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1. Working stress method(IS800:1984):

Stress due to DL + LL ≤ permissible stress

Stress due to DL + WL ≤ permissible stress
Stress due to DL + LL + WL ≤ 1.33permissible stress

2.Ultimate load method:

Working load Minimum load factor

Dead load 1.7
Dead load+ imposed load 1.7
Dead load+ wind or seismic 1.7
Dead load+ imposed load+ 1.3
wind or seismic load

Note: redistribution of forces is accounted

3.Limit state method(IS 800:2007)

Partial safety factors for materials:
Load combinations:

Physical properties:

a) Unit mass of steel, p = 7850 kg/m3

b) Modulus of elasticity, E = 2.0x105N/mm2 (MPa)

c) Poisson ratio, p = 0.3

d) Modulus of rigidity, G = 0.769x105 N/mm2 (MPa)

e)Coefficient of thermal expansion cx.=12x10 -6/0C

Rolled sections:
Different rolled sections as per Is 800:2007
I section: ( max depth: 500 mm)

ISJB-Indian Standard Junior beam

ISLB-Indian Standard light beam( used for floor beams)
ISMB-Indian Standard medium beam( used for floor beams)
ISWB-Indian Standard wide flange beam
ISHB-Indian Standard heavy beam
ISSC – Indian standard column section ( Max depth 250mm)
Channel section: ( used in roofs)

ISJC-Indian standard junior channel

ISLC-Indian standard light channel
ISMC-Indian standard medium channel
ISSC-Indian standard special channel

Angle: used in tension members

ISA-Indian standard equal angle

ISA-Indian standard unequal angle.
Tee section

ISNT-Indian standard normal Tee bars

ISHT-Indian standard heavy flanged T bars
ISLT- Indian standard special legged Tee bars
ISLT-Indian standard light Tee bars
ISJT- Indian standard junior tee beams

Slenderness limits:
2. Connections:
Bolt hole diameter:
Nominal size (d) 12 14 16 20 22 24 27 30 36 38
Diameter of bolt hole(d0) 13 15 18 22 24 26 30 33 39 41

Specifications of edge distance:

1.Minimum edge distance shall not be less than(minimum)
a.1.7xd0 for sheared or hand flame cut edges.
b.1.5xd for rolled, machine flame cut, sawn and planed edges.
2.minimum edge distance(e) should not exceed (maximum)

a)16tϵ,where ϵ=

b)40+4t,where t is the thickness of the thinner plate.

Specifications of pitch:
1.Pitch p should not be less than 2.5d where d is nominal diameter
2.pitch p shall not be more than
1.16t or 200mm for tension members

2.12t or 200mm for compression members.

3.if gauge length is less than 75mmfor staggered pitch, pitch may be increased by
3.For butt joints maximum pitch is restricted to 4.5d for a distance 1.5 times width of plate.
Prying forces: In the design of HSFG bolts subjected to tensile forces, an additional force, called
as prying force Q is to be considered. These additional forces are mainly due to flexibility of
connected plates. Consider the connection of a T-section to a plate as shown in Fig subject to
tensile force 2Te.

Staggered pitch :
Net area is calculated using: An=(b-nd+∑p2/4g)t
Prying force: force in tension members with HSFG (HIGH STRENGTH FRICTION GRIP) bolts

Welded connections:
1.minimum weld leg size
2.for deep penetration welds(>2.4mm), minimum leg size + 2.4mm
3.Minimum size of fillet weld
When plate thickness is
<10mm-------------------- 3mm
10mm-20mm------------ 5mm
20mm-32mm------------ 6mm
32mm-40mm------------ 8mm

Specifications of fillet weld:

Effective throat thickness
t=K x Size of weld
k is a constant. the value of K can b found from below table.
Angle between fusion faces 60-90 91-100 101-106 107-113 114-120
Constant K 0.7 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.5

Effective Length
1.lengh of weld in figure(in drawings only effective length is shown).
Welding length(not effective length) is effective length+2 x size of weld.
2.minimum length is 4x size of weld.
1.minimum lap is greater of 4x thickness of thinner or 40mm

Intermittent weld:
1.Length is not less than greater of 4 x size of weld,40mm
2.minimum clear spacing of intermittent weld :12t-compression
16t-tensile ;where t is thickness of thinner plate
Specifications of butt weld:
Specifications of butt weld:
Size of weld:
1.For complete penetration->thickness of thinner plate
2.else 5/8 of thickness of thinner plate
Effective length
Length of the full size weld
Minimum length is 4xsize of weld

If intermittent butt weld is used,

1. effective length of not less than four times the weld size
2. space between the two welds shall not be more than 16 times the thickness of the
thinner part joined.
3. Tension members:
Types of failure:
1. Gross yielding
2. Net rupture
3. Block shear
Lug angles: used to reduce length
Splice plate: used to connect plates
4.Compression members:

Built up column:
1.In single lattice system direction of lattices on opposite side to be shadow of other,it should
nt be opposite.
2. slenderness ratio of lacings should not be more than 145
3.minimum width is 3 times nominal dia of rivets for bolt/rivet.
2. single lacing system------c/c distance between inner rivets
Double lacing system-------0.7x c/c distance between inner rivets
Weld lacing system----------0.7 L
3. le/rmin<145= KL/rmin<145 where rmin=t/√12.
4.Inclination of lacings is 400 - 700w.r.t axis of compression members.
5.thickness of lacing t>1/40th of effective length for single lacing.
t>1/16th of effective length for double lacing.
6.Axial force in lacing bar
F= V/2sinθ for single lacing,
F= V/4sinθ for double lacing.
7.Transverse shear Vt= 2.5% of axial force; if parallel system is present then each share Vt/2
8.minumum spacing is arranged such that
Maximum slenderness ratio<50,0.7x most unfavourable slenderness ratio.
9.if the column is subjected to bending then bending shear need to be added
Vt=2.5% column force+ bending shear


1.battens should be arranged symmetrically.

2.effective length: The effective slenderness ratio kL/r of battened columns shall be 1.1 times
the maximum actual slenderness ratio of the column
3.For slenderness ratio find fcd
4.find load=fcd x area
5.maximum spacing is arranged such that
6.Slenderness ratio<50, 0.7x slenderness ratio.
7.Transverse shear Vt = 2.5 % of total axial force.
8.minimum number of battens should be 3.

Vb= ; M=

Column bases:
1. Slab base:
1. bearing capacity of concrete = 0.45 fck
2. transfer by bearing
3. used for small loads
2. gusetted base: partially by bearing and partially by guessets
3. Grillage base: used for heavy loads and low bearing capacity
5. Beam:
Types of cross section:
Plastic or Class 1: which can develop plastichinges and have the rotation capacity required for
the failureof the structure by the formation of a plastic mechanism
Compact or Class 2:Cross sections which can developtheir plastic moment resistance, but have
inadequate plastichinge rotation capacity because of local buckling.
Semi-compact or Class 3:Cross sections in which theelastically calculated stress in the extreme
compression fibreof the steel member, assuming an elastic distribution ofstresses, can reach the
yield strength, but local buckling isliable to prevent the development of the plastic
Slender or Class 4: Cross sections in which local bucklingwill occur even before the attainment
of yield stress in oneor more parts of the cross section. In such cases, the effectivesections for
design are calculated by deducting the width ofthe compression plate element in excess of the
semi-compactsection limit.

Low shear load is less than or equal to 0.6 times design shear
High shear load is greater than 0.6 times design shear
Plastic theory: complete plastic theory is important
1. Shape factors:
Rectangle… 1.5
Diamond -2
Circular rod--- 1.698
I section…1.12 to 1.15
No of plastic hinges required for collapse = static indeterminancy + 1
Failure mechanisms and collapse loads:
1. Beam mechanism:
Important plastic moment capacity values:
Simply supported with center load-------------------------------Mc = WL/4
Simply supported with udl throughout beam-----------------Mc= Wl2/8
Probbed cantilever with center load--------------------------- Mc=WL/6
Probbed cantilever udl throughout beam---------------------Mc = Wl2/11.656
Fixed beam with center load---------------------------------------Mc = WL/8
Fixed beam with udl throughout beam--------------------------Mc = WL2/16
For different mechanisms , mechanism with high Mp or less collapse load is true mechanism

Plate girders:
1.self weight=W/200, where W is factored load
2.find depth using

3.if d/tw≤67ε no stiffners

67≤ d/tw≤200ε transverse stiffner is used
d/tw≥250ε longitudinal and transverse stiffners are required.
d/tw≥345ε then change the depth to avoid compression flange failure.
4.determine area of flange plates required to resist moment
(Afx fy x d)/1.1 = M thickness of flange such that 9.4ε < tf < 13.6bfε
6.find breadth of flange bf= Af/tf