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The Judgmental Society: The lived experiences of Persons with

Disabilities and the Discrimination against them in Cebu City

A Thesis
Presented to the Faculty
of Rizwoods Colleges
Cebu City

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements of the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Criminology


Arvin I. Saberon
Vince Cabalquinto
Charlyn Carreon
Rusly Carano-o
Alben Jay Agravante
April John Gacayan

June 2018


Persons with disabilities face discrimination and barriers that restrict

them from participating in society on an equal basis with others every day.

They are denied their rights to be included in the general school system, to

be employed, to live independently in the community, to move freely, to

participate in sport and cultural activities, to enjoy social protection, to

access justice, to choose medical treatment and to enter freely into legal

commitments such as buying and selling property.

(According to Office of the Higher Education in Human Rights)

A disabled person is one who has a physical or mental impairment

which has substantial and long-term adverse affects on his or her ability to

carry out day-to-day activities. “Impairment” is regarded as affecting normal

daily activities if it affects mobility, dexterity, coordination, continence,

ability to lift/hold/carry, speech, hearing, vision, memory, ability to

concentrate or focus and perception of the risk of personal danger. This

includes depression since it is a recognized clinical illness. (According to

Equality Commission)

There are a large population of Disabled Persons in the world and

almost, if not all, have their own laws supporting them. In India, the last

census of 2011 states that 2.21 percent of the Indian population or 27 million

people were found to have disabilities. This number is likely incomplete.

The census asked people for their disability status and this generally refers to

people who are registered as having a disability. In order to be a “person

with disability” under Indian law, one must be suffering from at least forty

(40) percent of any disability, as certified by a medical authority. A medical

authority is a state certified hospital or institution that can issue a disability

certificate. Yet, the Office of The Chief Commissioner for Persons with

Disabilities notes that approximately three-quarters of the people with

disabilities are in the rural areas.

According to the Philippine Association for Citizens with

Developmental and Learning Disabilities, Inc. (PACDLD), there are about 4

million children and youth with disabilities, of whom only 2 percent go to

school and 1 percent are properly diagnosed. Attempts to include persons

with disability in national census surveys have not been successful for many

reasons, including the hesitancy of families to declare that they have

members with disabilities. The general lack of reliable data on disabilities

also prevents government agencies from knowing the extent to which people

with disabilities are included in mainstream social services such as education

and healthcare. (PACDLD)

For a long time, Filipinos with disabilities have suffered from

discrimination. Their economic, social, and political rights have not been

recognized and their access to educational opportunities and government

services has been limited. Despite the passage of Republic Act 7277 or the

Magna Carta for people with disabilities in 1991, which guarantees their

right to employment, health, education, and auxiliary services, there are still

significant barriers that keep them from fully participating in society,

including the stigma surrounding a disability and society’s poor

understanding of the abilities and aspirations of the disabled people. Often,

they face a life that is segregated and debased and many live in isolation and

insecurity. Many recognize women with disabilities as all the more

disadvantages, experiencing exclusion on account of both their gender and

their disability. Statistics on disability in the Philippines have not been

properly established. There are still a heavy reliance on World Health

Organization (WHO) and it is estimated that 10 percent of the country’s

given population have some form of disability. The Department of

Education claims that less than 3 percent of children and youth with

disabilities don’t have proper access to education, due to a lack of teachers

trained to handle students with special needs and inadequate allocation of

resources for educational materials in alternative formats to accommodate

their needs. (According to Maria Isabel T. Buenaobra)



Internet Sources


Buenaobra T. (2011) Overcoming Disability Challenges in the Philippines

Other Sources