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Print ISSN

1596-2490

Online ISSN

2545-5818

Arid Zone Journal of

Engineering, Technology and Environment

Volume 14 Number 2,

June 2018

Published by

ISSN 2545-5818 Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment Volume 14 Number 2, June 2018

ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Editorial Board

Prof. Ndubisi A. Aviara Dr. B. S. Waziri Dr. M. B. Oumarou Prof. Eli Mamman Dr. B. Gutti Dr. A. M. Kundiri Dr. C. U. Ngene Dr. B. U. Musa Prof. M. H. Badau Prof. A. T. Abdulrahim Prof. A. F. Alonge Prof. Klein E. Ileleji Dr. Alireza Heidari

Editorial Assistants

(1) Engr. A. A. Lawal (Administration)

(2) Engr. P. Y. Dibal

(3) Engr. S. K. Oyeniyi (Webmaster)

(Publication)

All correspondences should be addressed to:

The Editor-in-Chief, AZOJETE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Editor-in-Chief Deputy Editor-in-Chief Business Manager Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor

© Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, 2018

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners:

Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

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From the Editor’s Desk

We are happy to announce the publication of Volume 14(2), June, 2018 of our Journal. The issue showcases articles from the fields of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering. Contributors from other Engineering fields, investigators working in the Energy field and those providing solutions to problems arising from global warming, desertification and flood control, as well as researchers in the fields of Science, Technology and Environment are hereby encouraged to submit their articles to the Journal. The AZOJETE website:

http://www.azojete.com.ng has been upgraded to serve you better. We encourage our Readers and Contributors to visit the website to read and download articles since our Journal is operating on Open Access.

We thank all authors and the diverse team of specialist reviewers for their contribution to this Edition, and look forward to a continuing process of bringing you articles showcasing research at the leading edge of our subject focus (as they emerge globally) in every succeeding Volume and Issue of AZOJETE.

At the moment, articles are already being assessed for Volume 14(3), June 2018. We have continued to improve on our indexing status and are present now in several Scientific Data bases.

Thank you.

status and are present now in several Scientific Data bases. Thank you. Prof. Ndubisi A. Aviara

Prof. Ndubisi A. Aviara (Editor-In-Chief)

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ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Volume 14 No. 2 June 2018

Scope Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment (AZOJETE), published annually, is an interdisciplinary Journal covering all aspects of engineering, technology and environment with particular reference to the arid regions of the world.

Annual subscription excluding postage

Copies

Nigeria

Overseas

1 - 9

N3,000.00 each

$25.00 each

10 or more

N2,500.00

each

$20.00 each

Postage shall be charged separately at the current rates. Copies may be obtained from the Business Manager, AZOJETE.

AZOJETE charges as follows:

Upon submission of paper, the author is expected to pay a non-refundable processing fee of N5,000.00 only (Nigeria) or $20.00 (Overseas) per paper. Publication charge per accepted paper is N15,000.00 (Nigeria) and $100.00 (Overseas)

Corresponding author will receive a copy of the Journal and can download as many copies of paper as needed from our web site.

Instruction to contributors Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment (AZOJETE) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers (theoretical and experimental), book reviews as well as short communications from all parts of the world, with particular reference, but not exclusive, to arid regions. Submission of an article is based on the understanding that it has not been published elsewhere, or under consideration in any other journal. All contributions will be critically reviewed by expert referees on whose advice the Editorial Board will accept, reject or return articles to authors for modification or revision. Articles should be typewritten double-spaced on one side of A4 paper in Microsoft Word. Tables and figures should come immediately after being cited in the text.

Arrangement Papers should normally be divided into Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements (if any) and References. The title should be concise and informative. Name(s) and affiliations of authors should be provided. Where there is more than one author, the correspondence author should be indicated.

The abstract should not be more than 350 words and should state clearly the objective(s) of the study, a concise description of the experiment(s), major observations, results and conclusions. The Harvard system of referencing should be used and the references listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. The following format should be used for journal articles, books and chapters in books, reports, conference proceedings and from the internet respectively:

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Umar, B. 1997. The role of public and private tractor hiring units in agricultural mechanization - a case study from Adamawa state, Nigeria. Outlook on Agriculture, 26(1):

35-38.

Phillips, RE. 1981. Farm Buildings From Planning to Completion. Doane Western, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri.

Kirkby, MJ. 1980. Modelling water erosion processes. In Kirkby, M.J. and Morgan, R.P.C. (eds), Soil erosion, pp. 183-216, Wiley, Chichester.

Yang, Q. 1991. Blemish detection in fruit and vegetable grading with computer vision. Divisional Note DN 1610. Silsoe: Silsoe Research Institute.

Keating, BA., Wafula, BM. and Watiki, JM. 1992. Development of a modelling capability for maize in semi-arid eastern Kenya. In: Probert, M.E. (ed ). A search for strategies for sustainable dryland cropping in semi-arid eastern Kenya. Proceedings of a symposium held in Nairobi, Kenya, 10 - 11 December 1990. ACIAR proceedings no. 41, 138p.

Wallace, TB. and Cox, WE. 2002. Locating information on surface water availability in Virginia. http://www.rappriverbasin.va.us/studies/locatingsurfacewaterinfo.doc accessed on 10 October, 2004.

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ARID ZONE JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Volume 14 No. 2 June, 2018

Contents

Determination of Sustainable Energy Mix to Meet Nigeria Vision 20:2020 on Power Using Linear Programming

H. I. Mohammed, I. M. Idriss, D. Baba, M. M. Aji, D. Ibrahim………………………

162-168

Modeling and Simulation of Hemihydrate Phosphoric Acid Plant

A. S. Grema, Y. Y. Imam, H. I. Mohammed……………………………………………….169-171

Information Security in Health Care Centre Using Cryptography and Steganography

A. O. Babatunde, A. J. Taiwo, E. G. Dada………………………………………………

172-182

An Investigation on the Pollution Potentials of an Abatoir: A Case Study on Ikpoba River

S. E. Uwadiae, M. Agagbo…………………………………………………………………

183-188

Appraisal of Governance of Multifarious Infrastructure Projects (MIPs) Delivery in Nigeria

G. A. Zarewa………………………………………………………………………………….189-200

Evaluation of Strength and Sorption Properties of Polystyrene Bonded Composites of Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) and Teak (Tectona grandis) Woods

O. O. Adefisan………………………………………………………………………………

201-207

Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4G LTE Network in and around Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria

A. L. Imoize, O. D. Adegbite………………………………………………………………

208-225

Optimisation of the Production Process of Mucuna flagellipes Nut into Condiments Using Response Surface Methodology

C. H. Kadurumba, N. C. Amaechi, O. Okorie, E. Udeogu…………………………….226-243

Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Properties of Gasoline Produced from locally made Refinery in the Niger Delta Creeks and Government Owned Petroleum Refining Company in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

J. E. Peretomode……………………………………………………………………………

244-248

Radial Distribution Network Enhancement with D-Statcom Using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

U. Musa, G. A. Bakare, A. A. Mati, A. Mohammed, A. Umar…………………………249-260

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Three Rollers Acha (Digitaria exilis) Dehusking Machine

R. M. Idris, D. S. Yawas, A. M. Abdulrahman……………………………………………261-271

Effect of Pre-Processing Conditions on Oil Point Pressure of Sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa) Kernel in a Hydraulic Press

N. A. Aviara, C. G. Ojiofor, O. K. Owolarafe, B. S. Ogunsina, F. A. Oluwole………272-291

Design and Development of a Blower for Downdraft Biomass Gasifier

A. A. Bukar, M. B. Oumarou, F. A. Oluwole……………………………………………

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292-303

Laterite Soil Shear Strength Characteristics from the Use of the Standard Proctor and Compression Machine

K. Ahmad, Y. B. Yamusa, M. H. Bin Rosly………………………………………………

304-316

Techno-Economic Analysis of Off-Grid Hybrid PV-Diesel-Battery System in Katsina State, Nigeria

B. Modu, A. K. Aliyu, A. L. Bukar, M. Abdulkadir, Z. M. Gwoma, M. Mustapha……317-324

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