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Problem A

Ignoring energy losses due to friction, and taking the density of water to be 1000
kg/m3 , consider the following two cases:

(a) Water flows in a tapered pipe at a rate of 1400 litres/min from a cross-section
A of area 65 cm2 to a cross-section B of area 25 cm2 which is 1.5 m higher than A.
If the pressure at A is 72 kPa, what is the pressure at B?

(b) In another pipe, water flows at a rate of 5500 litres/min and the pipe changes
from a cross-sectional area of 25 cm2 at point A to 90 cm2 at point B which is 1.5
metres higher than A. If the pressure at A is 72 kPa, what is the pressure at B?

In case (a), PB < PA whereas in case (b), PB > PA. Explain this in terms of energy
ANS: 20.2 kPa, 677.7 kPa

Problem B

An incompressible fluid flows upwards in steady state through a pipe of uniform

cross-section. The pipe has length L and is inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal.
Assume that the head loss due to friction is negligible.

(a) Derive an expression for the pressure gradient in the pipe.

(b) Derive an expression for the length of pipe L over which the pressure is reduced
to half of its value at the pipe entrance.

(c) Calculate the length of pipe over which the pressure is reduced by half, if θ =
30degrees, fluid density is 1200 kg/m3 , and the pressure at the pipe entrance is 200

ANS: 17 m

Problem C

A railway train is traveling through a long tunnel at a speed of 77 km/hr and oc-
cupies 75% of the tunnel cross section. The air within the tunnel as a whole is
at rest. The barometric reading and the air temperature at an undisturbed tunnel
section are 625 mmHg (mm of mercury) and 15o C. The density of mercury is 13550
kg/m3 (although you shouldn’t require this value). Neglecting compressibility and
frictional effects of air flowing through the clearance between the train and the tun-
nel walls,

(a) determine the air velocity relative to the walls of the train. The key to this is
to change the frame of reference such that we are ‘riding’ with the train and we
consider the flow past the train.

(b) Calculate the change in the barometric reading as the train is passing by the

ANS: 85.6m/s, 25.9 mmHg

Problem D

p1 p2
v1 v2


venturi operated piston

Figure 1: Piston

As well as providing a device for measuring flow rate, Venturi nozzles can also be
used to activate pistons to produce flow dependant forcing or actuation. Consider
the case shown in figure 1. A water supply line to a heater contracts from diameter
10 mm at A to diameter 7 mm at B. The mass flow rate at A is 0.3534 kg/s. The
pressure difference operates a piston which regulates gas supply to the heater. The
piston has diameter 20 mm. What is the force that can be exerted by the piston
(ignore friction and assume that density of water is 1000 kg/m3 ). What happens if
the diameter of the cylinder is doubled?

ANS: 10N, quadrupled

Problem E

Consider the cylindrical tank of diameter 2m shown in figure 2. When a tap is

opened, water exits through a nice well-designed nozzle with exit diameter 5cm.
You have been asked to come up with a method of maintaining the free surface of
the tank at a constant height (once the tap is opened). Obviously you have to add
water. You find an old hose - and to determine its volume flow rate you time that
with the tap closed it takes 2s to raise the water level in the container by 1cm. To
what height h must the tank be filled in order for the hose supply to be capable of
maintaining the free-surface at a constant level.

diameter 2m

old hose tap


d =5cm

Figure 2: tank

ANS: 3.26 m

Problem F

A horizontal straight pipe gradually reduces in diameter from 300 mm down to 150
mm. Neglecting friction, find the total longitudinal thrust on the pipe if at the larger
end the pressure is 275 kN/m2 and the velocity is 3 m/s. The pipe is transporting
water (assume ρ = 1000 kg/m3 ).

U1 U2
p1 p2
A1 A2

Figure 3: Converging duct

ANS: 13,863 N