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Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science & English Language,

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PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL, APR-MAY 2018, VOL- 6/27

INDIAN RESERVATION POLICIES: REALITY AND CONTRADICTIONS

Deepak P. Gaikwad, Ph.D.


Post Doctoral Fellow of ICSSR New Delhi, at Indian Institute of Education, Pune

Abstract

This research Paper as an interdisciplinary project on “Reservation in Services and Education” with
regards to education and status of employment of Dalits Though the emphasis is on Social
Reservation, this study inquires into the demands of social reservation of Dalits.1 Critics have
claimed that though sixty years have passed with the implementation of social reservation, expected
results with regards changes in social, political and economical life of Dalits have been not accrued
in India.2 It is the same case with Maharashtra.
[kjh lekurk vk.k.;klkBh tkrhoj vk/kkjhr mRiknu O;oLFkk rksMyh ikfgts - ts ckcklkgsc vkacsMdj
R;kaP;k tkrhlaLFksps mPpkVu e/;s Eg.krkr- vkf.k gs rksM.;klkBh lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkf.k jktdh; lerk
vlyh ikfgts R;klkBh 1½ ‘ksrtehuhps jk”Vªh;dj.k 2½ vkS|ksfxd jk”Vªh;dj.k 3½ dkWeu Ldwy%& dkWeu
LdwyP;k ek/;ekrwu lektkrhy loZ tkrh/kekZps yksd ,d= f’k{k.k ?ksrhy] ,d= jkgrhy] ,d= tsou
djrhy] dkWeu Ldwypk dk;ZØe ts- ih- ukbZd ;kauh lq: dsyk gksrk- vkuan rsyrqca Ms Eg.krkr dh] tj
tkrh;rk u”V djk;ph vlys rj dkWeu Ldwy lw: dsys ikfgts-
ekDlZ vkf.k ckcklkgsc vkacsMdj Eg.krkr dh] yksd’kkgh rhu izdkjph vlrs 1½ jktdh; yksd’kkgh
2½ lkekftd yksd’kkgh 3½ vkfFkZd yksd’kkgh- Eg.kwu ;k frugh izdkjph yksd’kkgh ;’kLoh gks.;klkBh
vkj{k.k [kwi egRokpk ?kVd vkgs-

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“Primary Education of masses should be made compulsory up to a certain age say least 12
years”. 3
-Jyotiba Phule,

“The scheduled castes have been backward socially, economically and educationally. For
quite a long time they have been subjected to various forms of social and economical
exploitation. The Constitution of India, therefore, extended protection and safeguards for the
scheduled caste either specially or by way of general rights of citizen for maintaining and
promoting their educational and economic interest and removing certain social disabilities” 4
-R.C Sharma

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7769

This research Paper as an interdisciplinary project on “Reservation in Services and


Education” with regards to education and status of employment of Dalits Though the
emphasis is on Social Reservation, this study inquires into the demands of social reservation
of Dalits.5 Critics have claimed that though sixty years have passed with the implementation
of social reservation, expected results with regards changes in social, political and
economical life of Dalits have been not accrued in India.6 It is the same case with
Maharashtra.
We are dealing here with the need of the study of reservation in India. This research
projects deals with reservation and the making of Indian citizenship: Ambedkar’s critique of
Gandhi in his What the Congress and Gandhi have done for the Untouchables. This part
analyzes the problematic of reservation with Ambedkar’s program of the annihilation of
caste. The idea of “problematic” is taken from Louis Athusser’s Reading Capital. We have
done a detailed note on terminology. On a broader social canvas the terms “Dalit” is most
appropriate to articulate our thesis on social reservation, since the term “Dalit” involves some
sort of democratic radicalism. This broader social canvas is based on the political
anthropology of B.R Ambedkar. Ambedkar’s thesis of the annihilation of caste will be
central to this work. The study will also explore whether the idea of social reservation is
suited for Ambedkar’s original vision.
Social reservation is intrinsically related to reservation in school admission and
reservations in services for depress classes7 in Indian society. This research project also
focuses on the views of mass educators like B. R. Ambedkar, Jyotiba Phule, Rajershi Shahoo
Maharaja and J. P. Naik, on education and social reservation. This paper consequently
explores the functioning of recruitments of teachers and professors in the Indian education
system.
Historical Legacy of Reservation in India.
Pre- Independence: (Colonialism followed by the Phule-Ambedkar Era). This part deals
with the documentation of the question of reservation, especially after Herbert Risley carried
out the Census in India (in 1872) where caste took its “rationalized” form in the form of
governmental documentation. Here we deal with the part the Census played in the
regimentation of people and the way the Census played in this classification and
regimentation. The Weberian idea of “instrumental reason” which the Frankfurt School used

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7770

as central part in their sociological research of late capitalist societies is used here in colonial
administration of the Indian subcontinent. I have also analyzed whether Ambedkar falls
under this genre of instrumental reason or whether he proceeds into a post-instrumental
politics. We want to understand the correlation between political reservation and social
reservation, In this respect a brief history of political reservation needs being pointed out. It
was the Poona Pact that Ambedkar was forced to sign under the duress of Gandhi in the
aftermath of the three round table conferences in 1931-2 from whence the idea of Political
Reservation emerged. This was Gandhi’s way of negating Ambedkar’s proposal for separate
electorates for Dalits. According to Gandhi, Ambedkar’s proposal would dilute the unity of
Hindu society and undermine the anti-colonial movement. Gandhi’s fast in 1932 in the
Yerwada jail, Pune that caused national tension, forced Ambedkar in giving in to Gandhi’s
demands. One can claim that this was some sort of social contract that emerged with the
dominance of the Congress elites in the struggle for Indian independence.
2.2 Post-Independence (the Nehruvean Welfare Era). This part deals with the process of
the formation of the welfare state under Nehru’s leadership and the place of the subaltern
castes within this state-formation.
2.3 After 1992 (the Neo-liberal Era). In this section we have dealt with two opposing
dimensions—the first is the rise of the lower castes in politics especially in North India—the
rise of the BSP in UP—and the part played by neo-liberal capital accumulation.
Whilst the reservation policy has been hotly debated, except the neo-liberal economists who
are not very favourable to this entire system of reservation, there has been no rigorously
defined alternative to this system yet formulated. And because the legacy of reservation lie in
colonial India it is also thought that a colonial basis could exist for this policy. Whilst after
the introduction of the Indian Constitution, Dalits and other marginalized groups have got
reservation in legislature and public sector, yet results are not fully satisfying. In this
Research, I have analyzed whether social reservation really empowers the Dalits. Besides the
question of Social reservation and Dalit empowerment, there is another main question that
this thesis probes. The question: “how can Dalit unity be possible as the realization of the
politics of the Dalit-buhajan community?” “Can this unity be also understood as the unity of
the “popular classes”? Can this unified Dalit be then be understood as the “popular class” of
Antonio Gramsci?”

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7771

In colonial India many social reformers, mass educators has tried to development of
weaker section8 of society through the education. Like Jyotiba Phule, Rajershi Shahoo
maharaj, Babasahed Ambedkar and J.P Naik. Jyotiba Phule has linked to directly social
reservation and his work for the reservation. In other way I want say today’s social
reservation policy need for Dalit because of Phule and Other Mass Educator because if Dalit
not got education then no need of any social reservation. So Dalit education is very important
for social reservation.
According to Jyotiba Phule, “primary Education of masses should be made
9
compulsory up to a certain age say least 12 years”. One may refer to the 18 Oct 1882
Memorandum to the Hunter Commission in this regard. Phule has fought against castisim, he
devoted his whole life foe mass education. According to Citratai Naik10 “Mhatma Phule says
that the founder of the Earth is one, that’s why the human being can not discrimination each
other on the basis of Caste and religion.”11
A slight note on this radical history of reservation is necessary. One knows that it was
Shahoo Maharaj who started separate hostels in Kolhapur for students from the all
communities and the boarding especially for the students from the untouchable communities.
One also knows that he offered scholarships to the needy and intelligent students from the
backward castes so that they could continue their education. He made primary education
compulsory and free for all in his Princely State. His royal decree held up the cause of
women's education. To abolish untouchability, He introduced reservation for the
untouchables in government jobs.
Babasaeb Ambedkar and Reservation Policy as two side of coin which cannot divide each
other. The reservation policy has impact of most famous pact, known as Puna Pact between
M. K Gandhi and B. R Ambedkar. He played very important role in making of Indian
Constitution. He mainly worked for women and Dalit freedom. He fought against
untouchabliaty in whole life. He knows that Dalit has a weaker section of Society that’s why
he given some reservation to develop them. Ambedkar says in his book Annihilation of Caste
that whilst caste is a form of “enclosed class’ governed by the laws of graded inequality and
division of laborers, his very modernist outlook also made him say that caste was also bound
to the oppression of women.
That’s why he focuses on freedom of women.

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7772

Social Reservation Policy, Education Policy and annihilation of Caste system have
very important correlation. The view of B R Ambedkar for Social Reservation is if Dalit and
women get Education easily then get Government services easily and develop social and
economical status and do the intercaste marriage. That’s why reduce the Caste System
automatically. “The real remedy for breaking Caste is Inter-marriage nothing else will serve
as the solvent of caste”12
J. P Naik has not directly linked to Reservation Policy but he linked to education
policy. He is famous mass educator in Pune or in india. He is founder of Indian Institute of
Education, Pune. He has worked as member secretary of Education commission of India
in1964 to 1966 and educational advisor Government of India.
When I saw the Educational thought of J. P. Naik then I am attract two thought. One
is Universal Education and second is common school, because if both thought implemented
effectively then it’s helpful to get the aim of social reservation. (Social, economical
development of Dalit and annihilation of Caste)
When the people of all Caste and category has get education in one common school
then definitely caste system going to an end.
If we study all above view of mass educator and social reformers then we understand
the need and importance of social reservation. But the point is to understand today’s
reservation system.
Type of reservation:
Reservations are two types, one is Political reservation and another is Social Reservation.
A brief history of political reservation needs being pointed out. It was the Poona Pact that
Ambedkar was forced to sign under the duress of Gandhi in the aftermath of the three round
table conferences in 1931-2 from whence the idea of Political Reservation emerged. This was
Gandhi’s way of negating Ambedkar’s proposal for separate electorates for Dalits. According
to Gandhi, Ambedkar’s proposal would dilute the unity of Hindu society and undermine the
anti-colonial movement. Gandhi’s fast in 1932 in the Yerwada jail, Pune that caused national
tension, forced Ambedkar in giving in to Gandhi’s demands. One can claim that this was
some sort of social contract that emerged with the dominance of the Congress elites in the
struggle for Indian independence.

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7773

In this sense one must differentiate the political ideology of Ambedkar and his
philosophy of social emancipation and what emerges in the contemporary politics of
reservation. One view one could classify as the “elitist” view as it appears as in the works of
Centre for Policy Research. Panandiker the Founding Director of the Centre for Policy
Research for example talks of the politics of backwardness in his book The Politics of
Backwardness whilst Christophe Jafferlot talks of the “silent revolution” that the reservation
policy has heralded, especially after the Mandal Commission.
Social reservation:
Another important type of reservation is Social Reservation. This reservation for SCs,
STs, OBCs, Women etc, in School Admission and Government Services. The 50% quota for
Reserve and other 50% are open for all caste including who get benefit of Reservation on
eligibility of Merit.
The Indian Constitution gave the Reserve quota for backward caste13 in Indian society on
basis of Caste because very much discrimination among the Caste in Indian Caste Hierarchy.
SCs and STs has throughout from development Society and Policy like Education, They
prohibited from right to speech, right to work, right to eat from the Indian Society. They had
not freedom for occupy drinking water. That’s why this reservation policy has on the basis of
Caste.
Reservation In Academics Admissions
There are 50% reserve seats in school, college and university for SCs, STs and OBC,
etc. it’s implemented very well because of its eligibility on Merit base 14. But wherever the
eligibility criteria is interview instead of merit of marks and grade there are not implemented
social reservation policy as accepted in school admission. They fill reserve quota correctly
but they don’t fill open quota of 50% correctly. The interview comity gave highest marks or
grade for upper caste15 as compare to reserve category. Theoretically they fill open quota of
50% on eligibility of merit but the question is this merit is created by interview comity which
is doubtful.
Reservation in Government Services:
There are 50% reserve posts in every registered School, College, Institutions and
University for SCs, STs and OBCs, etc.

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7774

The recruitment of Primary School Teacher16 is implemented very well both reserve
and open quota, because there recruitment on the eligibility of D.ed marks and grade by the
district collector.
The recruitment of college teacher and the faculty of various departments in
Universities are implemented very doubtfully. These recruitments on eligibility of merit in
interview not important of previous academic record. Indirectly these interview systems in
services create a way to corruption. The interview comity selected those people who are
favorable. But the point is that if forget the recruitments that how the candidate select and
understand all recruitment as reserve seats and open seats. Then we know the reserve posts of
50% are filling by the interview comity. But the point is that other 50% open for all caste
including reserve category are filled correctly. Then we under understand not filed correctly
because the tradition is that The OPEN means not OPEN to all Caste it is only for non reserve
caste. That’s we seen the 50% OPEN post occupied or appointed by Upper Caste People17
Conclusion
We listen from our friends and relatives. In School Admissions and services
interviews asks the question. How much donation are you giving us? Another matter I listen
from my friend, he want apply for OPEN post and he is from reserve category, when he
going to apply the principle said “This post for open not for reserve caste, you can not apply”
this is a reality. So the question is that the social reservation policy gives the 50% reservation
for backward Caste or Upper Caste. Who is really benefiter of this social reservation policy?

vkj{k.k gk ns’kHkjkr oknxzLr cur pkyysyk fo”k; vf.k lektkP;k fofo/k xVke/kqu vkj{k.kkph gksr
vklysY;k ekx.khP;k vuq’kaxkus gk ys[k vkiY;kleksj ekaMr vkgs- ;k ys[kkr jktdh; vkj{k.k] lkekftd
vkj{k.k vkf.k [kktxh {ks=krhy vkj{k.k ;kps foospu dsys vkgs-
Hkkjrke/;s lkekftd vkj{k.kkph lq:okr [kÚ;k vFkkZus Lokra«;iwoZ dky[kaMkiklwu >kyh vkgs - ;k
dky[kaMkr jktf”kZ ‘kkgw egkjkt] e- Qqys] MkW-ckcklkgsc vkacsMdj ;kapk lekos’k gksrks- 1882 P;k gaVj
deh’ku dMs- e- T;ksfrck Qqys ;kauh lokZauk eksQr o lDrhP;k f’k{k.kkph o ljdkjh uksdÚ;ke/;s vkj{k.kkph
ekx.kh loZizFke dsyh- 1902 e/;s jktf”kZ ‘kkgw egkjktkauh nfyrkaP;k fodklklkBh dksYgkiwj laLFkkue/;s
nfyrkauk uksdÚ;kae/;s 50 VDds vkj{k.k fnys o vkj{k.kkph eqgwrZes< jksoyh-
1953 e/;s dkysydj vk;ksx use.;kr vkyk o ekxkloxhZ;kaph vkdMsokjh dk<.;kr vkyh o
R;kuqlkj 1956 e/;s ;k vk;ksxkus vkiyk vgoky lknj dsyk - ;kr SC, ST vkf.k OBC ;kaP;klkBh
lkekftd vkj{k.kkph ekx.kh dsyh ek= R;kosGh OBC lkBhph ekx.kh ukdkjyh xsyh-

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7775

1979 e/;s ‘kS{kf.kd vkf.k lkekftd ekxklysi.kk ekst.;klkBh eaMy vk;ksxkph LFkkiuk dsyh
rsOgk eaMy vk;ksxkP;k f’kQkj’khuqlkj OBC uk lkekftd vkj{k.k izkIr >kys-
1992 P;k uarj Hkkjrkus [kktxhdj.k] mnkfjdj.k] tkxfrdhdj.k /kksj.kkpk Lohdkj dsyk ;kr jkT;kph
yksddY;k.kdkjh Hkwfedk ekxs iMyh- uomnkjeroknh fopkjoar ;kauh lkekftd vkj{k.k izkeq[;kus fojks/k
dsyk- vkj{k.kke/ks U;k;ky;kph Hkwfedkgh egRoiw.kZ jkfgyh- 1951 yk enzkl jkT; fo:/n paikde nksjkbZjktu
[kVY;kP;k fu.kZ;ke/;s lkaxhrys dh] tkrhP;k fud”kkoj vlysys vkj{k.k xjtsps o ;ksX; vkgs - rj 1963 yk
,e- vkj- ckykth fo:/n EgSlwjP;k [kVY;kr lkekftd vkj{k.kkoj 50 VDdsph e;kZnk Vkdyh- rj 1992
e/;s bafnjk lgkuh dsl e/;s dsanz’kklukP;k uksdÚ;kr ekxkloxhZ;kauk vkj{k.k ekU; dsys- 1994 e/;s
rkfeGukMw jkT;kyk ctko.;kr vkys dh R;kauh 50 VDds e;kZnk ikGkoh- Eg.kqu vkt lkekftd vkj{k.kkph
e;kZnk 50 VDdsph vkgs-
vkt izR;sd nfyr la?kVuk] i{k] O;Drh uksdÚ;kae/;s vlysY;k jk[kho tkxk HkjY;k xsY;k
ukghr fdaok HkjY;k tkr ukghr ;klkBh y<rkauk fnlrkr- ek= dks.khgh T;k tkxk [kqY;k vlrkr T;kr loZ
tkrhapk vkj{k.k ?ks.kkÚ;k tkrhlxV lekos’k vlrks- T;k ,dk leku xq.koRrsP;k vk/kkjs HkjY;k tkO;kr vlk
fu;e vlrks- rjhgh ;k [kqY;k tkxsojrh vkj{k.k ?ks.kkÚ;k tkrhpk fopkj dsyk tkr ukgh- dkgh mnkgj.ks vls
vkgsr dh] tsOgk ,[kknk vkj{khr xVkrhy messnokj [kqY;k izoxkZlkBh ¼tks loZ tkrhlkBh [kqyk vlrks½ vtZ
djrks rsOgk&rsOgk rh tkxk [kqY;k izoxkZlkBh vkgs- ¼ts vkjf{kr ukghr rs½- Eg.kwu vtZ Lohdkjyk tkr ukgh-
tjh vtZ fLodkjyk rjh fuoM dj.;ke/;s tkrhus [kqY;k izzoxkZyk izk/kkU; fnys tkrs - Eg.kwu ;k lkekftd
vkj{k.kkps [kjs miHkksDrs vkjf{kr ?kVd vkgs dh fcxj vkjf{kr ?kVd vkgsr gk iz’u iMrks -
- [kjh lekurk vk.k.;klkBh tkrhoj vk/kkjhr mRiknu O;oLFkk rksMyh ikfgts - ts ckcklkgsc
vkacsMdj R;kaP;k tkrhlaLFksps mPpkVu e/;s Eg.krkr- vkf.k gs rksM.;klkBh lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkf.k jktdh;
lerk vlyh ikfgts R;klkBh 1½ ‘ksrtehuhps jk”Vªh;dj.k 2½ vkS|ksfxd jk”Vªh;dj.k 3½ dkWeu Ldwy%&
dkWeu LdwyP;k ek/;ekrwu lektkrhy loZ tkrh/kekZps yksd ,d= f’k{k.k ?ksrhy] ,d= jkgrhy] ,d= tsou
djrhy] dkWeu Ldwypk dk;ZØe ts- ih- ukbZd ;kauh lq: dsyk gksrk- vkuan rsyrqc
a Ms Eg.krkr dh] tj
tkrh;rk u”V djk;ph vlys rj dkWeu Ldwy lw: dsys ikfgts-
ekDlZ vkf.k ckcklkgsc vkacsMdj Eg.krkr dh] yksd’kkgh rhu izdkjph vlrs 1½ jktdh; yksd’kkgh
2½ lkekftd yksd’kkgh 3½ vkfFkZd yksd’kkgh- Eg.kwu ;k frugh izdkjph yksd’kkgh ;’kLoh gks.;klkBh
vkj{k.k [kwi egRokpk ?kVd vkgs-
bE;uqvy osyLVkbZu] vaMjs xaqnjQzkUd] lehj vehu ;k fopkjoarkauh tkxfrd O;oLFkk fl/nkar vkf.k
ijkoyacu fl/nkarkps foospu d.;kpk iz;Ru dsyk vkgs- ;kr ,dw.k 4 ?kVdkaiSdh Center vkf.k Periphery
gs nksu ize[
q k ?kVd ekuys vkgsr- ;qjksi] vesfjdk ;klkj[ks jk”Vª Center e/;s vkgsr rj vkf’k;kbZ jk”Vª
Periphery e/;s vkgsr- Periphery jkgwu Center oj voyacwu vkgsr- gs R;kyk dPpk eky o euq”;cG
iqjforkr vkf.k Center R;koj izfØ;k d:u rksp eky vf/kd fdaerhus Periphery yk iqjforks o ;k nksu

Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7776

xVke/khy nqjkok vf/kd&vf/kd ok<r tkrks Periphery e/khy jk”Vª d/khgh Center pk Hkkx gksÅ ‘kdr
ukghr dkj.k R;kaps ijkoyacus d/khgh lair ukgh-
gkp fl/nkar vuqlwfpr tkrh o [kqyk xV ;kauk ykxw dsyk rj vuqlwfpr tkrh [kqY;k xVkyk
euq”;cG iqjforks R;kpk cnY;kr R;kauk dkgh ekscnyk feGrks- i.k mRiknu o uQk ;koj [kqY;k xVkphp
ekydh vlrs- rs vf/kdkf/kd Jhear gksrkr o vuqlwfpr tkrh vkf.k [kqyk xV ;kaP;krhy fo”kerk d/khgh nwj
gksÅ ‘kdr ukghr Eg.kwu ;k tkrhauk vkj{k.kkph xjt vkgs-
Jko.k nsojs Eg.krkr Qqys] ‘kkgw] vkacM
s dj ;kauh uksdj’kkghps vczkEg.khdj.k dj.;klkBh jk[kho tkxk
gs ‘kL= okijys ;kr vkfFkZd fud”k yko.ks Eg.kts foukvkj{khr yksdkauh vkjf{kr tkxk cGdko.;kl okV
eksdGh dj.ks- Eg.kwu vkfFkZd fud”k ulkosr-
ln~;k oknxzLr cur pkyysyk fo”k; egkjk”Vªke/ks ejkBk vkf.k xqtjkr e/;s iVsy ;kaP;kdMqu gksr
vlysyh lkekftd vkj{k.kkph ekx.kh- eqGke/;s ;k thrh T;k vkfFkZd fud”kkojrh lkekftd vkj{k.kkph
ekx.kh djrkr rks ?kVukRed n`”V~;k ;ksX; ukgh- dkj.k vkfFkZd n`”V~;k ekxkl vlysY;k tkrhalkBh vks-ch-
lh- :ikus vkj{k.k vkgs- Eg.kqu osxGk izoxZ cuous ?kV.kkRed fjR;k ‘kD; ukgh- Eg.kq.k dsoG ejkBk o iVsy
ukgh rj SC, ST o Minority vkf.k OBC e/khy ln~;k lkekfo”V vlysY;k tkrh ;kauk oxGqu brj loZ
tkrhaph iMrkG.kh eaMy vk;ksxkP;k fud”kkaP;k vk/kkjs djkoh- R;k fud”kkr clr vklrhy v’kk loZ
tkrhauk ex R;k ejkBk vlks ok iVsy ok czkEg.k ;k lokZuk vks-ch- lh- e/;s lkekfo”V d:.k lkekftd
vkj{k.k n~;kos dkj.k vks-ch- lh- gk dsoG tkrhoj vk/kkjhr xV ulqu rks vkfFkZd n`”V~;k ekxkl vlysY;k
tkrhapk xV vkgs-
Hkkjrke/;s jktdh; vkj{k.kkph lq:okr 1909 iklqu >kyh- 1909 e/;s fczVh’k ikyZesVa us ^^bafM;u
dkSfUly vWDV** ikl dsyk- T;kr Lora= ernkj la?kkph ladYiuk loZizFke ekaM.;kr vkyh o eqLyhe vkf.k
‘kh[k ;kaP;klkBh Lora= ernkj la?k ns.;kr vkys- iq<s 1932 e/;s fczVh’k iariz/kkukauh tkrh; fuokMk ?kksf”kr
dsyk o R;kuqlkj eqfLye vkf.k ‘kh[k ;kaP;kizek.ks f[kz’pu] ;qjksih;u o vWXyksbafM;u ;kaP;klkBh Lora= ernkj
la?k tkghj dsys R;kpizek.ks nfyrkalkBh Lora= ernkj la?k tkghj dsyk- rsOgk e- xka/kh miks”k.kkyk clys o
iq.ks djkj ?kMwu vkyk-
MkW- ckcklkgsc vkacsMdj nfyrkalkBh Lora= ernkj la?k vlkosr ;klkBh iz;Ru’khy gksrs i.k e- xka/kh
miks”k.kkyk clys R;kaP;kers nfyr gk fganw /kekZpkp ,d Hkkx vkgs tj R;kauk Lora= ernkj la?k fnys rj fganw
/kekZrhy ,drk yksi ikosy ‘ksoVh rMtksM dj.;kr vkyh o 78 tkxka,soth 148 jk[kho tkxk fnY;k ek=
nfyrkauk Lora= ernkj la?k xeokos ykxys- gk djkj bfrgklkr] ^1932 pk iq.ks djkj* Eg.kwu vksG[kyk
tkrks- gs vkj{k.k /kksj.k iq<s Lokra«;ksRrj dkGkr jkT; ?kVusr lekfo”V d:u ?ksrys-
l|k jk[kho tkxkaP;k /kksj.kkeqGs nfyrkaP;k erkaps eqY; ‘kqU; >kysys fnlrs - dkj.k jk[kho tkxso:u
fuoMw.k ;s.kkjk vkenkj gk dsoG vuqlwfpr tkrhadMwu uOgs rj loZ tursdMwu fuoMw.k ;srks - T;k i{kkps oy;
R;k ernkj la?kkr vlrs rksp i{kkpk izfrfu/kh fuoMwu ;srks-
,dkp ernkj la?kkrwu vuqlwfpr tkrhps R;krhy mitkrhps vusd mesnokj fuoM.kwd y<orkr
ifj.kkeh nfyrkaph tkrokj xVckth gksrs-
Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies
Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7777

jk[kho tkxso:u fuoMwu vkysyk vkenkj gk dsoG vuqlwfpr tkrhP;k erkoj fuoMwu vkysyk
ulY;keqGs rks R;kauk izR;{k mRrjnk;h ulrks rj laiw.kZ ernkj la?kkyk mRrjnk;h vlrks - Eg.kwu rks dsoG
vuqlwfpr tkrhiqjrs e;kZfnr fu.kZ; fdaok /kksj.k ekaMw ‘kdr ukgh-
izdk’k vkacM
s dj ;kaP;k ers] MkW- ckcklkgsc vkacsMdjkauh nfyrkalkBh 1920 e/;s jktdh; vkj{k.kkph
ekx.kh dsyh rsOgk Hkkjrkrhy lkekftd ifjfLFkrh osxGh gksrh- rsOgk ,d eksBk leqg jktdh; lRrsiklwu oaphr
gksrk] rks nwj Qsdyk xsyk gksrk] Eg.kwu jktdh; vkj{k.k vko’;d o xjtsps gksrs - ek= vkt ifjfLFkrh osxGh
vkgs- yksd’kkghph tkxk dqVaqc’kkghus ?ksryh vkgs] vkj{khr tkxso:u fuoMwu ;s.kkjs vkenkj] [kklnkj] gs
lkekftd fgr c?kr ukghr rj dsoG i{kfgrkdMs y{k nsrkr] loZp jktdh; i{kkapk vtsaMk lkekftd u jkgrk
rks dsoG jktdh; vFkZdkj.k cuyk vkgs- Eg.kwu fo/kkulHkk o yksdlHkk ;krhy vkj{k.k xjtsps ukgh] ek=
ftYgk ifj”kn] iapk;r lferh] xzkeiapk;r] lgdkj {ks= ;krhy vkj{k.k xjtsps vkgs-
1992 P;k uarj tsOgk Hkkjrkus [kktxhdj.k] mnkjhdj.k vkf.k tkxfrdhdj.k ;kpk fLodkj dsyk
vkf.k PPP ¼ifCyd izk;OgsV ikVZujf’ki½ yk izk/kkU; fnys o yksddY;k.kdkjh jkT;kph Hkwfedk ekxs iMyh-
uksdjh e/khy vkj{k.kklkBh miyC/k vlysys ‘kkldh; {ks= deh&deh gksr xsys o [kktxh {ks= ok<r xsys
ifj.kkeh [kktxh {ks=ke/khy vkj{k.kkph ekx.kh ok<r vkgs-
ekDlZoknh fopkjlj.khuqlkj dkj[kkU;ke/;s dke dj.kkÚ;k izzR;sd dkexkjkph dk;ZZ{kerk fo”ke vlrs
o R;kP;k xjtk gh fo”ke vlrkr- mnk- ,[kknk dkexkj vfookghr vkgs o ,[kknk fookghr vkgs rsOgk
nks?kkaP;k xjtk deh vf/kd vlrkr- rsOgk dkj[kkunkjkauh lkekftd tckcnkjh Lohdkjyh ikfgts o tks uQk
vlrks R;krhy dkgh Hkkx lkekftd fodklklkBh jk[kho Bso
s yk ikfgts o izR;sd dkexkjkP;k xjtk R;krwu
iw.kZ dssY;k ikfgts- ;k fopkjlj.hyk vuql:.k vki.k [kktxh vkj{k.kkdMs ikfgys vlrk- [kktxh m|kstdkauh
lkekftd tckcnkjh letwu vkj{k.k ekU; dsys ikfgts

1
We are using the terms of “Dalit” & “SCs” interchangeably. It must be recalled that 2006 National Commission for
Scheduled Castes talks of dropping the word “dalit” and replacing it with the term “Scheduled Castes”. The political
vocabulary and dynamics of both these will also be taken in the consideration.
2
Though the idea of political reservation emerged with the Poona Pact its resonance is felt even today.
3
18 Oct 1882 – A memorandum to the Hunter commission in Bahujan Shikshan Vastav Ani Aapeksha edited by Sarad
Javdekar and others, Publication: Aakhil Bhartiya Samajvadi Adhapak Sabha Pune , 2011 topic 20 page no 195
4
I refer in The Studies in educational reforms in India volume III Edited by P.R.
Panchamukhi (Indian Institute of Education, Pune 1989), chapter 3 Concessions and
Incentives to Educational Institutes for S.C. Student at School stage in Rajasthan page no 67.
5
We are using the terms of “Dalit” & “SCs” interchangeably. It must be recalled that 2006 National Commission for
Scheduled Castes talks of dropping the word “dalit” and replacing it with the term “Scheduled Castes”. The political
vocabulary and dynamics of both these will also be taken in the consideration.
6
Though the idea of political reservation emerged with the Poona Pact its resonance is felt even today.
7
Depress class ( SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, Women, Other)
8
Dalit and other marginalized groups
9
18 Oct 1882 – A memorandum to the Hunter commission in Bahujan Shikshan Vastav Ani Aapeksha edited by Sarad
Javdekar and others, Publication: Aakhil Bhartiya Samajvadi Adhapak Sabha Pune , 2011 topic 20 page no 195
10
Well known thinker in Pune.
11
See Desai, V. D, “Mahatma Jyotiba Phule”(Pune, Indian Institute of Education, 1992).
12
Annihilation of Caste in The Essential Writings of B. R. Ambedkar, Edited by Velerian Rudrigues,
(New Delhi; Oxford University Press, 2008)
Copyright © 2017, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies
Deepak P. Gaikwad
(Pg. 7763-7767) 7778

13
Socially and economically backward caste in Indian Caste System.
14
Marks and Grads of Pervious Academic year
15
Not take benefit of reservation.
16
I refer as 1st to 4th, 5th to 7th and 8th to 10th Class Teacher in Government School.
17
Not included reserve category.

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