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STUDY OF CROSS FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

Objective

This experiment is at determining coefficient of heat transferrin a cross flow for a particular heat

exchanger.

Equipment

Figure 1: Cross flow heat exchanger (HT35)


Introduction

Heat exchanger is used to transfer thermal energy between two given fluids. When the two fluids

are such that one is located perpendicular to the other so that heat is transfer the heat exchanger

is known as cross flow heat exchanger. For the equipment HT30 the fluid is unmixed so that it

can inhibit fins motion in the Y direction which is transverse to the X flow main direction. As a

result temperature can vary in both of the directions X and Y.


Figure 2: cross flow heat exchanger flow orientation
Procedure

1. The software HT30 was started and the LMTD mode selected.

2. The power button was turned on.

3. The fan was switched on by clicking indicator fan and air velocity (Ua)of 1m/s was

confirmed to be present.

4. Air was added, relative humidity (RH %) value in percentage was inserted.

5. Temperature controller was set to automatic and a set point of 600C.

6. Controller for the flow rate of hot water was turned on and then set to automatic. A set

point 1litres/min was entered.

7. The heat exchanger was allowed to stabilize while using sensor displays of the software

screen to monitor temperature. All date was recorded as per the sheet of instruction.

8. The water flow rate was changed to 2, 3, 4 and 5 liters/min and data was recorded for all

the flow rates.

9. All the steps from step number 5 were repeated with a set point of 400 C.
Calculations

The following formulas were used to calculate respective values:

Non dimensional number P;

Non dimensional number R;

Cross flow heat exchanger Tlm, cf ,


Mass flow rate of water mw at temperature Tw;

Where Fw is the flow rate in m3/S,

w is the density of water.

Heat rejected by water Qw ,

.
Qw  mw c pw (T1  T2 )

Where mw is the mass flow rate,

Cpw specific heat capacity of water at constant pressure.

Density of air ,  a

P
a  
,
RTa

Where P is the pressure, P=101325 Pa

R is the universal gas constant, R=287.058 J/kg.K


T is average of 𝑇3 and 𝑇4 in K
Area, A= l*w

= 0.121*0.126

= 0.015 m2

. 
m  U * A * a @ Ta

Heat transfer coefficient U,

Where Qw is heat rejected by hot water,

A-The area,

Tlm, cf – temperature for a cross flow heat exchanger.


Table 1 raw data at 600 C

No. Hot water Hot in Hot out Cold in Cold out Air flow Air

flow rate temp, temp, temp, Temp, rate, Fa, velocity,

Fw, L/min T1 0C T2 0C T3 0C T40C m3/S Ua , m/S

1 1 60.4 57.02 27.63 43.93 0.0137 0.94

2 2 60.14 58.166 27.63 44.26 0.0132 0.84

3 3 59.91 58.51 27.60 44.78 0.0104 0.68

4 4 59.94 58.80 27.54 45.23 0.0073 0.49

5 5 59 59.03 27.60 45.56 0.0039 0.28

Table 2 calculated values at 600 C

No. Hot Δ𝑇𝑙𝑚 P R F Δ𝑇𝑙𝑚,𝑐𝑓 𝑸𝒘, 𝑸𝒂, 𝑸𝒂/𝑸𝒘 U

water W W W/m2K

flow

rate

Fw,

L/min

1 1 22.31 0.4974 0.2074 0.66 14.5 307.8 292.4 0.95


1415
2 2 22.42 0.512 0.117 0.91 20.2 310.8 298.3 0.96
1026
3 3 22.09 0.5326 0.08149 0.93 20.8 318.2 308.2 0.969
1021
4 4 21.96 0.5451 0.0644 0.97 21.1 327.2 317.3 0.97
1034
5 5 21.18 0.7722 -0.0017 0.99 20.8 325.8 322.2 0.989
1046
Table 2 raw data (400C)

No. Hot water Hot in Hot out Cold in Cold out Air flow Air

flow rate temp, temp, temp, Temp, rate, Fa, velocity,

Fw, L/min T1 0C T2 0C T3 0C T40C m3/S Ua , m/S

1 1 39.71 37.99 27.47 33.68 0.0165 1.09

2 2 39.81 38.32 27.34 33.74 0.0161 1.00

3 3 39.94 39.19 27.37 34.00 0.0139 0.94

4 4 39.99 39.42 27.50 34.26 0.0112 0.88

5 5 110.00 39.54 27.50 34.42 0.0094 0.61

Table 2 calculated values at 400C

No. Hot Δ𝑇𝑙𝑚 P R F Δ𝑇𝑙𝑚,𝑐𝑓 𝑸𝒘, 𝑸𝒂, 𝑸𝒂/𝑸𝒘 U

water W W W/m2K

flow

rate

Fw,

L/min

1 1 8.068 0.5074 0.2713 0.70 0.389572 127.6 125.0 0.98


11572
2 2 8.284 0.5132 0.2339 0.90 0.533445 122.7 118.2 0.963
12812
3 3 8.55 0.5274 0.1154 0.92 0.633037 121.7 115.1 0.946
15337
4 4 8.45 0.5412 0.0843 0.96 0.703202 122.1 109.9 0.9
21828
5 5 34.59 0.0838 2.0471 0.99 -1.81859 91.7 78 0.85
23657
Figure 3: Correction-factor plot cross-flow exchanger
Questions:

1. The maximum theoretical value of the ratio of Qa to Qw should be 1. From this

experiment it was found that the maximum ratio of Qa to Qw was 0.98. This value was

close to the theoretical value 1. The exact value of 1 could hardly be achieved probably

due to errors. The errors could be due to sensitivity of the measuring equipment’s like A

HT35 cross flow heat exchanger. Also these errors could be due human error for example

due to parallax when reading measurements. The resultant sum of these errors could have

affected the true value.


2. Graphs

Graph of heat transfer coefficient against water flow rate at 600 C

Graph of U against Fw
1500

1000
U

500

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

Fw

Graph of heat transfer coefficient against air flow rate at 400 C

graph of U against Fw
25000

20000

15000
U
10000

5000

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
flow rate
From the above graph it can be seen that the heat transfer coefficient increases with flow rate.

This is because from Newton’s law of cooling the heat rate is directly proportional to the heat

transfer coefficient. Therefore changing the flow rate will change the heat rejected and thus the

heat transfer coefficient.

3. The factors affecting heat transfer coefficient during the early stages of design are

diameters of tube, baffle size and baffle space, material selection, physical properties of

the fluid used, flow are of the fluid and temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the pipes.

4. Water temperature can increase the heat transfer rate. As the temperature increases the

heat transferred will increase. Also the amount of heat rejected increases as the

temperature increases. On the other hand, when the temperature increases, the mass flow

rate decreases. In addition increasing the temperature decreases the heat transfer

coeffient.
Figure 4: specific heat capacity of water

References

1. Theodore L.Bergman et al, fundamentals of heat and mass transfer seventh edition.

2. Lab manual study of cross flow heat exchanger.

3. David Southall, et al, designs considerations for compact heat exchangers.


4. www.vaxasoftware.com