125, 503, 2:891 Simmel on, 2:719–721
Miethe, Terance D., 1:191 situationist critiques of, 2:727
Migration, rural-to-urban, 2:889 streetcars, 2:775
Migreurop, 2:577 Tönnies on, 1:296
Milan, Italy, 2:882 urban culture, 2:857
Miletus, 1:166, 493 urbanization, 2:891–892
Milgram, Stanley, 2:915–917 urban novel, 2:899, 902
“The Experience of Living in Cities,” 2:915 waste, 2:961
Military bunkers. See Bunkers Modernization theory, 2:969
Mill, J. S., 1:453 Mohenjo-daro, 1:25
Millanes, José Munoz, 1:158 Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, 2:593
Millay, Edna St. Vincent, 1:80 Moisture, 2:850
Millennium villages, 2:944 Molk, Mohammad Ismaeil Kahn Vakil-ol, 1:114
Mills, Amy, 1:301 Mollenkopf, John, 2:556, 561
Mills, Robert, 1:135 Molotch, Harvey, 2:929
Mills, Sara, 1:300 “The City as a Growth Machine,” 1:329
Mills, Stephen, 1:155 Urban Fortunes (with John Logan),
Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, 1:85, 288 1:329, 330, 332
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1:187, 288, 2:573, 584 Moltke, Willo von, 2:694
Minisystems, 2:970 Money, Simmel on, 2:719–720, 923
Minotaur, 2:696 Mongolia, 1:42
Miossec, J. M., 2:664 Montefeltro, Duke Federico da, 2:654
Miranne, Kristine, Gendering the City Monterey, California, 1:539
(with Alma Young), 1:300 Monterrey, Mexico, 1:393
Miró, Joan, 2:614 Montgomery Ward, 1:123, 2:710
Mishima, Yukio, 2:902 Montreal, Quebec, 1:352, 393, 507, 511–512, 2:584
Mission District, San Francisco, 1:256, 308 Mont St. Michel, France, 1:361
Mississippi Renewal forum, 2:550 Monument of the Eponymous Heroes, Athens, 1:9
Mitchell, Don, 2:588, 669, 758 Monuments, 2:602, 690
Mitchell, Katharyne, 1:134 Moore, Eric, 1:428
Mitchell, W. J. T., 1:538 Morality
Mitchell, Giurgola, and Thorp, 1:103 catastrophes, 1:122
Mitlin, D., Empowering Squatter Citizen red-light districts, 2:639
copyright law.

(with D. Satterthwaite), 2:770 sewers, 2:695

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sex industry, 2:700–703 megacity, 1:42


youth, 2:757 postcolonial, 1:420
Moran, Thomas, 2:681 revanchism, 2:667
More, Thomas, Utopia, 1:390, 405, 2:945 squatter movements, 2:770
Morgan, J. P., 2:559, 592 world city, 1:43
Morial, Marc H., 2:890 Mumford, Lewis, 1:288, 293, 390, 413, 438, 532–536,
Morisi, Massimo, 1:160 2:541, 580, 650, 693, 715, 838, 891, 899
Moroder, Giorgio, 1:503 The City in History, 1:535
Morphogenesis, urban, 2:895–897, 928–929 The Culture of Cities, 1:159, 535
Morrill, Richard, 1:73 The Story of Utopias, 1:533
Morris, William, 1:194 Munich, Germany, 1:393
News from Nowhere, 2:946 Municipal Auditorium, Kansas City, 1:186
Morris, Earl, Housing, Family, and Society (with Mary Murakami, Haruki, 2:696
Winter), 1:376 Murger, Henri, Scènes de la Vie de Bohème, 1:79
Mortgages, 1:366–367, 2:642–643, 737 Murji, K., 1:235
Moscone Center, San Francisco, 1:187 Murphy, K., 1:292
Moscow, Russian Federation, 1:517–521 Murray, Colin, 1:32
architecture, 1:518 Musee D’Orsay, Paris, 1:354
city planning, 1:107, 518–520 Museum of London Archaeology, 2:847
housing, 1:518–519 Museum of New Mexico/School of American
immigration, 1:318, 519 Archaeology, 2:679
post-socialist, 1:519–521 Museums, 1:536–539
pre-revolution, 1:517–518 Muskau, Germany, 1:226
socialist, 1:518–519 Mussolini, Benito, 1:107, 168, 2:674, 677
Moses, Robert, 1:521–525 Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), 2:573
Caro on, 1:415 Muybridge, Eadweard, 2:593
early years, 1:521 MV Bill, 1:357
later years, 1:524–525 Myanmar, 1:42
New Deal, 1:522–523 Myer, Jack, The View from the Road (with Appleyard and
New York City, 1:5, 186, 413, 458, 2:560, 562 Lynch), 1:476
New York state, 1:524 Myrdal, Gunnar, 1:336
opposition to, 1:5, 413, 415, 458, 524–525 Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, 2:821
power of, 1:524
roadway construction, 1:522–525 Naarden, Netherlands, 1:361
significance, 1:521 Nadar (pseudonym of Gaspard-Felix Tournachon), 2:592
Motel. See Hotel, motel Nagasaki, Japan, 1:357–358
Moule, Elizabeth, 2:550, 552 Napoleon Bonaparte, 1:82, 98, 226, 518, 2:580, 676, 951
Mount Laurel, 1:5, 261 Napoleon III, Emperor, 1:344, 424, 2:584, 666
Mount Pelée eruption (1902), 1:119 Nash, John, 1:33, 35
Movie houses. See Cinema Nassau County Coliseum, Uniondale, New York, 2:763
Movie palaces, 1:138 Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 1:99, 160
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, “The Negro Family,” 1:286 Nasworthy, Frank, 2:729
Mt. Vernon Ladies Association, 1:194 National Capital Development Commission (NCDC)
Mubarak, Hosni, 1:99 [Australia], 1:103–104
Muhammad (prophet), 1:401 National Charette Institute, 2:551
Mulholland, Walter, 1:465 National Child Labor Committee, 2:592
Multicentered metropolitan region (MMR), 1:322 National Coalition for the Homeless, 1:364
Multicultural cities, 1:525–529 National Crime Intelligence Service, 1:236
concept of, 1:526 National Endowment for the Arts, 1:160, 2:614
integration, 1:527–529 National Gallery, London, 1:536
narratives of, 1:526–527 National Housing Act of 1934 (United States), 1:368
Rome, 1:47 National Housing Act of 1949 (United States), 1:375, 2:781
Multiple-nuclei model of city development, 2:872, 895, 924 National League for the Protection of Colored
Multiplexes, 1:139, 151 Women, 2:890
Multisited ethnography, 2:843–844 National League on Urban Conditions among
Mumbai (Bombay), India, 1:530–532 Negroes, 2:890
catastrophe risk, 1:120 National Park Service, 2:762
colonialism, 1:166 National Party (South Africa), 1:31
copyright law.

global city, 1:318 National People’s Action, 1:15, 180

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National Roundtable of the Environment and the Economy urban policy, 2:909
(Canada), 2:792 utopianism, 2:947
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1:195 Neo-orthodox human ecology, 1:346–348, 384–386
National Union of the Homeless, 1:364 Nepal, 1:42
National Urban League (NUL), 2:890 Netherlands
Nations and nationality béguinages, 1:65–67
citizenship, 1:146 colonialism, 1:167
global cities, 1:314–315 growth management, 1:335
nationalism, 2:846 public housing, 2:736–737
nation building, 2:846 regional planning, 2:652
Native Americans, 1:280, 2:679–681 revanchism, 2:667
Natives Land Act of 1913 (South Africa), 1:31–32 urban history, 2:881
Native (Urban Areas) Act of 1923 (South Africa), 1:31 Netville, 1:199–200
Natural areas, 2:863, 864 Network city, 2:768
Nature. See also Environment Networked regional governance, 2:649
society in relation to, 2:750 Networks, airports as, 1:12
tourism and, 2:818–819 Network society, 1:115–118
urban health, 2:877–878 Neuf-Brisach, France, 1:361
urban space, 2:928 Neuwirth, R., 2:770
zoöpolis, 2:977–980 New Amsterdam Theater, New York City, 2:869
Nazism, 2:762 New Babylon, 2:728, 948
Nead, Lynda, 2:563 New Bouleuterion, Athens, 1:9
Near North neighborhood, Chicago, 2:869 Newby, Howard, Community Studies (with Bell), 1:182
Necropolis, 2:541–543 New Communism, 1:421–422
Needs assessments, 1:177 New Communities, Inc., 1:435
Negri, Antonio, 1:497 Newcourt, Richard, 1:135
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1:107–108, 213, 446 New Deal, 1:288, 362, 522–523, 2:651, 854
Neighborhood centers (shopping), 2:713 New Deal for Cities and Communities in Canada, 1:509
Neighborhood movie houses, 1:138 New Delhi, India. See Delhi, India
Neighborhood revitalization, 2:544–546. New Exchange, London, 1:33
See also Back-to-the-city movement; Downtown New Haven, Connecticut, 1:232, 433, 454, 2:644
revitalization; Gentrification New Jersey, 1:334
Neighborhoods New Jersey Supreme Court, 1:261
ICT and, 1:199–201 New-law tenements, 2:804–805
Istanbul, 1:408 New Left, 2:740
Jacobs on, 1:414–415 New Left Review (journal), 1:206
new urbanism, 2:551 Newman, Oscar, 1:415
social exclusion, 2:735 Newmeyer, Fred C., Safety Last
urban ecology, 2:864–865 (with Sam Taylor), 1:149
urban space, 2:930 New Orleans, Louisiana, 1:187, 206. See also Hurricane
Neighborhood Unit, 1:84 Katrina (2005)
Nelson, Robert, 1:365 Newport, Gus, 2:611
Neoclassical political economy, 2:659–660 New poverty, 2:732
Neoclassical theories of real estate, 2:636 New regionalism, 1:506, 2:546–548, 651–652, 794
Neoclassicism, 1:47–48 New Republic (journal), 1:533
Neogothic, 1:87 New Town, St. Charles, Missouri, 2:551
Neoliberalism New towns, 1:535
Athens, 1:49 New Towns Act of 1946 (Britain), 1:288
Barcelona, 1:58 New Urban History, 2:881
Buenos Aires, 1:90 New urbanism, 2:548–552, 588–589
Cairo, 1:99 City Beautiful movement, 1:155
capitalist city, 1:111–112 critiques of, 2:552
class, 2:757 history of, 2:549–551, 573
gated communities, 1:291 Jacobs and, 1:415
gentrification, 1:309 Las Vegas’s influence, 1:438
metropolitan governance, 1:507 organizations, 2:551–552
revanchism, 2:666 simulacra, 2:723
social movements, 2:741–742 suburbanization, 2:783
copyright law.

surveillance, 2:788 sustainable development, 2:792

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urban villages, 2:944–945 New York World’s Fair, 1939–1940, 1:150, 523,
values and characteristics, 2:551 2:561–562, 819
New urban sociology, 2:553–556 New York World’s Fair, 1964–1965, 1:525, 2:562
anti-empiricism, 1:110 New Zealand, 2:737
Castells’s influence, 1:115 Nickelodeons, 1:137–138, 149
future of, 2:555–556 Nicolay, 1:356
Gottdiener’s influence, 1:319 Niemeyer, Oscar, 1:82, 108, 352, 391
historical development, 2:553–554 Niepce, Nicephore, 2:591
human ecology vs., 2:554 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 1:447, 2:606
limitations and criticisms, 1:118, 2:943 Nieuwenhuys, Constant, 2:728, 948
Los Angeles School and, 1:472 Nigeria, 1:429
race, 2:554–555 Nightlife, 2:562–566
real estate, 2:555 Night spaces, 2:566–568
urban ecology vs., 2:865 Noarlunga, South Australia, 1:350
urban space, 2:929 Nodes, global, 2:760
“New woman,” 1:503 Nolen, John, 2:691
New York City, New York, 2:556–561, 560 Non-place realm, 1:63, 96, 2:568–569, 861
annexation and consolidation, 1:28, 30 Nonprofit housing organizations, 2:737
bohemia, 1:80–81 Non-sexist city, 2:569–572. See also Gender equity
catastrophe risk, 1:120, 121 planning; Gendered space
Central Park, 2:558, 584, 585 alternative strategies, 2:571–572
change in, 2:557 women’s disadvantages, 2:569–570
city clubs, 1:156 zoning, 2:570–571
convention centers, 1:186–188 Non-Western cultures. See also International issues
crisis, 2:855 heritage sites, 1:352
dance music, 1:222 spatial conceptions, 1:300–302
demolition and preservation, 2:557, 559–560 Nord-Sud (journal), 2:581
downtown revitalization, 1:232, 234 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 2:653
ethnic enclave, 1:256 Northgate Shopping Center, Seattle, 2:715
Garden City model, 1:288 North Korea. See Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
gentrification, 1:308–309 Novels. See Urban novel
global city, 1:318, 2:560–561 Nowicki, Matthew, 1:446
graffiti, 1:326 Nuclear war, 1:357–358, 535, 2:572–574
immigration, 1:318 Nyers, Peter, 2:578
intellectual life, 1:397 Nystuen, John, 1:73
Jacobs and, 1:413
loft living, 1:457–459, 458 Oakland, California, 1:232
memory in, 1:160 Oates, Wallace, 2:809
Metropolis, 1:502–503 Obama, Barack, 1:126
Moses and, 1:5, 186, 413, 458, 521–525, 2:560 Obasa, Orisadipe, 1:428
multicultural city, 1:527 Obscene Publications Act of 1857
public housing, 1:53 (England and Wales), 2:702
red-light districts, 2:639–641 Odeions, Athens, 1:2, 10
regionalism, 2:547 Office of Economic Opportunity, 2:855
revanchism, 2:666 Office of Environmental Justice, 1:245
Riis and, 2:671–673 Ogburn, William, 1:127
sanitary reform, 2:557–558 Oglethorpe, James, 2:689
sex industry regulation, 2:703 O’Keeffe, Georgia, 2:679
slum housing, 2:558–559 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1:28
tenements, 2:801–805, 803 Old Bouleuterion, Athens, 1:9
Times Square, 2:869 Old cities, 1:358–359
tourism, 2:819 Oldenburg, Claes, 2:617
urban archaeology, 2:846 Old law tenements, 2:804
World Trade Center (9/11), 2:973–974 Old Santa Fe Association, 2:681
New York City Planning Commission, 1:413, 415 Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., 1:154
New Yorker (magazine), 1:533 Olmsted, Frederick Law, Sr., 1:153, 154, 247, 430,
New York Regional Plan Association, 2:652 2:558, 584, 928
New York State Commission on Public Authority Olympia, Greece, 2:762
copyright law.

Reform, 2:620 Olympia & York, 1:215, 2:638

EBSCO Publishing : eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 7/31/2016 7:09 PM via UNIV OF CHICAGO
AN: 525925 ; Hutchison, Ray.; Encyclopedia of Urban Studies
Account: s8989984
1018 Index
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Olympic Games Panic selling, 1:224, 267


Athens, 1:49 Panofski, Wolfgang, 2:573