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FIBERS

(An  overview  of  Fibers,  Yarns  &  


Fabric)    

Dr. Parul Bhatnagar


FIBERS

DR. PARUL BHATNAGAR


ASSISTANT PROFFESOR
TEXTILE DESIGN
DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE
(DEEMED UNIVERSITY)
DEI
PREFACE
How often is the consumer confronted with the question: “What shall I buy? On what basis should I
select?” She knows that if the merchandise performs satisfactorily, then the purchase will have been a wise
one. Similarly, if the article provides her and her family lasting satisfaction, she will have proved herself an
economically efficient individual.

Consumer buying of fabrics entails continual decision-making. Scarcely a day goes by that some sort
of decision on selection, use, and care of clothing or household textiles is not made.

All of us are both present and potential consumers. We have needs and wants, and we are motivated
by emotions and reasons.

Merchandise knowledge can be acquired from experience in buying, using, and caring for textile
articles. It can be learned from reading informative advertising and labels on merchandise, from well-
informed salespeople, from knowledgeable friends and associates, and from formal classroom study.

Thirty-three years of experience in teaching textiles have proved that, of all methods, formal
classroom instruction can most quickly and accurately organize and present product information. They have
also revealed that an emphasis on selling points of fabrics will aid the retail salesman in helping the
consumer make a wise selection.

But a mere presentation of facts is insufficient. The student or salesman must assimilate the facts and
apply them through careful study and experimentation.

Fibers have been divided into three chapters, not including the introduction to textile Fibers. Chapter
1 covers the intrinsic classification of the fabrics, along with the physical analysis of fabric composed of
different fibers. This information is based on a systematic of grouping of fibers into the type, and source or
composition, with a review table of classification of fibers.

Chapter II tells the students the properties of the fibers along with the visual examination of the
fibers, estimation of its probable performance, and to determining the care required in order to get maximum
performance.

Chapter III emphasizes the importance of identifying and testing fibers through different means,
there by selecting of appropriate fabrics for specific uses in apparel and home furnishings. Students
familiarize themselves with names and specifications for the most important fabrics.

Each chapter is followed with its summary, practical experiments for the students to practice and to
wind it, test your-self so as to let the students see the grasp they have had on the chapter.

The plan for use of this book is flexible. It can provide for a year’s course in textiles. The text can
also be used for various separate courses in “Fashion Fabrics in Apparel,” “Home Furnishings Fabrics,”
Fashion designing, Textile Designing and Interior Designing. Since one course should not be a prerequisite
for the other, students in all the courses must familiarize themselves with the terminology from the
beginning.
I am indebted to my students for information that they have brought to classes; to manufacturers who
have arranged market trips; and to many buyers and salesmen in retail stores for their help in discussing new
merchandise, styles, and assortments.

September 2010 Dr. Parul Bhatnagar


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION OF FIBER, YARN AND FABRIC..............................8

CHAPTER-1 ........................................................................................... 12
CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS................................................................12

Physical Analysis of Fabrics .................................................................. 18


The Natural Fibers ............................................................................. 18
Vegetable Fibers ................................................................................ 18
Cotton............................................................................................... 18
Jute................................................................................................... 19
Animal Fibers.................................................................................... 19
Wool................................................................................................. 20
The Manmade fibers .......................................................................... 21
Cellulosic Fibers ................................................................................ 21
Non-cellulosic Polymer Fibers ............................................................ 21
Nylon................................................................................................ 22
Polyester ........................................................................................... 22
Acrylic.............................................................................................. 23
Spandex ............................................................................................ 23
Protein Fibers .................................................................................... 25
Rubber Fibers .................................................................................... 25
Metallic Fibers................................................................................... 25
Mineral Fibers ................................................................................... 25
Summary........................................................................................... 26
Practical Exercise............................................................................... 26
Test yourself:..................................................................................... 27

CHAPTER-2 ........................................................................................... 28
THE PROPERTIES OF FIBERS ..............................................................28
Relating to appearance ....................................................................... 30
Colour............................................................................................... 30
Luster ............................................................................................... 32
Shape Surface Contour ....................................................................... 33
Length .............................................................................................. 34
Diameter ........................................................................................... 35
Relating to performance ..................................................................... 36
Strength/Tenacity................................................... ............................ 36
Specific Gravity ................................................................................ 38
Flexibility.......................................................................................... 39
Elongation, Elasticity ......................................................................... 39
Absorbency ....................................................................................... 41
Abrasion Resistance ........................................................................... 43
Electrical Conductivity ....................................................................... 44
Dimensional stability.......................................................................... 45
Flammability ..................................................................................... 45
Effect of Heat .................................................................................... 46
Relating to Maintenance...................................................................... 49
Effect of biological organisms............................................................. 49
Chemical conditions........................................................................... 51
Environmental conditions ................................................................... 53
Summary........................................................................................... 56
Practical Exercise............................................................................... 56
Test Yourself..................................................................................... 57

CHAPTER-3 ........................................................................................... 59
IMPORTANCE OF IDENTIFYING FIBERS 59
Burning Test ...................................................................................... 61
Burning Test for Natural Fibers ........................................................... 63
Burning Tests Manmade Fibers ........................................................... 66
Microscope Test ................................................................................ 69
Microscope Test for the Natural Fibers: ............................................... 71
Microscope Test For the Manmade Fibers ............................................ 75
Chemical Tests-.................................................................................. 81
Stain Method ..................................................................................... 81
The solvent method-........................................................................... 81
Chemical Tests for Natural Fibers........................................................ 82
Chemical Tests Manmade Fibers ......................................................... 83
Practical Experiments......................................................................... 87
Project .............................................................................................. 88
TEST YOURSELF ............................................................................ 89

TRADE NAMES WITH THEIR END USES ................................................91

ABOUT THE AUTHOR .......................................................................... 112


About the Author

A woman’s desire is to be unique – she is the goddess that is not idolized. She is deity that is not
adored. She is commotion, the calm. She is mystery, the tempest. She is celestial and earthy, innocent and
erotic. Thirteen years ago, I decided to spend some time Going around India. Inspiration was on every street
corner. Colors, fragrance, the architecture – I was captivated, enthralled and hypnotized. True to my wish for
freedom, I brought inspiration from different culture, which became my aspiration for Research on “Fibers.”
Married into an Education environment, with a family of Educationist. I developed a keen foresight for
creative and innovative teaching an eye for details and passionately writing about different Fibers, Textiles
and Costumes. I have a rich experience of 33 years in the field of Textile and Management; have been
Advisor to Hastshilp Vikas Nigam, Government of M P., extensively traveled participating actively in
several National and International Workshops, Seminars and Conferences.

Have authored, contributed articles and edited more then fifteen books on Textiles, have a number of
research papers to my credit where I have also been awarded the best paper award.

Have guided more than 175 design projects, completed UGC minor research project, doing a MHRD
major project on vocational Textile Design, providing technical assistance to Small Scale Industries,
Government of India.

I am a member of Board of the Studies, course curriculum and an Examiner to six Indian universities
and have been one of the pioneers for developing vocational courses in Textiles through e learning for
Distance Education; at present I am Coordinator of Department of Textile Designing at Dayalbagh
Educational Institute, (Deemed University) Agra, India.

I can be reached at parulpb@gmail.com