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Cytoplasm – 2 components − self-replicate during times of increased cellular

1. Cytosol demand or before cell division

− intracellular fluid (75-90% water), surrounds the
organelles  Nucleus
− the site of many chemical reactions (glycolysis) − spherical or oval-shaped structure
→ energy is usually released by these reactions − usually most prominent feature of a cell
− reactions provide the building blocks for cell − nuclear envelope – a double membrane that
maintenance, structure, function and growth separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
− The cytoskeleton: network of protein filaments − nuclear pores – numerous openings in the
throughout the cytosol nuclear envelope, control movement of
− provides structural support for the cell substances between nucleus and cytoplasm
− three types according to increase in size: − nucleolus – spherical body that produces
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and ribosome
microtubules − genes – are the cell’s hereditary units, control
activities and structure of the cell
2. Organelles − chromosomes – long molecules of DNA
− specialized structures within the cell combined with protein molecules

 Centrosome - located near the nucleus, consists of two Somatic Cell Division – Mitosis
centrioles and pericentriolar material  The cell cycle is a sequence of events in which a body cell
duplicates its contents and divides in two
 Cilia - short, hair-like projections from the cell surface,  Human somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
move fluids along a cell surface (total = 46)
 The two chromosomes that make up each pair are called
 Flagella - longer than cilia, move an entire cell; only homologous chromosome (homologs)
example is the sperm cell’s tail  Somatic cells contain two sets of chromosomes and are
called diploid cells
 Ribosomes – sites of protein synthesis
 Interphase
 Endoplasmic reticulum – network of membranes in the − the cell is not dividing
shape of flattened sacs or tubules − the cell replicates its DNA
− Rough ER: connected to the nuclear envelope, a − consists of three phases, G1, S, G2, replication of DNA
series of flattened sacs, surface is studded with occurs in the S phase
ribosomes, produces various proteins
− Smooth ER: a network of membrane tubules,  Mitotic phase
does not have ribosomes, synthesizes fatty acids − consists of a nuclear division (mitosis) and a
and steroids, detoxifies certain drugs cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis) to form two
identical cells
 Golgi complex – consists of 3-20 flattened, membranous
sacs called cisternae Nuclear Division: Mitosis
− modify, sort, and package proteins for transport  Prophase
to different destinations − the chromatin fibers change into chromosomes
− proteins are transported by various vesicles − centromere holds chromatid together
− pericentriolar of centrosomes from mitotic
 Lysosome – vesicles that form from the Golgi complex, spindle: microtubules lengthen
contain powerful digestive enzymes
 Metaphase
 Peroxisomes – vesicle contain oxidase (oxidative enzymes) − microtubules align the centromeres of the
& catalase (decompose hydrogen peroxide) chromatid pairs at the metaphase plate (at the
− smaller than lysosomes, detoxify several toxic midpoint region)
substances such as alcohol, abundant in the liver
 Anaphase
 Proteasomes – tiny barrel with proteases (proteolytic − the chromatid pairs split at the centromere and
enzymes) move to opposite poles of the cell; the
− continuously destroy unneeded, damaged, or chromatids are now called chromosomes
faulty proteins, found in cytosol and the nucleus
 Telophase
 Mitochondria – the “powerhouses” of the cell − begins after chromosomal movement stops; two
− generate ATP identical nuclei are formed around the identical
− more prevalent in physiologically active cells: sets of chromosomes now in their chromatin
muscles, liver and kidneys form
− inner and outer mitochondrial membranes − nuclear envelope forms, nucleoli reappear in
− cristae – the series of folds of the inner identical nuclei, mitotic spindle breaks up
− matrix – the large central fluid-filled cavity
Reproductive Cell Division
 During sexual reproduction each new organism is the
result of the union of two gametes (fertilization), one from
each parent
 Meiosis – reproductive cell division that occurs in the
gonads (ovaries and testes) that produces gametes with
half the number of chromosomes
 Haploid cells – gametes contain a single set of 23
 Fertilization restores the diploid number of chromosomes
 Meiosis occurs in two successive stages: meiosis I and
meiosis II
 Each of these two stages have 4 phases: prophase,
metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
 Summary – Meiosis I begins with a diploid cell and ends
with two cells having the haploid number of
chromosomes; in Meiosis II, each of the two haploid cell
divides, the net result is four haploid gametes that are
genetically different from the original diploid starting cell

Cellular Diversity
 The average adult has nearly 100 trillion cells
 There are about 200 different types of cells
 Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes
 Cellular diversity permits organization of cells into more
complex tissues and organs

Stem Cell
 Cells with the potential to develop into many different
types of cells in the body
 Serve as repair system
 2 main type:
1. Embryonic stem cell
2. Adult stem cell

Cancer cell
 Cancer cells are different to normal cells in several ways.
o Cancer cells don’t stop reproducing
o Cancer cells don’t obey signals from other cells
o Cancer cells don’t stick together
o Cancer cells don’t specialize, but stay immature